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nexus between campaign and election results especially in relation to the developing mass media.
Political Campaign and Democratic Society
To truly understand the role of election campaigns towards the final result it is essential to understand that two views exist. On one hand it is argued that the voters decide for their candidate before campaigning commences while the others argue that it through this activity that the voters reach their decision.
An electoral campaign involves legally permitted actions which candidates and their respective parties undertake to arouse support during the period following up to the elections. Generally speaking the legal code of the country will provide a time limit during which campaigning is permitted. Additionally a financial bar is also set. This means that an upper limit is placed on the amount of money which the candidates and political parties can spend for this purpose.
Political campaigns are mainly intended…
Cavanaugh, Johan William Media Effects on Voters: A Panel Study of the 1992 Presidential Election
D. Sunshine Hillygus wrote Did Gore's Kiss Work? Campaign Effects in Election 2000 available on http://www.stanford.edu/group/i-rite/statements/2002/hillygus.htm26th April 2004
Obedience: The dilemma of a democratic society
One of the most famous studies ever conducted on the subject of human obedience was that of Stanley Milgram's electric shock experiments. In Milgram's experiments, subjects were pressed to transmit what they believed were deadly electric shocks to fellow human beings. The purpose of Milgram's experiments was in part to understand how Nazi soldiers could have possibly have committed such horrific atrocities during World War II, simply because they were 'following orders.' However, even within the U.S. military, strict compliance is demanded in terms of the soldiers' behavior, dress, and bearing (Wenker 1981). Milgram's subjects came from a wide array of cultural backgrounds and many had not served in the military, yet the commanding presence of an authority caused them to obey and give apparently deadly shocks for no discernable purpose. The construct of the experiment was seen as horrifyingly strange by many…
Wenker, Kenneth. (1981, July-August). Morality and military obedience.
'Although these groups had different interests and goals, their mobilization and protests converged on the strategy of the opposition to the inhumane ruling of the military government' (Arifah, 2005), and this common understanding enthralled them with the spirit and motivation to demand political justice for themselves through implementation of democratic principles. It was observed that the government adopted discriminatory attitude and practiced violence against 'the protector generated righteous indignation and humanitarian concerns among progressive local population' (Charles, 2002), this further ignited their cause for the democratic reforms in the country. During 1980s a blood massacre took place at Kwangju which transformed the spirit and the practices launched for the implementation of the democratic reforms, the massacre 'radicalized and cross-fertilized the labor, student, church, and women's movements against military rule' (Charles, 2002). After the massacre the local population approved the radical Minjung ideology which demanded a rapid transition to the democratic…
Jeong Lim Nam. Gender Politics in the Korean Transition to Democracy. Korean Studies. University of Hawaii Press. 2000
Arifah Rahmawati, Najib Azca. Police Reform from Below: Examples from Indonesia's Transition to Democracy. Center for Security and Peace Studies, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia. 2005
Dr. Salahuddin Aminuzzaman. A Regional Overview Report on National Integrity Systems in South Asia. Department of Development Studies University of Dhaka Bangladesh. 2004
David Martin Jones. Democratization, Civil Society and the Pacific Asian Nouveaux Riches. Polity Press. 1997
Challenges to Democratic Development in Africa
The political life in Africa has largely been characterized by poor governance and an inherently poor democratic record. This has in most cases led to not only political disillusionment, but also despair – effectively stifling the continent’s economic advancement. In effect, the challenges facing the continent as far as democratic development is concerned stem from political misrule coupled with the adverse effects of imposed westernization, as well as globalization and resource exploitation. As a consequence, the continent continues to suffer demobilization on the political front which has effectively led to economic decapitation. Millions of the continent’s inhabitants continue to be afflicted by disease and poverty, and illiteracy levels continue to be high in most countries. This text assesses and evaluates challenges to democratic development in Africa in the context of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Democracy, as per its dictionary definition, has got…
Belgian Development Cooperation, (2014). Democratic Governance -- the Key to Development. http://www.btcctb.org/files/web/publication/Democratic%20governance_he%20key%20to%20development.pdf
his is a source from the Belgian Development Cooperation and looks at the link between development and democracy. Within the source, there are sample countries that have been used like Congo, Burundi, Belgium and Rwanda to show how democracy and development have been related over time. he article, indeed is a collection f smaller scholarly works by authorities in the individual areas and countries having conducted sufficient research on these countries discussed. It also highlights how the different systems of governance have helped shape the path of development. his, on evaluation pass for a peer reviewed article as it is reviews made on the existing researches and historically recorded happenings in the countries in question. he quality can be said to be worthy of the academic use and the credibility of this source can be categorized…
This source give an informative analysis of the politics of Latin America starting from the historical recap and the implications of the historical times in politics to the current state of democracy in the region. The paper further explains how the leadership in the region (several countries covered) has helped shape the politics and the democratic process to the contemporary times. The source further examines and comments on the link between politics and the economy of the region, an aspect that it refers to as the political economy of the region. Actually, the source was published by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars hence giving it credibility as a scholarly source as it has reviewers who are authorities in the particular chapters they comment on or contribute in.
Konrad Adenauer Stiftung, (2011). Concepts and Principles of Democratic Governance and Accountability. http://www.kas.de/wf/doc/kas_29779-1522-2-30.pdf?111219190223
This source is a report from a European Union sponsored research and project on the subject of democracy. The source attempts to give a clear understanding of democracy through looking at the definitions, the actors in the democratic process, the various types of democracy and the particular principles that guide modern democracy. It also highlights the elements that underpin the democratic state and society like the election processes and the rights and freedoms of institutions and individuals. The source goes further tom exemplify democracy and the tenets through looking at Uganda (in East Africa) to indicate the extent to which the state has demonstrated or failed to demonstrate the democratic process. The source is commissioned by a reliable organization and involved several researchers to come up with this report that was only published and distributed after thorough peer reviewing by scholars in democracy hence a credible source of information for this research writing.
Justice in Society According to awls and Hampshire
This is paper contrasting the political philosophies of awls and Hampshire according o their views in 'Political liberalism' the Law of Peoples' and 'Justice as Conflict'. 4 sources are given.
Very few alternatives to the prevalent utilitarianism, dominant in most of the Western world, have emerged and made any significant impact. The theories of John awls however have made an important contribution to political philosophy and if not unanimously agreed upon they nevertheless have led to a revival in the academic study of political philosophy. His work has provoked debate amongst economists, legal scholars, political scientists, sociologists, and theologians alike. His Theory of Justice and subsequent additions and modifications to this hypothesis in the form of 'Political liberalism' and 'The Law of Peoples' is a comprehensive and detailed proposal that evolved over decades.
The 'Justice as Conflict' theory put forward by another…
Hampshire, Stuart. "Justice Is Conflict." Princeton University Press. 2001.
Martin, Rex. "Rawls's New Theory of Justice," Chicago-Kent Law Review, Volume 69: 737-761, 1994.
Rawls, John. Political Liberalism, New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Rawls, John. The Law of Peoples: with "The Idea of Public Reason Revisited" Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1999.
Media on the U.S. Society
Some years ago, if someone asked us to name the sources of media present in our society, we would easily be able to do so. However, today media has extended and become much more widespread than it was before. ith the process of globalization that has encompassed the entire world, came the concept of media and the need to stay in touch as the infrastructure and mediums of communication grew. e can name a couple of media sources that have come to influence us the most which are firstly the internet and the social networking that has now become an integral part of our society and our lives. It is absolutely essential to be a part of the social media networking (Perse).
Another type of media has been the television which has existed for quite some while now but its implications and its fame is…
Bell, Steve. "Impact of Global Media Revolution." USA Today (1999).
