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Diplomatic Relations with North Korea
North Korea has a centralized government under the rigid control of the communist Korean orkers' Party (KP), to which all government officials belong (U.S. Department of State, 2012). There are a couple other parties that are in existence in North Korea, however these parties have virtually no power or membership. Given the tight reign of control the government keeps on its population, much of the countries activities are elusive. North Korea and the United States have a long history of conflict that has stifled many diplomatic efforts. Furthermore, the United States has backed South Korea since the Second orld ar and recent military actions by North Korea have also heightened tensions (Yang, Hall, & Vanden, 2010).
There are no official diplomatic relations between the U.S. And North Korea and the unofficial ones are strained from many sources. First of all North Korea has…
Asia Pacific News. (2012, August 31). UN nuclear watchdog has 'serious concern' over North Korea. Retrieved from Asia Pacific News: http://www.channelnewsasia.com/stories/afp_asiapacific/view/1223125/1/.html
Feffer, J. (1999, May 1). U.S.-North Korea Relations. Retrieved from Foreign Policy in Focus: http://www.fpif.org/reports/us-north_korea_relations
Lewis, J. (2010, December 14). North Korea-Iran Nuclear Cooperation. Retrieved from Counsil on Foreign Relations: http://www.cfr.org/proliferation/north-korea-iran-nuclear-cooperation/p23625
Snyder, S. (2012, August 30). N. Korea's "New Look" Nuclear Program. Retrieved from The Diplomat: http://thediplomat.com/flashpoints-blog/2012/08/30/north-koreas-new-look-nuclear-program/
Kissinger's Diplomacy can be treated as a treatise on international relations at large for the bulk of the book: the remaining quarter of the book can be summarized as a justification for the choices he made during the years of the Nixon administration. One can view Kissinger's Diplomacy as a form of support of realism within the realm of international politics.
The chapters of the book that were examined through this course look closely at western diplomacy and spends time tracing the evolution of certain techniques in diplomatic relations from the ear of ichelieu and Bismarck through the World Wars. When it comes to Kissinger's treatment of the world wars, he points the biggest finger at the hands of the British and their irrational actions and failure to preserve the safety of France, which Kissneger argues pushed France to rectify with shoddy alliances in eastern Europe. Kissinger explains how diplomacy…
Kissinger, H. Diplomacy. (2011). New York: Simon and Schuster
Summer Program Would Help Them in Their Career
Globalization is certainly one of the most pressing topics in the contemporary society. This concept is especially visible as we come across it on a daily basis and as we realize that it would be impossible for us to stop it (not that we would want to). Interacting with individuals from different cultural environments can be very refreshing as long as someone is familiar with filtering information with the purpose to learn constructive things. Our homes are our comfort zones -- this does not necessarily mean that staying in one's own culture for the rest of one's life is a bad thing, but exploring other cultures and coming into contact with ideas one could not have thought about in the past can make it possible for an individual to acknowledge that he or she needs to travel.
Society appears to promote the…
21st Century, hat is Diplomacy?
Gone are the days when the only means of resolving conflicts between countries were long blood smeared wars with no talks about finding a peaceful way out. As the world grows into a compact village where every country is dependent on the other for its sustenance, resolving conflicting interests, reconciling ructions and pursuing peaceful relations, knowing Diplomacy at its best is of sheer importance and irrevocable: something a country cannot exist without. Today, Diplomacy is being heavily banked on by every state for a peaceful way of pursuing its means without creating a pre-war condition. However, the way Diplomacy works and exists now is not the crude form it was born with.
Diplomacy dates back to being as ancient as human existence itself, ever since man came into being, his need to settle matters to his benefit became of utmost importance, and states are the…
De Magalhaes, Jose Calvet. The Pure Concept of Diplomacy. Trans. Bernardo Futscher Pereira. New York: Greenwood, 1988. Questia. Web. 16 Feb. 2013.
-. The Pure Concept of Diplomacy. Trans. Bernardo Futscher Pereira. New York: Greenwood, 1988. Questia. Web. 16 Feb. 2013.
Grossman, Marc. "A Diplomat's Philosophy." Joint Force Quarterly July 2011: 46+. Questia. Web. 16 Feb. 2013.
Mattingly, Garrett. Renaissance Diplomacy. London: Jonathan Cape, 1955. Questia. Web. 16 Feb. 2013.
International Diplomacy and Rise of Cyber Security Threats
Cyber security is considered to be an ongoing issue for governments, the private sector and individuals all over the world. It is now unusual for more than a month to pass without news of a large and often significant cyber-attack (Kanuck). However, for some victims these attacks are an irritation while for others they are expensive and do result in negotiated secrets, taken proprietary designs or damage that is considered to be reputational. For example, research shows that the May 2011 attacks against Sony's online PlayStation gaming networks were projected to have cost 145 million dollars in impairment and lost proceeds. Studies also show that in the same month, American defense independent worker Lockheed Martin suffered a grave breach that was assisted by electronic identity tokens that were stolen in an earlier attack that was against the security. ith that said, this…
Chen, P. "Cyber public diplomacy as china's smart power strategy in an information age: Case study of anti-carrefour incident in 2008." International Journal of China Studies 34.9 (2012): 189-217.
Kanuck, S. "Sovereign discourse on cyber conflict under international law." Texas Law Review 38.8 (2010): 1571-1597.
Korns, S.W., & Kastenberg, J.E. "Georgia's cyber left hook." Parameters 23.9 (2009): 60-76.
Narangoa, L. "Mongolia and preventive diplomacy: Haunted by history and becoming cosmopolitan." Asian Survey, 49.2 (2009): 358-379.
The Goals and Outcome of American Diplomacy
It is also worthwhile to analyze the goals and outcome of American diplomacy during the war. The primary goals of United States in the initial period of the war were to contain and defeat the totalitarian and expansionist powers of Germany and Japan, preferably without getting directly involved in the war. After its direct entry in the war, the U.S. policy was focused on achieving complete victory against the Axis powers at minimum cost. All its policies during the war, including its alliance with the Soviet Union and the use of the atomic bombs on Japan were directed to achieve these aims. As both Germany and Japan were ultimately defeated and surrendered unconditionally, the major wartime aims of the United States were achieved.
On the other hand, critics of U.S. wartime diplomacy believe that "the U.S. may have won the war but lost…
Divine, Robert a., ed. Causes and Consequences of World War II. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969.
Kimball, Warren F. "Franklin D. Roosevelt and World War II." Presidential Studies Quarterly 34.1 (2004): 83+.
Lend-Lease." Holocaust Encyclopedia: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. N.d. January 18, 2007. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005679
The "Cash-and-Carry" also benefited the American economy, as the sale of its arms helped to create more industrial jobs, which helped the U.S. climb out of the Great Depression.
Family ties enabled him to straddle both worlds. Led his army in support of the British; remembered for atrocities his army supposedly committed and his attempts to keep tribal lands.
Wampum Belt: Wampum=certain sea shells. Used for trade, but not exactly currency. ifferent colored shells valued differently. Wampum belts were woven to commemorate special occasions/given as gifts. Also used a sort of writing/memory.
Hurons: Also called "Wendat." Occupied Ontario area. Iroquoian tribe. Moved villages every ten years or so to keep land fertile/forests thick. isputes with other Iroquois intensified after receiving European weapons; Hurons almost entirely destroyed.
Squanto: Also called Tisquantum. Member of the Patuxet tribe. Captured and taken to England, where he is taught English language and culture. Returned to North America with John Smith in 1612. Helped early pilgrims survive the winter.
Pocahontas: aughter of a chieftain. Encountered settlers/John Smith as an early teenager. Possibly saved his life.…
David W. Koeller. "The Conquest of the Aztecs." 1998. Accessed 4 May 2009. http://www.thenagain.info/WebChron/Americas/Cortes.CP.html
Peter Lowensteyn. "The Role of the Dutch in the Iroquois Wars." 205. Accessed 4 May 2009. http://www.lowensteyn.com/iroquois/
Current Events U.S. Diplomacy
Summarize events between the U.S. And at least one of the Countries you wrote about in first paper since the end of the Cold War
Since the end of the Cold War, the relationship between U.S. And the former Soviet Union (Russia) has changed dramatically. What happened was that there was a shift in the philosophy and strategy within the government of Russia. This is because it became clear during the 1980's; that the current system needed to somehow be restructured. As a result, Gorbachev implemented a series of different reforms to improve the communist system. During this process, is when these changes became unstoppable, which lead to the downfall of the Soviet Union. At which point, Russia began to implement a series of different transformations in an effort to embrace Western principals including: democracy and capitalism. However, in the process of doing this, Russia began…
Foot, R. (2010). China, the United States and the Global Order. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Graham, T. (2008). U.S. Russia Relations. Washington DC: Center for Strategic International Studies.
