Diabetes Is One of the Thesis

Excerpt from Thesis :

However, advancements in pharmacogenetics promises new and better ways of managing diabetes. Studies have shown that Lisofylline, an anti-inflammatory compound is very effective in suppressing the autoimmune activity and in improving the islet secretion of insulin. Mice studies showed significant difference (25% vs. 91.6%) in the onset of diabetes among Lisofylline treated mice compared to placebo mice. Reduction of inflammatory cytokines IFN-? And TNF-? levels correlated with reduction in ss cell apoptosis. [Yang et.al, 2003] Recent study by Lipsett et.al (2007) has shown that Islet Neogenesis-Associated Protein (INGAP) is useful as a pancreatic regeneration agent. Successful tests in mice and regeneration of cultured human pancreatic cells have encouraged the researchers to seriously consider INGAP as an effective agent for improving insulin synthesis. [Lipsett et.al, (2007)]

A recent Cornell University study focused on an entirely different approach to diabetes management. The researchers examined the possibility of recombinant Commensal bacteria engineered to secrete insulinotropic proteins GLP-1 and PDX-1. The study revealed that the GLP-1 and PDX-1 proteins secreted in the gut bacteria were able to stimulate the intestinal epithelial cells to secrete insulin in response to glucose. This method has the added advantage that commensal bacteria are well tolerated and therefore cause no adverse reactions. [Faping Duan]

Conclusion

The pandemic nature of diabetes and the increasing number of diabetics necessitates a sense of urgency in the prevention, control and management of this chronic condition. As an autoimmune and polygenic disorder, diabetes presents a complex challenge to the health care sector worldwide. The ever-increasing diabetic population places a huge strain on the available insulin resources and has forced researchers to consider new biotechnological therapeutics in the treatment of the condition. While Insulin therapy and appropriate Immunosuppressive treatment are the frontline therapy in the effective management of Type 1 diabetes, the growing field of pharmacogetics in diabetes promises to offer novel and effective therapies which would regenerate the bodies natural insulin production system. With our increasing understanding of the genetic factors of diabetes, genetic therapy promises to be vital in the battle against the condition. Recombinant synthesis of insulin and genetically modified probiotics promise a great revolution in the management of diabetes. There is little doubt that the biotechnology way would be central in the effective management of this chronic condition.

Bibliography

1) George S. Eisenbarth, (2007) 'Update in Type 1 Diabetes', The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 92, No.7. http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/92/7/2403

2) McGill University, 'Deficient Regulators in the Immune System Responsible for Type 1 Diabetes', Updated 25 Jan 2008, Available at, http://www.sciencecentric.com/news/article.php?q=08012539

3) Kent SC, Chen Y, & Bregoli L. et.al (2005) 'Expanded T cells from pancreatic lymph nodes of type 1 diabetic subjects recognize an insulin epitope'. Nature 435:224 -- 228

4) Mathieu C, Gysemans C. et.al (Jul 2005), 'Vitamin D and Diabetes', Diabetologia. 48(7):1247-57

5) WHO, 'Genetics and Diabetes', Accessed 24th Jun 2009, Available at, http://www.who.int/genomics/about/Diabetis-fin.pdf

6) WHO, 'Diabetes Fact sheet', Accessed 24th Jun 2009, Available at, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/index.html

7) Lipsett Mark & Hanley Stephen et.al (2007), 'The role of islet Neogenesis-Associated protein (INGAP) in islet neogenesis', Cell biochemistry and biophysics, 2007, vol. 48, pp. 127-137

8) Yang, Zandong; Chen, Meng & Fialkow, Lawrence B. et.al (2003), 'The Novel Anti-inflammatory Compound, Lisofylline, Prevents Diabetes in Multiple Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Treated Mice', Pancreas, May 2003 - Volume 26 - Issue 4 - pp e99-e104

9) Faping Duan, Katherine L. Curtis, and John C. March, (December 2008) 'Secretion of Insulinotropic Proteins by Commensal Bacteria: Rewiring the Gut To Treat Diabetes', Applied and Environmental Microbiology, p. 7437-7438, Vol. 74, No. 23, [Online] Available, http://aem.asm.org/cgi/content/full/74/23/7437#R14

10) ADA, 'All about Diabetes', Accessed 24th Jun 2009, Available at, http://www.diabetes.org/about-diabetes.jsp

11) Katarina Hjelm et.al, (Mar 2003) 'Preparing Nurses to Face the Pandemic…

Sources Used in Document:

Bibliography

1) George S. Eisenbarth, (2007) 'Update in Type 1 Diabetes', The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 92, No.7. http://jcem.endojournals.org/cgi/content/full/92/7/2403

2) McGill University, 'Deficient Regulators in the Immune System Responsible for Type 1 Diabetes', Updated 25 Jan 2008, Available at, http://www.sciencecentric.com/news/article.php?q=08012539

3) Kent SC, Chen Y, & Bregoli L. et.al (2005) 'Expanded T cells from pancreatic lymph nodes of type 1 diabetic subjects recognize an insulin epitope'. Nature 435:224 -- 228

4) Mathieu C, Gysemans C. et.al (Jul 2005), 'Vitamin D and Diabetes', Diabetologia. 48(7):1247-57

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