Bennett, Tony. Culture, Society and the Media. Routledge Publications, 1990.
Burton, Graeme. Media and Society: Critical Perspectives. Open University Press, 2005.
Gonzenbach, William J. The media, the president and public opinion: a longitudinal study on drug issue. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996.
Creating Democratic Citizens
In American society, individuals are taught that their thoughts and opinions are valued. From this idea, democracy is born. Each individual has the right to have an opinion of any subject and to present his or her idea in a public arena. To determine the best-suited idea for a group, a vote is conducted to determine the most agreed upon conclusion. Since the majority of participants choose the conclusion, it is the one that will take precedence and is considered the fairest conclusion for the group.
The United States of America is built upon democracy.
As a citizen of the nation, it is mandatory for each individual to understand his or her role within such a society. Each person has a variety of responsibilities to adhere to as a member of our democratic society. These responsibilities include respecting others, understanding the democratic system, questioning others' viewpoints…
Consumer Society or Capitalism
Consumer society which evolves out of capitalism has its advantages as well as its disadvantages. But even with its disadvantages, consumer society has now become an accepted from of modern society.
Under the pressure of corporate politics, the commercialization of culture and the influence of mass media, the conventional literary values of Western society are deteriorating. For the public in general, the mixing and transformative experiences of culture have been restored by the joint viewing experience and by contribution in consumer trends. (Cronk, Consumerism and the New Capitalism) George Orwell described consumer society as the air we breathe. High worker output and high general levels of consumption typify efficiently improved societies of late 20th century. Though this prosperity is endorsed with making benefits like raised education and health care, it is also linked with much extended work hours, raised lose-lose social rivalry, uneven communities, economic disparity,…
Cronk, R. "Consumerism and the New Capitalism" Retrieved from http://www.westland.net/venice/art/cronk/consumer.htm Accessed on 20 April, 2005
"False atheism or the new-sacred ideologies - Page 5 / 7" Retrieved from http://atheisme.free.fr/Atheisme/Fae5_capitalism.htm Accessed on 20 April, 2005
"Features of a Consumer Society" Retrieved fromhttp://www.consultmcgregor.com/PDFs/features%20of%20consumer%20society.pdf Accessed on 20 April, 2005
'"Global Capitalism Has Developed A Planetary Consumer Culture Based Upon Exploitation And Exclusion: Discuss" Retrieved from http://www.jakeg.co.uk/essays/consumer_exploitation.htm Accessed on 20 April, 2005
United States singled a shining democratic governance;, U.S. system governance immune criticism. Scholar One of the critiques of democracy discussed within the articles for this assignment is greatly associated with the role that private property and wealth plays in democratic societies. Specifically, within Santas' "Plato's criticism of democracies in The epublic," the author alludes to the fact that the influence of these two external aspects of government -- the private property and wealth of the individual chosen to govern in a democracy -- has the innate potential to corrupt and to subject the needs of the masses who are governed to those of the individuals who are governing.
There is a great possibility that the author is correct regarding this point of criticism. One of the points of validity for this notion is the fact that it is found in literature and is one of the chief points of disparagement…
Beard, C.A. (1993). "Framing the Constitution." American Government: Readings and Cases. New York: Harper Collins.
Gilley, B. (2009). "Is democracy possible?." Journal of Democracy. 20 (1), 113-125.
Ranney, A., Kendall, W. (1951). "Democracy: confusion and agreement."
Santas, G. (2007). "Plato's criticisms of democracy in The Republic." Social Policy & Political Foundation. 70-89. 4, 430-439.
Market Society Material and Ideological Conditions
A great transformation occurred at the end of the Medieval Age, when a resurgence of classical humanism and an age of Enlightenment led the way to an industrial revolution and a restructuring of European affairs. The Old World religion gave way to a Protestant ethos which shaped the philosophies of the centuries that followed and the rise of democratic societies and the "middle class" altered the way nations conducted business. This paper will discuss the material and ideological conditions that supported this "great transformation" (Polanyi), the characterizations of the market society, the significance of the transformation, and the connection between the "Protestant work ethic" and the "spirit of capitalism" as defined by Max Weber (Bendix).
The transition from medieval to market society came about by a shifting of societal values. Trade between East and West increased as technology and the means of travel increased.…
Bendix, "German Society and Protestant Ethic."
Heilbroner, "Economic Problem."
Polanyi, "Rise and Fall of Market Economy."
Rinehart, "Alienation and Development of Industrial Capitalism in Canada."
Coombs and Holladay (2007)
Coombs and Holladay use the support of the professional literature to find an explanation to the importance stakeholders came to play in their role with the management. Their next movement is back to history, this time deeper to the times where there was no such field as public relations. They start in their investigation with the Anti-Slavery Society, formed by Arthur and Lewis Tappan in 1831. They were among the first to discover the role of using various ways of disseminating information to the public they targeted by using the printed word or by assembling in "meetings, sermons and public lectures." Coombs and Holladay (2007, p. 62). Further examples show how tools specific to the PR industry nowadays were discovered and put to use by simple people who succeeded to start major changes in society: Carry a. Nation, the first woman who made an "event" in…
Coombs, W.T and Holladay S.J. it's Not Just PR: Public Relations in Society. Blackwell Publishing. 2007
In other words, "the acquisition and transmission of imaginations of the past follows patterns that are specific to the respective generation." (Welzer, 2010, p.5) This is exemplified by the experience of the Sabbateans during the transition of Turkey into a modern nation after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in 1920. Traditionally the Sabbateans had followed their religious beliefs in private while maintaining a Moslem facade in public. But after the fall of the Ottomans, and the modernization programs enacted by its new leader Mustafa Kemal, there was enormous social pressure for the Sabbateans to conform to the new ideals of the modern Turkish state by discarding their Sabbatean religious traditions. In other words, the Turks were creating a new social memory that was based on abandoning traditional activities, like practicing Sabbateanism, and embracing the new, progressive activities of the modern Turkish state: exemplified by citizenship. But this new social…
Allan, Diana (2007). "Chapter 10: The Politics of Witness: Remembering and Forgetting 1948 in Shatila Camp," in Nakba: Palestine, 2948, and the Claims of Memory. Eds. Ahmad E. Sa'di and Lila Abu-Lughod.
New York: Columbia UP: 254-282. Print.
Cenarro, Angelo. (2002). "Memory Beyond the Public Sphere: The Francoist
Repression Remembered in Aragon." History and Memory 14(1/2): 165-176
philosophy of education through a historical and then through an explicitly Christian lens, with a focus on the political role of education, and the Christian philosophy of John Milton. Milton's 1644 works Areopagitica and Of Education are invoked to justify the true Christian purpose of education as being exposure to the sort of free expression and free exchange of ideas that are guaranteed in America under the First Amendment.
What would a true Christian philosophy of education look like? The answer might actually be surprising to the majority of Americans who identify themselves as Christian and seek a Christian education. In 2014, frequently Christian education can seem retrograde, a form of ressentiment and indoctrination that derides Darwinism and has a greater interest in upholding a political consensus than in embodying the ideals set forth by Christ Himself. I propose to examine a Christian philosophy of education through a somewhat unique…
Fish, S. (1971) Surprised by sin: The reader in Paradise Lost. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Gaustad, E.S. (2005). Roger Williams. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gutek, G.L. (2011). Historical and philosophical foundations of education: A Biographical introduction (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Jefferson, T. (1778) A bill for the more general diffusion of knowledge. Retrieved from http://candst.tripod.com/jefflaw1.htm
3. How does the author discuss the relationship between the individual and society?
Once again, interpretivism sees this relationship as a complex and intricate set of actions and interactions that are largely dependent on cultural and social context. In other words, there is no "correct "view of self but rather self and the individual's relationship with society is a result of interaction in different contexts. This view is contrasted with the more objective views of functionalism and Marxism, where the self is seen either in terms of its functional relation to the society or as an object of social repression.
