Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
They found that 99% of licensed hygienists reported having experienced pain or discomfort while treating patients! The hygienists reported pain in the neck and shoulder region, hands, fingers, and lower back. Nelson & Jevack (2001) concluded, "Due to the number of students and licensed dental hygienists who experience pain...proper ergonomics should be enforced in dental hygiene education for future physical wellness and career longevity among dental hygienists" (p. 119).
The researchers (Nelson & Jevack, 2001) suggest -- as others have -- that instruments be redesigned, but also, the working environment needs to be improved for "better adjustments on patient chairs such as adequate height and tilt adjustments, operator stools with support for arms, adequate work breaks, proper lighting angles, space for legs under the patient chair, early medical intervention for symptoms, and angled instruments to reduce wrist flexion" (p. 119). Michalak-Turcotte (2000) recommends that an ergonomic plan be developed for…
Liskiewicz, T. And Kerschbaum, W.E. (1997). Cumulative trauma disorders: An ergonomic approach for prevention. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 71 (4), 162-168.
Michalak-Turcotte, C. (2000). Controlling dental hygiene work-related musculoskeletal disorders: The ergonomic process. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 74 (1), 41-58.
Nelson, J.O. And Jevack, J.E. (2001). Experiencing pain due to incorrect body positioning. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 75 (1), 90-129. Retrieved 15 February 2007 from Expanded Academic ASAP database.
Syme, S.E., Fried, J.L. And Strassier, H.E. (1997). Enhanced visualization using magnification systems. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 71 (5), 202-207.
Another caution that exists for people suffering from lupus is to exercise caution before and after receiving dental treatment. Lupus patients could develop serious heart infections from the streptococci that might be released into their bloodstream during routine dental procedures, even bi-annual teeth cleanings (Blau and Schultz, 174). The infection can travel to the heart when the patient has certain other manifestations of lupus, and, if the patient has developed a condition called verrucous endocarditis, then it can be deadly if the streptococci infect the heart (Blau and Schultz, 174). Therefore it is strongly recommended that prior to and following dental procedures and cleanings that lupus patients receive antiobiotics that can help them to be prepared to defend their body against the streptococci (Blau and Schultz, 174-175).
The antibiotic -- usually amoxicillin, or another member of the penicillin family, or erythromycin in cases of penicillin allergy -- is taken an…
Blau, Sheldon Paul, and Dodi Schultz. Living with Lupus: All the Knowledge You Need to Help Yourself. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books, 1993. Questia. 21 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=91348486 .
De Rossi, Scott S. DMD, and Glick, Michael, DMD. Lupus Erythematosus: Considerations for Dentistry. Journal American Dental Association, vol 129, March, 1998, 330-339.
16). Some of the options available to patients are (p. 16):
What it Is Colgate Total
Over-the-counter tooth- triclosan and fluoride paste containing the anti- toothpaste bacterial triclosan
Peridex or generic
Prescription mouth rinse chlorhexidine mouth containing'an anti-micro- rinse bial called chlorhexidine
Periochip tiny piece of gelatin filled with chlorhexidine
Atridox gel that contains the anti- biotic doxycycline
Thread-like fiber that con- tains the antibiotic tetracy- cline
Tiny round particles that contain the antibiotic minocycline
Periostat low dose of the medica- tion doxycycline that keeps destructive enzymes in check
Why it's Used
The antibacterial ingredient triclosan and fluoride reduces plaque and result- toothpaste ing gingivitis. The fluoride protects against cavities.
Peridex or generic
To control bacteria, result- chlorhexidine mouth ing in less plaque and gin- rinse givitis
To control bacteria and re- duce the size of periodon- tal pockets
To control bacteria and…
Adams, T.L. (2003). Professionalization, Gender and Female-Dominated Professions: Dental Hygiene in Ontario. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 40(3), 267+. Retrieved November 30, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002041268
Being a Dental Hygienist Means You Can Clean Up. (2006, February 16). Daily Post (Liverpool, England), p. 25. Retrieved November 30, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5013780467
Chojnacki, C. (2006, December 31). Smiles All around Women Clean Up in National Contest for Hygenist of the Year. Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL), p. 1. Retrieved November 30, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018805116
Kaldenberg, D.O. (1995). Total Quality Management Practices and Business Outcomes: Evidence from Dental Practices. Journal of Small Business Management, 33(1), 21+. Retrieved November 30, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000281668
communicates trends affect industry (career path've chosen-Dental Hygiene) ten years. Make create a complete, relevant, effective attention getter; include complete transitions main points; wrap a memorable conclusion.
Current trends affecting the dental industry
Although many occupations are being outsourced, you can't outsource your dental care!
With the aging of the population and increased demand for physical 'perfection,' the demands placed upon the dental industry and career opportunities are likely to increase.
Demand for dental profession: Demographic trends
It has been estimated that "roughly 60 to 70% of the adult American population seeks routine dental care -- a rate that is believed to be holding stable," indicating that there will be a sustained need for the profession in recent years (Lavers 2013).
B. Demand will increase because of population growth in populations with high levels of need: "Based upon census data, the number of people ages 60 to 79 is projected…
Dental hygienist. (2013). U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved from:
Goff, J. (2012). Looking ahead: Industry insiders forecast future trends. Dental Products Report.
Retrieved from: http://www.dentalproductsreport.com/dental/article/looking-ahead-industry-insiders-forecast-future-trends
Project Management, Sustainability and Whole Lifecycle Thinking
Explaining Dental Biofilm to a Client
While showing Pamela the pink/purple disclosing stain on her teeth, she comments "oh-that is from my lunch earlier today. I did not have time to brush before the appointment." espond to her comment by explaining what the disclosing solution showed.
Lark, while I understand your concerns about the results of your recent dental biofilm examination, I would like to take some time to explain the diagnosis in more detail to help alleviate those concerns. First, it is important to remember that dental biofilm is not a disease, nor does it result from poor dental habits on your part, as these naturally occurring collections of bacterial communities are simply microorganisms functioning as nature intended. You have probably heard of plaque, while that oral health issue is widely known, and the data obtained from empirical studies during the last…
Che'rel F, Mobilia A, Lundgren T, Stephens J, Kiger R, Riggs M, Egelberg J. Rate of reformation of tongue coatings in young adults International Journal of Dental Hygiene 2008 January;(6):371 -- 375
Collins FM. Biofilm formation, identification and removal. Pacific Endodontic
Research Foundation 2006 March;3(1)1-7
Hiyari S, Bennet, KM. Dental diagnostics: Molecular analysis of oral biofilms. The Journal of Dental Hygiene 2011 Fall;85(4):256-63
Washing Procedures in a Dental Office
One of the challenges of teaching a lesson plan founded upon "Standard D2.1: Know how to evaluate potential causes and methods of transmitting infections and how to apply standard precautionary guidelines" according to CTE Standards: California Career and Technical Education Standards (232) is that the lesson plan must simultaneously be informative yet also teach critical skills to students. It must balance the need to convey practical information but not solely consist of lectures: a purely academic understanding of the topic will not necessarily affect student behaviors in the field. To impress upon students the importance of proper hygiene, I would first give an overview of healthcare-related infections to students. I would show photographs of what infections look like, both on the human body and also in microbial form. This would be a profound visual stimulus to students about the consequences that infections can render.…
DePaola, L. (2012). "Infection control in the dental office." Retrieved from: http://www.richmondinstitute.com/article/infection-control/infection-control-in-the-dental-office
Hand-washing procedure. (2013). Lesson Plan.
Standard D2.1. (2013). CTE Standards: California Career and Technical Education Standards. Retrieved from: http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/ct/sf/documents/ctestandards.pdf
Quality Development in Advanced Practice field knowledge in nursing: Proposal on Enhancing the dental health of children suffering Congenital Heart Disease
One of the most prevalent development abnormalities found in children is heart disease, and it occurs in about 8-10 in every 1, 000 births. Dental supervision of children with congenital heart problems calls for special care, due to their increased susceptibility to contagious endocarditis, which is associated with bacteremia caused by persistent dental processes. Additionally, these patients always have developmental enamel abnormalities that raises caries risk, and always have deprived oral health. This latter condition may be said to be due to cardiac health problems, whose care and attention may lead to the under-estimation of oral health and inadequate consideration. Additionally, continual administration of liquid drugs containing sucrose as sweetener may cause caries and gingivitis cases in children (Andersson et al. 2013a). Dental ailment may cause dental extractions in…
Andersson, A-C., Elg, M., Perseius, K-I. & Idvall, E. (2013a) Evaluating a questionnaire to measure improvements initiatives in Swedish healthcare. BMC Health Services Research, 13(48)
Andersson, A-C., Idvall, E., Perseius, K-I. & Elg, M. (2013b) Sustainable Outcomes of an Improvement Program: Do Financial Incentives Matter? Total Quality Management & Business Excellence
Balmer, R., Booras, G. & Parsons, J. (2010). The oral health of children considered very high risk for infective endocarditis. Int J Paediatr Dent. 20(3):173-8
Frankl, S.N., Shiere, F.R., Fogels, H.R. (1962). Should the parent remain with the child in the dental operatory? J Dent Child.29:150-163.