Lundstead, G. (2010). East, West, North and South. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.
Wilson, J. (2004). Strategic Partners. Armonk, NY: Sharpe.
Current Events and U.S. Diplomacy
Defining the U.S. President Doctrine
presidential doctrines refer to the stances, goals, policies, and attitudes that are acted by the country's foreign affairs. Moreover, the President of the U.S. outlines them. They are often referred to as "doctrines" since they elicit the country's sovereignty and stance in various policies, internal and external. Most American doctrines have touched on cold war and other foreign matters. The presidents who have led the country have often been swayed to handle their foreign matters and issues with statements of the doctrines. For instance, there are various doctrines, which have been outlined by the U.S. presidents. Some of them are Monroe doctrine by President James Monroe, Truman doctrine by President Harry Truman, and many others. All the doctrines are characterized by foreign policies (Nuechterlein, 2001).
The eagan Doctrine
The eagan doctrine is one of the doctrines of the United States.…
Busch, A.E. (2001). Ronald Reagan and the politics of freedom. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
Hastedt, G.P. (2004). Encyclopedia of American foreign policy. New York: Facts on File.
Nuechterlein, D.E. (2001). America recommitted: A superpower assesses its role if a turbulent world. Lexington: Univ. Press of Kentucky.
Radu, M., & Arnold, A. (1990). The New insurgencies: Anticommunist guerrillas in the Third
Bilateral and Multilateral Diplomacy
Diplomacy normally refers to the technique of dealing with the governments through communication in contradiction to the war, military deterrence, subversion, propaganda etc. This is applied indifferently for the way as to how a government deals with another government and also the skill and art of the officials known as diplomats for those who specialize in such activity. The liability of diplomats extends towards representation of their own nation and government to others and also to assist their government to identify, to assess and respond to outward strategies, threats and opportunities. In its broadest form diplomacy intends to exert impact on the activities of foreign governments and their agents. (The Purposes of Multilateralism)
There have been extensive deliberations on the trend of the nature and structure of international relations during the contemporary era wherein it appears to revolve around three fundamental sides namely retrogression, transformation and…
Muldoon, James P. The Challenges of Multilateral Diplomacy in 1999. Retrieved from http://www.iwa.org/Publications/Lectures/muldoon.html Accessed 27 October, 2005
Multilateral Diplomacy offers way to pursue national interest while making common cause
with others, Secretary General says. 29 November 2001. Retrieved from http://www.scienceblog.com/community/older/archives/L/2001/B/un011977.html Accessed 27 October, 2005
Oudenaren, John Van. What Is "Multilateral"? Retrieved from http://www.policyreview.org/feb03/oudenaren.html Accessed 27 October, 2005
President Nixon and his philosophy of sending weapons to countries fighting off communism without sending them troops.
The second Indo-China War in 1954-1975, was the outcome of the long-standing conflict between Vietnam and France. Under the command of General Vo Nguyen Giap, nationalist forces trounced the allied French troops at the Dien Bien Phu remote mountain outpost located in the northwest part of Vietnam (Brigham). This defeat made the French to realize that they could not sustain their Indochinese colonies, which led to the call for peace by Paris. As both sides gathered in Geneva, Switzerland, international happenings were shaping Vietnam's future revolution.
The secret discussions started in the spring of 1968 in Paris and it soon became public knowledge that America and Vietnam were discussing how to bring the long and expensive war to an end. In spite of the progress made so far in Paris, the…
Brigham, R. (n.d.). PBS: Public Broadcasting Service. Battlefield: Vietnam -- History. Retrieved January 24, 2016, from http://www.pbs.org/battlefieldvietnam/history/index.html
Gholz, E. (2009, July 22). World Politics Review -- Analysis of international affairs and global trends. The Nixon Doctrine in the 21st Century. Retrieved January 25, 2016, from http://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/articles/4106/the-nixon-doctrine-in-the-21st-century
Hoey, F. (2012). The Nixon Doctrine and Nakasone Yasuhiro's Unsuccessful Challenge to Japan's Defense Policy, 1969-1971. Journal of American-East Asian Relations, 19(1), 52-74. Retrieved, from http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/10.1163/187656112x651308
PBS: Public Broadcasting Service (n.d.). Foreign Affairs. Nixon. WGBH American Experience -- PBS. Retrieved January 25, 2016, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/nixon-foreign/
COLD WA AND U.S. DIPLOMACY
Current Events and U.S. Diplomacy
has focused on maintaining close relations with some of the countries that it has had an interdependent connection with during the recent decades. Even with this, changes resulting from globalization and other factors have influenced the superpower to revise its strategies concerning diplomatic policies. Its relationship with ussia is probably one of the most intriguing relations ever seen, considering that even though the Cold War has ended one can still observe that there is a lot of tension between the two international players. While most people are inclined to associate the U.S. with the hero who managed to destroy communism and to put an end to the Cold War, it is surely intriguing to look at U.S.-ussian relations during the last two decades and at the fact that some attitudes have not changed at all.
While it seems that the…
Kollias, Chr-stos G., Gunluk-Senesen, Gulay, and Ayman, Gulden (2003) Greece and Turkey in the 21st Century: Conflict Or Cooperation: a Political Economy Perspective (Nova Publishers)
Nelson, Rebecca M., Belkin, Paul, and Mix, Derek E., (2011) Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications Retrieved September 2, 2012, from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R41167.pdf
Smith, Martin A., (2012) Power in the Changing Global Order: The U.S., Russia and China (Polity)
(2012) Syria: Russia denies discussing post-Bashar al-Assad future Retrieved September 2, 2012, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/9334216/Syria-Russia-denies-discussing-post-Bashar-al-Assad-future.html#
The goals at which this process is aimed can concentrate on creating benefits primarily for one party or on creating benefits for both parties.' (van der Pluijm and Melissen, 2007, p.1)
Multiple-sided city diplomacy is a "diplomatic process in which more than two parties are involved, representing various cities." (van der Pluijm and Melissen, 2007, p.1) van der Pluijm and Melissen state that associations of municipalities "such as United Cities and Local Government (UCLG), Eurocities or the Association of Palestinian Local Authorities are often one party in such multiple-sided processes of city diplomacy." (2007) van der Pluijm and Melissen state that the definition of city diplomacy leads to the question of how it is that the diplomatic activities of cities "relate to the diplomatic activities of state actors in general and more specifically, MFAs as the main carriers of states' diplomatic functions." It is stated that some believe that the…
Acuto, Michele (2009) City Diplomacy: Global Governance Beyond the State. Diplomatic Courier. 25 Nov 2009. Online available at: http://www.diplomaticourier.org/kmitan/articleback.php?newsid=450
Acuto, Michelle (2009) City Diplomacy; Global Governance Beyond the State. Diplomatic Courier. 25 Nov 2009. Online available at:
Negotiation or Becoming a Skilled Negotiator
The book "Negotiating at an uneven Table" entails the negotiation of conflicts in situations where some parties are at a greater disadvantage while the other parties do not acknowledge. In this case, the book issues the strategies that the disadvantaged can use. The models of recognizing uneven negotiation circumstances for all parties are also identified. This paper analyses the ways of being as discussed in the book. These chapters help to advance various uneven negotiation tables constructively. A way of being is the manner in which an individual chooses to manifest indifferently at an uneven table.
The first way of being is finding and inhabiting the deepest as well as the surest space that an individual's capability can permit. This means individuals must only take and support a stand that they can defend. Through this, they will be able to gather supportive ideas that…
Lowe, S., & Pile, L. (2007). Negotiating. Surrey: Delta Pub..
Kritek, P.B. (1994). Negotiating at an uneven table: developing moral courage in resolving our conflicts. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Pletcher puts forth the point that many wished to overtake Texas, for example, from Mexican control because of a certain level of hatred on the part of Americans for their neighbors south of the border. Perhaps, as well, there was a certain level of jealousy on the part of Americans for the extensive culture, lifestyle and tradition of the Mexican people, something which was not existent in any major way in the United States at that time.