4. How does the author distinguish human actions from other forms of human behavior?
As has been mentioned, the stress in this article is on the importance of context in the interpretivist view of the individual and society. It is this understanding of context that acts as the determining factor…
democratic governments alike;, share fundamental concepts principles. Liberty, equality, rule law a universal concepts principles generally shared democracies. Others majority rule compromise fall category.
There is much controversy with regard to the idea of democracy and the exact set of principles it entails. Many are inclined to believe that there is a strict set of principles that need to be considered when discussing the topic while others believe that democratic ideas largely depend on the circumstances in which they occur.
The idea of equality involves people having to accept each-other and to be reluctant about judging others on account of their differences. The only thing that can represent a reason to discriminate when considering equality relates to each person's abilities.
Decision-making is a significant idea within a democracy and consensus involves individuals being well-acquainted with the role their play and with the fact that they need to agree to a…
Brink, D. "Mill's Moral and Political Philosophy," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)
Mill, J.S. (1863). On Liberty. Ticknor and Fields.
Post, R. "Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science" Vol. 603, Law, Society, and Democracy: Comparative Perspectives (Jan., 2006), pp. 24-36
Democratic and Republican parties have been able to maintain their strength and their membership numbers since the Civil War for both structural and ideological reasons. The ideological reasons are the most obvious to an observer and to many members of the parties; indeed it is because of the ideological positions of the two parties that people align themselves by party. The ideologies of each party are complex; a better way of describing them might be that they are intricate combinations of different ideas and ideologies. The Republican Party has consistently championed economic systems that do not favor efficient distributions of wealth and has tended toward a low degree of government intervention and regulation in economic issues and a high degree of intervention and regular in social affairs (such as abortion and civil rights). The parties endure because these ideologies (which are tied to ongoing concerns and beliefs) endure.
In this case, they are not even at the level of the industrial society. Therefore, an answer would have to consider both aspects.
The advantages for an individual living in the agrarian society are the freedom of the being. Aside from its philosophical content, the expression points out the fact that people living in agrarian societies were more part of a society that those living today because they still had the human element in their character. The constant interdependent relationship was necessary and connected people more. The disadvantage was, surely, the lack of possibilities, and the limited technology available which made their lives tougher.
The post industrial society however is by far the society which offers the most advantages, as well as disadvantages. The advantages include communication, online education, the Internet, world trade, the globalization of exchanges, and economic development. China has benefited greatly from technology as it is now…
What are the principles of democratic education? How are these principles and values in tension/contradiction with our social construction of children and youth? For example, what assumptions do we make about teaching, learning and youth that democratic schools challenge? How does "one size fits all" centralized curriculum contribute to what Apple called the "de-skilling of teachers"? What is lost when this approach is adapted, especially when it is combined with the "intensification" of teaching? Explore the contradictions between what we say we want our students to be when they are finished their schooling (engaged, critical thinkers, active contributors and problem solvers) and how we are often educating young people. How does democratic education address this? What are some of the challenges educators who want to introduce democratic principles into their schools face? What are some of the potential rewards? How does democratic education address the notion…
IDEN International Democratic education Network. (2010). Retrieved October 2012, from http://www.idenetwork.org/idec/idec-english.htm
Apple, M.W., & Swalwell, K. (2011). Reviewing Policy: Starting the Wrong Conversations: The Public School Crisis and "Waiting for Superman." Educational Policy, 368-381.
Ayers, W. (1992). The Shifting Grounds of Curriculum Thought and Everyday Practice . Taylor & Francis, 259-263.
Ayers, W. (1994). Can City Schools be Saved? Educational Leadership, 60.
Democracy and Economic Inequality in America
The fundamental aim of democracy in political governance is to ensure elected officials represent the interests of their constituents in the legislature. This means that the votes taken by members of Congress should reflect the policy preferences of their constituents. In reality, however, there is often disconnect between what legislators vote for and what their constituents prefer. In his book Unequal Democracy: The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age, Bartels argues that the increasing economic inequality in the US is evidence that legislators do not in reality represent the interests of their interests -- they represent the interests of more powerful groups or entities as opposed to the average citizen. With reference to matters of economic inequality, this paper discuses the discrepancy between the choices of legislators and the policy preferences of their constituents.
Who actually governs in the American political system remains…
"No one pretends that democracy is perfect or all-wise. Indeed, it has been said that democracy is the worst form of government expcept all those other forms that have been tried over time," former ritish Prime Minister Winston Churchill famously asserted. Government has been a long-debated concept and the type of government best suited for people has also been a constant battle. Democracy is a relatively new concept since the inception of civilizations and one that requires much exploration in order to fully gain the complexities and intricacies of the concept.
In Greek, the word "democracy" means "rule by the (simple) people" which lays the foundation of what society defines the term as today, a "form of government, where a constitution guarantees basic personal and political rights, fair and free elections, and independent courts of law" (Jud). There are also key elements involved in the definition of democracy,…
Filkins, Dexter. (2009, August 16). Fear of the taliban may sway vote in afghanistan. The New York Times, p. A1.
Handelman, Howard. (2011). The challenge of the third development. Prentice Hall.
Jud, Markus. (n.d.). Democracy building. Retrieved from http://www.democracy-building.info/index.html
Klapper, Bradley. (2011, July 1). Clinton lectures nations on transition to democracy. Retrieved from http://www.cnsnews.com/news/article/clinton-lectures-nations-transition-demo
Dear Mr. President.
Your historic win to become the President of the United States is an event that has altered our view of national policy for each of us here within the borders of our nation and it immediately alters the course of our existing foreign policies which may directly or indirectly affect every man woman and child on the planet. We are here to suggest that your foreign policy analysis must be considered to be interdisciplinary because it will draw from a variety of theoretical approaches. Usually, public pundits have added emphasis on presidential leadership as key components of United States foreign policy so it is critical that you understand what else is needed to have, create and implement a successful foreign policy process.
The success of your policies, your cabinet and all associated policy makers will require an implementation of various underlying theories towards…
Elliot, John. (2000). "How Clinton Created A New Love Affair." New Statesman. 04/03/2000, Vol. 129, Issue 4480, p30, 1p
Badertscher, Eric. (2005). "George Washington." George Washington; edited by Sara Ann McGill. P 1-4, 4p.
Solomon, Jay. (2009). "U.S., India Expand Counterterrorism Cooperation." Wall Street Journal Online. (2009). Retrieved on December 15, 2009, from online.wsj at http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125907299030362349.html
Stein, Janice Gross. (2008). "Foreign Policy Decision-Making: Rational, Psychological, And Neurological Models." Retrieved on December 15, 2009, from http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199215294/smith_ch06.pdf
This collectivist theory is termed the Structural Strain theory. Dr. Smelser proposed it in 1962. This theory basically combines the above two theories together by arguing that social movements are initiated through the combination of many factors. It starts when individuals within a society realizes that there is a problem and that they are experiencing deprivation as a result of this problem. It continues through the propagation of solutions to this problem at a grassroots level, individuals are thus motivated by the proposed solutions to act for greater change on a regional and national level. This mixes in elements from the mass society theory, where individuals feel that they have found a solution that could be applicable to a broad spectrum of society. The essential difference within this theory is that individuals are motivated by a specific event that serves as a catalyst for their social movement. For the ivil…
Cohen, Jean L. 1985: Strategy or Identity: New Theoretical Paradigms and Contemporary Social Movements in: Social Research, Vol. 52, No. 4, S. 663-716
Klandermans, Bert 1997: The Social psychology of Protest, Oxford, Blackwell Publishers
Klandermans, Bert (Hg.) 1989: Organizing for Change: Social Movement Organisations in Europe and the United States, Greenwich (Conn.)