Fluoridation: A Public Health Debate
Fluoridation (the adding of fluoride to water) has been a hotly debated health issue for over half a century. Some advocate fluoridation by citing the many oral benefits available through the process, heralding the betterment of public hygiene that has been achieved from the procedure's inception. Detractors, on the other hand, point out the possible side effects from the abuse of fluoridation, the health problems being experienced around the globe by countries with fluoridated water, and the indelible rights of man. Because the decision to fluoridate drinking water or not affects so many of the worlds population it is definitely a worthy topic to sink ones teeth into.
The concept of fluoridation began in the early 20th century by a Colorado Springs, Colorado dentist named Frederick McKay. Upon moving to the area from the East Coast, McKay noticed that several of his patients "exhibited strange…
http://www.ada.org -- retrieved February 18, 2002
http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/oh/fl-info.htm -- retrieved February 18, 2002
http://www.nidcr.nih.gov -- retrieved February 18, 2002
www.nofluoride.com -- retrieved February 18, 2002
Assessment of risk factors for oral cancer and patient education activities; and 6. Interest in additional training.
I selected this article because of the importance of the topic. All too often, the roles and responsibilities of dental hygienists are considered primarily superficial. Meanwhile, dental hygienists are in position to contribute tremendously to patient health and welfare to the extent they perform oral cancer screenings routinely. According to the research findings, adherence to such diagnostic practices is sporadic at best and substantially dependent on time constraints, the focus and instructions of employing dentists, awareness of need and importance of the issue, and lack of adequate awareness training in hygienists' educational programs. The results also indicated that many experienced dental hygienists are among the least likely to focus on oral cancer screening simply because the topic was not regularly covered in dental hygienist training programs until relatively recently. Others expressed frustration…
Statue and ules and egulations Concerning Dental Hygienists and Dentist in Hawaii and Florida
American Dental Hygienist's Association is the largest governing body for maintaining the dental hygiene and care. The members of ADHA body get pleasure from professional support, educational programs and other variety of opportunities for them to participate and strengthen their decision making process and professional expertise. Government affairs division of ADHA works in close association with state constituent to support issues that are important for the dental care of public and dental hygiene profession. This covers licensing, scope of practice, patient access to care, water fluoridation and other dental care services. The dental hygienists interest is promoted through the governmental affairs division through federal and state policy efforts. The legalization of the ADHA affairs sustain close collaboration with other institutions where public or private to institutionalize the oral health policy document and improve the quality of…
ADHA's corporate website, (2011) User Guide to ADHA's Government Affair Division,
Retrieved on 28th Sept 2011 through:
Chapter 448 hrs dentistry, Retrieved on 28th Sept 2011 through:
The research thus concludes the essence of having quality and effective legislation addressing the aspects of overall oral health of the people.
Additionally, the Canadian Dental Association also relates several issues of the overall body health to the oral health of the individual. In view of the article on the relation "oral health -- good life," the article gives information on the essence of good oral health, indicating some of the illnesses of ill oral health (Chattopadhyay, 2011). In this article, the relation between the ill oral health and the overall health of the body is that the mouth is the ingress to the body. Therefore, an individual with ill oral health is at the highest risk of having infection that affects the whole body system severely. According to this article, it emphasizes the need for dentists-patient relation as the dentists is the only person with the skill, expertise and…
Chattopadhyay, a. (2011). Oral health epidemiology: Principles and practice. Sudbury, Mass:
Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Ramseier, C.A., & Suvan, J.E. (2010). Health behavior change in the dental practice. Ames,
Children and young adults often have a much harder time adhering to dental hygiene routines that prevent decay and the progression of caries. Often times, they fail to understand the importance of the routines and the damage that could be caused. In order to strengthen primary prevention strategies, many local municipalities have begun adding fluoride to water sources. This is a great way to augment other prevention strategies because it requires no extra effort on behalf of those benefiting from its treatment. This current research aims to explore whether or not this secondary strategy has been successful in reducing rates of untreated caries in children and young adults, ages 6 to 19. The research used regression, z-Test, and t-Test analysis in order to test the hypothesis that adding fluoride to water does help prevent caries. All three tests suggested that this is true and that ultimately; adding fluoride…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Water fluoridation data & statistics. Community Water Fluoridation. Web. http://www.cdc.gov/fluoridation/statistics/index.htm
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Untreated dental caries (cavities) in children ages 2-19, United States. CDC Feature. Web. http://www.cdc.gov/features/dsuntreatedcavitieskids/
Rozier, R. Gary. (2008). Effectiveness of methods used by dental professionals for the primary prevention of dental caries: A review of the evidence. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Web. http://www.nidcr.nih.gov /NR/rdonlyres/F458755E-8FF8-438C-8758-9A22D687A329/0/Gary_Rozier.pdf
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Health, United States, 2009: With Special Feature on Medical Technology. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Health Statistics. Web. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus09.pdf
Seniors have specific oral health needs. Meeting those needs requires an increase in personal hygiene, an improvement in lifestyle habits, and an increase in oral health service use. When these core needs are met, the specific oral health issues that affect seniors can be minimized, leading to improved health outcomes. Increasing personal hygiene requires shifts in attitudes toward oral health care, access to information, and access to affordable oral health care tools that are designed specifically for seniors. Lifestyle habits have a tremendous impact on oral health. Diet, smoking status, and drug and alcohol use are all factors that impact oral health. Accessing oral health services is difficult for many seniors. Some may live in rural areas where accessing oral health is physically difficult. Others may not be covered. In fact, most seniors do not have insurance coverage for oral health care. Not being able to afford oral…
"7 Oral Health Concerns Most Common in Seniors," (2014). Retrieved online: http://www.123dentist.com/7-oral-health-concerns-most-common-in-seniors/
Lamster, I.B. (2004). Oral health care services for older adults: A looming crisis. American Journal of Public Health 94(5), 699-702. Retrieved online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448319/
"Oral Care," (n.d.). WebMD. Retrieved online: http://www.webmd.com/oral-health/guide/dental-care-seniors
"Toothbrush Adaptations," (2011). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved online: http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/docs/dph/com-health/tooth-brush-adaptations.pdf
Healthcare is amongst the most delicate and subjective services delivered to the social order. Nevertheless, in order to render this care, and for there to be constant improvement, personnel have to obtain accessibility to delicate patient data and information. More so, in order to attain fitting care, the patients in turn have to provide their consent (American College of Healthcare Executives, 2012). Taking this into account, the quality improvement in health care does not overrule the rights of the patients who did wish to be part of the research. This can be perceived from the literature of different peer-reviewed articles on ethical treatment of subjects in clinical research. According to Scollon et al. (2015), the improvement of quality in the practices of patient care laid emphasis on the professionally accountable minimization of disparity in the patient care practices. However, they vouch for a preventive ethics method, which utilizes the informed…
American College of Healthcare Executives. (2012). Health Information Confidentiality. Retrieved 12 January, 2016 from: https://www.ache.org/policy/hiconf.cfm
Gawande, A. (2007, December 30). A lifesaving checklist. New York Times. Retrieved 12 January, 2016 from: www.nytimes.com/2007/12/30/opinion/30gawande.html
Kass, N. E., Faden, R. R., Goodman, S. N., Pronovost, P., Tunis, S., & Beauchamp, T. L. (2013). The Research-Treatment Distinction: A Problematic Approach for Determining Which Activities Should Have Ethical Oversight. Hastings Center Report, 43S4-S15. doi:10.1002/hast.133
Lambert, D. L. (2008). Practicing Dental Hygienists' Attitudes toward the Proposed Advanced Dental Hygiene Practitioner: A Pilot Study. University of Carolina.
In the area of dental hygiene, appeals to emotions are not difficult to find. Humans like their mouths to be clean, and a brief overview of the reasons that good dental hygiene is a practical asset -- creating more attractive teeth and generally a mouth more conducive to maraichinage -- is an excellent start to emphasizing the importance of dental hygiene. A follow-up that summons the disgust reflex is equally simply, thanks to subjects such as plaque and bacterial buildup. A directed emphasis on the idea of living organisms inhabiting the oral cavity is sure to be particularly effective on female students, although such techniques are vulnerable to logical attack (since certain organisms inhabit the human body that are beneficial or even necessary, such as certain bacteria that live in the intestines and aid digestion, or even mitochondria to a certain degree).
An example of a simulation would be one…
Morgan, Robert E. "Educational Simulations." Creative Teaching Web Site. 2002. 12 Nov. 2006 http://www.creativeteachingsite.com/edusims.html .
