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apid Critical Appraisal Checklists for Diabetes Management
The study searches several electronic database to enhance a greater understanding on the database management. First, the paper searches the database of the Cochrane Library to emphasize the importance of database management. The search strategy is by using the EPPI-Centre register using the standard keywords that include Diabetes, Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Management, Glucose Management, Blood Sugar Level, Body Mass Index, and Physical Exercise. The paper also carries out a systematic search in the bibliographic database that include Diabetes care journals, MEDLINE, and PUBMED. The search is also supplemented with hand searching of clinical journals. The study also conducts a limited literature search on key database resources from the Cochrane library, PubMed, Internet, University Library, and Ebscohost nursing resources. The study does not carry out a filter to limit the research retrieval by type. Moreover, the search is limited to document written in…
Ajala, O.1. English, P. & Pinkney, J. (2013). Systematic review and meta-analysis of different dietary approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 97(3):505-16.
Campbell, J. (2012). Diabetes Empowerment. Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, 14
Fisher, E. (2012). Peer Support for Self-Management of Diabetes. Health Affairs, 31 (1),
Diabetes Management and Insulin Administration
Summary of Teaching Plan
In recent years, an increase in demand for expansion of education programs for diabetes patients as also for Federal Government or third party payers to support these programs has been observed. A survey by Veterans Administration Hospital conducted a survey to evaluate the capability of patient for diabetes management reported lack of formal training in over 35% of patients interviewed (Miller, Goldstein & Nicolaisen, 1978, p. 275). Therefore, some recommendations for training patients to administer insulin therapy, which reflect best practices, are as follows:
• The therapy should be initiated after a thorough patient assessment, including numeracy skills and health literacy. Therapy initiation should be followed by follow-up phone calls.
• Treatment adherence should be measured during follow-up visits to recognize adherence issues, changing barriers or other problems due to poor recall of instructions etc. Injection practice should also be observed…
American Association of Diabetes Educators. (2016). The Benefits of Diabetes Education. Retrieved 11 August 2016 fromhttps://www.diabeteseducator.org/practice/provider-resources/benefits-of-diabetes-education
International Diabetes Federation. (2015). Epidemiology and Prevention. Retrieved 11 August 2016 from http://www.idf.org/diabetes-prevention/population-approach
Miller, L. V., Goldstein, J. &Nicolaisen, G. (Sep-Oct. 1978). Patients' Knowledge of Diabetes Self-Care. Diabetes Care, 1(5), 275-280.Retrieved 11 August 2016 from http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/1/5/275
Nathan, D. M., Bayless, M., Cleary, P., Genuth, S., Gubitosi-Klug, R., Lachin, J. M., Lorenzi, G., Zinman, B., for the DCCT/EDIC Research Group. (Dec 2013). Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study at 30 Years: Advances and Contributions. Diabetes, 62(12), 3976-3986. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db13-1093 .
putting patients on a diet consisting of all-natural, all-organic, locally grown or locally produced foods plus exercise
O - reduction in body's challenge to create/absorb insulin
In patients who suffer from Type 2 diabetes (P), is an intervention consisting of a traditional, organic, and all-natural diet of locally grown/produced foods plus exercise (I) more effective in addressing the body's issues in creating or absorbing insulin (O) than insulin injections (C) over a 6-month trial period (T)?
Initial Search Terms
Added Search Terms
Title (Ti) Anywhere, etc.
# of articles found
Diet diabetes management
ProQuest, Emerald Insight
How is diet an effective intervention in diabetes management?
Dietary Intervention diabetes
How is dietary intervention in diabetes treatment compared to insulin?
Managing diabetes through diet exercise
Aguiar et al. (2014, January 15). Efficacy of Interventions that include Diet, Aerobic and Resistance Training Components for Type 2 Diabetes Prevention: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11(2), 1-10.
Ajala O., English, P., & Pinkney, J. (2013). Systemic Review and Meta-analysis of Different Dietary Approaches to the Management of Type 2 Diabetes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 97(3), 505-516.
Cunningham-Myrie, C., Theall, K., Yonger, N., et al. (2015). Associations Between Neighborhood Effects and Physical Activity, Obesity, and Diabetes. The Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey, 2008. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 68(9), 970-978.
Oftedal, B., Bru, E. & Karlsen, B. (2011). Motivation for Diet and Exercise Management Among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 25, 735-744.
The author of this brief report has been asked to create a hypothetical care and patient situation and answer some questions about the same. To that end, the author will discuss and analyze the needs, care and other details for a 74-year-old patient with type II diabetes. A peer reviewed source shall be used and some of the questions that shall be addressed are the nutritional needs of the patient, the physical and cognitive state of the patient, the condition the patient is suffering from and its genesis and the strategies that can be used to improve the quality of life of the patient and/or diminishing the effects of the disease or disorder. While type II diabetes can be managed fairly or very well in many people, the challenges that inherently affect the elderly can also be a hindrance to managing diabetes.
As noted in the introduction to…
Reed, A. (1990). Nutritional status and dietary management of elderly diabetic patients.
PubMed -- NCBI. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 19 November 2016, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2224753
gather the outcome data is a mix of self-reporting on the part of the patients with respect to their ability to follow the guidelines and training provided, and testing on the physical outcomes. The testing will be done by the participating medical practitioners in this survey. This is consistent with the need to have some hard data that can be measured in a consistent manner. Statistics with respect to patient blood sugar levels and other health indicators are commonly used to gauge the health of the patients. With something like Type II diabetes, a patient that effectively manages his/her disease may not see any noticeable deterioration in health over a six-month time period, which would allow for the measurement to accurately test what impact this education and training has on patient outcomes.
Self-reporting is the only reasonable way for the participants to explain the degree to which they followed the…
D'Agostino, R. & Kwan, H. (1995). Measuring effectiveness: What to expect without a randomized group. Medical Care. Vol. 33 (4 Supp) AS95-AS105.
Mobile technology, disease management is the wave of the future, not only for diabetes care but for other health related issues and needs. If an individual can recognize the daily stressors they place upon their bodies, with regard to their disease management and overall health the system could likely greatly impact care systems and services, as well as assist individuals with knowledge and information that may not have been available to them in the past.
Andrus, M.., Kelley, K.W., Murphey, L.M., & Herndon, K.C. (2004). A Comparison of Diabetes Care in ural and Urban Medical Clinics in Alabama. Journal of Community Health, 29(1), 29.
Chappell, K. (2006, March). Diabetes Management Goes High-Tech; New Devices, Personalized Care Help to Control Deadly Disease. Ebony, 61, 158.
Chinnery, G.M. (2006). Going to the MALL: Mobile Assisted Language Learning. Language, Learning & Technology, 10(1), 9.
Delivering a Better Deal to Help Cope with…
Andrus, M.R., Kelley, K.W., Murphey, L.M., & Herndon, K.C. (2004). A Comparison of Diabetes Care in Rural and Urban Medical Clinics in Alabama. Journal of Community Health, 29(1), 29.
Chappell, K. (2006, March). Diabetes Management Goes High-Tech; New Devices, Personalized Care Help to Control Deadly Disease. Ebony, 61, 158.
Chinnery, G.M. (2006). Going to the MALL: Mobile Assisted Language Learning. Language, Learning & Technology, 10(1), 9.
Delivering a Better Deal to Help Cope with Diabetes. (2005, December 12). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 29.
Lee is only the first step in the process of building a team that is able to cover all aspects of Mrs. Lee's care. The team approach involving a social worker, nurse, physician, pharmacist, and physical therapist affords Mrs. Lee a full range of professionals attending to her various needs.
Although Mrs. Lee has a number of problems that need to be addressed the one problem that must be addressed immediately is her elevated blood pressure. Hypertension is an important risk factor for the development and worsening of many complications of diabetes and an elevated blood pressure is like walking around with a detonated bomb. Within moments, and with little warning, a diabetic patient can suffer a stroke or heart attack as a result of an elevated blood pressure. Well over fifty percent of diabetics suffer from hypertension and proper treatment of hypertension can minimize most of the tangential problems…
Calle-Pascual, A.L. (2002). A preventive foot care programme for people with diabetes with different stages of neuropathy. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 111-117.
Caminal, J. And Barbara Starfield, et. al.(2004). The role of primary care in preventing ambulatory care sensitive conditions. European Journal of Public Health, 246-251.
Deichmann, R.E. (1999). Improvements in Diabetic Care as Measured by HbA1c After a Physician Education Project. Diabetes Care, 1612-1616.
Epstein, M. (1997). Diabetes and hypertension: the bad companions. Journal of Hypertension, 55-62.