What the world needs today is an effective global banking system and a strong and sustainable trade relationship. The recent world recession reflects the collapse of the global banking system. This was the result of heavy advancement of loans and cumulative rates of interest that were collected on those loans, which led to economic growth in the short-term but economic collapse in the long-run. It is the time for the global powers to take the world economists and political leaders on board and make an effective decision on the creation of a banking system that offers loans to nations which are in urgent need of financial assistance such as Nigeria, Uganda and other African countries. The authority that looks after such banking system should ensure a balance between the First world and the third world in order to ensure that the world economy grows smoothly.
Cutting down public spending is…
World Trade Organization (1999). The WTO as the basic free trade institution: Ministerial Conference 1999. Retrieved from http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/minist_e/min99_e/english/state_e/d5325e.pdf
World Trade Organization (n.d.). About the WTO. Retrieved from http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/wto_dg_stat_e.htm
International Monetary Fund (2010). How the IMF promotes global economic stability. Retrieved from http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/facts/globstab.htm
Role of Law in Business and Society
The functions and roles of law when it comes to business and society are not always understood by the lay person, but those functions are extremely important. The functions related to law and to the application of law are the backbone of how society and economies actually work, and will be reviewed and critiqued in this paper.
The Functions and Role of Law in Business
The law as it applies to business refers to a "…code of conduct that defines the behavioral boundaries for business activity," according to a generalization found in the book, The Legal Environment of Business (Meiners, et al., 2006). Though "law" is a term that is seen as abstract in some contexts -- and though there is no precise definition of law that carries over to many cultures -- the noted former Supreme Court Justice Oliver endell Homes put…
Barnett, Larry D. (2011). The Place of Law: The Role and Limits of Law in Society. Piscataway,
NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Jennings, Marianne, M. (2010). Business: Its Legal, Ethical, and Global Environment.
Independence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Meanwhile in the journal Du Bois Review (Parker, et al., 2009, p. 194) the authors point to racism and patriotism as key themes for the 2008 Democratic primary election. "Race was a consistent narrative" used by those opposed to Obama, Parker explains (p. 194). Both Clinton and the Republicans "used racial references" to attack Obama, including the attacks on Obama "for his perceived inability to connect to 'real working Americans'" (p. 194).
The Republican sideshow called "Joe the plumber" attacked Obama with the charge that Obama was "seeking to take money from hardworking 'real Americans' to give it to 'those people'" (p. 194). Clinton questioned Obama's patriotism suggesting that he was not a "real" American. Parker notes that when Governor Dukakis ran for president as a Democrat, he was attacked but no one questioned whether he was "a real American as they did with Obama" (p. 195).
The authors present…
Alter, Jonathan. "Leading Democrats to Bill Clinton: Pipe Down." Newsweek. (2008).
Retrieved March 17, 2010, from http://www.newsweek.com.
Balz, Dan, and Johnson, Hanes. The Battle for American 2008: The Story of an Extraordinary
Election. New York: Viking, 2009.
Here we see that the staff and the students had their own responsibilities and those responsibilities are quite different from the traditional ones we find in traditional schools. Horton thought that a significant aspect of the teacher's role was to empower students to "think and act for themselves" (Thayer-Bacon). We can see that Horton placed responsibility on both the students and the staff. They were to learn from one another but the staff was to be aware of the student's plight as well as help them be the best that they could be.
Is what Highlander does "really" adult education? Why or why not?
Highlander does educate but it is not typical in comparison to traditional learning. When we think of adult education, we think of textbooks, professors giving lectures, students taking notes, and a most definite dividing line between the two. Students and professors do not generally have to…
In an era where the issue of human and civil rights was considered an element that could not be addressed by law, the drafting of the U.S. constitution came as a result of a great democratic endeavor which tried to point out several aspects. On the one hand, it proved the fact that the people are the supreme judges of the way in which the country is developing through the fact that Thus, the most important line for the American democracy is part of the Declaration of Independence which underlines the fact "that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness" (the Declaration of Independence, n.d.). This aspect certifies the idea that according to the American documents, people have the right to be free in all their respects.
The Constitution comes…
Adams, John. "Novanglus, Febuary 6, 1775." From Revolution to Reconstruction. 2003. 5 May 2008 http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/P.ja2/writtings/novan1.htm
American Foreign Relations. Revolution: Impact on the Economy. 2007. 5 May 2008 http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/Re-Ro/Revolution-Impact-on-the-Economy.html
Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Republicanism. 2006. 5 May 2008. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/republicanism/
The participation of the citizens to the political life of the country is limited to the election of their representatives. Here some might wonder according to which criteria these representatives take their decisions.
The actions were believed to be dictated either by the final results or by the ethic code which they might respect. Regardless of the approach, the fact stands that if the citizens wish to have a better control upon the manner in which resources are used and society is managed, they must get involved at a deeper level. The latest tendencies demonstrate that more and more people are drawn by the possibility they have to impact the political decisions. This happens through the organization of the civil society (in the lack of organization there could be no actual decision making).
It has also been argued that in order to be able to speak about real democracy, the…
Moral Basis of Capitalism
Positive Moral Basis for Capitalist Society
The theory of property right is probably society's turning point towards capitalism. Locke's theory on civil society and government is centered around individuals' natural right to property. In the Second Treatise, the author's justification of individuals uniting into developing governments, societies, is represented by their intention of preserving property. In Locke's view, it is the preservation of property that draws the limits, rights and obligations of governments and civil society. The issue here is Locke's definition of property. The interesting point is that Locke seems to differently categorize property within the Second Treatise. For example, property in Locke's view is individual's life, liberty and estate in some parts of the writing, while in other parts property is represented by persons and goods. Although specialists in the field have found this view on property as confusing, I think it should not…
1. John Locke (2012). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 10, 2013 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/locke/ .
The unofficial curricula of schools in Japan subtly teach uniformity and conformity at a young age. They also are very regimented and take away the individual identities of the children. They also regulate the children heavily. All this prepares them for a regimented and authoritarian adult society.
The segment of Japanese culture most like the U.S. is the technology and consumerism in Japan. They are a very consumer-oriented society, and upwardly mobile, like the U.S., and very interested in mass media, like the U.S.
The segment of Japanese culture most different from the U.S. is the intense control society places on actions and deeds. There is much pressure on the Japanese to conform to every aspect of society, while in the U.S. non-conformity is at least appreciated, if not encouraged. They are also extremely class conscious, where the U.S. is not.