Gingivitis is a mild form of periodontal disease. It causes irritation, redness, and inflammation of the gums and can be so mild that individuals may not even be aware they have it (Mayo Clinic staff, 2011). Many people have it to a varying degree because it often develops during puberty or early adulthood due to hormonal changes (osenberg, 2010). It is important to take gingivitis seriously, however, because, left untreated, it can lead to periodontitis, a more severe form of gum disease. Eventually, tooth loss can result.
Gingivitis is commonly caused by poor oral hygiene, but can result from a number of other conditions, including diabetes, depressed immune system (for example, as a result of HIV / AIDS or leukemia), certain viral and fungal infections, and hormonal changes such as those related to puberty, as already mentioned, or with pregnancy or the use of oral contraceptives. Gingivitis can also result…
Mayo Clinic staff. (2011, Nov 18). Mayoclinic. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/gingivitis/DS00363
Rosenberg, D. (2010, 22 2). Gingivitis. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002051/
transfer to 'Dhobiwalla? What's that?" I asked.
"Oh!" he said, laughing heartily as he leaned back comfortably in his seat, scotch in hand. "They're the laundry service in India!"
Mr. Patel was one of the many corporate clients with whom I worked on several occasions, spending hours at a time confined to the flight cabin while crossing trans-Pacific and trans-Atlantic paths. The conversations that come up while we are miles in the air range from what our favorite fruits are to movies, to -- as I learned that day -- how we best like to do our laundry. Mr. Patel also told me the names of fruits and vegetables that I could barely pronounce at first but once I tried them in Bombay I have never been able to stop my cravings.
One of the most enriching aspects of my career as a flight attendant has been my encounters and…
Jill Watson is an employee of Telecommunication Company and has been working for the company for approximately 7 years. Within the past few years, Jill has organized numerous health-fairs as well as countless health help sessions. She also regularly posted information on the company central bulletin boards about health and well-being. Moreover, she assists in providing screening program for many sick people. The goal of her health promotion is to enhance positive lifestyles and behavioral changes for people. Despite her promotional effort, many people still engage in smoking habits, do not engage in physical exercise, and are still overweight. While health promotion may be essential, however, providing health information is not sufficient to facilitate positive lifestyle or behavioral changes.
The objective of this study is to use the self-determination theory to assist Jill to understand the strategy to facilitate positive behavioral or lifestyles changes among her clients.…
Deci, E.L. & Ryan, R.M. (2013). Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology: Volume 1 Self-Determination Theory. SAGE Publications Ltd.
Ng, J.Y.Y., Ntoumanis, N., Thogersen-Ntoumani, C. (2012). Self-determination theory applied to health contexts: A meta-analysis. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 325-340.
Niemiec, C.P., & Ryan, R.M. (2009). Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the classroom: Applying self-determination theory to educational practice. Theory and Research in Education, 7, 133-144
Patrick, H. & Williams, G.C. (2012). Self-determination theory: its application to health behavior and complementarity with motivational interviewing. Int J. Behav Nutr Phys Act. 9: 18.
My inspiration for defining a productive life has always been greatly influenced by Mother Teresa and Mahatma Gandhi and I came to the realization that I could contribute more to the betterment of my society and to the welfare of a larger number of people by directing my energies toward a career in administrative health care than I could ever possibly achieve by practicing clinical medicine. As clinicians, even the most successful of us can only affect a relatively small number of individuals in our careers. However, as health care administrators and public advocates and educators, we can actually help transform our societies from communities where only a relatively small number of people have access to modern health care services into communities in which adequate health care services and access to basic preventative medicine become widespread and more evenly distributed throughout the human community.
Therefore, I hope to pursue a…
Fashion: a Reflection of Society's Attitudes.
Fashion is not just art, it is a measure of social attitudes for a particular period in history. Today, a woman cyclist will most likely be wearing spandex and skin-tight bicycle shorts. Her male counterpart will be wearing the same. hat is acceptable now would have been scandalous in our mother's time. This paper will illustrate through example that fashion is a reflection of societal attitudes.
A British perspective shed some light on the idea of moral decency and on ideas about woman's dress in the beginning of the nineteenth century. Richard Gooch in Bad Fashion and Poor Dental Hygiene of American omen., New York, 1834 said the following.
"Perhaps one reason for American ladies wearing such short garments is that they are generally admired for small and pretty feet. Nevertheless, it is impossible for an English eye not to be shocked at the…
Fields, Jill. Fighting the Corsetless Evil: Shaping Corsets and Culture, 1900-1930. Journal of Social History. Winter 1999. Complete reprint accessed February 2002. Found on http://womenshistory.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.fin darticles.com%2Fcf_0%2Fm2005%2F2_33%2F58675450%2Fp1%2Farticle.jhtml
Richard Gooch. Bad Fashion and Poor Dental Hygiene of American Women. New York City.
1834. Reprinted in its entirety at Women in America 1920-1842. Accessed February,
It uses a great deal of expensive and cutting-edge technology, and none of this is cheap. hile DR can do a great deal for a hospital radiology department, that department also must have the funds available to support what needs to be purchased and accomplished where DR is concerned if the department chooses to use this technology.
Image quality, other than cost, is quite probably the largest issue that is faced by those that wish to use this new technology. Therefore, it is important to discuss and compare the differences between the image quality of CR and the image quality of DR, so that more can be understood regarding the differences between them. One study looked at the plate readers that are used for CR images, and found that there were enough statistically significant differences between different plate readers as to indicate that there may be problems with…
Cesar, LJ. 1997. Computed radiography: its impact on radiographers. Radiologic Technology.
Daniels, C. 1998. The benefits of digital radiography. Radiologic Technology.
Demonstrated Clinical Benefits and Competitive Prices to Drive Digital Radiography Market. 2004. BusinessWire.
FUJIFILM Computed Radiography for Mammography Progresses From Market Entrant to Market Leadership Worldwide. 2002. PR Newswire.
Social Performance, Part 2 This a continuation assignment. Imagine company ethics program effective program. The Federal Sentencing Guidelines Organizations encourages firm set ethics programs.
Company: Pinnacle Professional College
Pinnacle Professional College is a for-profit institution that offers technologically-related continuing education courses, professional certification, and degrees primarily in technical fields such as dental hygiene, diagnostic sonography, and radiology. For-profit institutions have come under increasing scrutiny by the federal government for taking student's money, causing them to go into debt, and giving them with degrees of little value. To set the school apart from such unethical institutions, Pinnacle must show that that students move on to gainful employment that they would not otherwise have been able to obtain without attending Pinnacle. Pinnacle also has an ethical responsibility to ensure that students to not accrue more debt than they can conceivably pay off in a reasonable period of time. According to one NYU…
Auburn University Student Loan Code of Conduct. (2012). Auburn University. Retrieved:
Briody, Blaire. (2012)11 surprising student loan facts. MSN Money. Retrieved:
4. Specialty toothpastes created for customers with sensitive teeth, gums or other medical conditions, with customer experience being the most critical
5. Lifecycle approach similar to Crest yet focused on the consumer's purchasing lifecycle
Based on this analysis, my top five criterion are as follows:
1. High performance toothpaste capable of delivering preventative protection and has a fresh taste
2. High performance cavity prevention
3. Making dialing brushing less of a chore and more fun and enjoyable
4. Available in a wide variety of flavors
5. High performance, rapid whitening toothpastes that bring quick results to teeth and gums.
Based on these criterion, I have become a loyal Crest Complete Multi-Benefit Whitening + Scope -- Citrus. This toothpaste fits my profile of benefits precisely and has led to my becoming brand-loyal to this specific product based on the benefits it delivers.
2. Select another oral care (e.g., toothbrush) product where…
Greenberg, M., & McDonald, S.S. (1989). Successful Needs/Benefits segmentation: A user's guide. The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 6(3), 29-29.
Miskell, P. (2004). Cavity protection or cosmetic perfection? innovation and marketing of toothpaste brands in the United States and western Europe, 1955-1985. Business History Review, 78(1), 29-60.
Constituents of Complex Environments in Health/Social Care
USA's National Academies have, for numerous years, been conducting systemic researches into the nation's healthcare cost and quality (Building a Better Delivery System, 2005). Plainly, considerable improvements are required in healthcare delivery. Many assert that these may be attained through competition of a value-based nature among healthcare delivery organizations. One must, of course, remember that the American system of healthcare didn't achieve its present state overnight. The nation's National Academies as well as other parties have conducted several studies and arrived at the conclusion that a key issue facing the U.S. healthcare delivery system is: it isn't a system, in truth (ouse, 2008). This paper will address two issues: 1) how conventional systems differ from CAS (complex adaptive systems) (e.g. healthcare); and 2) the differences' implications on health delivery system planning and management.
The U.S. healthcare system would be faced with…
(2005). Building a Better Delivery System. Available: http://www.nationalacademies.org/onpi/030909643X.pdf . Last accessed 12 Feb 2016.