However, advancements in pharmacogenetics promises new and better ways of managing diabetes. Studies have shown that Lisofylline, an anti-inflammatory compound is very effective in suppressing the autoimmune activity and in improving the islet secretion of insulin. Mice studies showed significant difference (25% vs. 91.6%) in the onset of diabetes among Lisofylline treated mice compared to placebo mice. Reduction of inflammatory cytokines IFN-? And TNF-? levels correlated with reduction in ss cell apoptosis. [Yang et.al, 2003] Recent study by Lipsett et.al (2007) has shown that Islet Neogenesis-Associated Protein (INGAP) is useful as a pancreatic regeneration agent. Successful tests in mice and regeneration of cultured human pancreatic cells have encouraged the researchers to seriously consider INGAP as an effective agent for improving insulin synthesis. [Lipsett et.al, (2007)]
A recent Cornell University study focused on an entirely different approach to diabetes management. The researchers examined the possibility of recombinant Commensal bacteria engineered to…
1) George S. Eisenbarth, (2007) 'Update in Type 1 Diabetes', The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 92, No.7. http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/92/7/2403
2) McGill University, 'Deficient Regulators in the Immune System Responsible for Type 1 Diabetes', Updated 25 Jan 2008, Available at, http://www.sciencecentric.com/news/article.php?q=08012539
3) Kent SC, Chen Y, & Bregoli L. et.al (2005) 'Expanded T cells from pancreatic lymph nodes of type 1 diabetic subjects recognize an insulin epitope'. Nature 435:224 -- 228
4) Mathieu C, Gysemans C. et.al (Jul 2005), 'Vitamin D and Diabetes', Diabetologia. 48(7):1247-57
What is Diabetes?
Clinical Practice ecommendations
Diabetes is considered to be a chronic disease which really needs some kind of long-term nursing and medical intermediations. esearch shows that patients likewise need to take a part that is active in their own treatment and management, and the alter their lifestyles in order to keep their metabolic state at a level that is normal (Sperl-Hillen, 2010). One of the transformations in education is recognized as being electronic learning. This technique is interesting because it has all of these unique features which users are interested in using, and has made it possible to learn anywhere. It facilitates individual as well as group learning, and makes it conceivable to familiarize the material as stated by the users' needs. However, in the last 10 years, it has been very obvious that the Internet has turned out…
EIJJ, V. (2009). Interventions for improving adherence to treatment recommendations in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Cochrane Library, 44(8), 1-44.
Marjatta Kelo, M.M. (2011). Self-care of school-age children with diabetes: an integrative review. JOURNAL OF ADVANCED NURSING, 2096-2105.
Marzieh Moattari, M.H. (2012). The impact of electronic education on metabolic control indicators in patients with diabetes who need insulin: a randomised clinical control. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 22, 32 -- 38.
Sperl-Hillen, J. (2010). Are benefits from Diabetes Self-Management education Sustained? American Journal of Managed Care is the property of Intellisphere, 104-113.
Diabetes is one of the major non-communicable diseases today. In the U.S., approximately 9% of the general population have diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes, with a further 37% estimated to be pre-diabetic (CDC, 2016). The disease increasingly imposes a significant morbidity, economic, mortality, and psychological burden on individuals, families, communities, healthcare organizations, as well as the government. This paper discusses a number of issues relating to diabetes. These include: past and present funding initiatives; past and present quality initiatives; the relationship between diabetes care quality and healthcare coverage; and diabetes care in the U.S. and UK.
In the U.S., initiatives aimed at preventing diabetes are funded by both the government and private entities. Public funding is executed through the Division of Diabetes Translation (DDT), a unit of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (CDC, 2016). DDT funds health departments at the state and local government level in…
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) (n.d.). Index of diabetes quality improvement initiatives. Retrieved from: https://archive.ahrq.gov/professionals/quality-patient-safety/quality- resources/tools/diabguide/diabqguideapg.html
Casagrande, S., & Cowie, C. (2012). Health insurance coverage among people with and without diabetes in the U.S. adult population. Diabetes Care, 35(11), 2243-2249.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2016). Diabetes programs and initiatives. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/programs/
Crosson, J., Ohman-Strickland, P., Campbell, S., et al. (2009). A comparison of chronic illness care quality in US and UK family medicine practices prior to pay-for- performance initiatives. Family Practice, 26(6): 510-516.
Clinical Problem: Diabetes Mellitus in Rural Settings
Mid-range nursing theories can be extremely useful in understanding specific clinical issues. These theories are less broad and all-encompassing than so-called grand theories of nursing such as Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring and seek to offer a more technical and practical approach to applying theory in daily practice (Alligood, 2018). This paper will specifically examine the application of Kristen Swanson’s Theory of Caring to the treatment of patients suffering from diabetes mellitus living in rural settings without adequate access to healthcare. Virtually all nursing theories are composed of four essential core definitions, that of person, environment, health, and nursing itself. Swanson’s theory, however, specifically focuses on nursing, which Swanson defines as a very specific type of caring.
Although obesity is increasing across the nation, obesity is often particularly rife in rural settings with limited access to healthcare and healthy foods.…
African-Americans and Diabetes
Diabetes in the African-American Adult Population
Diabetes is a serious public health issue, and often seen in the African-American adult population. According to the CDC, African-Americans are twice as likely to have type II diabetes as Caucasians (Diabetes, 2011). This is highly significant, since 90 to 95% of new diabetes cases each year are type II (Diabetes, 2011). There are several reasons for these cases, and genetics is one of them. Additionally, people can develop type II diabetes from obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, age, and poor eating habits. In order to thoroughly address the issue, it is important to look at what African-Americans know and do not know about diabetes, and how they handle the disease if they do develop it or are told they are at risk for developing it. Many of them have pre-diabetes, and can avoid the disease if they are conscientious regarding the…
Agurs-Collins, T.D., Kumanyika, S.K., Ten Have, T.R., Adams-Campbell, L.L. (1997). A randomized controlled trial of weight reduction and exercise for diabetes management in older African-American subjects. Diabetes Care, 20(10): 1503-1511.
Baptiste-Roberts, K., Gary, T.L., Beckles, G.L.A., Gregg, E.W., Owens, M., Porterfield, D., & Engelgau, M.M. (2007). Family history of diabetes, awareness of risk factors, and health behaviors among African-Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 97(5): 907-912.
Diabetes. (2011). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/resources/publications/aag/ddt.htm .
McCleary-Jones, V. (2011). Health literacy and its association with diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy and disease self-management among African-Americans with diabetes mellitus. The ABNF Journal: 25-32.
Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient
Management OF OSTEOMYELITIS IN THE DIABETIC PATIENT
Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone or bone marrow which is typically categorized as acute, subacute or chronic.1 It is characteristically defined according to the basis of the causative organism (pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria) and the route, duration and physical location of the infection site.2 Infection modes usually take one of three forms: direct bone contamination from an open fracture, puncture wound, bone surgery, total joint replacement, or traumatic injury; extension of a soft tissue infection such as a vascular ulcer; or hematogenous (blood borne) spread from other infected areas of the body such as the tonsils, teeth or the upper respiratory system.2(p807) Bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli are the most common causative agents of the disease, although viruses, parasites and fungi may also lead to the development of osteomyelitis.3
1. Stedman's Medical Dictionary. 27th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.
2. Butalia S, Palda V, Sargeant R, Detsky A, Mourad O. Does This Patient With Diabetes Have Osteomyelitis of the Lower Extremity?. JAMA: Journal of The American Medical Association [serial online]. February 20, 2008; 299(7):806-813. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
3. Lavery L, Peters E, Armstrong D, Wendel C, Murdoch D, Lipsky B. Risk factors for developing osteomyelitis in patients with diabetic foot wounds. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice [serial online]. March 2009; 83(3):347-352. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
4. Turns M. The diabetic foot: an overview of assessment and complications. British Journal of Nursing [serial online]. August 12, 2011;:S19-S25. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
Problem Statement and Purpose of Study Self-care regimens that require a lot of input are necessary in making the study of diabetes effective. A lot of people with diabetes undergo distress. The diabetes distress is commonly described as the distress that arises from the effect of the diabetes symptoms, regimens for self management, the fear that there would be complications and functionality failure. The diabetes stress stabilizes after some time. It has been found that about a third of all diabetes type 2 patients are prone to diabetes stress regarded as clinically significant. Diabetes distress severely affects adult diabetic patients with a poor diabetes management plan. Such patients stand a high risk of diabetes-related complications. These developments are linked to poor glycemic control and self-management (Leeet al, 2018). The current research seeks to establish whether autonomy support by the health supporters of patients such as the members of their family…
Windshield Survey of Diabetes in the Asian-Indian Community in Plainsboro, New Jersey: Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation
As the home to the second-largest population of Asian-Indians in the United States today (the first is another nearby small community, Edison, New Jersey) (Sahney, 2010). Out of a population of around 23,500, 16.97% of the residents of Plainsboro (or about 4,000) describe themselves as having Indian ancestry (Sahney, 2010). Although Plainsboro enjoys a high standard of living, a desirable community environment and state-of-the-art medical facilities, it is reasonable to suggest that some of the Asian-Indian population in this community remain marginalized due to an inability to afford these state-of-the-art health care services and the potential for cross-cultural differences in views about health care may further exacerbate this lack of access.