Sugimoto, Yoshio. An Introduction to Japanese Society. Cambridge,…
Sugimoto, Yoshio. An Introduction to Japanese Society. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Treatment of Democratic Principles and Individual Action
George Orwell's legacy in literature can be reflected in his great novels Nineteen Eighty-Four and Animal Farm, two political satire novels that criticized the basic foundations of political systems prevalent during his time (mid-20th century), specifically, Stalinism/socialist-communist leadership that 'governed' the Soviet Union during this period of modernization. While he was known for the political nature of his novels, he has also written essay that provoked analytical thought through his deconstructive narrative of topics that seemed to be non-political. In these essays, Orwell was able to "politicize" these topics, critically exploring their nature and dynamics and contextualize his analysis in the overall political environment from which these topics emerged and prevailed. Examples of these seemingly 'apolitical' topics are sports and "good bad books," and insightfully, writing. For the discussion that follows, each topics that were given analytical treatment are represented through the following…
Orwell, G. (1995). E-text of "Good Bad Books." Accessed 19 May 2011. Available at: http://orwell.ru/library/reviews/books/english/e_books
____. (1995). E-text of "The Sporting Spirit." Accessed 19 May 2011. Available at: http://orwell.ru/library/articles/spirit/english/e_spirit
____. (2003). E-text of "Writers and the Leviathan." Accessed 19 May 2011. Available at: http://www.george-orwell.org/Writers_and_the_Leviathan/0.html
That premise states a core value that the framers intended to protect. The intentionalist judge must then supply the minor premise in order to protect the constitutional freedom in circumstances the framers could not foresee. (Bork 15)
Bork's approach was recently critiqued by Daniel Ortiz and some others, one of whom noted, with reference to the Griswold decision on privacy, that Bork saw the decision as "unprincipled" "because [e]very clash between a minority claiming freedom and a majority claiming power to regulate involves a choice between the gratifications of the two groups.
hen the Constitution has not spoken [under an originalist theory of interpretation], the Court will be able to find no scale, other than its own value preferences, upon which to weigh the respective claims to pleasure. (Bork Neutral Principles and Some First Amendment Problems).
Bork thus supports community rights over individual rights to a greater extent than has…
Bork, Robert H. "Original Intent." The Judges' Journal (Summer 1987), 13-17.
Bork, Robert H.
Neutral Principles and Some First Amendment Problems, 47 IND. L.J. 1 (1971).
Giddens, Anthony. Social Theory and Modern Sociology. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1987.
The British created a well-educated, English-speaking Indian elite middle class d. new jobs were created for millions of Indian hand-spinner and hand-weavers
The Indian National Congress can best be described in which of the following ways:
a. An Indian Civil Service that administered British rule.
b. A group of upper-caste professionals seeking independence from Britain.
c. white settlers who administered British rule.
d. anglicized Indians who were the social equals of white rulers.
Under the Culture System, Indonesian peasants had to Answer:
a. learn to speak and read Dutch b. plant one-fifth of their land in export crops to be turned over to the Dutch colonial government c. convert to the Dutch Reformed Church d. join large state-run farms.
Modern Vietnamese nationalism traced much of its inspiration to Answer:
a. Japanese modernization.
b. China's "Hundred Days" Reform program.
c. The U.S. Declaration of Independence.
d. British Fabian socialism.
human societies establish laws and social policy: (1) religious, (2) by oligarchy, and (3) by some form of representational government. The source of law, public policy, and (especially) criminal law makes a tremendous difference in the lives of members of the population, because, in principle, it determines whether or not they have any possible input into the rules of society. On a practical level, the source and nature of criminal laws, in particular, can make certain specific behaviors and choices matters that determine liberty and even life or death.
The nation of Iran would be an example of a contemporary nation whose laws and social policies are ruled by religious leaders. The high-ranking ayatollahs have greater authority than the elected leaders and they impose religious rules that determine what behaviors and conduct are acceptable and what behaviors and conduct are criminal. Modern audi Arabia represents a mixture of religious authority…
Dershowitz, A.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
There are various expert views and statistics to support the positive influence of the Internet on education. A survey conducted by Pew Internet & American Life indicates that 86% of U.S. college students use the Internet. The study states that students perceive the Internet as essential to their academic lives. "While close on 80% of college students in the United States claim that the medium has had a positive impact on their college academic experience, about 73% use the Internet more than the library for research." (ibid) According to Draves, online learning is being increasingly recognized as a valid learning delivery system. "The number of part time students in higher education, to name just one educational system, now outnumbers full time students. The number of colleges offering online courses last year soared to over 1,000, and the number is growing. Online graduate programs and certificate programs have…
Ebo, Bosah, ed. Cyberghetto or Cybertopia?: Race, Class, and Gender on the Internet. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1998.
Hurlbert, W. Business Blogs Are Catching on 2005. Accessed May 4, 2005
Jones, G. Ask the Expert. May 6, 2005. http://www2.cio.com/ask/expert/2000/questions/question1307.html?CATEGORY=5&NAME=Customer%20Relationship%20Management
Lutge-Smith, T. How the Internet will change society: new predictions. May 7, 2005. http://www.klixxx.com/archive/internetsociety.shtml
One in which a person that does not put on effort or is corrupt should be return to the good path. The mission and goal that more and more had in mind was to work hard in order to remake society as God wanted it to be. Johnson shows that the power of religion, but most of all, the power of a personal and group that, if with the right motivation, can change society's face.
Johnson proposes in the beginning of the book, as well as the end, that the early 19th century industrial reform of society was fought with religious weapons. usiness, in order to retain power and to influence on its own terms the functioning of the modern society, began to envisage ways in which to convince the others. One of them was religion, through which the middle class became what is now bourgeois or democratic. usiness and…
Johnson, Paul. A Shopkeeper's Millennium: Society and Revivals in Rochester, New York, 1815-1837 Hill and Wang, 1978
A slave was similar to a paid servant. The children of the poor people could be sold as slaves, but it was usually for a determined period of time. The slaves had the right to buy their freedom.
War was a very important activity, because of their conquering ambition and also for religious reasons. Mexicas believed that the gods had sacrificed themselves for the people and their blood had given them life. They thought that the sun lived on blood from human hearts so the purpose of human blood was to feed the sun gods and ensure their continuity and the preserving of life. The sacrifice of animals and humans was part of Aztec religion. To warriors it was the maximum honor to be killed in battle or volunteer for a sacrifice. One main reason to make war on other tribes was to capture prisoners for sacrifice.
In Aztec religion…
1-Carrasco, David. Daily life of the Aztecs: people of the sun and earth. Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport, 1998.
2-Coe, Michael D., Koontz, Rex. Mexico: from Olmecs to Aztecs, Thames and Hudson, New York, 2002.
3-Hooker, Richard, World Civilizations. Civilizations in America, the Toltecs. 1996
http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/CIVAMRCA/TOLTECS.HTM (Accessed December 9, 2006)
eligious tolerance and freedoms do come out from holly scriptures of any religion, they are stated in Koran and in Bible nearly in the same way: "avoid unfaithful" not persecute them but simply avoid. These words have a deep meaning, which refers not just to the religion but also to any other belief and views. oger Williams was the first minister who introduced the principles of modern religious liberties into the civil practice as he wrote in the Bloudy Tenet of Persecution (1640):
No man shall be required to worship or maintain a worship against his will." Until then, Europe and America had endured what Thomas Paine later called, "the adulterous connection between church and state."
In order to defend the representatives of different confessions and guarantee free participation of citizens in country's public life, there had to be taken measures that would preserve from the dominance of one religious…
Madison, James Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments 20 June 1785
James Madison, Report on the Virginia Resolutions
Roger Williams the Bloudy Tenet of Persecution 1640;
Ward, Nathaniel the Simple Cobbler of Aggawam, 1645
omen's Social Role In Society
Gender, as opposed to the physical classification of sex, has always been based upon societal construct. The current psychology of the masses dictates what proper or improper behavior for the given genders is. This has always been the way of things. In the 1900s in the United States of America, a woman's place was in the home. She was supposed to be the Angel in the House. In this role, a woman's purpose was to cook and clean and take care of her family. She was not allowed to busy herself with what was called the Public Sphere, wherein the husband and other men were in control. The wife's role was in the Private Sphere. This scenario, called the "Cult of Domesticity," gave women very little power. In this era, women did not have the right to vote, so females had no voice either in…
Baier, A. (1988). "The Need for More than Justice." Ed. Held. Justice and Care: Essential
Readings in Feminist Ethics. Westview: Boulder, CO.