Chichester SR, Mann GB, Wilder RS, Neal E. (2002). Incorporation of evidence-based principles in baccalaureate and nonbaccaluareate degree dental hygiene programs. Journal of Dental Hygiene, 76(1), 60-66.
Dayaratna. (2013). Competitive Markets in Health Care: The Next Revolution. Available: http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2013/08/competitive-markets-in-health-care-the-next-revolution . Last accessed 12 Feb 2016.
Devol, Bedroussian, Charuworn, Chatterjee, Kyu Kim, Kim, and Klowden. (2007). An Unhealthy America: The Economic Burden of Chronic Disease -- Charting a New Course to Save Lives and Increase Productivity and Economic Growth. Available: http://www.milkeninstitute.org/publications/view/321 . Last accessed 12 Feb 2016.
He will probably start purchasing his own toothbrush and will be included in one of the three behavioral groups I have previously discussed. After the age of 55, people seem to lose interest in tooth brushing and are likely to practice it less than earlier.
The most important issue that that managers should consider when deciding on product positioning is the category of consumer they choose to address. In this sense, clear segmentation schemes should be provided, included by income, age, social position, etc. These external environment factors will provide the basis from which the product can be developed, including here features that make up the augmented product and the expected product. Knowing the consumer you target is essential in making and delivering a products that will provide full customer satisfaction and will permit customer retention.
On the other hand, the manager needs to perform an internal analysis and decide,…
1. Laidler, Nathalie. November 1993. Colgate-Palmolive Company: The Precision Toothbrush. Harvard Business School.
2. Levitt, Theodore. 2000. Marketing success through differentiation - of anything.
3. Seybold, Patricia. May 2001. Get Inside the Lives of Your Customers. Harvard Business Review. Vol. 79, Issue 5.
Laidler, Nathalie. November 1993. Colgate-Palmolive Company: The Precision Toothbrush. Harvard Business School..
Obesity, Prevention and Control in Teens
Obesity refers to accumulation of harmful body fat levels, with excessive loose connective adipose tissues relative to lean body mass (Donatelle, 2002). One of the causes of obesity is high calorie consumption and the individual's inability to burn up the consumed calories. Obesity is said to be the outcome of imbalance of food consumed with energy expended (Venes, 2005). However, there are also considerable studies demonstrating genetic and metabolic deficiencies and disorders in cases of obesity; these include an inactive mechanism by which the body signals 'satiety', as well as deficiency of important proteins that turn off 'hunger'.
Obesity is presently the second reason for preventable deaths in the U.S., after tobacco consumption (Flegal, Carroll, Orden, & Johnson, 2000). Moreover, obesity is considered to be the leading cause for preventable deaths on a worldwide scale. In accordance with a study conducted by the World…
Beyea, C.S., & Slattery, J.M. (2006). Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing: A Guide to Successful Implementation. Marblehead: HcPro, Inc.
Bray, G. (2003). Contemporary Diagnosis and Management of Obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome. In Third (Ed.), Handbooks in Health Care (Third Edition ed.). Newtown, Pennsylvania.
Donatelle, R. (2002). Health: the Basics (6th ed.). (6th, Ed.) Los Angeles, CA: Pearson Education.
Flegal, K., Carroll, M., Orden, C., & Johnson, C. (2000). Prevalence and Trends among U.S. Adults. JAMA, 288(1723-7).
Using a random sampling helps to insure that there will be a randomly equal number of learning disabled students, gifted students, underachievers and overachievers in each group. In addition the random sampling will help insure a statistically close to equal sampling of males and females in each group.
Assumptions will also be made that the students will put forth their best effort in the class work and instruction so that the semester test results will be a true reflection of what they have learned in the American History course that semester.
This methodology section is designed to produce the most pure results with regard to the research question. Care has been taken to explore the different elements of the research topic and produce the best possible method by which to test that question.
Dobrosielski-Vergona, Kathleen a.; Gallagher, Judith E.; Williams, Theresa M.; Wingard, obin G. More (2005) Web-based…
Dobrosielski-Vergona, Kathleen a.; Gallagher, Judith E.; Williams, Theresa M.; Wingard, Robin G. More (2005) Web-based vs. traditional classroom instruction in gerontology: a pilot study. Journal of Dental Hygiene
Beard, Lawrence a.; Harper, Cynthia (2002) Student perceptions of online vs. On campus instruction.(Brief Article)(Statistical Data Included) Education Journal
Piotrowski, C. & Vodanovich, S.J. (2000). Are the reported barriers to Internet-based instruction warranted?: A synthesis of recent research, Education, 121, 48-53.
Rossman, P. (1992). The emerging worldwide electronic university: Information age global higher education. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Simulation #1 -- Degenerative Arthritis and Macular Degeneration
In this simulation, I placed Band-aids around the middle joints of my fingers and I wore an athletic wrist support on one hand that severely limited my wrist motion. The Band-aids were tight enough to make it almost impossible to bend my fingers except with considerable discomfort. I also placed a smudge of Vaseline in the center of the lenses of clear protective construction goggles to simulate the loss of center vision associated with age-related macular degeneration. The purpose of this set up was to simulate the types of arthritic symptoms in my hands and wrist that elderly people deal with routinely. The plan was to go about my day at home and encounter some of the problems associated with aging.
Immediately, I encountered difficulty doing my normal morning chores. Brushing my teeth took much longer, made a mess of…
Empyema Clinical Manifestation
Empyema: Lung Sounds and other Clinical Manifestations
Over the past decade, empyema has consistently been recognized as an acute, potentially life-threatening respiratory disease. A large number of studies have been conducted over the last years that address the unique symptomatology of empyema and the clinical implications of these symptoms.
The biggest diagnostic challenge of empyema is that patient often present with symptoms very similar and difficult to distinguish from an uncomplicated pneumonia. A patient typically shows symptoms such as fever and chills, excessive sweating, malaise, cough, dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain and unintentional weight loss (Sahn, 2007). These symptoms individually do not warrant a diagnosis of empyema. They do, however, require precautionary follow-up testing that should include a pleural fluid aspiration. The presence of pus -- an opaque, whitish-yellow viscous fluid consisting of serum coagulation proteins, cellular debris and fibrin deposition -- aspirated from the pleural space is…
1. Walker W, Wheeler R, Legg J. (2011). Update on the causes, investigation and management of empyema in childhood. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 96, 5, 482-488.
2. Sahn SA. (2007). Diagnosis and management of parapneumonic effusions and empyema. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 45, 11, 1480-1486.
3. Heffner JE, Klein JS, Hampson C. (2010). Diagnostic utility and clinical application of imaging for pleural space infections. Chest, 137, 2, 467-479.
4. Froudarakis ME. (2008). Diagnostic Work-Up of Pleural Effusions. Respiration, 75, 4-13.
Dental Health Program for Low-Income Children
Oral Health Promotion
A child's socioeconomic status and gender are significant predictors of susceptibility to life-long dental disease (Broadbent, Thomson, Boyens, and Poulton, 2011). Male children and children from low-income households are less likely to brush daily, floss, or visit the dentist as adults, despite suffering from more prevalent and severe dental disease (p < 0.001 for all associations). When the bulk of the 81.5 billion-plus yearly oral health care burden in the United States consists of restorative dental services provided by dentist (Baelum, Van Palenstein Helderman, Hugoson, Yee, and Fejerskov, 2007, p. 878), any program that encourages daily plaque removal in young children would therefore tend to lower oral health care costs over the long-term.
Dental disease during childhood also has an impact on the child's immediate overall health. The pain and discomfort associated with tooth decay can lead to malnutrition, low body…
Baelum, V., Van Palenstein Helderman, W., Hugoson, A., Yee, R., and Fejerskov, O. (2007). A global perspective on changes in the burden of caries and periodontitis: Implications for dentistry. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 34, 872-906.
Broadbent, Jonathan M., Thomson, W. Murray, Boyens, John, V., and Poulton, Richie. (2011). Dental plaque and oral health during the first 32 years of life. Journal of the American Dental Association, 142, 415-426.
Committee on Clinical and Scientific Affairs. (2010). Report on early childhood caries. Canadian Dental Association. Retrieved from http://www.jcda.ca/uploads/pdf/ccsa/ECC-Report-FINAL-April-2010_for-jcda-website.pdf
Gussy, Mark G., Waters, Elizabeth G., Walsh, Oria, and Kilpatrick, Nicola M. (2006). Early childhood caries: Current evidence for aetiology and prevention. Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 42, 37-43.
Bell (2011) reported on work at the University of Illinois School of Dentistry which led researchers to conclude that raisins, consumed either alone or added to sugared bran flakes, lowered the pH in the mouth, thus making that environment less hospitable for bacteria-causing caries. aisins thus may be an alternative hygienists can recommend to patients and parents as a food that satisfies the craving for sweetness but is a healthier choice for teeth.