It is said that history repeats itself, and in the connection between racism and early annexation, there is no exception. Pletcher is correct in his discussion of the very real possibility that the seeds of racism against Mexico that started so many years ago were something that was still alive and well in the 1970s. Also, this point is still emerging in the current events of today.
Southerners Seeking to Extend Slavery
The VCC clarifies the VCD and limits the diplomatic immunities in such as way that should prevent abuses. The problem is enforceability. Many law enforcement officials on a local level are not familiar enough with the particulars of both documents to make a proper judgment. They are aware of diplomatic immunity, so in order to avoid making a potential mistake, they will not arrest someone who has any type of diplomatic immunity. It is not that diplomatic immunity under the VCD allows diplomats and their families to commit crimes and get away with it. The principles contained in the Vienna Convention were in place as customary procedure even before the Vienna Convention was codified (Uribe, 1997). Nations do not have to maintain consulars and embassies, this practice is optional (Gross, 1980).
The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the authority that is responsible for decisions regarding whether a country violated…
Byers, M. 2004, Agreeing to Disagree: Security Council Resolution 1441 and Intentional
Ambiguity. Global Governance. Vol. 10. Issue: 2. pp. 165.
Caron, D. 1991, Iraq and the Force of Law: Why Give a Shield of Immunity. American Journal of International Law. Vol. 85. Issue: 1. pp. 89.
Crawford, J. 1981, Execution of Judgments and Foreign Sovereign Immunity. American Journal of International Law. Vol. 75. Issue: 4. pp. 820.
diplomacy is more likely to work in the de-escalation than the escalation phase. If we have a brief look at the definitions of the two phases, escalation is a phase where "adversaries begin to make greater threats and impose harsher negative sanctions." It is obvious that this phase has left the field of constructive diplomacy. We are no longer talking about negotiations, but about "threats" and "negative sanctions." The de-escalation phase "involves changes within each of the adversaries as well as new forms of interaction between them." The stalemate that has occurred till then makes them more willing to negotiate, so this would be an adequate phase to solve the conflict in a diplomatical manner.
The diplomacy in the de-escalation period should be characterized by small steps towards reducing the tension and towards a gradual normality of the relations between the two parties. Mistrust between the adversaries is another condition…
1. Maiesse, Michelle. Limiting Escalation/De-Escalation. On the Internet at http://www.intractableconflict.org/m/limiting_escalation.jsp
War Without Victory
Nominally, the United States achieved victory in the first Gulf War. However, the decades of fighting in the Middle East, punctuated by the second Gulf War demonstrate that the United States was not victorious in that war. However, equally clear is the fact that Iraq was not victorious. This paper examines the politics behind the Gulf War including deterrence, diplomacy, power struggles, and military and political implications to come to the conclusion that there was no victor in the Gulf War.
In August of 1990, Saddam Hussein, the leader of Iraq, ordered an invasion of Kuwait (A&E, 2013). This action alarmed other countries in the area, and these countries asked for intervention from other countries and from the United Nations. The United Nations Security Council responded by ordering Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait. The United States, working with and through the United Nations, attempted to use deterrence…
A&E Television Networks. (2013). Persian Gulf War. Retrieved May 5, 2013 from History.com website: http://www.history.com/topics/persian-gulf-war
Morgan, P. (2012). The state of deterrence in international politics today. Retrieved May 5,
2013 from Contemporary Security Policy website: http://www.contemporarysecuritypolicy.org/assets/CSP-33-1%20Morgan.pdf
PBS. (2010). The Persian Gulf War. Retrieved May 5, 2013 from American Experience
On the other hand, Israel, Jordan, and the United States were allied in their support of the Israeli state and Israel's land acquisitions during the Six-Day War. Eventually, the Sudan dropped out of the proposal, but, "By the end of 1971 the two leaders had taken soundings in Moscow, had appointed Egypt's war minister, General Muhammad Sadiq, supreme commander of both armies, and had reached agreement on broad strategy" (abil 22). They continued to gain support from the Soviet Union, knowing they needed support of a superpower to offset the military might Israel wielded in the area.
After the war, "Six Arab states, including Egypt, broke off diplomatic relations with Washington, and were subsequently drawn closer to the Soviet Union.28 Additionally, the 1967 war created another 200,000 Palestinian Arab refugees, and more than one million Arabs from this point on lived within Israeli borders" (Mork 21). This really changed the…
Ben-Ami, Shlomo. Scars of War, Wounds of Peace: The Israeli-Arab Tragedy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Cossali, Paul. "Arab-Israeli Relations 1967-2001." A Survey of Arab-Israeli Relations 1947-2001. Ed. David Lea. London: Europa, 2002. 39-283.
Mork, Hulda Kjeang. "The Jarring Mission: A Study of the UN Peace Effort in the Middle East, 1967-1971." University of Oslo. 2007. 2 June 2008. http://www.duo.uio.no/publ/IAKH/2007/58588/HuldaxMxrkxxMasteroppgavexixhistorie.pdf
Rabil, Robert G. Embattled Neighbors: Syria, Israel, and Lebanon. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2003.
Zionism is even being identified with Christianity, with evangelicals uniting themselves to Israeli interests. Need we remind ourselves that Zionism is a politico-religious belief that is diametrically opposed to Christian values? The post-war propaganda that followed II even helped obliterate the notion of Jesus Christ as Holocaust and replace it with the Shoah, the Jewish holocaust. At the heart of Zionism is the eradication of Christian culture and the elevation of Zionist policies like the one currently being enacted on the Gaza Strip. Israel is an apartheid state and has been murdering Palestinians for years -- and now it has convinced millions of Christians and evangelicals that they must destroy the Arab before he destroys them. hat kind of value is this? It is a diabolical one.
Refusing to embrace diplomacy also undermines our prosperity. Rather than attacking and occupying countries in the Middle East, we should be working with…
Anders, Chris. "Senators Demand the Military Lock Up of American Citizens." ACLU.
23 Nov 2011. Web. 13 Feb 2012.
Buchanan, Patrick. "Why Are We Baiting the Bear?" 23 Aug 2011.
Corbett, James. "9/11: A Conspiracy Theory." Corbett Report. 11 Sep 2011. Web. 13
Camp David Accords
THE CAMP DAVIDS ACCORDS: A CASE STUDY ON INTERNATIONAL NEGOTITAON
There are several tools of statecraft which can be classified as economic, military or political in nature. Negotiations, International laws, alliances and public diplomacy are the main instruments of politics used by the politicians to resolve the issues and problems at national and international levels. This paper discusses how the political tool of statecraft was used by nations to solve the problems.
Negotiations take place when two or more than two parties use the diplomatic means instead of military means to settle a problem, issue or conflict that is shared by both of them[footnoteRef:1]. Negotiations should not be confused with the reconciliation or compromise, in which one party wins and other losses, but it is actually a bargaining process, conducted by both parties in order to get the economic and territorial gains. [1: Hopman, Terrence.…
Caplan, Neil and Eisenberg, Laura. 1998. Negotiating Arab-Israeli Peace. Bloomington, IN: Indiana UP, p.39.
Hopman, Terrence. 2001. Bargaining and Problem-Solving: Two Perspectives on International Negotiation. Washington. Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict. p. 457
Stein, Janis Gross. 1993. "The Political Economy of Security Agreements." Double-Edged Diplomacy. Ed. Peter B. Evans, Harold K. Jacobson, and Robert D. Putnam. Berkeley: California UP. pp.77-103.
Telhami, Shibley. 1992. "The Camp David Accords." Pew Case Studies in International Affairs. Washington, DC:
Jomini and Clausewitz
Over the years, many doctrines have seen the light regarding military doctrine. While some of these theories have worked well in tandem, others have diverged and suggested different approaches to explaining the various arts and crafts related to war. Two such theorists include Antoine Henri Baron De Jomini and Carl Don Clausewitz. Although most investigators focus on the fundamental differences between the theories of these authors, it is also possible to recognize them as having co-existed in the historical process and the nature of military doctrine. One might therefore promote the view that Jomini and Clausewitz coexist in many modern military strategies; this has been proven throughout history during the tactical, operational, and strategic levels of war.