Friedman, M (1987). "Beyond Caring: The De-Moralization of Gender." Ed. Held. Justice and Care: Essential Readings in Feminist Ethics. Westview: Boulder, CO.
Noddings, N. (1984). "Caring." Ed. Held. Justice and Care: Essential Readings in Feminist
Transparent Society: ill Technology Force Us
To Choose Between Privacy and Freedom?"
There seems to be no doubt that the genie is out of the bottle, never to be capped again. Individual privacy is being treaded upon daily by new technological devices that a mere generation ago were considered science fiction to be found only in novels such as George Orwell's "1984" and Aldous Huxley's "The Brave New orld." However, today these stories of surveillance and cloning have become reality. In "The Transparent Society: ill Technology Force Us to Choose Between Privacy and Freedom?" David Brin examines how privacy as it was known a quarter of a century ago is gone forever and how citizens of the world have very tough decisions to make regarding how this new technology will be used and more importantly who will be in control.
Brin argues that the more open a society is the…
Brin, David. The Transparent Society: Will Technology Force Us to Choose
Between Privacy and Freedom? Perseus Publishing. 1999; pp 4, 5, 6, 7,
Productivity can also be influenced by tax cuts. Cutting taxes can enable consumers to buy more goods and services, and enable companies to produce more and to invest more in their enterprises. Productivity can also be limited or enhanced by regulation. In the short-term, less regulation tends to increase productivity but makes prices and wages less stable. In the long run, not enough regulation can have a counter-productive effect, as occurred with the lack of regulation over the banking industry and the subsequent credit crisis of 2008. Deregulation and a failure of oversight can also incentivize corruption
Productivity can be formally regulated through price ceilings and floors. Price ceilings tend to discourage production, given that prices that are artificially too low can make it impossible for sellers to meet demand. Price floors can encourage too production, given that producers are guaranteed a specific minimum price for their output, but can…
"Gross Domestic Product." Economic productivity article from Hutchinson Encyclopedia.
"Price ceilings and floors." Investopedia. October 15, 2009.
Market Society and the Public Sphere
My journal text comes to illustrate the utmost significance of globalization viewed as the force molding and shaping the current world. It describes the multidimensional aspect of globalization that influences and encompasses all facets of life through an integrated network. Currently, globalization is the buzzword in media articles, daily talks of media people and talks of politicians. There is no aspect of life that is not influenced or affected by globalization (Tober, 2006, 33). However, many people find it difficult to reflect on this phenomenon. This is because the term is applied in so many aspects leading to its ambiguity in defining it according to my text.
Numerous volumes of work have written about globalization in numerous fields such as political, science, business, economics, sociology and many more. This has made the term globalization lack a precise cogent theory and definition. This is seen…
Barnet, R. & Cavanagh, J. (2004). Global dreams: imperial corporations and the new world order. New York: Simon & Schuster
Hass, R. (2003). The corporation without boundaries. The new paradigm in business: emerging strategies for leadership and organizational change. New York: Tarcher/Perigee.
Kapstein, B. (2004). Governing the global economy: international finance and the state.
Cambridge. MA: Harvard University Press
ecause the secularization of society has tended to cause erosion to religious identities and to bring about a change in terms of intergenerational value the result is laden with many new issues that:
"…cut across establish party cleavages; the impact of social and geographic mobility weakening community social networks; the rise of television broadcasting replacing older channels of political communications through partisan newspapers, personal discussion and party campaign organizations; growing multiculturalism resulting from migration, which was generating cross-cutting social cleavages based on racial and ethnic identities; and the increased complexity of newer issues on the policy agenda, such as globalization, environmentalism, sexuality, and international terrorism, that do not comfortably fit into older patterns of party competition16. As a result of these processes, identities based on social class and religious denomination no longer seem as capable of generating unwavering and habitual party loyalties in many postindustrial societies as they were in…
Smith, Bill; Miller, Ann W.; Archer, Thomas; and Hague, Carla (nd) Working with Diverse Cultures. Ohio State University Fact Sheet. Online available at: http://ohioline.osu.edu/bc-fact/0014.html
Religious Parties and Electoral Behavioral (2003) Sacred and Secular. Chapter 9. Online available at: http://www.hks.harvard.edu/fs/pnorris/Acrobat/Sacred_and_Secular/Chapter%209.pdf
Brazzel, Michael. "Building a Culture of Diversity in the Cooperative Extension System: A Paper to Foster Dialogue and Discussion About Pluralism in Extension." ECOP and ES-USDA National Diversity Strategic Planning Conference, Denver, Colorado, September, 1991.
Recommendations to Hillary Clinton Regarding Prisoner Re-Entry into Society
Prisoner re-entry is a vitally important issue today which has yet to reach its full impact on the minds and lives of voters. However, with every passing year the importance of this topic becomes more evident. Since the eighties, every passing year has brought more pressure for harsher and longer imprisonment and more streamlined mandatory sentencing rules. This has not only resulted in an exploding prison population, but also in a drastic increase in the number of prisoners re-released into communities. Additionally, the push towards more punitive measures has decreased educational opportunities in prisons and the availability of rehabilitation programs. This means that released prisoners are increasingly unable to reintegrate into their communities, increasingly prone to recidivism, and increasingly violent in each release and re-capture cycle. Even the conservative ush administration has recognized the threat posed by unprepared prisoner…
Banks, Gabrielle. "Learning Under Lockdown." Colorlines, NCM 2004 Award Winner, Nov 28, 2004.
Center on Crime, Communities and Culture. Research Brief: Education as Crime Prevention, Sept, 1997.
Human Rights Watch. "No Escape: Male Rape in U.S. Prisons." Archived at: http://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/prison/
Petersilia, Joan. "CHALLENGES OF PRISONER REENTRY AND PAROLE IN CALIFORNIA" California Policy Research Center Brief Series, June 2000. Archived at: http://www.ucop.edu/cprc/parole.html
Internet and Democracy
In one sense, computers and the Internet are just a continuation of the communications revolution, starting with the printing press then continuing with the telegraph, telephone, motion pictures, radio and television. Could this be leading to a more fundamental change in history on the same level as the agricultural and industrial revolutions? This is a more problematic proposition. Of course, the idea of a post-industrial economy based on services and high technology dates back to the 1960s, although some visionaries had an inkling of it even in the 19th Century. Skills and education that were valuable in an industrial economy have become obsolete in the new system, although this has happened before in the history of capitalism. Society has changed relatively little from the era before the computer age, with only a few exceptions, such as the use of computers to speed up financial transactions and in…
Agre, P.E. And D. Schuler, (eds.). (1997) Reinventing Technology, Rediscovering Community: Critical Explorations of Computing as a Social Practice. Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Alavi, N. (2005). We Are Iran. Brooklyn, NY: Soft Skull Press, Inc.
Baase, S. (2009). A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues in Computing, 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall.
Barglow, R. (1994). The Crisis of the Self in the Age of Information: Computers, Dolphins and Dreams. Routledge.
I maintain that all living things share an understanding that actions have consequence. I believe that even complex underlying psychological and sociological issues can be circumvented by directly addressing such most fundamental knowledge.
As for deterrence, I believe that the retributive system can in itself serve as a future deterrent, even if it does not do so intentionally. As mentioned, Kant held that any criminal activity is not only a crime against society, but a crime against the criminal him- or herself, since the criminal will suffer for these crimes, even as the victims of the crimes have suffered. Hence, there are no beneficiaries in the system and he deterrent is the threat of punishment itself.