There are no "wykked worms." Tooth decay is not something that just happens. Caries are both preventable and treatable. Dental hygienists have an important mission to not only provide oral care but to educate patients about nutrition and decisions under personal control that support good oral health.
Arola, L, Bonet, M.L., Delzenne, N., Duggal, M.S., Gomez-Candela, C., Huyghebaert, a., Laville, M., Lingstrom, P., Livingstone, B., Palou, a., Pico, C., Sanders, T., Schaafsma, G., van Baak, M.,…
Arola, L, Bonet, M.L., Delzenne, N., Duggal, M.S., Gomez-Candela, C., Huyghebaert, a., Laville, M., Lingstrom, P., Livingstone, B., Palou, a., Pico, C., Sanders, T., Schaafsma, G., van Baak, M., van Loveren, C., and van Schothorst (2009. Summary and general conclusions/outcomes on the role and fate of sugars in human nutrition and health. Obesity Reviews 10, 55-58.
Anderson, C.A., Curzon, M.E.J., Van Loveren, C., Tatsi, C. And Duggai, M.S. (2009). Sucrose and dental caries: A review of the evidence. Obesity Reviews 10, 41-54.
Bell, S. (2011). Here come the raisins. RDH Magazine 3. [Online] Available: http://www.rdhmag.com/index/display/article-display/3826569535/articles/rdh/volume-31/issue-3/features/here-come-the-raisins.html [March 11, 2011]
Associated Press. (2009). Cut back, way back, on sugar, says heart group. MSNBC Online. [Online] Available: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/32543288/ns/health-diet_and_nutrition / [March 12, 2011]
For example, if the mother has a computer at home and uses it regularly the hygienist can suggest some Web sites that contain information about the oral health effects of tobacco use. The mother might want to learn more about oral health in general, which would encourage her to monitor Jason's habits and scrutinize his behavior to the point where she might notice if he had been smoking. If Jason's oral health deteriorated over time, the hygienist might need to make more overt statements to the mother such as, "Jason assured me that he is not using tobacco, but I am concerned about the lesions in his mouth." The hygienist also needs to confide in the presiding dentist.
3. Which of the ethical principles apply to this situation? Explain your response from both the dental hygienist's perspective and the patient's perspective.
The dental hygienist is experiencing an ethical dilemma. On…
I know they found that the bacteria can only come from the mouth, but I just wonder if they are positive that was what caused the baby's death.
I would also be interested to find out why this positive correlation between gum disease and stillbirth has only been found up until now in animals. Have they just never tested humans for this before? Or have they tested them before and found not correlation until now. If the latter is the case, then why is this particular patient's outcome more viable than other tests that had the opposite results?
I am the type of person who always wants to know the how's, why's where's and when's, so I may be expecting too much from one small article. However I cannot help but wonder if some of the claims in the article are a bit sensationalized in the sense that they are…
Merolla, Lisa. Gum Disease can Lead to Stillbirth. Cosmos, January, 27-2010
Poor dental health can be a portal that allows bacteria and other infectious organisms into blood stream. Poor dental health care can also lead to poor outcomes of dialysis. Heart disease patients have special needs when it comes to dental care. Spreading this knowledge would motivate patients with these diseases to visit Eastside clinic regularly.
If staffing of more employees is not able to attract more patients to the clinic then the clinic would make a greater loss than it is currently making.
Kool Smiles being a profit making organization might be more efficient and have a more cooperative and friendly staff which can attract Eastside clinic patients towards them.
Promotions through dental vehicles would lead to extra costs such as repairmen of vehicles and fuel costs for which the clinic might not have funds.
The clinic might not have enough funds to employee more people
Vissers, J. & Beech R. (2005). Health operations management: patient flow logistics in health care. USA: Routledge.
Pierce, S. (2010). Dynamic Capacity Management For Health Care. USA: Taylor & Francis.
Kovener, A. & Knickman J. (2005). Health care delivery in the United States. USA: Springer.
Wall, A. (1996). Health care systems in liberal democracies. USA: Routledge.
This article was published in Cosmos, which is a popular science magazine, and it presented the information at a level that was more appropriate for general public consumption than it might be for a practicing clinician or a student. As a student and a future dental hygienist, I was appreciative of the fact that Merolla brought this information to light, but I was also left wishing that I could have seen a peer-reviewed journal that documented the findings in greater detail. The article was complete for a general audience and it performed its function of making pregnant women aware that oral health is a serious issue, but from a hygienist's viewpoint, I would have liked to have seen the article presented in its original scholarly form because it would have included more information about how the disease was transmitted from mother to child.
As a future dental hygienist, I felt…
A few general observations are called for now. Trying to get through to a child is one thing, but if the dentist himself/herself is the only person instilling good habits and protocols, the child will likely not stick with the good habits. It is imperative that the parent set the guidelines and it is equally important that the child sees the parent practicing what they preach. If the parent is simply giving lip service but is not doing what he/she tells the child to do, it will almost certainly not stick (at least not as well) as it would if the parent is doing what they are asking the child to do. This is not unlike most good habits.
The parents should also make it a point to show proper technique and monitor the child discreetly as they do their brushing and flossing to make sure that the child is…
A dentist must also understand the compositions of the products used to treat various oral issues. It is essential to understand the different types of fillings available, and know which is the best type to use in each case.
Senior citizens can present a number of problems to an uncaring dentist. Many have had bad experiences while visiting dentists in the past, and therefore have not had a proper checkup in years. The fears of these patients can ultimately result in poor oral hygiene, and problems which could have been averted had proper treatment had been received.
I will strive to put these patients at ease as I work to erase years of neglect.
Better Life understand many people have a fear of going to the dentist due to past experiences, and I want to change that. I know that there is no such thing as a small…
ationalism Politics Impacts Public's View
Web Article eview
The principle best-practice strategy elucidated within Louis DePaola's article entitled "Infection control in the dental office" is for practitioners to adhere to sanitary and hygiene mandates as noted within a pair of documents produced by the Centers for Disease Control. The first document is the Guide to Infection Prevention for Outpatient Settings: Minimum Expectations for Safe Care (which was published in 2011), and the companion Infection Prevention Checklist for Outpatient Settings: Minimum Expectations for Safe Care. These documents have a number of specific measures for those working in dental offices to follow to reduce the incidence of healthcare associated infections (HAI).
In addition to denoting several of the key guidelines for practitioners to adhere to in order to ensure safety and reduce the rate of infection transmission, the author also reinforces several key facets of this literature that apply to dental office…
DePaola, L. (2012). "Infection control in the dental office." http://static.ow.ly/. Retrieved from http://static.ow.ly/docs/RICDE%20Infection%20Control%20in%20the%20Dental%20Office,%20Standards%20of%20Care%202012%20(CE%20Article%20PDF)_Mcl.pdf
Infections of the implantation area the mainly widespread of the dental implant complications. Implant infection is a state which is known as peri-implantitis which has a sign of swelling or inflammation of the tissues adjacent to the implantation area. Peri-implantitis is a type of periodontal disease that is able to result to inflammation, bone loss and failure in dental implant in any case it is not treated appropriately. A flame is part of a fire. Inflammation is a situation where a tissue gets swollen, red, and frequently hurts. About dental implants, it is an inflammation that can be caused by trauma or infection. Inflammation causes several special defensive cells to move to the inflamed area. Inflammation is capable of resulting to bone loss together with dental implants, where bone loss is a dangerous situation. The supporting bone holds the dental implant in the jaw.
Generally, the purpose of the…
Hayek (2005) Comparative study between the effects of photodynamic therapy and conventional therapy on microbial reduction in ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs. Journal of Periodontology 76, 1275 -- 1281.
Loe, H., Theilade, E. & Jensen, S.B. (1965) Experimental gingivitis in man. Journal of Periodontology 36, 177 -- 187.
Mombelli, A., Nyman, S.R. & Lang, N.P. (1994) Experimentally induced peri-implant mucositis. A clinical study in humans. Clinical Oral Implants Research 5, 254 -- 259.
Renvert, S., Roos-Jansa"ker, A.M., Lindahl, C., Renvert, H. & Persson, G.R. (2007) Infection at titanium implants with or without a clinical diagnosis of inflammation. Clinical Oral
After the program, a perfect score of 10/10 questions demonstrated that all participants had gained knowledge and awareness. Active learning skills developed during the course of the BIH can be applied to other areas of public health. This research shows what tools and techniques worked: such as the visual presentations and the question-and-answer sessions that allowed participants to clarify issues.
Follow-up research with the participants would help the mothers put into practice what they learned during the BIH program. For example, the participants can count on receiving direct knowledge about the best way to brush and floss. The program helps participants to limit their children's exposure to sugars other preventative measures can create lifelong oral health habits for the next generation. Participants also learn about the role the dentist plays in their lives, and thereby develops trust.
Ideally, the BIH will transform community awareness regarding oral hygiene. The program offers…
LISTEINE TODAY VS. LISTEINE FOM YESTEDAY
Listerine is one of those few renowned products which have ruled globally for more than a century. Since, its inception since 1890s, it has managed to provide sustainable and effective solutions for oral hygiene.