Baron De Jomini and the physical aspects of war.
Jomini has placed emphasis on the principals and applications dominating at the operational and tactical levels of war. He mentions, for…
Baron De Jomini, Antoine Henri. 1862. The Art of War. J.B. Lippincott & Company.
Von Clausewitz, Carl. 1906. On War. Project Gutenberg
Thirdly, the approach Woodrow Wilson had put forward at the Peace Conference was based on the mutual agreement between the states of the world to avoid any military confrontation in the future. The final point which demanded for the creation of a world body to guarantee "political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike" would have implied certain equality between the parts of this Pact. The actual situation on the ground however could not have supported such a claim because the states present in Paris were split between winners and losers of the war and automatically between countries that were satisfied with the status quo the war had established and the ones that were unsatisfied with the post war situation. Part of the first category, France and ritain, as well as the U.S. tried to keep to the results the armed conflict had reached, while Russia and…
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994
Brigham Young University Library. President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points. 1996. Accessed 2 August, 2007 at http://net.lib.byu.edu/~rdh7/wwi/1918/14points.html
Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
Schlesinger, Stephen. Act of Creation. The Founding of the United Nations. Colorado: Westview, 2003
Nazrin I a Master student, studying International Relations Diplomacy. I write a review book written 2007 Rudolf Avenhaus, I.illiam Zartman 'Diplomacy games:formal models international negotiations."
"Diplomacy games: formal models and international negotiations" by Rudolf Avenhaus, I. illiam Zartman represents an important contribution to the specialized literature in the area of international relations, presented in the form of a compilation of articles and points-of-view from important scholars in the domains, such as Matthias Raith, expert in development of analytical individual and group decisions, Dana Rowlands, author of several books on conflict resolution and peacekeeping interventions.
The negotiation process plays a vital role in the way in which international politics is conducted not only for the practitioners but also for the beneficiaries of the results of negotiations. The book's aim is to point out precisely the need for applying theoretical analysis to practical processes.
The message of the book is, as pointed…
Avenhous, Rudolf, and William Zartman. Diplomacy Games: Formal models of, in and for international negotiations. New York: Springer, 2007.
(Avenhous and Zartman, p1)
(Avenhous and Zartman, p 5)
(Avenhous and Zartman, p29-30)
oosevelt and Taft
In the first part of the twentieth century the United States found itself becoming an emerging world power. In response to this new position in the world, two distinct foreign policies developed under two successive presidents: Theodore oosevelt's "big stick" policy and William Taft's "dollar diplomacy." While one was predicated on the development and use of military power to reinforce America's position in the world, the other was based on the development and use of economic resources to accomplish the same goal. oosevelt's position was unashamedly militaristic while Taft's was based on economic incentives, but in the end oosevelt was more successful. This is because, while he promoted military power, his reliance on military power intimidated many nations into acceding to his demands without the actual use of military force while Taft's attempt to downplay military force ultimately required him to use it more often.
Faragher, J.M., Buhle, M.J., Czitrom, D., & Armitage, S.H.. (2009). Out of Many: A
History of the American People, Vol. II. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice
U.S.A and Turkey Diplomatic elations
Events between the U.S. And Turkey since the End of Cold War
Gary E. Oldenburg has it that the cold war ended with the collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991. Various things have happened between Turkey and the U.S. since the end of this war bearing in mind that the first contests of the cold war were in Turkey, Greece and Iran.
Ceren Mutus (2011) notes that the eruption of the gulf war after the cold war served to strengthen the relations between Turkey and the U.S. unlike what people anticipated. More so the Clinton administration's support for the Turkish IMF debt guarantees was another event after the cold war between the U.S. And Turkey as registered by Turkish weekly (25th August 2011)
US's support for Turkeys EU membership is also another event between Turkey and the U.S.U.S. has been strongly advocating for…
Bruce C. & Tony K., (2008). Changing the Conventional Wisdom about Iran. Retrieved August
25, 2011 from http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1847342,00.html
Ceren Mutus, (2011). Winning Turkey: How America, Europe, and Turkey Can Revive a Fading
Partnership. Retrieved August 25, 2011 from http://www.turkishweekly.net/book/51/winning-turkey-how-america-europe-and-turkey-can-revive-a-fading-partnership.html
Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs. Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between 1600 B.C. And 1400 B.C. In South Mexico. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber."
At first they ate fish and they later start to farm, and that made it possible for them to "develop the first major civilization in Mesoamerica." (The Olmec Civilization) Thanks to the steady food supplies the Olmec population grew and some came to have other occupations. "Some became potters or weavers. Others became priests or teachers." (Ibidem) Once the population grew, so did their farming villages which developed into cities. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…
1. The Olmec Civilization, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Pleasant Valley School website: http://www.pvsd.k12.ca.us/180120521134440680/lib/180120521134440680/11-2_SG_7th.pdf
2. Villeacas, Daniel, Mother Culture of Mexico: The Olmecs, Denver Public Schools, 2005, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Denver Public Schools website: http://etls.dpsk12.org/documents/Alma/units/MotherCultureMexicoOlmecs.pdf
3. Olmec -- Masterworks of Ancient Mexico, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art website: http://www.lacma.org/eduprograms/EvesforEds/OlmecEssay.pdf
4. Hansen, Valerie, Curtis Kenneth, Curtis, Kenneth R., Voyages in World History: To 1600, Volume 1, Cengage Learning, December 30, 2008
Molnar feels that the president of the United States is using his son's life, and the lives of many other soldiers, as a tool to further his own political career. He feels that the United States had a shoddy foreign policy for more than a decade and, just as the pressure cooker began to explode, began to try to remedy the situation with a bandage. Molnar contends that the United States is not behaving in the best interest of the people, but is only acting to secure cheap oil and continue using 25 to 30% of this natural resource. The alternative view is that the president had the welfare of the people in mind when he sent soldiers off to the Persian Gulf, and that it was necessary to send troops to the Gulf in order to avoid the possibility of an oil shortage in the United States. In his…
Bush, the primary
strategy for U.S. engagement of partners revolved on the conditions
provoked by the ar on Terror. This is evident in the ends, ways and means
of addressing the situation in Somalia, where Bush cites as the primary
priority for all partners involved to end war. Indeed, the intended ends
of the strategy are the transformation of Somalia into a peaceful
democracy. The ways proposed have seen the formulation of a regional
alliance helmed by the United States, which such partners as Kenya,
Djibouti, Ethiopia and Yemen have come together to assist Somalia in
extracting the cause of its conflict. To the perception of the Bush
administration, this cause is the presence of terrorism, with the means of
strategy implementation centering on the need to "eliminate the terrorist
threat and promote political stability by supporting the establishment of a
functioning central government." (Bush, 7)
4. The strategy described…
Bush, G.W. (2007). Report on U.S. Strategy Toward Somalia. Report to
Gates, R.M. (2008). International Institute for Strategic Studies. U.S.
Department of Defense.
The politics were simple. The Government and the settlers had all the power, ultimately the Natives did not, and so, the settlers and the government subjugated the Natives and forced them into treaties that only served the European settlers. Another writer notes, "In 1983 ichard White argued in the oots of Dependency that Euro-Indian relations in various parts of North America had in common the 'attempt... By whites to bring Indian resources, land, and labor into the market.'"
Of course, they brought them into that "market" on their own terms most often, rather than that of the Natives.
Joseph Brant - Mohawk leader - British Army officer - Studied at "Moor's Indian Charity School - Translator for Department of Indian Affairs - esponsible for restoring lands to the Mohawk people.
Wampum belt - Fashioned from seashells - Used as money or for trade - Given during times of peace making…
Editors, First World. Voyager's World, (2009), ( http://www.tfo.org/television/emissions/rendezvousvoyageur/en/world/context/firstnations.html ) 9 Feb. 2009.
Hatfield, April Lee. "Colonial Southeastern Indian History." Journal of Southern History 73, no. 3 (2007): 567+.
Konkle, Maureen. Writing Indian Nations: Native Intellectuals and the Politics of Historiography, 1827-1863. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
Editors, First World. Voyager's World, (2009), (
The ritish came to impose serious taxes as a result of the French Indian war. These in turn were unacceptable to a people which considered itself not to be responsible for the causes of the war. The confrontation had been in fact another matter of European dispute that had to be solved outside the continent in the colonies.