As for rehabilitation programs, these have been notoriously ineffective, regardless of millions upon billions of dollars spent on the research and implementation involved. Even research into the underlying issues surrounding criminal activity has not…
Alien Nation is organized onto fifteen chapters, divided into three parts:
Part I: Truth: (2) the View from the Tenth Circle; (3) the Pincers; (4) How Did it Happen? (5) Why Did it Happen? (6) So What?
Part II: Consequences: (7) Immigration Has Consequences: Economics; (8) Immigration Has (More) Consequences: Economics II; (9) Immigration Has Consequences: Cultural, Social, Environmental...; (10) Immigration Has Consequences: Political Power; (11) Immigration Has Consequences: A Less Perfect Union; (12) Immigration Has Consequences: The War against the Nation-State; (13) Doing the ight Thing? The Morality of Immigration;
Part III: Shipwreck and Salvage: (14) What, Then, Is to Be Done? (15) Conclusion: The Bowels of Christ?
Brimelow commences his book by seeking the genesis of the immigration problem and finds that it is linked to the massacres conducted by totalitarian regimes. To better explain, the author of Alien Nation… believes that the rulers of the…
Brimelow, P., 1995, Alien Nation: Common Sense about America's Immigration Disaster, Random House
Lind, M., 1995, the Next American Nation: The New Nationalism and the Fourth American Revolution, Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group
Reilly, J.J., the Next American Nation: The New Nationalism and the Forth American Republic, http://www.johnreilly.info/tna.htm last accessed on September 1, 2009
1995, Alien Nation: Common Sense about America's Immigration Disaster, National Vanguard Magazine, Edition of November-December, No. 115
reason than his critique of Plato, Popper provides much food for thought about political philosophy, and especially the political philosophies underlying American society and government. So much modern critical theory and political philosophy is rooted in Plato that it is easy to take for granted that much of what is said in The Republic and other texts needs to be scrutinized. Plato was brilliant but not sacrosanct. I appreciate that Popper urges his readers to criticize Plato and cease believing Plato to be a sacred text. Criticizing Plato actually fulfills Plato's very own objective in his writings, which is to stimulate dialogue and discussion, promote open-mindedness, and encourage critical thought rather than blind faith. What else is the cave analogy if not an urging to readers to step outside the shadow world of falsehood and into the light of truth?
Ironically, Popper champions Plato by critiquing his arguments. Popper is…
Walden Two: Human Nature and Society
The bourgeoisie naturally conceives the world in which it is supreme to be the best.
People throughout history, since the beginning of time began, have been expressing dissatisfaction with the way the world is and trying to find ways to make it better. Along the way various fictional societies called "Utopias," after the book of the same name written by Thomas More in 1515 and 1516, were created in an image of perfectionism. These utopian communities, all somewhat different in many ways and often ultimately oppositional in form and function, nevertheless had one thing in common. Each one boasted proudly that it alone was worthy of the ultimate claim: a foundation of consummate judicial and moral principles with the ultimate result of effortless happiness and true freedom for all its people.
.F. Skinner admits that when he wrote Walden Two in 1945…
Bruce, Susan. Introduction to Three Early Modern Utopias. (1999) New York: Oxford University Press.
Skinner, B.F. Walden Two. (1948) Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company.
- . Walden Two Revisited: Preface to Walden Two. (January 1976) Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company.
Three Early Modern Utopias: Utopia, New Atlantis, The Isle of Pines. Edited by Susan Bruce. (1999) New York: Oxford University Press.
In years before, America was a collection of Chinese, Germans, Italians, Scots, Croats, etc., all craving freedom. Today, even the simple concept of an English-speaking nation is fading off the continent. In the past, immigrants were taught in English in the public schools. In America today, children are taught in German, Italian, Polish, and 108 other languages and dialects. Most of these schools are funded by 139 million federal dollars. "The linguist's egalitarian attitude toward dialect has evolved into the multicultural notion that dialect as a cultural feature is part of one's identity as a member of that culture."
Due to their ethnic or cultural heterogeneity, multiethnic societies in general are more fragile and have a higher risk of conflicts. In the worst case such conflicts can cause the breakdown of these societies. Recent examples of this were the violent breakdown of Yugoslavia and the peaceful separation of Czechoslovakia. Forced…
Cruz, Barbara C. Multiethnic Teens and Cultural Identity: A Hot Issue. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2001.
Dawisha, Adeed. Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century: From Triumph to Despair. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.
Francis, Samuel. "The Other Face of Multiculturalism." Chronicles. April 1998.
Huggins, Nathan I. Revelations: American History, American Myths. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
As Vickers (1989) notes, "…the size and intensity of U.S. intervention was met by escalation in the size and intensity of opposition to the war here at home'. (Vickers, 1989, p. 100) Vickers and many other critics state categorically that the anti-war movement in the country was "…a critical factor in preventing the U.S. from achieving victory over communist forces in Vietnam…" and that,
American public opinion indeed turned out to be a crucial 'domino'; it influenced military morale in the field, the long drawn-out negotiations in Paris, the settlement of 1973, and the cuts in aid to South Vietnam in 1974, a prelude to final abandonment in 1975." (Vickers 1989, p. 100)
As events in the war accelerated so did the public opposition to the war and protest changed into active resistance. A new stage of anti-resistance came into effect between 1967 and 1969 as a result of a…
Attarian, J 2000, 'Rethinking the Vietnam War, World and I, vol.15.
Bonier, D, Champlain S, and Kolly T. 1984, the Vietnam Veteran: A History of Neglect, Praeger Publishers, New York.
Bresler, R 2007, ' the Specter of Vietnam', USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), vol.135, no. 9.
Dinh, V 2000, How We Won in Vietnam, viewed 7 May, 2010,
Thus, for many people in Hispanic society, especially women, playing a role in the Church gives their life additional meaning and purpose, and it only increases their faith and belief in the Church and its doctrines. Increasingly, the Church is relying on laypeople, representative of their respective communities and parishes, to help spread and maintain the message and support of the Church. Many of these laypeople are women, and it offers additional meaning and purpose to their lives - spiritually and personally.
Besides being actively involved in the Church, it is often the women of a family that establish and maintain the traditions, and pass on the beliefs and traditions associated with religion. These authors continue, "My grandmother and the women of her generation exercised their religious leadership in the Hispanic community as healers, prayer leaders, and dispensers of blessings. They were also the main persons responsible for passing on…
Burgaleta, Claudio. "Preaching the Teaching: Hispanics, Homiletics, and Catholic Social Justice Doctrine." Theological Studies 67.3 (2006): 702+.
Deck, Allan Figueroa, Yolanda Tarango, and Timothy M. Matovina. Perspectivas: Hispanic Ministry. Kansas City, MO: Sheed & Ward, 1995.
Warren, Mark R. "Chapter 4 How Social Capital Contributes to Democratic Renewal." Religion as Social Capital: Producing the Common Good. Ed. Corwin Smidt. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2003. 49-68.