One noticeable thing about Listerine is that its original formula hasn't changed much. In fact, now it is known as Listerine original. One can still find the same formula of Listerine which was used six decades back, in the market. However, science has made great advancement in 1900s and we have also made great progress in dental sciences. Therefore, for curing other problems related to oral protection, various other types of Listerine have been introduced in the market.
These new types are quite different from the original formula. Their color and uses that they are meant for, are also different. By providing this vast range of products, Listerine has…
ADA Seal Product Report, Retrieved from http://www.ada.org /5275.aspx?productid=4438&company=Johnson+%26+Johnson+Healthcare+Products
McCullough, M.J. And Farah, C.S. (2008), The role of alcohol in oral carcinogenesis with particular reference to alcohol-containing mouthwashes. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1834-7819.2008.00070.x/full
Levitt, S.D. And Dubner, S.J. (2009). Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores The Hidden Side Of Everything. New York: HarperCollins. P. 87
Types and Composition of Listerine Mouthwash, Retrieved from http://www.listerine.in/products/coolmint
life I have been a go-getter. I graduated from high school at 16 because I was eager to begin my college education. Currently I am working on dual Bachelor degrees. One will be in Biochemistry and the other will be in Psychology. The same personality trait that has allowed me to graduate from high school early, pursue a dual degree program and many other accomplishments, is what will turn me into a service orientated and dedicated dentist.
One of the things I have pursued as a University of California, San Diego student, is my membership in the campus "For Los Angelitos" club. One of the things we did as a club was to travel to poverty stricken areas and provide lessons about oral hygiene. Equipped with small bags filled with oral care products, we traveled to Tijuana, Mexico where we provided oral care education to the children of the area.…
Moreover, nurses are in a position to identify cases of poor oral health among patients visiting the primary care unit of a healthcare center. For this reason, Kaylor et al. (2011) recommend nurses as an intervention measure in improving oral health in the community, since they can identify women at risk of poor oral health. They identify that nurses can work with low-income women in the community and educate the population on oral health. The review of literature advocates that oral health can be improved in the community by mobilizing community resources like local government, healthcare providers, and primary care providers like nurses in educating the population on the importance of oral health. This is through making contact with at risk populations in the healthcare set up and providing education on oral health. Nurses also can reach out to at risk populations through community-based programs that promote public health. Lastly,…
Formicola, a.J., Ro, M., Marshall, S., Derksen, D., Powell, W., Hartsock, L., & Treadwell, H.M. (2004). Strengthening the Oral Health Safety Net: Delivery Models That Improve Access to Oral Health Care for Uninsured and Underserved Populations. American Journal of Public Health, 94(5), 702-704.
Kaylor, M., Polivka, B.J., Chaudry, R., Salsberry, P., & Wee, a.G. (2011). Dental Insurance and Dental Service Use by U.S. Women of Childbearing Age. Public Health Nursing, 28(3), 213-222.
Krisberg, K. (2004). Prevention key to rural oral health outreach programs. Nation's Health, 34(4), 11-12.
Zabos, G.P., Northridge, M.E., Ro, M.J., Trinh, C., Vaughan, R., Howard, J., & ... Cohall, a.T. (2008). Lack of Oral Health Care for Adults in Harlem: A Hidden Crisis. American Journal of Public Health, 98, S102-S105.
The pain was unbearable. I hardly slept that night. Regardless of the fact that I had earlier on ingested two pain killers, the toothache refused to fade away. To this day, this particular night remains the longest I have ever had. Anyone out there who has experienced the agony of a toothache perfectly understands what I mean. For the entire night, the toothache kept subsiding and then coming back in full force. I was actually forced to weak up at 5AM and wait for daybreak so that I could have my parents accompany me to the dentist. To cut the long story short, the offending tooth was eventually extracted at the dentist's office later that morning. To me, it appeared as if the dentist was God sent. In fact, at that moment, he was the only person that really mattered to me. He possessed the 'power' to 'blow away'…
With our progressing knowledge in molecular biology and the increasing understanding of the various signaling pathways there is no question of doubt that in the near future the prognosis for OSCC would be considerably improved. As with any other disease, prevention is better than cure. Avoiding the well-known risk factors, a well-balanced nutritional plan and regular dental health checkups are the most effective means of preventing Oral cancers.
1) Michael King, Kourt Chatelain & Dustin Farris et.al, 'Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma proliferative Phenotype is modulated by Proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for Oral Cancer', MC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2007, 7:22, 19 June 2007 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/22
2) M. Chidzonga, L. Mahomva, 'Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, maxillary antrum and lip in a Zimbabwean population: A descriptive epidemiological study, Oral Oncology, 2006, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 184-189
3) National Cancer Institute, 'Oral Cavity', Accessed Jan 15th…
1) Michael King, Kourt Chatelain & Dustin Farris et.al, 'Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma proliferative Phenotype is modulated by Proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for Oral Cancer', BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2007, 7:22, 19 June 2007 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/22
2) M. Chidzonga, L. Mahomva, 'Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, maxillary antrum and lip in a Zimbabwean population: A descriptive epidemiological study, Oral Oncology, 2006, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 184-189
3) National Cancer Institute, 'Oral Cavity', Accessed Jan 15th 2010, available online at, http://oralcancerfoundation.org/dental/pdf/oral_cavity.pdf
4) Keyvan Nouri, 'Skin Cancer: Oral Cancer', McGraw-Hill Professional, 2007
These techniques refer to different aspects and are used in accordance with the activity of the company.
Some of these techniques cannot be applied to restaurants. Therefore, in this case it is recommended to use the Kaizen method, benchmarking, and knowledge management. The Kaizen technique is represented by the company's focus on continuous improvement. The changing needs and preferences of customers require restaurants to analyze customer needs and to adapt their services in accordance with these needs. The changes in customers' lifestyles are reflected in their purchase behavior, which includes restaurants also. For example, their orientation towards healthy eating determines them to not eat at fast food restaurants and to prefer other types of restaurants that provide high quality products and services.
Therefore, restaurants must develop these products and services based on the needs of their targeted customer segments. This requires investments in research and development, in market analysis, and…
3. Mertins, K. et al. (2003). Knowledge Management. Retrieved May 11, 2011 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=iqWyQkJjxpkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=knowledge+management&hl=ro#v=onepage&q&f=false .
4. Rothman, H. (1994). Quality's Link to Productivity. Nation's Business. Retrieved may 11, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1154/is_n2_v82/ai_14989849/ .
5. Kurtus, R. (2001). Basic Principles of Total Quality Management. Retrieved May 11, 2001 from http://www.school-for-champions.com/tqm/principles.htm .
The Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic killer that takes advantage of people suffering from medical problems (Van Delden and Iglewski, 1998).For this reason, P. aeruginosa is one of the most common nosocomial infection that occurs in hospitals. P. aeruginosa is responsible for causing 16% of pneumonia cases, 12% of urinary tract infections, 10% of bloodstream infections, and 8% of surgical infections due to hospital care. Patients who are immune-compromised are also susceptible to P. aeruginosa infections, such as patients undergoing chemotherapy, suffering from HIV / AIDS, recovering in burn units, and suffering from cystic fibrosis. With death rates ranging from 30 to 60% for these patients, P. aeruginosa is considered to be a significant threat to patient health.
P. aeruginosa can switch between a free-swimming planktonic form and colonies enclosed within slime-protected biofilms attached to surfaces (Baltch and Smith, 1994,…
Baltch, A.L. And Smith, R.P. (Eds.). (1994). Pseudomonoas aeruginosa Infections and Treatment. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Botzenhart, Konrad and Doring, Gerd. (1993). Ecology and Epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In M. Campa, M. Bendinelli, H. Friedman (Eds.), Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an Opportunistic Pathogen (pp. 1-18). New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Hawkey, Peter M. And Kerr, Kevin G. (2004). Laboratory investigation of health care-associated infection. In P. Hawkey and D. Lewis (Eds.), Medical Bacteriology: A Practical Approach (pp. 331-354). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Hurley, Matthew N., Camara, Miguel, and Smyth, Alan R. (2012). Novel approaches to the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis. European Respiratory Journal, published online ahead of print, 1-19. Retrieved 23 July 2012 from http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2012/06/27/09031936.00042012.long .
THE CACAO TREE (THEOBROMA CACAO)
WHAT IS IN THE COCOA BEAN?
MAKING AND EATING CHOCOLATE
State of the At of Cocoa
Is Cocoa good fo you?