Third, there is a disagreement in the way in which the war was perceived at the local level. The American colonies viewed this struggle as a need for independence from a regime that continued to impose an undemocratic control over its institutions and the lives of the people. On the other hand, the ritish saw it as a rebellion that must be immediately squashed. In its view, it was a war for the maintenance of a certain order, while the Americans viewed it as one of disruption of this order. While the…
Brainard, R. (2005) "Shays' Rebellion." 18th century history. 11 June 2008. http://www.history1700s.com/articles/article1120.shtml
British Battles. (N.d.) the War of the Revolution 1775 to 1783. Accessed 11 June 2008 http://www.britishbattles.com/american-revolution.htm
Calliope. (2008) "Shays' Rebellion." A Historical Synopsis. 11 June 2008. http://www.calliope.org/shays/shays2.html
Jenkins, P. (1997) a history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
The accident in the Tonkin Gulf when North Vietnamese forces attacked the U.S. vessels and caused two airplanes to crash was a good reason to start the conflict, as the troops of North Vietnam violated the Geneva Convention and attacked a foreign navy in the neutral international waters. The United States has to react on this accident, as it was the mater of international respect, but at the same time the presidents administration had to estimate the future consequences of the military strike back. It was not secret that a lot of Soviet weapon was concentrated in North Vietnam, and Viet Kong army was ready to start the war for the unification of the country as it was guaranteed to have a support from Soviets.
Invention in Grenada was caused by the Cuban influence on Grenada's government in early 1980 iers. Grenada changed its political orientation and turned to the…
John J. Johnson, a Hemisphere Apart: Foundations of U.S. Policy toward Latin America Westview Press; 2nd edition (January, 2001)
Alonso Aguilar, Pan-Americanism from Monroe to the Present Monthly Review Pr (June 1, 1969)
Born in Hong Kong, I have attended school in Canada and the United States. I have travelled through China, Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, and India and, most recently, Australia. My work experience has been grounded in political and economic research and practice. My most recent research project for Arjan Interfax involved researching Australia-Chinese relations and how to approach human rights concerns while still maintaining a profitable relationship with China. I have also researched Indian foreign policy and its impact upon the current market environment. Contextualizing market research and logistics analysis in light of the Pacific Rim's unique cultural environment is essential when doing business with the region.
I have also worked for the international logistic consultant SCF Containers International Pty Ltd. (Australia), liaising with international freight forwarders to relocate containers in Australia as well as with factories in China. Through my work, I have become experienced in the intersection of political…
Charlotte Beers' work on the field of using corporate branding and imaging controlling factors within the government sector has been characterized in many ways as an example of what can go wrong when appropriate conditions and tactics do not come together as expected. Many commentators have specifically identified these efforts as an example of the miscalculation as to how to utilize corporate strategies for the benefit of larger national interests (Perlez, 2002).
In this memorandum, we outline how Ogilvy & Mather can and should undertake a direct reconsideration of this negative experience and convert it to a positive message of global promotion and opportunity for our many world clients. The current person in the position of undersecretary for public diplomacy comes from a government relations background -- arguably signaling that the U.S. government has all be decided that there is no value at this time in improvident the U.S.'s image…
Fact: The campaign's components were generically developed so as to apply to Muslims unilaterally.
Fact: Even before they were used, Muslim Americans and others who reviewed the videos saw them as simplistic, condescending and propagandistic (Perlez, 2002).
Fact: The primary medium was simplified over government and cultural concerns and thus failed to anticipate some of the communication efforts
Arab Israeli Conflict
The Arab-Israeli conflict
The current Arab-Israeli conflict has a long standing history which goes back to the 1910s when the Ottoman Empire was still in place. During the WWI, the Germans sided with the Ottoman and the British sided with the Arabs in revolting against the Ottoman Empire. The British promised the Arabs self rule and to the Jews they promised them a homeland in Palestine (Kattan, et.al., 2009:Pp59). The Arabs took over the control of Syria and immediately after the war, the League of Nations gave the French the control over Syria and to the British they gave what are today Israel, Gaza Strip, West Bank and Jordan. In 1921 the British divided their large mandate into two; the East of Jordan became the emirates of Transjordan under Abdullah and the West of Jordan became the mandate of the Palestine (the Promised Land to the Jews)…
Bassiouni & Ben Ami, (2009). International and Comparative Criminal Law Series, Volume 29: A Guide to Documents on the Arab-Palestinian/Israeli Conflict: 1897-2008. Martinus Nijhof: The Netherlands.
Harms G. & Todd M.F., (2008). Palestine-Israel Conflict: A Basic Introduction (2nd Edition). Pluto Press: London.
Kattan, et.al., (2009). From Coexistence to Conquest: International Law and the Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1891-1949. Pluto Press.
Khatchadourian, (2000). Quest for Peace Between Israel and the Palestinians. Peter Lang Publishing: New York.
Overall, the Central Intelligence Agency was an important, if not essential, element of the general tactics used by the U.S. In the Cold War. The reason was the limited access to information on the situations in the countries around the world in an era of non-military confrontation. The threat of communist supremacy made the U.S. And the western world rely heavily on the advantages covert operation missions had. Still, the ambiguity and ever-changing nature of the international conditions at the time made it impossible for the CIA to act on a hundred percent success rate. In conclusion, the activity of the Agency is praised and criticized at the same time. Nonetheless, it represented a crucial segment of the conduct of American foreign policy during the Cold War.
Goodman, Allan E., "Reforming U.S. Intelligence," Foreign Policy, 1987.
Murphy, David E., Serghei a. Kondrasev, and George ailey. attleground erlin: CIA vs.…
Goodman, Allan E., "Reforming U.S. Intelligence," Foreign Policy, 1987.
Murphy, David E., Serghei a. Kondrasev, and George Bailey. Battleground Berlin: CIA vs. KGB in the Cold War. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.
Jeffreys- Jones, Rhodri. The CIA and American democracy. Yale UP. London. 1989.
Ranelagh, John. The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986.
When I think about this, and when I think about my potential Jewish classmate, I imagine a world where diversity is encouraged - not just preserved but also cultivated through mentoring, cross-generational dialogue, and continual experimentation. This diversity would be made to flourish locally and brought to higher levels, and in this world of my imagination, diverse peoples would freely interact with, understand, and learn from each other. For myself and my potential classmate, refusing to be enemies and refusing to be silent would be important, and we could talk together and favorably about each other's people, culture, heritage, ideas, values, and history. Rather then inflame the war, now is the time to use every instrument of law, diplomacy, and negotiation to find a way to peace. I don't know if the peace that so many people desire, whatever their race, will ever come to be, but I do know…
Perceptions of Che Guevera
PERCEPTIONS OF CHE GUEVARA
Che Guevara was born as Ernesto Guevara de la Serna in 1928 to a middle-class family (Castaneda 1998, 3). He was Argentinean by birth but was later awarded with an honorary Cuban citizenship in recognition of his contribution towards the armed struggle in the Cuban revolution. Studying to become a doctor, Guevara became influenced by Marxist ideals and teachings upon a motorbike trip across South America at the age of twenty-four where he observed the exploitation and deprivation of the poor people under capitalism (Castaneda 1998, 50). He became a champion of the class struggle against capitalism on an international level. He joined Fidel Castro in 1955 in overthrowing the Cuban government of atista. Subsequently, he became an important figure in Cuban diplomacy and a vocal critic of the United States and the Soviet Union. Later on he helped revolutionary groups…
Anderson, Jon, L. 2010. Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. Grove Press
Castaneda, Jorge, G. 2008. Companero: The Life and Death of Che Guevara. Bloomsbury Publishing
Harris, Richard, L. 2010. Che Guevara: A Biography. ABC-CLIO
Salmon, Gary, P. 1990. The Defeat of Che Guevara: Military Response to Guerrilla Challenge in Bolivia. Greenwood Publishing Group
Submitted to the Faculty of the Division of the International Relations and Diplomacy
In Candidacy For The Degree Of Master Of Philosophy
A number of developments are challenging the national identity and interests of Western European countries. Primary among these are the supranational integration and sovereignty sharing that is occurring between the European Union (EU) member state governments and the EU governance organs, the ongoing inward migration of peoples from the global South and East into EU countries, as well as the continued elaboration and application of human rights, which is of particular importance to potential migrants and EU residents of non-European origin. The existence of increasing migratory flows and a growing number of settled immigrant communities demands a policy response from the EU and its member states to address the situation of immigrant minorities "particularly with regards to the rights to be (or not to be) conferred upon them"…
Freedman, Jane. 2003. Gender and Insecurity: Migrant Women in Europe. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing Company.