A growing body of evidence also indicates that Asian-Indians are among the highest-risk populations for developing diabetes, making this community an especially important…
About Plainsboro. (2015). Township of Plainsboro. Retrieved from http://www.plains boronj.com/content/about-plainsboro.
Anderson, E. N. (2014). Everyone eats: Understanding food and culture. New York: New York University Press.
Brooks, J. (2004, July 26). NLC membership offers many benefits to cities, towns. Nation's Cities Weekly, 27(30), 8.
Chandras, K. V. & Eddy, J. P. (1999, Winter). Counseling Asian-Americans: Implications for training. Education, 120(2), 239.
Early Detection and Management of Diabetic Neuropathy in a Clinical and Homecare Setting
The objective of this study is to examine early detection and management of diabetic neuropathy in a clinical and homecare setting and specifically through examination of articles published after 2002. The information from each source will be summarized listing the strengths and weaknesses of each article in separate paragraphs. As well, this work will utilize table or graphs to present the findings.
O'eilly, Caryl Ann (2005) Managing the Care of Patients with Diabetes in the Home Care Setting, Diabetes Spectrum, July 2005. Vol. 18. No. 3. etrieved from: http://spectrum.diabetesjournals.org/content/18/3/162.full
The work of O'eilly (2005) reports that more patients than ever before are released earlier from hospitals and rehabilitation center and that those with diabetes are included in this trend. Diabetes is reported to be ranked second following congestive heart failure as the primary diagnosis at…
Zieger, Anne (2009) Studies Offer Mixed Grades for Remote Diabetes Care. 6 July 2009 Retrieved from FierceHealthIT at: http://www.fiercehealthit.com/story/studies-offer-mixed-grades-remote-diabetes-care/2009-07-06
O'Reilly, Caryl Ann (2005) Managing the Care of Patients with Diabetes in the Home Care Setting, Diabetes Spectrum, July 2005. Vol. 18. No. 3. Retrieved from: http://spectrum.diabetesjournals.org/content/18/3/162.full
McLaughlin, Sue (2005) From Research to Practice/Diabetes Care in Special Settings: Meeting the Challenges: Diabetes Care in Special Settings Diabetes Spectrum July 2005 18:143-145. Retrieved from: http://www.vnsny.org/research/projects/1_implemetation.html
Describe the background of the problem
Diabetes is considered to be one of most manageable and frequent problems impacting a large number of Americans. As someone becomes older, they are more likely to develop the condition from poor lifestyle choices, diet, the lack of exercise and genetics. According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), there are a total of 29 million Americans who are impacted every single year. Out of this, number 17.7 million are between the ages of 40 to 60 years old. In many cases, learning to manage their diabetes and making healthy choices are critical for avoiding other complications. The most notable include: heart disease, stroke, blindness and the loss of limbs. This issue deserves attention as the inability to live with and manage the condition will result in premature death and the inability to function normally on a daily basis. ("National Diabetes Statistics…
National Diabetes Statistics Report. (2014). CDC. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/statsreport14/national-diabetes-report-web.pdf
Campbell, J. (2012). Diabetes Empowerment. Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics, 14 (7), 630-634.
Fisher, E. (2012). Peer Support for Self-Management of Diabetes. Health Affairs, 31 (1), 130-139.
Saydah, S. (2013). Socio Economic Status and Mortality. Diabetes Care 36 (1), 49-55.
Diabetes Type 2 is a prevalent disease with cases growing each year. Type 1 diabetes is also a concern especially regarding disease management. A useful assessment tool/technique for monitoring blood glucose levels for both type 1 and 2 is the A1C test. Otherwise known as the glycated hemoglobin test, the blood test provides the patient with information on the average blood sugar level within the past two to three months (Leong et al., 2017). A1C also measures blood sugar percentage attached to hemoglobin or oxygen-carrying protein within red blood cells. It is a great tool for people concerned with development of type 2 diabetes and those managing type 1 diabetes.
In a recent article on the effectiveness of A1C, researchers identified that the test can effectively determine potential for diabetes in patients. “Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) can be used to assess type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. HbA1c predicts T2D in different…
Diabetes and Self-Care Ability of High School Diabetics
Diabetes has been one of the biggest challenges that the health sector has been facing in the recent decades. There have been a soaring number of fast foods across the nation and with them the subsequent rise in the number of diabetic population and in specific the high school students who hardly have aby time to cook or access healthy foods. The change in the feeding habits is significantly informed and shaped by the change in trends and lifestyle where eating in fast foods is seen as both a fashionable trend and convenient despite the outright health challenges that come with it like the predisposition to diabetes due to wrong diet. Ferguson, T., Tulloch-eis, M., Wilks, . (2010) note that the last 50 years have seen the highest number of Western fast foods mushroom across the world and with it the significant…
Alice P., (2015). Self-Care Deficit Theory. http://www.nursing-theory.org/theories-and-models/orem-self-care-deficit-theory.php
Ferguson, T., Tulloch-Reis, M., Wilks, R. (2010). The epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in Jamaica and the Caribbean: a historical review. West Indian Medical Journal, 59(3): 259-64.
Diabetes and Drug Treatments
TYPE II DIABETES AND DUG TEATMENTS
Type I Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus type 1 result from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells within the pancreas. Subsequent shortage of insulin translates to increased urine and blood glucose. The developed world is associated with increasingly variant type I diabetes with a large cause of kidney failure and non-traumatic blindness. The link is based on an increased dementia and cognitive dysfunction risk through disease processes of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The complications are inclusive of sexual dysfunction, acanthosis nigricans, and frequent infections (Jones, et al., 2012).
Type II Diabetes
The classic diabetes symptoms include polyuria (frequent urination), increased thirst, increased hunger (polyphagia), and weight loss. Alternative symptoms commonly presented in the diagnosis include histories of blurred vision, fatigue, recurrent vaginal infections, peripheral neuropathy, and itchiness (Barnett, 2012). However, many people lack symptoms in the initial years and while…
Barnett, A. (2012). Type II Diabetes. New York: OUP Oxford.
Ezrin, C. & Kowalski, R. (2011). The Type 2 Diabetes Diet Book, Fourth Edition. McGraw Hill Professional
Jones, R. M. et al., (2012). New Therapeutic Strategies for Type 2 Diabetes: Small Molecule Approaches. New York: Royal Society of Chemistry
Pereira, M. A. (2013). Nutrition and Type II Diabetes: Etiology and Prevention. New York: CRC Press.
Diabetes in Australia
The Australian government and the relevant Health agencies have for many years strived to put the diabetes menace under close observation and management. There have been massive researches and huge sums directed towards good management and possible elimination of diabetes at the national levels. This commitment is exhibited by the specialized funds and efforts like the Juvenile Diabetes esearch Fund (JDF) that has been committed to striving to mitigate the effects of diabetes from the render age of the Australians.
Since diabetes is such a big challenge to Australia as a whole, diabetes mellitus was declared a National Health Priority Area in 1996 during the Australian Health Minister's Conference and this was as recognition to the high levels of diabetes prevalence within Australia, the mortality rates that were due to it, the impact it had on morbidity and the possibility of the health improvements that can be…
American Diabetes Association, (2013). Kidney Disease (Nephropathy). Retrieved May 13, 2013 from http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/complications/kidney-disease-nephropathy.html
Australian Government, Department of Health and Ageing, (2012). Diabetes. Retrieved May 13, 2013 from http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/pq-diabetes
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, (2011). Diabetes Prevalence in Australia Detailed estimates for 2007 -- 08. Retrieved May 13, 2013 from http://www.aihw.gov.au/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=10737419307
Baker IDI, Heart & Diabetes Institute (2013). Diabetes: The Silent Pandemic and its Impact on Australia. Retrieved May 13, 2013 from http://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/Documents/DA/What%27s%20New/12.03.14%20Diabetes%20management%20booklet%20FINAL.pdf
Diabetes and Obesity: What Are the Choices?
Diabetes is becoming an increasingly serious health problem across the United States, and indeed across the world. The majority of cases of diabetes, both in terms of new diagnoses and of current cases, are those of Type II diabetes, which is a condition generally brought on by overweight or obesity and lack of exercise, that prevents an individual's body from being able to metabolize the glucose in food in an efficient and healthy way. Individuals with Type II diabetes (as opposed to individuals with Type I diabetes) can generally be quite successfully treated by losing weight and increasing exercise. Individuals with Type II diabetes can often bring their symptoms and risks under control and even potentially eliminate them through good diet and weight loss.
Given that Type II diabetes can have very serious long-term consequences (including early death due to stroke or heart…
Early Release / Vol. 59 August 3, 2010. Retrieved from www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/wk/mm59e0803.pdf.
Laska, M.N. et al. (2009). Latent class analysis of lifestyle characteristics and health risk behaviors among college youth. Prevention Science 10: 376 -- 386.
Laska, M.N. et al. (2011). The Differential Prevalence of Obesity and Related Behaviors in Two- vs. Four-Year Colleges Obesity 19: 453 -- 456.