Buden of Poof
CHOCOLATE AS A FAT
EFFECTS ON BLOOD LIPIDS
WHAT IS OK
CHOCOLATE AND HEALTH AND DISEASE
H. Immune Function
J. Othe Disodes
N. Dental Caies
K. Heat Health
Pacemakes and vitamin pills ae just among a few of millions of health poducts that ae sold daily aound the wold. But one of the most easily accessible of all is ight beneath ou noses: chocolate. Cocoa, the plant fom which chocolate is deived, has had a positive effect on today's society because of its active ole in daily health. The development and distibution of cocoa has had a positive effect on today's…
references for fats in foods: relationships to diet and body composition. Am J. Clin Nutr. 1991; 53:908-915.
Green SM, Delargy HJ, Joanes D. And Blundell JE A satiety quotient: a formulation to assess the satiating effect of food. Appetite. 1997; 29:291-304.
Seligson FH, Krummel DA and Apgar JR. Patterns of chocolate consumption. Am J. Clin Nutr. 1994;60:S1060-S1067.
Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health; 1989. NIH Publication No. 89-2925.
Kritchevsky D. Effects of Triglyceride Structure on Lipid Metabolism. Nutrition Reviews. 1988;46:177-181.
Figure 1 portrays the state of Maryland, the location for the focus of this DR.
Figure 1: Map of Maryland, the State (Google Maps, 2009)
1.3 Study Structure
Organization of the Study
The following five chapters constitute the body of Chapter I: Introduction
Chapter II: Review of the Literature
Chapter III: Methods and Results
Chapter IV: Chapter V: Conclusions, Recommendations, and Implications
Chapter I: Introduction
During Chapter I, the researcher presents this study's focus, as it relates to the background of the study's focus, the area of study, the four research questions, the significance of the study, and the research methodology the researcher utilized to complete this study.
Chapter II: Review of the Literature in Chapter II, the researcher explores information accessed from researched Web sites; articles; books; newspaper excerpts; etc., relevant to considerations of the disparity in access to health care services between rural and urban residence in Maryland…
Potter, S. (2002) Doing Postgraduate Research. London: Sage.
Qualitative research: Approaches, methods, and rigour, (2008, Nov. 7). Microsoft PowerPoint Qualitative Research AdvC08 RS.PPT. Retrieved March 10, 2009 from www.unimaas.nl/bestand.asp?id=11629
Wolvovsky, Jay. (2008). Health disparities: Impact on Business and Economics Summit. Maryland's healthcare at a glance. The Heart of Community Health Baltimore Medical Syste. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://dhmh.maryland.gov/hd/pdf/2008/oct08/Jay_Wolvovsky.pdf
econstruction of full ach can be challenging for clinical procedures. As increasing number of patients live longer, retaining their teeth become challenging. Typically, clinicians will be called upon to deliver dental. Success esthetic and functional dentistry depend on technician, and clinicians understanding of tooth morphology. This study discusses the proper bite registration for fixed and removable prosthesis. The study discusses important point in ensuring that an accurate fabrication of relationships is obtained to deliver the best results. Fixed prosthodontics is a specialized branch dentistry designed to replace missing teeth using cast prosthesis to replace lost teeth. On the other hand, removable prosthodontics involves replacing missing teeth using a removable prosthesis. The paper identifies different materials necessary for both fixed and removable prosthesis. The modeling wax and amite are part of materials used bite registration to achieve accurate results.
Bite registration is the strategy of capturing accurate lower…
Elsevier Science (2003). Chapter 50, Fixed prosthodontics, USA Elsevier Science.
Goldstein, R.E. (2008). A Precise Bite Registration Technique, AEGIS Communications.
Joshi, N.1., Shetty S.N., Prasad, K.D. (2013). Comparative study to evaluate the accuracy of polyether occlusal bite registration material and occlusal registration wax as a guide for occlusal reduction during tooth preparation. Indian J. Dent Res.24(6):730-5.
Tousignant, G. (2010). Bite Registration -Not as simple as you think. Oral Health Group.
Crafting a Compensation and Benefits Plan
Fishers is a mid-sized manufacturing company out to maintain market leadership through the development and implementation of a compensation plan that meets the needs of the owners, clients, as well as employees. Compensation programs are critical to the effectiveness of the organization as they play a fundamental role in employee motivation, satisfaction, and productivity. The company seeks to achieve two crucial objectives from the implementation of this compensation and benefits plan; i) to reduce turnover, which has been an imminent problem over the last couple of years; and ii) to attract new talent, while retaining and improving the existing one.
The company is at a critical juncture; it can no longer offer the perks of a small entrepreneurial enterprise since it has exceeded the employee threshold for such categorization. Employees have been complaining over what they think is below-market compensation, and…
Basset-Jones, N. & Lloyd, G.C. (2005). Does Herzberg's Motivation Theory have Staying Power? Journal of Management Development, 24(10), 929-943.
Beam, B.T. & McFadden, J.J. (2012). Employee Benefits (6th ed.). Chicago, IL: Dearborn Trade Publishing.
Cappelli, P. (2011). Why Good People can't Get Jobs: the Skills Gap and What Companies do about It. Pennsylvania, PA: Wharton Digital Press.
Miner, J.B. (2007). Organizational Behavior 4: From Theory to Practice. New York M.E. Sharpe.
Chlorhexidine to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia
Ventilator-associated Pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most common infections acquired by patients who've utilized mechanical ventilation in health care facilities. This infection is a major concern because it leads to several deaths, extends hospital stay, and increases the costs of medical care services. The infections are commonly developed when pathogenic bacteria colonize the aero digestive tract. According to Babcock et al. (2004), the prevention of these infections has usually entailed preventing bacteria colonization and the subsequent aspiration of the contaminated secretions to the lower airways. Given the increased incidents of ventilator-association pneumonia, this paper proposes the use of chlorhexidine in preventing it. Chlorhexidine has proven effective in prevention of VAP as shown in baseline data. The implementation of this proposed procedure in patient care will entail various logistics based on approval from organizational leadership.
Methods for Obtaining Necessary Approval and Support
One of the…
Babcock, H., Zack, J.E., Garrison, T., Trovillion, E., Jones, M., Fraser, V.J., & Kollef, M.H. (2004). An educational Intervention to Reduce Ventilator-associated Pneumonia in an Integrated Health System. Chest, 125 (6), 2224-2231.
Hoshijima et al. (2013, December). Effects of Oral Hygiene Using Chlorhexidine on Preventing Ventilator-associated Pneumonia in Critical-care Settings: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Journal of Dental Sciences, 8(4), 348-357.
Keyt, H., Faverio, P. & Restrepo, M.I. (2014, June). Prevention of Ventilator-associated Pneumonia in the Intensive Care Unit: A Review of the Clinically Relevant Recent Advancements. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 139, 814-821.
Klompas M., Speck, K., Howell M.D., Greene, L.R., & Berenholtz, S.M. (2014). Reappraisal of Routine Oral Care with Chlorohexidine Gluconate for Patients Receiving Mechanical Ventilation: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Internal Medicine, 174 (5), 751-761.
One in eight Americans suffers from headaches (Pain, Academy of General Dentistry). As much as eighty percent of all headaches are caused by muscle tension, which may be related to bite problems. Headaches also can be caused by clenching jaw muscles for long periods of time. Signs that may indicate a headache from a dental origin include:
Pain behind the eyes
Sore jaw muscles or "tired" muscles upon awaking
Clicking or popping jaw joints
Head and/or scalp is painful to the touch
Earaches or ringing
Neck, shoulder or back pain
There are a variety of treatments that will help alleviate orofacial symptoms. One device is called an orthotic, or splint, that is worn over the teeth until the bite can be stabilized. Often permanent correction is practiced such as reshaping teeth (coronoplasty), building crowns or bonding, orthodontics, or surgery that installs a permanent appliance for the…
Forssell, H., Kalso, E., Koskela, P., Vehmanen, R. Puukka, P. And Alanen, P. (1999,
December). Occlusal treatments in temporomandibular disorders: a qualitative systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Pain 83 (3): 549-60. Retrieved May 17, 2003 from National Library of Medicine web site: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10568864&dopt=Abstract
McBride. R. Temporomandibular joint dysfunction ("TMJ"). Retrieved May 17, 2003 from RPM Dentistry web site: http://www.rpmdentistry.com/services/tmjetc.asp
Pain. Retrieved May 17, 2003 from Academy of General Dentistry web site: http://www.agd.org/consumer/topics/pain/main.html
Direct marketing is another important area of product launching and research. Currently, the Crest hite strips website asks individuals if they would like to participate in a survey regarding the project, upon entry, when accessing the part of the website known as "Ask Dr. Jeff." (Ask Dr. Jeff, Official ebsite, 2004) A new area of the site could be redefined -- instead of the clinical picture of the globe that adorns the site, clickable icons of the different flavors could add color to the 'other side' of the whitening white strips. Think outside the mint strip!
Other forms of direct response advertising could be generated by offering coupons to those who fill out surveys about their response to the product's advertising, giving out a website address to those who buy the product to fill out a survey, in exchange for a chance at winning prizes -- such as a free…
Berry J. "What do they think? ADA survey offers up the scoop on your patients." ADA News. April 19, 2004, 1-8.