Geddes, Andrew. 1995. "Immigrant and Ethnic Minorities and the EU's 'Democratic Deficit'." Journal of Common Market Studies 33:197-217.
Guiraudon, Virginie. 2000. "European Integration and Migration Policy: Veretical Policy-making as Venue Shopping." Journal of Common Market Studies 38:251-71.
Huysmans, Jef. 2000. "The EU and the securitization of migration." Journal of Common Market Studies 38:751-78.
U.S. INVADED IRAQ IN 2003
Why U.S. Invade Iaq 2003
invasion of Iaq has a numbe of foceful effects that elate to the influence of the 9/11 occuence in the county. The then U.S. pesident who happened to have been Pesident Bush pushed fo the U.S. invasion of Iaq amidst the actions that Saddam had done to the U.S. In most avenues of pefomance, it is clea that the U.S. attack on Iaq was bought unde an infuiated situation. The demand fo the U.S. To invade Iaq came fom the sensitive eactions and elations between Bush and the then Iaq pesident Hussein. Many nations in the wold have engaged in wa and not because of the ideological diffeences. Rathe, the invasions and conflicts that have been expeienced in many nations ae elated to the geneal balance of powe. Many of the nations that have been expeiencing the ugency to be…
references to the political, economic and ideological interests/purpose of the U.S., ignoring the reasons stated by the Bush administration and the Blair government. Mu-nchen, GRIN Verlag
GmbH. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-20100916742 .
Radu, M., & Arnold, A. (1990). The New insurgencies: Anticommunist guerrillas in the Third
World. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers.
Roberts, J.E., & Army War College (U.S.). (2007). Winning the battle of ideas in the War on Terrorism. Carlisle Barracks, Pa: U.S. Army War College.
President Obama's remarkable ability to combine his liberal inclinations on humanitarian issues with expertly wielded applications of America's economic and military superiority was presaged in an article published by Harvard Magazine before ballots had been cast in the 2008 election. When professor of international relations Joseph S. Nye Jr. boldly declared that "the old distinction between realists and liberals needs to give way to a new synthesis that you might choose to call 'liberal realism'"4, (2008, pg. 36), he
3 Douthat, oss. "Obama the ealist." The New York Times, February 07, 2011.
4 Nye, Joseph S. "Toward a Liberal ealist Foreign Policy: A memo for the next president." Harvard Magazine 110 (2008): 36-38.
provided a startlingly accurate prediction of President Obama's methodically effective strategy of relying on liberalist motivations to enact firmly realist foreign policy directives in relation to Iran.
Other commentaries on American public opinion towards Iran have focused…
Cohen, Warren I. "The Dispensable Nation: American Foreign Policy in Retreat' by Vali Nasr." The Washington Post, May 03, 2012. http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/the-dispensable-nation-american-foreign - policy-in-retreat-by-vali-nasr/2013/05/03/b7b01178-ac14-11e2-a198- 99893f10d6dd_story.html (Accessed May 4, 2013).
Douthat, Ross. "Obama the Realist." The New York Times, February 07, 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/07/opinion/07douthat.html?_r=0 (Accessed May 5, 2013).
Esfandiary, Dina. "Why Iranian Public Opinion Is Turning Against the Nuclear Program." The Atlantic, March 16, 2012. http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/03/why - iranian-public-opinion-is-turning-against-the-nuclear-program/254627 / (Accessed May 5, 2013).
Nye, Joseph S. "Toward a Liberal Realist Foreign Policy: A memo for the next president." Harvard Magazine 110 (2008): 36-38. http://harvardmag.com/pdf/2008/03- pdfs/0308-36.pdf (Accessed May 4, 2013).
Unsuccessful Presidents Identified- 1865-1940
Johnson's Problems with Congress
Cleveland's Problems with Congress
McKinley's Problems with Congress
Hoover's Problems with Congress
Using it to achieve goals
Americans unconcerned with problems outside of borders.
ural country first
Disdain for strong leaders
Concern for the economy
Failing to change
What political characteristics, personal patterns do unsuccessful presidents share in common between 1865 and 1940?
From the period 1865 to 1940, a total of fifteen men served as President of the United States. These fifteen - Johnson, Grant, Hayes, Garfield, Arthur, Cleveland, Harrison, McKinley, oosevelt, Taft, Wilson, Harding, Coolidge, Hoover, and oosevelt - served during what should have been mostly prosperous times. Yet several of these men and their presidencies must be labeled as failures.
Of these men, four have…
Richard Hofstadter with an foreword by Christopher Lasch (1974). The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It. (New York, NY: Vintage Books, 501 p. (Reprint 1948 ed.))., 9
Richard Hofstadter with an foreword by Christopher Lasch (1974). The American Political Tradition and the Men Who Made It. (New York, NY: Vintage Books, 501 p. (Reprint 1948 ed.))., 7
Carl Degler, Out of Our Past, (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 1986), 5
Cold War, the president of the United States was often referred to as the "leader of the free world." This connotes an image of someone with an unsurpassed amount of power and responsibility. From 1861 to 1969, the role of President of the United States progressed from being that of the leader of a moderately powerful, factious republic to being one who was almost singularly responsible for the defense of most of the world's population against Communist tyranny. To understand this evolution requires an broader inquiry into the nature of these leaders and the constantly changing polity that they were elected to represent.
Abraham Lincoln, Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Delano Roosevelt bear the distinction of having lead the country into its largest conflicts during this time frame, which makes them among the most intriguing to historians. Although McKinley, Lyndon Johnson and Truman were also 'wartime' Presidents, their respective conflicts were…
Oxford University Press, 1992.
George F. Kennan, American Diplomacy. Ayer, 1975
Carl Degler, Out of Our Past. Harpercollins, 1986
s noted on the JP Morgan's own website, the evolution of the credit derivatives market has shifted the entire technology agenda into the banking environment because of the creation of electronic markets. full understanding of how recent changes in technology can be related to international economics and development is thus critical to success in the field of consulting.
I believe I can offer a unique combination of technical, business, and personal skills to JP Morgan that relate directly to the interrelationship of technology, structural development, and international economics. My background in the electrical and structural aspects of engineering, my personal and social education in Europe, and my familiarity with business culture and terms would all make me a valuable asset to JP Morgan.
In September of 2002, I graduated with honors in Civil Electronic Engineering from the Free University of Brussels (V.U.B.). This background in engineering has given…
At university, I honed and developed my analytical skills, the apex of which was my thesis on the simulation of an ADSL-modem. My work has taught me how to tackle unstructured problems, rather than simply to apply outmoded concepts to new ideas. I am extremely comfortable with several program languages, including Visual basic, C++, Java and Matlab-Simulink. But beyond comfort, I know how to think creatively in the language of technology, much as I know how to communicate in a variety of languages.
A interned in 2001 with the Telindus Company in Beligu, an International telecommunications company, for which I wrote a program to use a sampler as an oscilloscope enabling the company to test modems. In my work for Eleven 11 in Antwerp, Belgium, I wrote a specific program to facilitate this Belgian diamonds company's accounting. Even during my 'leisure' time I found myself fusing my interests in technology and business, when I created with some friends of mine an investment club in February of 2000.
But at JP Morgan, my passion for technology and business would be fused, not simply into a single investment club, but would become the focus of my professional and intellectual life. I offer my skills, my energy, along with my passion to this great and renowned company.
Iraq invaded Kuwait. The invasion lasted a few days and on August 8th Iraq announced that Kuwait was its nineteenth province. The same day the invasion began, the United Nations denounced the attack and passed Resolution 660, which condemned the Iraqi invasion and called for immediate and unconditional withdrawal from Kuwait. The United States began mobilizing its military on August 7th.
y the time the UN deadline arrived in January of 1991, The United States had amassed hundreds of thousands of troops in the Persian Gulf Region. The war began on January 17th with bombing sorties. Over the next month, 67,000 sorties would be flown over Iraq. Operation Desert Storm was launched on February 24th, and Coalition ground forces entered the fight. The war was won in less than four days. The cease-fire began on 8am, February 28th. Iraq was defeated and Kuwait was liberated.