Media and Society
Media can be described as any channel of communication. Its influence could be seen on our daily lives. People have different opinions, but actually no one can ignore its influence on our lives. Today, radio, television, advertisements, books, magazines, newspaper etc., we are surrounded by it everywhere. Every minute, we get some information directly or indirectly (Uni Assignment Centre, 2016)
The most important question is the medium. Since media can both construct or destruct the facts (by selectively manipulation), it is necessary to understand that how properly they are using the medium. Media has its own importance in representing social issues since ancient times till modern era. Hence, to define its role, it is necessary to understand how it is turned and twisted by historians and practitioners. (Uni Assignment Centre, 2016)
Media has mostly been recognised as the medium of creating social and moral panic. Though it…
Ali, A. (2015). Media and Society. The Teenager Today. Retrieved from http://theteenagertoday.com/media-society/
Article 19. (2012). Getting the Facts Right: Reporting Ethnicity and Religion. Retrieved from https://www.article19.org/resources.php/resource/3093/en/getting-the-facts-right:-reporting-ethnicity-and-religion
Bonn, S. A. (2015). Moral Panic: Who Benefits from Public Fear? Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/wicked-deeds/201507/moral-panic-who-benefits-public-fear
Critcher, C. (2008). Moral Panic Analysis: Past, Present and Future. Sociology Compass, 2(4), 1129. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Retrieved from http://www.penelopeironstone.com/Critcher.pdf
religion shaped development of colonial society in 1740s New England, Chesapeake, and the Mid-Atlantic. eligion shaped development in these areas in a wide variety of ways, and the most important religious development during this time was the "Great Awakening." The "Great Awakening" was an important event in American history and religious history. It was the first real step away from the organized, strict religions that had followed the settlers here from England.
The "father" of the Great Awakening was Jonathan Edwards. He wrote a sermon called "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God," which became very famous. A religious historian writes, "In that sermon he used the image of a spider dangling by a web over a hot fire to describe the human predicament. His point was that at any moment, our hold on life could break and we'd be plunged into fires of eternal damnation" (Matthews). While many…
Goen, C.C. Revivalism and Separatism in New England, 1740-1800: Strict Congregationalists and Separate Baptists in the Great Awakening. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1962.
Matthews, Terry. "The Great Awakening." Wake Forest University. 1996. 20 Sept. 2005.
< http://www.wfu.edu/~matthetl/perspectives/four.html >
The result has been newfound freedoms of speech, freedom of travel and incredibly, freedom of dissent, even to small extent. Globalization is the fule that nations need to find what their true competitive strengths are. Coddling nations through protectionism and subsidies is like taking protein or iron from their diets; over time, they will atrophy and die due to a lack of infusion of capital, competitive vibrancy and growth. In short, globalization's effects on nations is to make them capable enough to seize freedoms that myopic and ill-advised anti-globalization activists would seek to rob from them through protectionism and ignorance that any given nations' ability to grow is based on its ability to globally compete.
Donald W. Attwood. "Big is ugly? How large-scale institutions prevent famines in Western India. " World Development 33.12 (2005): 2067-2083. ABI/INFOM Global. ProQuest. 13 Dec. 2007. www.proquest.com
Jagdish Bhagwati. "Why the Critics of Globalization…
Donald W. Attwood. "Big is ugly? How large-scale institutions prevent famines in Western India. " World Development 33.12 (2005): 2067-2083. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 13 Dec. 2007. www.proquest.com
Jagdish Bhagwati. "Why the Critics of Globalization Are Mistaken. " De Economist 155.1 (2007): 1-21. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest 12 Dec. 2007. www.proquest.com
Jagdish Bhagwati (2). "Anti-globalization: why?" Journal of Policy Modeling 26.4 (2004): 439-463. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. http://www.proquest.com
Chandana Chakraborty and Parantap Basu. Foreign direct investment and growth in India: a cointegration approach., Applied Economics. Volume 34, pp. 134-158, Number 9/June 15, 2002
Thomas Jefferson Politics
Decisions and Actions
Democratic-epublican Party's Beliefs and Ideals
Federalist Party's Beliefs and Ideals
Initiated the first Barbary War -- Aligned most with the Federalists party because it was a display of national power.
They were terrified of a strong national government.
They were strong believers of a central government
Bought the Louisiana Purchase -- Aligned most with the Federalist party because they believed in expanding national power by expanding their territory and property.
They understood the Constitution as being an essential document to limit the powers of the federal government.
They believed that listening to the citizens would make for a weak government system.
Initiated the Lewis and Clark Expedition -- Aligned most with the Democratic-epublican party because it was in the best interest of the people who would be settling there. It also provided insight into the agricultural possibilities in that part of the nation.
Meacham, J. (2012). Thomas Jefferson: The art of power. New York, NY: Random House.
National Archives. (2013). The Center for Legislative Archives. Archives.gov. Retrieved April 16, 2013 from http://www.archives.gov/about/history/building-an - archives/jefferson-letter.html
academic and popular discourse on East Asia, Korea has a long, strong, and unique history. The culture of Korea has evolved over the last several millennia to become one of the world's most distinctive, homogenous, and intact. Being surrounded by large and ambitious neighbors has caused Korea to have a troubled history, evident in the most recent generations with the division between North and South. The division between North and South Korea is the first time the peninsula has been divided since its initial unification in the mid-7th century CE. Until the Korean War, the people of Korea have been bound together by common language, customs, and political culture. No significant minority culture or linguistic group has made Korea its home, and although Korea has been invaded and encroached upon by others, it has also never been an expansionist or imperialistic culture either.
The Korean peninsula has been inhabited since…
Armstrong, C.K. (2015). Korean history and political geography.
Eckert, C.J., Lee, K., et al. (1991). Korea Old and New. Korea Institute, Harvard University Press.
"Hidden Korea," (n.d.). PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/hiddenkorea/history.htm
Nelson, M.N. (1993). The Archaeology of Korea. Cambridge University Press.
Democracy in Iran
As pro-democracy movements spread across a huge segment of the Muslim world in the spring and early summer of 2011, there was a tremendous amount of speculation that Iran would be the next totalitarian regime to join the world's democracies. However, this speculation seems to have been premature. Instead, Iran's response to pro-democracy movements in the country has solidified the notion that Iran will never achieve a democracy. First, the basic stagnancy in Iran's political debate suggests an unwillingness to move towards democracy. Second, Iran continues to suggest that its current regime is in line with Muslim awakenings around the world, which reveals the depth of the government's commitment to its current regime.
Third, the current government's brutality is not conducive to the type of organization that results in democracy. While some people believe that the social changes occurring in Iran mean that it is likely to…
Baghi, E. (2004). Hope for democracy in Iran. Retrieved February 21, 2012 from The
Washington Post website: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A59941-2004Oct24.html
Gheissari, A. & Nasr, V. (2006). Democracy in Iran: History and the quest for liberty. New York: Oxford University Press.
Molavi, A. (2011, April 6). Invoking the Arab Spring, Iran rewrites its own history. Retrieved February 21, 2012 from The National website: http://www.thenational.ae/thenationalconversation/comment/invoking-the-arab-spring-iran-rewrites-its-own-history
1997 in the peer-reviewed journal the American Prospect. The authors (Sidney Verba, Kay Lehman Schlozman, and Henry E, Brady) focus their attention on the theme of political participation and the growing inequality within that participation (e.g., people with money are more involved, which has potentially dire consequences for democracy). An argument can be made that this research presents a prologue to what has become a huge issue and problem in 2014. That is, because of the Supreme Court's 2012 "Citizens United" decision, which allows those with untold millions of dollars to spend their cash on campaigns without any accountability as to who made those contributions, there is a huge participatory inequality in 2014. That said, the scholarly article by Verba, et al., presents an in-depth analysis of why some people get involved in politics -- related to their socioeconomic situations -- and why some people do not get involved in…
Confessore, Nicholas. "$122 million in 2012 Spending by Koch Group." The New York
Times. Retrieved June 6, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com . 2013.
Verba, Sidney, Schlozman, Kay Lehman, and Brady, Henry E. "The Big Tilt: Participatory
Inequality in America." The American Prospect, Vol. 32, 74-80. 1996.