Nelson, M.C. et al. (2008). Emerging adulthood and college-aged youth: an overlooked age for weight-related behavior change. Obesity 16: 2205 -- 2211.
(NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)
The Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are stated to be "recommended as first-line treatment in all people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) "with or without symptoms of heart failure." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) Additionally it is stated that strong evidence exists that ACE inhibitors "...increase life expectancy in people with LVSD and reduce the risk of hospitalization -- the effect is greatest in those with more severe LVSD or more severe symptoms, but benefit occurs for all degrees of severity." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)
Prescribed for individuals who are intolerant of ACE inhibitors due to cough are
Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists which provide an alternative to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) There is stated to be evidence that AIIRAs supports life expectancy improvement and symptoms for those with heart failure due to…
Clinical Practice Guideline for Heart Failure Due to Left-Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction (2000) Kaiser Diagnostic and Treatment Documents. February 2000. Online available at: http://*****/cajud/heart/leftven.html
Heart Failure: Age from 16 Years Onwards (2008) Clinical Knowledge Summaries. NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement. Online available at: http://www.cks.nhs.uk/heart_failure_chronic/evidence/references#
NHS Confederation and BMA (2005) New GMS contract. Department of Health. www.dh.gov.uk.
NICE (2002) Guidance on the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion for smoking cessation. Technology appraisal no.39. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. www.nice.org.uk [Accessed: 19/06/2007]. [Free Full-text]
Thus, Arizona's state health department has made a proactive effort both to provide social services to diabetes to help them manage their illness, as well as created bridges the wider healthcare community to support diabetes education. The main fault to be found with this approach is the focus on treatment, versus prevention. Type II diabetes is the form of the disorder which has been escalating rapidly, and this disease is linked to obesity, a high-sugar and highly caloric diet, and inactivity. Promoting healthy eating and exercise amongst vulnerable populations is essential. The Arizona Health Department does provide educational resources in the form of pamphlets, but does not specifically talk about creating healthy lunch and exercise programs in the schools or working to redesign urban spaces to make them more movement-friendly for pedestrians.
The extent to which the conditions of poverty (such as a lack of access to affordable, healthy food),…
Arizona Diabetes Burden Report. (2011). Arizona Department of Health Services (ADHS).
Arizona Diabetes Coalition. (2013). Arizona Department of Health Services. (ADHS). Retrieved:
Diabetes Education and Prevention
· Diabetes is a chronic disease related to the body’s ability to use insulin.
· There is Type 1 diabetes which someone is born with and is a lifelong illness.
· There is Type 2 diabetes that comes from poor diet and bad lifestyle choices.
· To prevent Type 2 diabetes people must do several things. They are:
1. Exercise at least 15 minutes a day
2. Eat the recommended amount of 20-25 grams of fiber each day.
3. Eat at least 5 servings of fruits and vegetables
4. Minimize simple sugars like candy and soda.
5. Eat enough protein
6. Eat complex carbohydrates like unrefined grains and whole wheat pastas.
7. Reduce stress (LeRoith, 2012).
Why should people eat healthy?
People should eat healthy for several reasons. However, the main reason is to avoid becoming obese and suffering from obesity-related issues like Type 2 diabetes.…
c.. Is the treatment feasible in my clinical setting? Yes No Unknown
d. What are my patients/family's values and expectations for the outcome that is trying to be prevented and the treatment itself?
There are several implications from this study:
Identification of self-care needs are important to patients; mitigation of stronger, more invasive treatment options are thus prevented. owever, some instruments are more useful than others in encouraging self-care or monitoring behavioral change.
Use of these treatment protocols and self-care instrumentation and measurement tends to create a more patient-centered care paradigm so that healthcare providers can focus on the more serious, medical care issues. Additionally, when educating people who have diabetes, effective time management protocols should focus on specific instruments that are individually tailored to that patient's needs and capacity for responsibility for their own issues.
The research did show two major effects:
Answers from measurement issues help create a…
However, that being said the study showed that various instruments can be used as outcome measures and tools for tracking self-care, knowledge, and helping to motivate patients. The authors do suggest more robust research regarding the clinical utility of many of the instruments in question.
Modified from Melnyk, B. (2004). Rapid Critical Appraisal of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs): An Essential Skill for Evidence-Based Practice, Melnyk, Pediatric Nursing Journal.
© Fineout-Overholt & Melnyk, 2005 This form may be used for educational, practice change & research purposes without permission
Diabetes is one of the biggest challenges impacting African-Americans. This is because genetics, lifestyle choices, economics and other factors will have an impact in determining if someone is susceptible. In the case of children, their obesity rates are tied directly with the number of cases. The result is that 13.2% of African-American children are affected by the condition. As a result, they are 1.7 times more likely to develop diabetes ("Treatment and Care for African-Americans," 2013). This is problematic, as these challenges will directly have an impact on their underlying levels of health when they become an adult. To determined what is happening requires conducting a literature review. These objectives will be accomplished by looking at the extent of the problem and one possible intervention. Together, these different elements will illustrate the most effective avenues for addressing these challenges in this demographic of the population.
In studies that were conducted…
Treatment and Care for African-Americans. (2013). Diabetes.org. Retrieved from: http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/high-risk-populations/treatment-african-americans.html
Park, M. (2011). Study: Kids Weight Increases when Mom Works more. CNN.com Retrieved from: http://www.cnn.com/2011/HEALTH/02/04/children.bmi.moms/
Peacock, J. (2012). Compulsive Overeating. Mankato, MN: Capstone.
Wadden, T. (2012). Response of Obese Binge Eaters. Journal of Counseling, 60 (5), 800-811.
Diminishing a patient's sense of helplessness is a founding principle of Orlando's theory, and empowerment is important in ensuring that the patient does not feel lost after receiving a diagnosis and are being discharged. For example, Nurse B. recently treated a man who had been diagnosed with Type II Diabetes. He was afraid of becoming dependent upon insulin his entire life. Explaining how dietary changes and exercise, reducing his weight, and taking proactive steps of self-care could reduce his blood sugar helped the man regain a sense of control over his life. This does not mean that the patient must stand alone. ellness is a dialogue between nurse, environment and patient. Stressing how professional resources such as dieticians were there to help manage his nutrition and involving the man's wife in the way family meals were prepared also had a great impact in diminishing his sense of helplessness (Chinn 1983,…
Chinn, P. (Ed). (1983). Advances in nursing theory development. Rockville, MD: Aspen
Systems. Chapter 5, pp. 63-87. Used with permission from Peggy Chinn. Last Revised 2006. Retrieved 13 Oct 2007 at http://www.uri.edu/nursing/schmieding/orlando/schapters/files/chinnnjs.pdf
Valentine, Susan. (2002). "Nursing Leadership and the New Nurse." The University of Arizona College of Nursing. Retrieved 13 Oct 2007 at http://juns.nursing.arizona.edu/articles/Fall%202002/Valentine.htm
According to the APA Publication Manual, because a personal, unpublished interview consists of unrecoverable data, there is no need to cite it in the Reference List
One aspect of a goal attainment program researched within the content of an article by Ng & sang, is group therapy work, where individuals are offered the opportunity to self-reflect through the group process to help assimilate "normal" behaviors and reasonable goals into their own hoped for future.
raditional psychiatric rehabilitation programs focus on 'problems' and 'negatives' of individuals and tend to ignore strengths and assets (Hagedorn, 1992). Unlike the traditional approach, this program uses a holistic and client-centered approach (Rogers, 1984) which helps individuals establish future directions in home and work resettlement. he Goal Attainment Program focused on the participants' future expected life roles and social functioning in relation to the environmental context (i.e. their 'participation level', according to the International Classification of Impairment, Disability and Handicap (ICIDH-2) of the World Health Organization). he program emphasized the needs and positive aspects of individuals (Rogers, 1984), as well as the…
Traditional psychiatric rehabilitation programs focus on 'problems' and 'negatives' of individuals and tend to ignore strengths and assets (Hagedorn, 1992). Unlike the traditional approach, this program uses a holistic and client-centered approach (Rogers, 1984) which helps individuals establish future directions in home and work resettlement. The Goal Attainment Program focused on the participants' future expected life roles and social functioning in relation to the environmental context (i.e. their 'participation level', according to the International Classification of Impairment, Disability and Handicap (ICIDH-2) of the World Health Organization). The program emphasized the needs and positive aspects of individuals (Rogers, 1984), as well as the attainment of self-esteem in the self-actualization hierarchy (Maslow, 1970). The program is based on the belief that each individual has the potential to control his/her life and to choose what he/she wishes to become. With this belief, change can only take place when the individual finds the meaning in himself/herself. Positive change can occur throughout life. The role of therapist is to facilitate the willingness to change (Hagedorn, 1992). This study also used Frankl's (1946/1992) belief that the most basic human motivation is the will to meaning. (Ng & Tsang, 2002, p. 59)
Self-control and self-esteem cannot be learned in a vacuum, as individuals have little if any comparison models, which given them hope for their own future, if they are isolated from society. Group therapy settings can allow the individual to create a reasonable set of hopes that can build social health and help the individual learn how to develop coping skills for their positive, rather than negative future in the community where they live. Group therapy is an essential tool for this attainment, as the intense interaction within groups helps individuals see and feel what it might be like to confront the steps and stages of social growth while commiserating with others who have the same or similar obstacles, i.e. mental illness management, as they themselves have.