In a strategic sense, Operation…
April Glaspie Transcript." What Really Happened. 1996. What Really Happened. 9 Mar 2004 http://www.whatreallyhappened.com/ARTICLE5/april.html
Chronology of the Kuwait Crisis." The Kuwait Information Office. 2004. The Kuwait
Information Office. 9 Mar 2004 http://www.kuwait-info.org
Final Report to Congress: Conduct of the Persian Gulf War." Apr 1992. The National Security Archive 11 Feb 2004. George Washington University. 9 Mar 2004 http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/the_archive.html
Remembering the U.S.A. And USSR Kitchen Debates of 1959
Before the bellicosity and belligerence exchanged by the United States of America (USA) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in the 1960s -- an era known today as the "Cold ar" -- the two recently emergent superpowers engaged in the delicate dance of diplomacy in the wake of their shared victory in orld ar II. One of the most interesting examples of the doomed diplomatic efforts between American and Russian leaders was known as the "Kitchen Debates," as U.S. Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev squared off in an often rancorous debate amidst a truly unique backdrop. On July 24th, 1959, the respective leaders of the world's dominant capitalist and communist economic powers met at the opening of the American National Exhibition -- which was held at Sokolniki Park at the U.S. Embassy in Moscow as…
Jakabovics, Barrie Robyn. "Displaying American Abundance Abroad: The Misinterpretation of the 1959 American National Exhibition in Moscow." Paper presented. 2007. Web.
Nixon, Richard M., and Nikita Khrushchev. Ashbrook Center for Public Affairs at Ashland
University. TeachingAmericanHistory.org. Kitchen Debate - Transcript. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1959. Web.
Protective Service Operations
Comparison and Contrast of the considerations and special problems the protective service agent
Providing security or protection to VIPs is still in its initial phase and has been occupied by groups and agencies, which differ in quality as well as dependability. The security provided to VIPs such as, politicians and diplomats are handled and governed by trained and skillful personnel having a uniform code of ethics and operations. While, these groups are well outfitted to do their job efficiently, they are quite dissimilar compared to those who offer security to the business executives and celebrities. As these later agencies are usually owned and governed by the ex-army-men or ex-police recruits. Whereupon, these agencies look on this area of business as a great opportunity to mature and grow as it has been their core career skills. But what these agencies lack are high technology equipments and skilled employees…
Cox, D. (2001). Close Protection: The Politics of Guarding Russia's Rulers. Westport, CT.
Oatman, R.L., (1999). The art of executive protection. Baltimore, Noble House.
Puerto ico became a possession of the United States after the Spanish-American War in 1898, but has never been fully incorporated into the Union (Pantojas-Garcia, 2013). It later became a Commonwealth in 1952, a status it maintains to this day. The subject of the status of Puerto ico has, since that time, been controversial. There have been multiple referendums on the subject, the latest in 2012, but as yet there has not been a change in the status of Puerto ico. The 2012 referendum indicated a majority of Puerto icans want the status of their territory changed, with most preferring full statehood. Yet this number is not sufficient to break what is essentially a stalemate, and there are other options as yet on the table. This paper will look at the issue of the stalemate, its causes, and will explore the ideas of solutions.
Analysis of History
Puerto icans are…
Davilla, A. (1997). Sponsored Identities: Cultural Politics in Puerto Rico. Temple University Press: Philadelphia.
Garrett, R. (2011). Political status of Puerto Rico: Options for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved November 18, 2014 from http://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL32933.pdf
Pantojas-Garcia, E. (2013). The Puerto Rico status question: Can the stalemate be broken? Caribbean Journal of International Relations & Diplomacy. Vol. 1 (2) 41-52.
National strategy is the art and science of development and usage of informational, diplomatic and economic powers of a country in union with its armed forces for purposes of securing national objectives during war and peace times. National strategies are a key delivery mechanism for several new and existing nations. It was first introduced in the year 1998 with the aim of assisting in developing educational settings to improve the standards and life expectancy of children. Troops in the Air Force have today become experienced exceptional at applying space, air and cyber powers to achieve operational and tactical objectives (Bush, 2002). The Air Force plays a big role in national security. Some of the critical capabilities that determines what the Air Force is able to provide for a nation include: action freedom in air, space and cyberspace; power projection; air diplomacy; global situational awareness; and military support to civil…
Varnava (2012) commented on the multifaceted intelligence attributes that went into making the construct of British Intelligence gathering in Cyprus, a successful vocation in World War II. This review aims to explore the implications of the role played by local, civil populace in thwarting attempts by military in allowing intelligence inputs through counter-espionage on British and Middle East territories. The review revisits some work on the First World War British efforts on counter espionage measures in Cyprus after 1916. The work will add to the literature on intelligence activities, attempted during the WW1 (Varnava, 2012).
According to Constantinou's (2013) paper, the role played by diplomatic strategies that extrapolates intelligence-gathering process makes it successful. Diplomacy is a means of making skilled, persistent advocacy towards obtaining solutions of complex situations. It fails to make most of its capabilities. The epistemology (of diplomacy) in the context of humanism, above the dimension of intelligence…
Alfonso, K.L. (2010). Femme fatale 2010. AIR AND SPACE POWER JOURNAL MAXWELL AFB AL.
Blair, J. (2011). Hesitation kills: A female Marine officer's combat experience in Iraq. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Carreiras, H. (2006). Gender and the military: Women in the armed forces of western democracies. Routledge.
Clandestine Women: Spies in American History (2014) National Women's History Museum. Retrieved from: https://www.nwhm.org/online-exhibits/spies/8.htm
In April 2nd 1982, the then Argentinian government sent soldiers to take over the disputed Falklands Islands. The reason for this is that the South American country regarded the group of islands as part of its territory. However, the British, who already occupied the islands, also regarded the Falklands as their territory. Over the next one month, both countries made serious attempts to store the conflict from escalating. Alexander Haig, who was the then United States Secretary of State was right in the middle of the diplomatic negotiations to try and stop the conflicting from escalating. He and his team travelled frantically between the London and Buenos Aires to meet and negotiate with the leaders of the two countries, Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher of the United Kingdom and President Leopoldo Galtieri of Argentina. Nevertheless, the countless hours of negotiations and the frantic efforts of the Alexander Haig and his…
Foreign Policy of President eagan
Before the disastrous Vietnam War, the U.S. held an undisputed dominant position worldwide, recognized locally as well as by other nations. The nation's historic actions towards defending freedom, by restraining the fascist faction during the Second World War, followed by organizing a large free-state coalition for combating communism, were supported by profound and sweeping domestic consensus. This consensus was destroyed by America's decision to wage war on Vietnam. Despite the rationale being the protection of free peoples battling communism, the Vietnam War resulted in caustic doubt and destabilizing discord among Americans. This suspicion and discord incited and guided by people opposed to the war, rather than the enemy's weaponry and zeal, explains America's failure, above every other factor. The U.S. had to battle internal resistance more than resistance from the Vietnamese adversary, and resulted in a self-inflicted defeat (Brenes 2015; LAISON 2013). Extremely serious repercussions…
Anderson, Martin. 1990. Revolution: The Reagan Legacy, Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press.
Armstrong, Scott and Peter Grier. 1986. Strategic Defense Initiative: Splendid Defense or Pipe Dream, New York: Foreign Policy Association.
Arquilla, John. 2006. The Reagan Imprint: Ideas in American Foreign Policy from the Collapse of Communism to the War on Terror, Chicago: Ivan R. Dee.
Baucom, Donald R. 1992. The Origins of SDI, 1944-1983, Lawrence, Kans.: University Press of Kansas.
Kant was no exception to the paradigmatic priorities (i.e. objectivity as knowledge) of the era, and brief reference to the episteme is serves accuracy in discursive analysis of this heritage within American politics and policy thought. For instance, Kant's Critique of Judgment is enormously influential in establishing a connection between judgment and political and moral precepts to conduct in communities. Intellectual lineage to Kant's model of Enlightenment 'reason" combines ritish Empiricism with Continental Rationalism; and partly explains why his philosophical proposition that the existence of persistent war against non-liberal states is a requirement to perpetual peace is reiterated in scholarly expiation since the Enlightenment period, making Perpetual Theory of War as lasting as seminal reference (ehnke, 2009, Caranti, 2006 and Murray, 2003). Discourse Analysis toward the study's cause-and-effect analysis is derived from speeches and interviews taken from the ush administration in Table 1.
