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We have over 94 essays for "Disarmament"

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Republic Manages Its Imperial Reach 1900-1914

Words: 1078 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14447204

International Peace Conference

The purpose of this work is to examine the First International Peace Conference and identify the background, or what led to the meeting of delegations, the factors, actors and what was as stake. Further to explore the decisions and interactions that took place as well as the outcomes of the conference. Finally to evaluate the outcome and examine what might have been done differently as well as how the effect of a different outcome may have demonstrated itself historically.

The spring and summer of 1899 was witness to the gathering of twenty-six nations of the world for the First International Peace Conference which was held at the "House in the Woods" at The Hague by generous offer of The Netherlands Queen, Wilhemenia. Although the gathering failed to effectively address disarmament the adoption of other important agreements and conventions paved the way for collective efforts to follow.

Elements…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Low, S. "The International Conference of Peace" The North American Review 516 (Nov. 1899) 626 Cornell, Making of America [Online] available at:  http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?bitusud=ABQ7578-0169-53 

Mahan, Captain A.T. "The Peace Conference and the Moral Aspect of War. The North American Review 515 (Oct. 1899) 439-440. Cornell, Making of America [Online] available at http://cdl.library.cornell.edu/cgi-bin?ntisid=ABQ7578-0169-38

Paterson, T. et.al. (2000) "American Foreign Relations" V.1. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company 239

Low, S. "The International Conference of Peace" The North American Review 516 (Nov. 1899) 626 Cornell, Making of America [Online] available at http://cdl.library.cornell.educgi-bin/moa/moa-cgi?notisid=ABQ7578-0169-53
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Countermeasures and Neutralization of Weapons

Words: 4042 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 88212223

This when the Army must spread out its resources to engage threat WMDs and WMD networks. The concept applies to counterforce operations, sensors, protection, and training.

Leveraging new technologies. Many of the required capabilities presented in the strategy will be possible only through applications of new technology. The Army must leverage these new technologies.

Enhance training. Unit training is currently more flexible and quickly adaptive in comparison with institutional training. but, it often lacks valuable consistency and standardization.

Institutional training content updates, approval, and resourcing it is tied to processes too slow to remain current. Future training will prepare soldiers and leaders to exercise sound judgment in the analysis of data / information, understanding cultural impacts on operations and to act in periods of uncertainty.

These ideas are providing a background for implementing new technology and key strategies for improving the countermeasures and neutralization of WMDs. However, this research is…… [Read More]

References

"Disarmament." UN.  http://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/briefing/disarmament/disarmament.pdf  (accessed January 30, 2013)

Michael, Vane, " Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction," U.S. Army,  http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA496736  (accessed January 20, 2013).

Barry, Ezill. "Identifying Factors that Influence Terrorist Decisions." Journal of Homeland Security 1, no. 1, (2012): 1- 15.

Brookes, Peter. A Devil's Triangle. Lantham: Rowman, 2005.
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U S Arms Exports the Impact

Words: 3541 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34433343

In February of 2001, the government responded to pressures to relieve some of the suffering, the Emir loosened many of the laws. The U.S. considers Bahrain and important non-NATO ally in the ar against Terrorism, often using Bahrain as a staging area fro entry into Iraq. For this reason, the Bush administration continues to support increases in arms transfers to Bahrain. eapons transferred to Bahrain have included large and small weapons from shot guns to M60 tanks.

Indonesia

In 1999 Indonesian armed forces killed citizens in East Timor in response to the formation of anti-independence militias that were being organized. The government forces were equipped with U.S. M-1-6 rifles and other U.S. military equipment. The militia was also equipped with $1 billion in U.S. arms and training. In this case, the U.S. had been supporting the illegal occupation of East Timor since 1975. The U.S. supplied arms to both forces…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bahrain." Available from  http://www.fas.org/asmp/profiles/bahrain.htm . Accessed December 6.

Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2006. UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Hundred and eighty-third plenary meeting Resolution 217(a)(III) of the United Nations General Assembly, December 10, 1948. Available at  http://www.state.gov /g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2006/78715.htm. Accessed December 6, 2007.

Deen, T.U.S. Ramps Up Arms Supplies to Repressive Regimes. May 26, 2005. Available at  http://www.antiwar.com/ips/deen.php?articleid=6080 . Accessed December 6, 2007.

Disarmament" UN Department of Disarmament Affairs. Conventional Arms Branch. Available at  http://disarmament.un.org/cab/index.html . Accessed December 6, 2007.
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Npt -Non-Proliferation Treaty Ever Since the First

Words: 1855 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92332179

NPT -Non-Proliferation Treaty

Ever since the First World War, various countries in the western world had started researching in military weapons and artillery in order to strengthen their country's security. Newer and more advanced weapons continued to be inducted in the armed forces of developed and industrialized nations in the world particularly Soviet Union, United States of America, United Kingdom, Japan and Germany. While all these countries had started their researches for development of nuclear weapons as early as 1930s, the United States of America officially emerged as the first country to have nuclear weapons developed.

While development of nuclear weapons was initially considered as an individual nation's effort to strengthen its country's security and sovereignty, it was in August 1945 when the idea of nuclear proliferation and nuclear warfare alarmed the international community. This was when the United States of America bombed to cities in Japan, Hiroshima and Nagasaki,…… [Read More]

References

Alley, R. 2000, 'Reinvigorating Nuclear Disarmament', New Zealand International Review, vol. 25, no.5, pp.11.

The Disarmament Debate: The Fate of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 2005, Harvard International Review, vol.27, no. 2, pp. 72+.