Managing Mental Illness: Variations of Group Therapies in the Literature
"A step backward -- or is it forward?" Diabetes Care, 31, 1093-1096.
Huan-Cheng C., Yue-Cune C., Su-Mei, L., Mei-Fang, C., Mei-Ching, H., & Chin-Lin, P. et al. (2007). The effectiveness of hospital-based diabetes case management: an example from a northern Taiwan regional hospital. Journal of Nursing esearch, 15, 296-309.
Khamaisi, M., az, I. (2006). Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes: the role of proteik kinase c. Vascular Disease Prevention, 3, 305-312.
Loganathan, ., Searls, Y.M., Smirnova, I.V., & Stehno-Bittel, L. (2006). Exercise-induced benefits in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Physical Therapy eviews, (11), 77-89.
Ohman-Strickland, P.A., Orzano, a.J., Hudson, S.V., Solberg, L.I., DiCiccio-Bloom, B., & O'Malley, D. et al. (2008). Quality of diabetes care in family medicine practices: influence of nurse-practitioners and physician's assistants. Annals of Family Medicine, 6, 14-22.
Ohshiro, Y., Takasu, N. (2007). ole of protein kinase c-? activation in diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes, 24(3), 61-64.
Sharma, S., Kulkarni, S.K., &…
Balagopal, P., Kamalamma, N., Patel, T.G., & Misra, R. (2008). "A community-based diabetes prevention and management education program in a rural village in india." Diabetes Care, 31, 1097-1104.
Bloomgarden, Z.T. (2007). Screening for and managing diabetic retinopathy: current approaches. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 64(S), S8-S14.
Chang, K., Davis, R., Birt, J., Castelluccio, P., Woodbridge, P., & Marrero, D. (2007). Nurse practioner-based diabetes care management. Disease Management & Health Outcomes, 15, 377-385.
Davis, S., Asch-Goodkin, J. (2007). Heart failure risk climbs with use of glitazones. Geriatrics, 62(9), 11-11.
Because patients have an active role in their care plan and are in
more frequent contact with their healthcare provider, they gain a better
understanding of their condition and become more compliant in their care."
(Moore, 1) This speaks directly to the challenges in healthcare relating
to diabetes, which is a condition that can best be controlled through
effective personal lifestyle habits and a sound treatment of one's body.
Being able to take proper routine measures to monitor, medicate and treat
one's self can be facilitated through telehealth consultation, reducing the
need for travel and doctor visits for those who might be less mobile due to
age and infirmity.
The importance of reducing hospital visits for both cost to
healthcare and strain on the patient can be especially appealed to where
diabetes is concerned. The chronic nature of the condition and the related
ability of the patient to control certain…
B2B Media. (2002). General Telemedicine. Telemedicine Today. Online at
Bull, C.N. (1993). Growing old in rural America: New approach needed in
rural healthcare. BNet. Online at
Teaching Proposal on Diabetes
In recent years, an increase in demand for expansion of education programs for diabetes patients has been observed and for Federal Government or third party payers to support these programs. A survey by Veterans Administration Hospital evaluating the capability of patient for diabetes management, reported lack of formal training in over 35% of patients interviewed (Miller, Goldstein & Nicolaisen, 1978, p. 275). Similarly, accomplishing proper management of self-administration of insulin also continues to be a critical concern. Therefore, an educator needs to set appropriate and reasonable, specific, mutually agreed goals; and should remain sensitive to individual fears and anxieties while setting these goals.
Diabetes education is a lifetime learning process, which is developed and modified as per the requirements of people afflicted with diabetes. However, assessment of these requirements is time-taking, still vital for customizing diabetes education. Thus, to determine one's educational requirements…
Diehl, L. (2002-2016). Teaching Plan for Diabetes Mellitus. Nursesaregreat.com. Retrieved 13 August 2016 from http://www.nursesaregreat.com/teaching-plan-for-diabetes.php
Miller, L. V., Goldstein, J. & Nicolaisen, G. (Sep-Oct. 1978). Patients' Knowledge of Diabetes Self-Care. Diabetes Care, 1(5), 275-280. Retrieved 11 August 2016 from http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/1/5/275
Ozcan, S. & Erol, O. (Nov 2007). Teaching and Learning in Diabetes: Techniques and Methods. Diabetes Voice, 52(special issue), 23-25. Retrieved 13 August 2016 from https://www.idf.org/sites/default/files/attachments/article_554_en.pdf
Powers, M. A., Bardsley, J., Cypress, M., Duker, P., Funnell, M. M., Fischl, A. H., Maryniuk, M. D., Siminerio, L. & Vivian, Eva. (Jul 2015). Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support in Type 2 Diabetes: A Joint Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association, the American Association of Diabetes Educators, and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Diabetes care, 38(7), 1372-1382. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc15-0730 . Retrieved 11 August 2016 from http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/38/7/1372
Medical Conditions -- There are a number of factors that can increase the likelyhood of type-2 diabetes: hypertension, eleveted cholesterol, and a condition called Symdrome X, or metabolic syndrome (combination of obesity, high cholesterol, sedentary lifestyle, stress, and poor diet). Cushing's syndrome, cortisol excess and testosterone deficiency are also associated with the disease. Often, it is a number of co-dependent conditions that seem to give rise to diabetes (Jack & Boseman, 2004).
Genetics -- There is ample evidence that there is a strong inheritable genetic condition in type-2 diabetes. In addition, there is a genetic mutation to the Islet Amyloid Polypeptide gene that results in early onset diabetes (Lee & Hasim, 2001). There is a stronger inheritance pattern for type-2 diabetes with a significant association between family members. Typically, this is excacerbated by cultural and lifestyle factors that, while not inherited, are culturally shared. Gene expression promoted by a diet…
G1d, and G1g Planned Intervention
Description of Intervention:
Medication adherence is one of the effective interventions for diabetes management. Adherence to medication is the extent patients take medications being prescribed for them by health care providers. In other words, a medication adherence refers to the extent patients have conformed to providers recommendations with regards to dosages, timing as well as frequency of medication taking by patients. aising educational awareness about the importance of adherence to medication is very critical to reduce the rate of readmission. If there is an increase in the level of awareness among patients and educating them about how medications are very important for the management of diabetes, the rate of medication adherence will increase among patients.
The best intervention strategy for the medication adherence is to use SIMPLE model for patients. The SIMPLE model consists of:
S -- Simplify the medication regime
I -- Impart…
CDC (2013). Medication Adherence. Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. USA.
Diabetes Prevention Program (2002). The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP): Description of lifestyle intervention. Diabetes Care, 25(12), 2165-2171.
Edelen, M. O. Joan, S. T. William, G. S. Et al. (2014). Advancing Behavioral Health Measurement: The PROMIS® Smoking Assessment Toolkit. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.
Childhood type diabetes and obesity
Which three databases will you use?
Search each database, using key words, for relevant research on this subject. What key words did you use in the Search Strategy fields? nclude all attempts and limitations used to refine your search.
Childhood obesity diabetes
Childhood obesity diabetes
Report the number of citations identified from each database in the number of articles found field.
Select one article from a peer-reviewed nursing journal published within the last three years -- or a germinal article which may contain an earlier publication date -- and provide the citation in APA format.
Hayden, M.R., Joginpally, T., Salam, M., & Sowers, J.R. (2011). Childhood and adolescent obesity in cardiorenal metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: A clinical vignette and ultrastructure study. Diabetes Management, 1(6), 601-614. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/dmt.11.50
Answer the following questions using your selected research article:
Q1. s this…
I limited the search range for peer-reviewed journals. Also, the journal has a doi; a volume number and serial number; and is authored by research scientists who provided their personal histories and sources of their funding.
Q3. Does this research article generate support for evidence-based practice? If not, state why it does not. Please review the critical appraisal guideline on pg. 466-480.
The authors of the study specifically state that it has implications for evidence-based practice. If adolescent obesity causes permanent changes to the structure of the tissue of sufferers, this has longstanding implications for public policy: it means that adolescents may be unlikely to outlive their parents' generation. Despite numerous improvements in diabetes management, diabetes often suffer severe health consequences. It is imperative that diabetes be thwarted by reducing the likelihood of early-onset obesity, not simply managed in a secondary and tertiary manner after the fact. "This current epidemic-pandemic of CAOO causes a red flag to be raised in order to have primary-care providers become more involved and understand this complex problem. The CAOO pandemic may alter the future course of human disease unless we as primary-care physicians intervene" (Hayden 2011 et al.).