Fraser, Jill A. "How to Finance Anything." Inc. Magazine. 1998. Retrieved 1 Feb 2005 at http://www.inc.com/magazine/19980201/864.html
Goldblum, Jeff. Crest White strips Website. 2004. Retrieved 1 Feb 2005 at http://www.whitestrips.com/en_US/dr_jeff_says/currentarticle.jsp
It was noted that factors affecting the removal of third molars vary from country to country depending on the stakeholders (Esposito, 2005).
In this section, we discussed the origins of third molars, as well as the different types of impaction that can occur. The effects of the type of impaction were found to be a factor in the ease if removal and the complications that may occur. Understanding types of impactions and the affect that they can have on the potential for complications is an important step in preventing complications before and after surgery. The following section will discuss the surgical procedures for removal of mandibular impactions.
Surgical Extraction of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars
Surgical extraction of third molars is performed for a number of reasons. They are sometimes performed to prevent surgery in older patients, although this reasoning is questionable (Valiati, Ibrahim, & Poli, et al., 2009). It can…
Al-Asfour, a. (2009). Postoperative Infection After Surgical Removal of Impacted Mandibular
Third Molars: An Analysis of 110 Consecutive Procedures. Med Princ Pract 18:48-52.
Bernard, G. & Mintz, V. (2003), Evidence-based means of avoiding Lingual Nerve Injury
following Mandibular Third Molar Extractions. Brazilian Journal of Oral Science. 2 (5):
Fault: An Alternative to the Current Tort-Based System in England and Wales
The United Kingdom
statistics regarding claims
THE NATIONAL HEALTH SYSTEM
OBSTACLES TO DUE PROCESS
THE CASE FOR REFORM
THE REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
THE RISING COST OF LITIGATION
LORD WOOLF'S REFORMS
MORE COST CONTROLS
THE UNITED STATES
THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY
TORT REFORM IN AMERICA
STATISTICS FOR ERROR, INJURY AND DEATH
THE CALL FOR REFORM IN 2003: A FAMILIAR REFRAIN
THE UNITED STATES SITUATION, IN SUMMARY
NEW ZEALAND CASE STUDIES
THE SWEDISH SCHEME
COMPARISON: WHICH SYSTEM IS BETTER?
FIRST: UNDERLYING DIFFERENCES
TALKING TORT: AMERICAN PECULIARITIES
AMERICANS CONSIDER NO-FAULT
BRITAIN CONSIDERS NO-FAULT
Appendix A THE UNITED KINGDOM
At issue is the economic effectiveness of tort law in the common law legal system of England and Wales, as applied to medical and clinical negligence and malpractice cases. In response to economic concerns and a continual…
e. incurable cancer; (2) referral to the Department of Palliative Medicine. The exclusion criteria for the study were: (1) estimated prognosis of less than 1 week; (2) significant cognitive impairment, i.e. unable to provide consent; (3) significant physical impairment, i.e. unable to complete protocol; (4) clinical evidence of dehydration; (5) current/recent (less than 2 weeks) use of antifungal medication. (Davies, railsford and eighton, 2005)
Davies, railsford and eighton (2005) report that the clinical component of the study involved "...completion of a study questionnaire (demographic data and clinical data), completion of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, clinical examination of the oral cavity, measurement of the unstimulated whole salivary flow rate (UWSFR), measurement of the stimulated whole salivary flow rate (SWSFR), and performance of an oral rinse." ( p.698) The study results states that all patients/participants "...had either locally advanced, or metastatic cancer. The prevalence of different cancer diagnoses were: carcinoma breast…
Davies, Andrew N., et al. (2008) Oral Candidosis in Community-Based Patients with Advanced Cancer. Oral Candidosis in Advanced Cancer. Vol. 35, No. 5, May 2008. U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee.
Chang, AM, Molassiotis, A, Chan, CWH, and Lee, IYM (2007) Nursing Management of Oral Mucositis in Cancer Patients. Hong Kong Med J. Vol 13 No 1 Supplement 1 February 2007.
Alred, Michael J. (1991) Oral Health in the Terminally Ill: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Survey. Special Care in Dentistry, Vol 11 No 2, 1991.
Davies, Andrew N., Brailsford, Susan R. And Beighton, David (1991) Oral Candidosis in Patients with Advanced Cancer. Oral Oncology. 15 Sept 2005.
Hypoglycemia is a condition of low blood sugar, caused by the body's inappropriate metabolism of glucose and insulin. Diabetics who experience temporary hypoglycemia can remedy the problem by ingesting some simple sugars to immediately reintroduce glucose into the bloodstream.
A proper diet for diabetics is one that reduces intake of refined sugars, reduces sodium, and in many cases, helps the person lose weight. Most adults who acquire Type 2 Diabetes have poor lifestyle habits. Type 2 Diabetes is caused by obesity and poor nutrition even if some individuals are at a greater risk for developing the disease. Any person who might be at risk for diabetes should learn proper eating habits as early as possible in their life. Becoming overweight or obese is a difficult process to reverse and may lead to other health problems like heart disease. Persons who are overweight but who are willing to change their eating…
Transformation leadership is 'authentic' leadership which "builds genuine trust between leaders and followers." Furthermore transformational leadership "concentrates on terminal values such as integrity and fairness. They see the responsibility for their organization's development and impact on society." (Ibid)
Homig and MacGregor in the work entitled:" Transformational Leadership" state that the following ten 'tenets' are inclusive in the transformational leader's style of leading:
1. Leaders have high moral and ethical values.
2. Leaders express genuine interest in followers.
3. Leaders have an inspirational vision.
4. Genuine trust exists between leaders and led.
5. Followers share leader's values and vision.
6. Leaders and followers perform beyond self-interest.
7. Participatory decision-making is the rule.
8. Innovative thinking and action is expected.
9. Motivation is to do the right thing.
10. Leaders mentor. (nd)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
While all of these theories were valid at some time or in relation to some…
Creating Futures (nd) Online available at http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:k13BWFbu_wIJ:u wfoundation.org/newsletter/June2005/43565Camp NewsletterFI NAL.pdf+Jeffrey+H.+Brotman,+Leadership&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=9
Costco Wholesale Investor Relations (2006) Online http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=83830&p=irol-govBio&ID=13292
Employee Motivation, the Organizational Environment and Productivity (2006) Section 2: Basic Approaches Used to Improve Productivity. Accel Team Online available at http://www.accel-team.com/human_relations/hrels_03_mcgregor.html
Costco -5th Largest Retailer in U.S. And 11th Largest in the World (2006) http://www.customer-service.com/newsletter/126E.aspx
A., eynolds, Y., odriguez, G., Camesano, T.A. (2008). Cranberry changes the physicochemical surface properties of E. coli and adhesion with uroepithelial cells. Colloids Surf B. Biointerfaces. 2008 Feb 26 [Epub ahead of print]. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18378432?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_esultsPanel.Pubmed_VDocSum
Mirkin, G. (2003). Acid/Alkaline Theory of Disease Is Nonsense. Quackwatch. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.quackwatch.org/01QuackeryelatedTopics/DSH/coral2.html
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Cranberry. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://nccam.nih.gov/health/cranberry/
Natural Standard esearch Collaboration (2006). Cranberry. MedlinePlus. etrieved April 6, 2008 at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-cranberry.html
az, ., Chazan, B., Dan, M. (2004). Cranberry juice and urinary tract infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 May 15;38(10):1413-9. Epub 2004 Apr 26. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15156480?ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_esultsPanel.Pubmed_VDocSum
Schmidt, D.. & Sobota, a.E. (1988). An examination of the anti-adherence activity of cranberry juice on urinary and nonurinary bacterial isolates. Microbios. 1988;55(224-225):173-81.
Sobota, a.E. (1984). Inhibition of bacterial adherence by cranberry juice: potential use for the treatment…
The Cranberry Institute. Emerging research. Retrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.cranberryinstitute.org/emerging.htm
Duthie, S.J., Jenkinson, a.M., Crozier, a., Mullen, W., Pirie, L., Kyle, J., Yap, L.S., Christen, P., Duthie, G.G. (2006). The effects of cranberry juice consumption on antioxidant status and biomarkers relating to heart disease and cancer in healthy human volunteers. Eur J. Nutr. 2006 Mar;45(2):113-22. Epub 2005 Jul 20. Retrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16032375?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA
Greenberg, J., Newmann, S.J. & Howell, a.B. (2005). Consumption of sweetened dried cranberries vs. unsweetened raisins for inhibition of uropathogenic Escherichia coli adhesion in human urine: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Oct;11(5):875-8. Retrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16296921?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA
Liu, Y., Black, M.A., Caron, L. & Camesano, T.A. (2006). Role of cranberry juice on molecular-scale surface characteristics and adhesion behavior of Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2006 Feb 5;93(2):297-305.