President ush -- Speeches and…
Behnke, a. (2009). Eternal Peace, Perpetual War? A Critical Investigation into Kant's Conceptualisation of War. Conference Papers -- International Studies Association, 1-18.
Bolton, J. (2010). Obama's Next Three Years. Commentary, 129(1), 24-28.
Brose, C. (2009). The Making of George W. Obama. Foreign Policy, (170), 52-55.
Caranti, L. (2006). Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace? Reflections on the Realist Critique of Kant's Project. Journal of Human Rights, 5(3), 341-353. doi:10.1080/14754830600812357.
The withdrawal was supposed to aid the Communists in controlling the areas vacated by the Japanese, who had succeeded in controlling vast portions of Manchuria.
Stalin's efforts were aimed at forcing "the GMD [Guomindang or Chinese Nationalist Party] to make economic concessions, to prevent a united China from allying with the United States, and to placate Washington on the international arena by giving in to American demands for withdrawal," but in actuality he not only laid the groundwork for the Communists' eventual victory, but also opened up a window for the possibility of a U.S.-Communist alliance that would have destabilized the Soviet Union's power; as will be seen, the United States failed to capitalize on this opportunity, but the fact remains that Stalin's withdrawal seems to have backfired.
Stalin's withdrawal was not directly aimed at ensuring a Communist victory, but rather was an attempt to destabilize the country so…
Ashton, S.R. "Keeping a Foot in the Door: Britain's China Policy, 1945 -- 50." Diplomacy and Statecraft 15 (2004): 79-94.
Bjorge, Gary J. "The Third Chinese Revolutionary Civil War, 1945-49: An Analysis of Communist Strategy and Leadership." The Journal of Military History 74, no. 1 (2010):
Boyd, James. "Japanese Cultural Diplomacy in Action: The Zenrin ky? okai in Inner Mongolia,
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…
Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=34158088
Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=53424557
Sardesai, D.R. (1974). Chapter 6 India: A Balancer Power?. In Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power, Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.) (pp. 94-104). New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691923
Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.). (1974). Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power. New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691822
Powell was unanimously approved by the Senate and became the first African-American to hold that position. His service as Secretary of State is a clear example of his reticence, yet readiness, for war. hile Powell is known for "the so-called Powell doctrine -- that U.S. military power only be used in overwhelming strength to achieve well-defined strategic national interests," (answers.com 3) he made a famous speech to the United Nations in which he voiced support for the war in Iraq. Although he clashed with the often "hawkish" members of the Bush hite House such as Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, "one of Powell's best known moments as secretary of state was his speech last year  to the U.N. Security Council in which he made a case for invading Iraq" (King 3). The initial invasion of Iraq was billed as necessary by the Bush hite House because of the threat…
Academy of Achievement. "Colin Powell Biography." January 11, 2006. http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/pow0bio-1
America's Promise. "General Powell's Message to America." 2006. http://www.americaspromise.org/WhyHere.aspx?id=124
Answers.com. "Colin Powell." 2006. http://www.answers.com/topic/colin-powell
King, John; Koppel, Andrea; Malveaux, Suzanne; Labotte, Elise. "Powell resigns with three other Cabinet secretaries." http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/11/15/powell/
Where, the inability of intelligence agencies to understand the ambitions of the Islamic Republic, are making diplomacy more difficult. This is because no one can be able to confirm the intentions of the Iranians. If more specific information could be provided, it would help to establish a foundation, as to the overall scope and nature of their nuclear program. (Podherdtz)
The most logical options should be to exercise all avenues of diplomacy. This means having direct negations with Iran, about their nuclear issue and working with them to establish some kind of relationship (outside of the international community). During these meetings, negotiators should be focused on building trust and bridging any kind of differences that may exist. For example, if Iran's nuclear program is for peaceful purposes, then the country should allow inspectors to verify these facts. At the same time, the intelligence community needs to have more concrete…
"2007 Iran National Intelligence Estimate." N.d. Print.
Podherdtz, Norman. "Stopping Iran." Commentary. (2008): 84 -- 109. Print.
Sick, Gray. "A Selective Partnership." Foreign Affairs. (2006). Print.
The impact that terrorism has had on the global community since September 11, 2001 has been profound to say the least. In this short essay, the author will address the intent of terrorists, their methods, the political objectives, and the global response. In addition, they will include a treatment and analysis of how terrorism has affected international cooperation and other relations. Unfortunately, it is the opinion of this author that the efforts of the United States since September 11, 2001 have only exacerbated the problem. The methods and the political objectives of the terrorists have been largely achieved due to the American mismanagement of the war on terrorism. hen one soberly reflects upon the present quagmires (one must use the plural form) that the U.S. finds itself in the Middle East, there are few other options but to review how we got where we are and how to extricate…
Bin Laden, O. (2004, October 30). Bin ladin tape: transcript of osama bin laden's speech. Retrieved from http://www.worldpress.org/Americas/1964.cfm .
Morgan, M.J. (2004). The origins of the new terrorism. Parameters, 30-43.
U.S. State Department, Report of the Advisory Committee on Cultural Diplomacy.
(2005). Cultural diplomacy the linchpin of public diplomacy. Washington,
Ronald Reagan Foreign Policy: Annotated Bibliography
ucker, Robert W. 1989. "REAGAN'S FOREIGN POLICY." Foreign Affairs 68, no. 1: 1-27.
he author of this article maintains that Ronald Reagan assumed the Presidential role rebuking the 70s' arms control attempts. As a majority of Reagan's fellow politicians were highly suspicious of any arms control pacts with Russia, the general belief was that the newly sworn-in President shared the same view. he cold-war agreement with respect to foreign policy remains consistently idealized since Vietnam. Rarely did it function with the now-envisaged efficacy and smoothness. his re-formation's key feature was, evidently, the restitution of a prevalent public opinion that perceived the exercising of U.S. power without guilt or distrust, once again. herefore, the chief Reagan foreign-policy legacy might well be that: the 40th President of the United States altered the inclination not to suffer for USA's global position into something of a firm resolve…
This article is an analysis of the cognitive style of Reagan as manifested through his statement on the U.S. and the USSR and the nature of the 1964-1972 international conflict. The analysis shows the black-and-white dichotomy thinking and the rigid perception. However, the authr argues that Reagan was able to modify his notion on winning or losing in war through the reorganization that the U.S. and the USSR had some common interests in the war, for example, constraining the nuclear arms race.
Fischer, B.A., 2000. The Reagan reversal: Foreign policy and the end of the Cold War. University of Missouri Press.
Even though there is the assumption that Reagan was reactive in bringing to conclusion the cold war, this book shows that the president had actually began seeking for rapprochement with the USSR earlier than Gorbachev took office. The author demonstrates how Reagan began calling for dialogue, understanding and cooperation between the superpowers. In general the book shows that Reagan was at time the driving force for the U.S.-USSR policy of his administration.
Nobelprize.org). Pinter went on:
"The crimes of the U.S. have been systematic, constant, vicious, remorseless -- not to mention very effective. You have to hand it to America," Pinter explained, "It has exercised a quite clinical manipulation of power worldwide while masquerading as a force for universal good" (Pinter, 2005). He added, cryptically, "It's a brilliant, even witty, highly successful act of hypnosis."
The timing of his book (2003) prevents Kagan from realizing that his narrative on page 88 is incorrect. "There is little cause to believe that the United States will…begin to conduct itself in the world in a fundamentally different manner" than Bush did. Indeed, President Obama has already charted a more democratic course and has reached out to some of the cultures (namely Islam) that Bush relentlessly and ruthlessly attacked with words and bullets. I would enjoy seeing an updated version of Kagan's book, and see…
Delahunty, Robert J., and Yoo, John. 2009. The Bush doctrine: Can Preventative War
be Justified? Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 32 (3), 843-855.
Dunn, David Hastings. 2006. A Doctrine Worthy of the Name?: George W. Bush and The Limits
of Pre-Emption, Pre-Eminence, and Unilateralism. Diplomacy and Statecraft, Vol. 17,