MIPCD program. Part of the review will be how the results were applied to other disease types and foci. The main three things that will be focused on in this analysis will be how smooth or bumpy the implementation was overall, what the most prominent barriers were to the implementation and whether there were any solutions devised that could be applied to other studies of the same or similar nature. While one-size-fits-all solutions do not exist in medicine or most other fields, there are indeed some best practices and general approaches that can be devised and applied to a disparate amount of problems and challenges.
Overall, the implementation was pretty "bumpy" if the barriers and solutions garnered are any indication. Indeed, in looking at the column of the Interventions table near the end, the barriers and solutions appear in roughly a 1:1 ratio rather than the solutions alone dominating the…
Intervention for the Improvement of Hypoglycemic Control
Diabetes complication is one of the top health problems in the United States, and the ADA (American Diabetes Association) recommends that people suffering from diabetes should control their hypoglycemic and maintain A1C to < 7% to avoid diabetes complications. To achieve this objective, the "diabetes self-management education (DSME)"(Ni coll, aiser, Campbell, ET AL. 2014 p 207) is an effective tool to enhance hypoglycemic control and improve patients' outcomes. The DSME is an on-going educational process to facilitate the skill, knowledge, and ability of patients to carry out a diabetes self-care. I am a diabetic educator working in the diabetic outpatient clinical setting. My experience has made to understand that patients struggle to manage and control their diabetes after being educated because patients are not allowed to set their goals in order to manage their diabetes. (American Diabetes Association; 2013).
Objective of this paper…
American Diabetes Association (2013). Standards of medical care in diabetes -- 2013. Diabetes Care 36 (Suppl. 1):S11 -- S66, .
Funnell, M.M. Brown, T.L. Childs B.P. Et al. (2010). National Standards for Diabetes Self-Management Education. Diabetes Care. 33: 589-596.
Nicoll, K.G. Ramser, K.L. Campbell, et al. (2014).Sustainability of Improved Glycemic Control After Diabetes Self-Management Education. Diabetes Spectrum 27 (3): 207-211.
Norris, S.L., Lau, J., Smith, J.,et al. ( 2002). Susan Sundae, N.L Norris elf-Management Education for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes meta-analysis of the effect on hypoglycemic control.
One of the crucial elements towards the realization of organizational success and profitability is creating a suitable working environment for all employees to thrive as they carry out their respective responsibilities. In essence, employees' contributions towards the achievement of established business goals/objectives is largely influenced by the nature of the working environment and working conditions. However, employees' behaviors also play a crucial role in determining their productivity in the workplace. Self-defeating behaviors in the workplace contributes to stress, which in turn affects employees' input to work processes and the overall profitability of an organization. This paper examines the management of stress brought by self-defeating behaviors in the workplace. The evaluation includes recommendations of suitable solutions to this issue based on organizational theory concepts and the concepts of organizational behavior.
The organization I work for has several divisions or department that are mandated with various responsibilities and tasks towards…
Indigenous Australians and Diabetes
In Adelaide the first case of diabetes in Indigenous people was noted in 1923. The records clearly show that Indigenous people didn't diagnose diabetes at the time as they were fit, lean and in good shape. Apart from that, they didn't have any metabolic ailment at the time. Till the 1960's, the estimates of diabetes in Indigenous people weren't taken and no investigation done until then. Then a connection was found between indigenous population and westernized living in the population as type-2 diabetes was slowly starting to materialize. Since then, type 2 diabetes has been deemed as the most worrying health problems in Australia as the probability of it being in the population is four times (Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet, 2007a).
Diabetes and the afflicted person
Diabetes can affect a person in many ways as shown below:
Physically (Shaw, 2012)
Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2006) The health and welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples 2006. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and the Australian Bureau of Statistics.
Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet (2007a) Review of diabetes among Indigenous peoples. Retrieved June 7, 2014 from http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/chronic-conditions/diabetes/reviews/our-review
Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet (2007b) Background information on Diabetes. Retrieved June 7, 2014 from http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/chronic-conditions/diabetes/reviews/background-information
Bhattacharyya et al. (2002). Inpatient management of diabetes mellitus and patient satisfaction. Diabetic medicine: A journal of the British Diabetic Association, 19 (5), 412-416.
elationship of high cholesterol levels to the development of cardiovascular disease
Diabetes, heart disease, and high cholesterol are all strongly correlated. Even when diabetes is being well-managed, the patient's risks factors increase for comorbidity with these disorders. "High blood pressure has long been recognized as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Studies report a positive association between hypertension and insulin resistance. When patients have both hypertension and diabetes, which is a common combination, their risk for cardiovascular disease doubles" (Cardiovascular disease and diabetes, 2014, AHA). Also, in the case of Ms. X, because of her uncontrolled diabetes, her risk for high cholesterol is higher than average even in the absence of obesity and inactivity. "This triad of poor lipid counts often occurs in patients with premature coronary heart disease. It is also characteristic of a lipid disorder associated with insulin resistance called atherogenic dyslipidemia, or diabetic dyslipidemia…
Burden, M. (2003). Diabetes: Treatment and complications. Nursing Times, 99(2) 30/
Cardiovascular disease and diabetes. (2012). American Heart Association. Retrieved from:
Untreated diabetes can result in serious deterioration of the circulatory system as a consequence of long-term exposure to elevated blood glucose levels (NIDDKD, 2006). By monitoring blood glucose levels and administering insulin to reduce glucose concentration in the blood, many patients can carry on with their lives without significant effects of the disease (ADA, 2009).
However, undiagnosed or untreated diabetes can have very serious effects on the body and consequences for the patient. Among those effects and consequences are kidney damage, cardiac and circulatory system damage, as well as vision problems leading to increasing blindness (ADA, 2007; ADA, 2009). Because untreated or insufficiently managed diabetes often results in decreased circulation to the extremities, diabetes is also associated with the significant risk of losing fingers, toes, and even arms or legs. Once circulation is reduced below the minimum level required to oxygenate tissues enough to sustain them, the patient is at…
American Diabetes Association. (2007). "Diabetes and women's sexual health"
Retrieved July 31, 2009, from: http://www.diabetes.org/type-1-diabetes/women-sexual-health.jsp .
American Diabetes Association. (2009). "Standards of medical care in diabetes"
Retrieved July 31, 2009, from:
This means these children have a much higher chance of developing other diabetes related illnesses as they grow older, including serious damage to the eyes, nerves, heart, kidneys, and blood vessels (Bren, 2004). If they do not learn how to self-manage the disease when they are children, they will have more serious side effects as they grow older, and they will be a drain on the healthcare and insurance areas, as well.
One way to prevent diabetes is to treat the underlying causes, such as poor nutrition, lack of education, and obesity. This education should start in childhood, and the population should have resources available to help them deal with and self-treat the disease. Perhaps "diabetes centers" could open in inner city neighborhoods, that provided treatment kits, education, and even cooking and nutrition classes to help with patients cope with their disease.
In conclusion, Type 2 diabetes hits minority victims…
Bren, L. (2004, July/August). Diabetes prevention, treatment. FDA Consumer, 38, 18+.
Clark, M. (2004). Understanding diabetes. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Cox, R.H., Carpenter, J.P., Bruce, F.A., Poole, K.P., & Gaylord, C.K. (2004). Characteristics of low-income African-American and Caucasian adults that Are important in self-management of Type 2 diabetes. Journal of Community Health, 29(2), 155+.
Dabelko, H.I., & Decoster, V.A. (2007). Diabetes and adult day health services. Health and Social Work, 32(4), 279+.
A disease is classified as 'chronic' when it cannot be cured and will last throughout the duration of the patient's life. Type II diabetes is an example of a chronic disease which is on the rise and which can be managed but cannot be entirely 'cured.' Unlike type I diabetes, which typically manifests itself in early childhood as an autoimmune disorder, type II diabetes is caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. "The majority of people (80%) who develop type 2 diabetes are overweight" (Burden 2003).
What two nursing preventions can nurses do for this chronic illness?
Because type II diabetes is classified as a lifestyle-related disorder, treating it requires a change of diet and altering other habitual factors. "The basis of initial treatment is to pay attention to dietary intake and to encourage exercise so as to induce weight loss, the rationale being to improve…
Burden, M. (2003). Diabetes: treatment and complications - the nurse's role. Nursing Times,
99 (2): 30. Retrieved from http://www.nursingtimes.net/nursing-practice/clinical-zones/diabetes/diabetes-treatment-and-complications-the-nurses-role/205780.article
Chronic Illness: Coronary Heart Disease
Outline of Coronary Heart Disease
The Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) has been on the increase of late across the globe and this disease, alongside stroke have been the top causes of death in many countries like Australia (Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, 2017). There have been cases of people succumbing to complications occasioned by the CHD hence the need for any medic or clinician to fully furnish themselves with the CHD and the causes and effects as well as how it can be managed.
CHD is a disuse characterized by the development of a waxy substance called plaque building up in the inner walls of the coronary arteries. These are the arteries responsible for supplying oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscles. The buildup of plaque on the inner walls of the arteries results into atherosclerosis and this takes many years to pile up to harmful…
Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, (2017). Heart disease and stroke are the top two causes of death -- and among the leading causes of disability -- in Australia. Retrieved April 9, 2017 from https://baker.edu.au/health-hub/fact-sheets/cardiovascular-disease?gclid=Cj0KEQjwt6fHBRDtm9O8xPPHq4gBEiQAdxotvNmN_YV05am6ts6wLgbbEPubE3I2Z6wwGSNl0AaycX0aAnFy8P8HAQ
Cleveland Clinic, (2017). Coronary Artery Disease Symptoms. Retrieved April 9, 2017 from https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/cad-symptoms
Mayo Clinic, (2017). Coronary Heart Disease: Symptoms and Causes. Retrieved April 9, 2017 from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronary-artery-disease/symptoms-causes/dxc-20165314
Southern Cross, (2017). Coronary heart disease - causes, symptoms, prevention. Retrieved April 9, 2017 from https://www.southerncross.co.nz/group/medical-library/coronary-heart-disease-causes-symptoms-prevention
Diabetes and Thyroid
What is the mechanism of action of insulin and what are the differences in insulin therapy for Type I and Type II diabetes mellitus?
The pancreas secretes insulin, and it is used for the regulation of glucose from the blood into the cells. Insulin assists in lowering blood glucose by causing peripheral glucose uptake by skeletal muscle cells. The breakdown of fat, proteins, and manufacture of glucose is inhibited by insulin. Insulin will also increase protein synthesis and the conversion of excess glucose to fat. Patients suffering from diabetes are not able to produce enough insulin, and this leads to hyperglycemia. Insulin therapy for type I diabetes mellitus is aimed at increasing or providing insulin in the patient's body (Trauner, ichert, & Luddeke, 2013). For type II diabetes, insulin therapy is aimed at controlling blood sugar, increasing insulin levels, and lowering the patient's resistance to insulin.…
Kahn, S.E. (2013). Incretin therapy and islet pathology: a time for caution. Diabetes, 62(7), 2178-2180.
Reinehr, T. (2010). Obesity and thyroid function. Molecular and cellular endocrinology, 316(2), 165-171.
Stohl, H.E., Ouzounian, J., Rick, A.-M., Hueppchen, N.A., & Bienstock, J.L. (2013). Thyroid disease and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM): is there a connection? The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 26(11), 1139-1142.
Trauner, A., Richert, K., & Luddeke, H.-J. (2013). Start of an insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes patients. Diabetes aktuell fur die Hausarztpraxis, 11(06), 248-252.
According to Waryasz & McDermott (2009), the global prevalence of diabetes among people aged between 20 and 79 rose to 6.4% affecting 285 million people in 2010 and the rate will rise to 7.7% affecting 439 million people by 2030. Amid 2010 and 2030, the rate of individuals with diabetes will increase by 69% in developing nations, and a twenty percent rate in developed nations. In 2011, the number rose to 366 and it is expected to rise to 552 by 2030. The pervasiveness of diabetes is advanced in males compared to females, yet the number of women with diabetes is more compared to that of men.
Diabetes affects any part of the human body and people with diabetes are likely to die of heart-related problems or stroke. Seventy-percent of individuals with diabetes show signs of high blood pressure which a risk factor for heart-related diseases. The majority of…
Boussageon R, Supper I, Bejan-Angoulvant T, Kellou N, Cucherat M, et al. (2012).Reappraisal of metformin efficacy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS Med, 9(4): e1001204. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001204.
Karin et al.(2002). Diet and exercise among adults with type 2 diabetes: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) . Diabetes Care, 25 (10), 1722-1728
Wang, H., & Yeh, M.(2012). Systematic to insulin therapy in adults with type 2 diabetes. Mixed- method systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68(4), 743 -- 757. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05853.x.
Waryasz, G., & McDermott, A. (2009). Exercise prescription and the patient with type 2 diabetes: A clinical approach to optimizing patient outcomes. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 22, 217-227.
Diabetes Teaching Project
Combine knowledge from sciences and liberal arts with that from nursing sciences, for understanding universal perspectives, employing latest technology, and encouraging critical thinking.
Consistent with the diabetes teaching project's first objective, we realize the need for holistic development of each student, and hence, our curriculum not only comprises nursing courses related to diabetes, but also requires that students enroll themselves in science and liberal arts courses. For students who have already taken courses like Literature, English language, Sociology and Philosophy, our academic advisor simply certifies these and allows students to proceed with core courses. Further, integrated into these courses is a comprehensive insight into the global perception, eliciting critical thinking. Through the subject 'Dimensions of Professional Nursing Practice' (Subject code: NU 342), I aided students in developing critical thinking ability, which they would need to employ when dealing with diabetic patients. This subject required them to study…
Ogrinc, G. (2003). A Framework for Teaching Medical Students and Residents about Practice-based Learning and Improvement, Synthesized from a Literature Review. Academic Medicine, 78(7), 748-756.
UKPDS. (1995). UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group: UK Prospective Diabetes 16: Overview of 6 years' therapy of type II diabetes: a progressive disease. Diabetes, 44, 1249-1258.
Valentine, V. (2000). Educational Strategies at Diagnosis and Beyond, or Diabetes, Type 2, and What to Do! Diabetes Spectrum, 13(4), 197.
The author of this report has been asked to find, analyze and assess a study that is related to a diabetes intervention. The study found needs to be recent and will be described in terms of the major aspects and traits of the study. Precisely such a study was found and it involves the review of the effects of food label use on diet quality when it comes to Latinos that are type II diabetics but are getting assistance from community health workers. The article actually came out this month in a prominent academic public health journal and is very illuminating. While food labels are only so effective as they have to be consulted and used, the concurrent use of community health workers to coach and assist type II diabetics in the study seems to show some promise.
Brief Summary of Disease
Type II diabetes, unlike its…
Kollannoor-Samuel, G., Shebl, F. M., Segura-Perez, S., Chhabra, J., Vega-Lopez, S., & Perez-
Escamilla, R. (2016). Effects of food label use on diet quality and glycemic control among Latinos with type 2 diabetes in a community health worker-supported
Intervention. American Journal of Public Health, 106(6), 1059-1066.
Mayo. (2016). Symptoms & Causes - Type 2 Diabetes - Mayo Clinic. Mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 24 June 2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/type-2 -
As a complex metabolic disease, diabetes does not lend itself to a wide variety of interventions and concurring the disease does not appear to be an event that medicine will see in the near horizon. For these reasons, and because diabetes can be such a devastating disease, research that shows promise of positively impacting the course of the disease is greeted with enthusiasm by the medical community and the public.
Blood glucose levels must be strictly regulated in order to avoid the complications that diabetes can create. A substantive stumbling block is the difficulty of achieving consistent glycemic control without occurrences of hypoglycemia. Indeed, this factor is a primary obstacle to obtaining regulatory approval of an artificial pancreas. Earlier research has focused on automatic systems that monitor the levels of glucose and stop insulin flow when the blood glucose drops too low. While this is a viable approach,…
Progress in artificial pancreas development: preventing and treating low blood glucose. (2014, September 11). American Diabetes Association. ADA-Novo Nordisk Award in Hypoglycemia and Diabetes. Supported by Novo Nordisk Inc. Retreived from http://www.diabetes.org/research-and-practice/we-are-research-leaders/recent-advances/progress-in-artificial-pancreas-development.html#sthash.HZwOqdlx.dpuf
Russell, S.J., El-Khatib, F.H., Sinha, M., Magyar, K.L., McKeon, K., Goergen, L.G., Balliero, C., Hillard, M.A., Nathan, D.M., & Damiano, E.R. (2014, July 24). Outpatient glycemic control with a bionic pancreas in type 1 diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine. 371(4), 313-25. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1314474. Epub 2014 Jun 15.
Diabetes is a chronic and progressive disease that leads patients affected to seek the help of medical professionals throughout various stages and time frames. From surgery to patient education to physical therapy, diabetes treatment can be a daunting task that may require complex, multi-faceted effort. Such effort can lead to sever disparities in treatment and in prevalence of the disease. For example, if patient education is at the forefront of chronic disease management and prevention, then it stands to ask if patient education or lack thereof, is creating the kinds of health disparities seen in diabetes. The patients receiving the information on diabetes and lifestyle choices to prevent diabetes, may reduce their chances of developing diabetes versus those that do not receive the information. What kinds of health disparities arise in diabetes as a result of lack of access to information?
Lack of access to information can occur for several…
Abdool, R., Szego, M., Buchman, D., Justason, L., Bean, S., Heester, A., . . . Kaufman, H. (2016). Difficult healthcare transitions. Nursing Ethic, 23(7), 1.
Balogh, R. S., Lake, J. K., Lin, E., Wilton, A., & Lunsky, Y. (2014). Disparities in diabetes prevalence and preventable hospitalizations in people with intellectual and developmental disability: a population-based study. Diabetic Medicine, 32(2), 235 -- 242.
Gaskin, D. J., Thorpe, R. J., McGinty, E. E., Bower, K., Rohde, C., Young, J. H., . . . Dubay, L. (2014). Disparities in Diabetes: The Nexus of Race, Poverty, and Place. American Journal of Public Health, 104(11), 2147-2155. doi:10.2105/ajph.2013.301420
Lindberg, C., Fagerstrom, C., Sivberg, B., & Willman, A. (2014). Concept analysis: patient autonomy in a caring context. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 70(10), 2208-2221. doi:10.1111/jan.12412
Other ways to celebrate achievements would be to send thank-you cards, congratulatory notes, make phone calls, and send emails.
4. Being able to set challenging goals - people often strive to achieve what is expected of them, but if they are presented with a set of challenging goals they will work even harder to accomplish them.
5. Being able to provide the necessary tools to succeed - no team will stay motivated if they do not have the necessary tools that are required to do their job. This includes: equipment, internal support, inventory, marketing materials, and training among other things.
6. Performance management - teams expect their leader to manage individuals who do not perform up to standard. Many managers often ignore these situations because they are afraid to deal with them. They hope instead that the situation will resolve itself. This is never the case; bad situations that are…
5 Little-Known Giant Health Care Issues Facing the United States. (2007). Retrieved November
11, 2009, from Nursing Online Education Database Web site:
Francis, Margaret. (2007). Effective Management. Retrieved November 11, 2009, from Changing
In 2004, it established its operations in Mexico to cash in on the high rate of diabetes in this country. Diabetes is responsible for 13 out of every 100 deaths in Mexico and Novo Nordisk expanded into this Latin American market. It also encompassed Mexico as part of its global campaign and its representatives went to schools and villages to spread awareness about the disease and the ways and means to cope with it.
The H system that was implemented in Mexico was different from the one that existed in Denmark and this was mainly due to the differences in culture, work attitude of the people and national factors that have a profound impact on the employment benefits of the workers. For example, in Denmark, every worker gets to participate in the decision making process. This is a part of the Danish culture and comes from the long-standing democracy and…
Shields, John. 2007. Managing employee performance and reward: concepts, practices and strategies. Boston: Cambridge University Press.
Bratton, John. 2001. Strategic Human Resource Management. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan .
Bamberger, Peter; Meshoulam, Ilan. 2000. Human Resource Strategy: Formulation, Implementation and Impact. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
No Author. No date. Human Resources UC Berkeley. UC Berkeley. [Online]. Available at: http://hrweb.berkeley.edu/guides/managing-hr/interaction/diversity/resources
Psychological Influence of Diabetes
The National Diabetes Educational Program is under the sponsorship of the Disease control and prevention and the National institutes of health. The purpose of this joint interaction is to reduce the effects of diabetes and delay the onset of diabetes. The target audience for this program is children, Adults, families, caregivers, healthcare professionals, promoters and peers.
Diabetes as a health related issue has diverse effects on the psychological aspects of people infected. Diabetes as a disease falls into two categories: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 Diabetes mellitus also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes is as a result of destruction of insulin producing cells of the pancreas. The lack of insulin results to an increased urine or blood glucose (Penckofer et. al., 2007). If left untreated the disease may turn out being fatal. The illness may, however, be treated by administration…
Penckofer, S., Ferrans, C.E., Velsor-Friedrich, B., & Savoy, S. (2007). The psychological impact of living with diabetes women's day-to-day experiences. The Diabetes
Educator, 33(4), 680-690.
Sepa, A., Frodi, A., Vaarala, O., & Ludvigsson, J. (2005). Diabetes-related autoimmunity in infancy Psychological stress . Diabetes care, 28(2), 290-295.
Funnell, M.M., Brown, T.L., Childs, B.P., Haas, L.B., Hosey, G.M., Jensen, B., ... & Weiss, M.A. (2009). Self-management education and National standards for diabetes. Diabetes care, 32 (1), 87-94.
Type II iabetes
Achieving Optimum Well-Being with Type-II iabetes
iabetes is a serious illness, and it is becoming more and more common in the United States. Obesity statistics are startling, and they are rising yearly; with increased overweight individuals, the risk of Type II diabetes especially, also increases, and few things are undertaken to curb these harmful side effects of the unhealthiness that is taking over this country. While diabetes includes both Type I and Type II, and while both are very common and must be understood, this paper will undertake to understanding Type II diabetes, and will aim to find out exactly what causes this type of diabetes and how society can begin to curb its effect in the populations most affected. Furthermore, the paper will argue that there are two fundamental things that can help a person with diabetes live a better life, and these are…
Diabetes and Exercise, 2012.
9 Foods you should be eating for Type 2 Diabetes. (2012). Joy Bauer Food Cures. Retrieved, .
Diabetes Diet: Foods to Avoid. (2012). Everyday Health. Retrieved, .
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multisystem disease with both biochemical and anatomical consequences. It is a chronic disease of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism caused by the lack of insulin. In type 1 diabetes, insulin is functionally absent because of the destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas. Type 1 DM occurs most commonly in juveniles but can occur in adults, especially in those in their late 30s and early 40s. Unlike people with type 2 DM, those with type 1 DM generally are not obese and may present initially with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).
In this particular case, Yusuf, a 12-year-old boy was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes after exhibiting some of the following symptoms: weight loss, excessive urinating, and an unquenchable thirst. More recently, Yusuf was again admitted to the hospital after complaining of nausea, vomiting and intense thirst. The doctor observed that he appeared confused and was…
diet and diabetes.
Review 2-3 sources of information on diet and its effects on diabetes.
Diet and diabetes are closely linked and very often this diet can be diet controlled.
Diabetes is a disease that makes it hard for the body to control the level of glucose (the main form of sugar in the body) in the blood. There are three main types of diabetes: Type 1 which is insulin-dependent, Type 2 which is the most common and is not insulin-dependent and Gestational which occurs during pregnancy and goes away when the baby is born.
Diet is an integral part of managing diabetes and is based on the treatment goals and a nutritional assessment that will take into account blood lipids, caloric needs and prevention of diabetes related complications.
Because the body's ability to make and use insulin is compromised, the body can't regulate glucose and therefore, the diabetic has…
Diet for Diabetes." Kimberly Tessmer, RD, LD. http://www.health.discovery.com.2001
Diabetes and Diet. Http://www.diabetes-and-diet.com.2003.
Management of Chronic and Terminal Illness
For people dealing with chronic or terminal illness, stress levels can be very high. While that is to be expected, high stress levels only make things worse. Accepting the inevitable is easier on a person's emotional well-being, but it may take some time to get to that point (Taylor, 2005). If a diagnosis is new, denial is often the first emotion the person faces. He or she does not want to believe the sickness or the severity of it. After denial, there are other stages that a person usually works through, including bargaining, anger, and depression, before acceptance finally sets in and the person is able to get on with life as much as possible. Chronic illnesses can include things like diabetes, kidney disease, heart disease, COPD, and other health problems (CDC, 2010). Many of these diseases are preventable, but they are not curable…
Anderson, G. (2004). The growing burden of chronic disease in America. Public Health Reports, 119.
CDC (2010). Chronic diseases and health promotion. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/chronicdisease/overview/index.htm
Taylor, S.E. (2005). Health psychology (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
Type 1 Diabetes
Diabetes has been among the illnesses that need rigid and proper attention to maintain the normal condition of the patient's body. Among the stages and types of diabetes, type 1 diabetes is the illness type that usually hits both the young and adults. This disease is preventable though. However, if the health condition of the patient with type 1 diabetes is not properly managed, the risk to serious complications such as heart ailments, damage in kidney and nerve, blindness, and many others, is high.
In any kind of illnesses, it is essential that one acquire enough information to prevent from getting or developing a disease. In view of this, in relation to type 1 diabetes, this paper finds it important to discuss the pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes. This paper aims to provide useful information on the following.
History of Type 1 Diabetes
Symptoms of Type 1…
2002). Clinical practice recommendations: 2002. Diabetes Care.
American Diabetes Association. 25, 21.
Ackinson, M.A., Wilson, S.B. (2002). Fatal Attraction: Chemokines and Type 1 Diabetes.
The Journal of Clinical Investigation, (110)11, 1611.
Diabetes affects about 23 million -- almost 8% -- of the American population (American Diabetes Association). Many Americans may be unaware that they have the condition. Most Americans with Diabetes have Type 2 Diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes is the inability to properly metabolize glucose and produce insulin. Type 1 Diabetes is also the body's inability to metabolize or produce insulin, "a hormone that is needed to convert sugar (glucose), starches and other food into energy needed for daily life," (American Diabetes Association). Type 2 Diabetes is usually preventable and caused by lifestyle and dietary habits. Type 1 Diabetes is usually passed down from generation to generation and is diagnosed in young children.
Diabetes is related to a number of health problems, including oral health problems. According to the American Dental Association (ADA) diabetes is related to "tooth decay, peridonatl (gum) disease, salivary gland dysfunction, fungal infections, lichen plantus and…