Litman, L. 2003, 'Cleaning House: Dirty Bombs and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty', Harvard International Review, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 32+.

Lund, M. 2009, 'The Eighty Percent and Twenty Percent Solutions to Nuclear Proliferation', Brigham Young University Law Review, vol. 2009, no. 3, pp. 741+.
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Post War Iraq a Paradox in the Making Legitimacy vs Legality

Words: 14187 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57694954

Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality

The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1

The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, Sydney D. Four Arab-Israeli Wars and the Peace Process. Palgrave: Macmillan, 1990

Barber, Benjamin. Fear's Empire: War, Terrorism and Democracy. W.W. Norton and Company, 2003

Barton, F.D; Crocker, B. Winning the Peace in Iraq. Washington Quarterly Volume: 26, Number: 2. Spring 2003, pp. 7-22.

Bijl, Nick van der. Nine Battles to Stanley. Pen and Sword Books, 1999
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U S Nuclear Policy Non-Proliferation vs

Words: 3464 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 71951760

S. had provided the technology needed to promote the development of nuclear weapons. However, the U.S. argued that it had provided civilian instead of military technology, therefore had not violated the treaty.

The Politics of Proliferation

The politics of non-proliferation are complex. In the case of the U.S., the agreement and terms must satisfy every party involved. On one hand, the U.S. is under an obligation built on trust, that it will reduce the number of nuclear weapons in its arsenal. However, it must still maintain an arsenal that is capable of acting as a deterrent against first attach by non-treaty countries with nuclear weapons. These two goals compete with one another. The U.S. is not the only nuclear weapon owner with this conflict. Every member of the non-proliferation treaty faces this same dilemma.

Nuclear arms negotiations have taken place amidst an atmosphere of deception and mistrust. Full disclosure is…… [Read More]

References

Curtis, L. 2007. "U.S. Policy and Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons: Containing Threats and Encouraging Regional Security." The Heritage Foundation. July 6, 2007.  http://www.heritage.org/Research/asiaandthepacific/tst062707.cfm  (Accessed August 21, 2008)

Kerr, P. 2004. "Libya Vows to Dismantle WMD Program. Arms Control Today." January/February 2004.  http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2004_01-02/Libya  (Accessed August 21, 2008)

Lavie, M. "Israel Stands by Vague Nuclear Policy." December 7, 2006. Washington Post. www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/12/07/AR2006120701234.html)

Levy, D. 2007. "U.S. nuclear policy goes from MAD to NUTS, Panofsky says." Stanford Report. April 18, 2007.  http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2007/april18/pief-041807.html  (Accessed August 21, 2008)
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UN Security Council

Words: 5883 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 61388417

UN Security Council

Proliferation of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons to terrorist organizations is inarguably one of the greatest menaces threatening international peace and security today.[footnoteef:1] Since the turn of the century, this sentiment has grown in strength across the world, and as a countermeasure to this threat, in 2004, the United Nations Security Council passed esolution 1540 to combat the dangerous nexus between the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and terrorism. Adopted under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, the esolution mandates that all member states criminalizes and put into place a national enforcement system to deter and punish proliferation activities. Additionally, provisions under esolution 1540 entail physical safety and security measures, as well as the adoption of border and export controls to detect, deter, prevent, and combat illicit trafficking. [1: During the 2010 Washington, DC Nuclear Security Summit, the United States President Barack Obama stated that…… [Read More]

References

AG/RES. 2333 (XXXVII-O/07) Support for Implementation at the Hemispheric Level of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 (2004)," adopted at the fourth plenary session (June 5, 2007); ASEAN Regional Forum,

Charter of the United Nations, chp. VIII, art. 52.

Fawcett, p. 3; UN Secretary-General's remarks to the Security Council debate on the role of regional and sub-regional organizations in the maintenance of international peace and security New York, 6 November 2007.

 http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/unsc_background.html
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International Law and the Invasion

Words: 5121 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75791788

The United States and the rest of the coalition members all argue that there was enough authority in the resolutions that already existed from the Security Council to justify using force for the invasion of Iraq. On the 10th of November of 2002, Secretary of State Colin Powell indicated that the United States believed that there were material breaches in the past, as well as new and current material breaches that necessitated enough authority to take action.

Iraq consistently violated many of the Security Council resolutions created by the United Nations and many of these dealt primarily with inspection of facilities and disarmament. Because Iraq continually violated these resolutions the rationale for military action came about largely from this issue. The fact that the terrorist attacks had taken place and there were possible links between Iraq and Al Qaeda also caused much of the tension. The disregard for these resolutions,…… [Read More]

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Indian-Israeli Relations Valuable to India's

Words: 9235 Length: 26 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 99898853

' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister ajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).

As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the…… [Read More]

References

Berlin, D.L. 2006 "India in the Indian Ocean." Naval War College Review 59(2): 58-59.

Chollett, D. & Lindberg, T. 2007 "A Moral Core for U.S. Foreign Policy." Policy Review 146: 3-

4.

Davis, C.B. & Rill, L.A. 2008 "Testing the Second Level of Agenda Setting: Effects of News
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Gun Control and Gun Trafficking

Words: 2567 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30651631

" (Foster, 1999) Within this framework there is no reference to gun ownership by individuals and according to Foster's report: "...it is reasonable to assume that private arms are intended for destruction under the term." (Foster, 1999)

The work of David . Kopel, a former assistant district attorney in Manhattan and presently a practicing attorney in Colorado writes in the work entitled: "Trust the People: The Case Against Gun Control" a policy brief published at the Cato Institute that: "Gun control is based on the faulty notion that ordinary American citizens are too clumsy and ill-tempered to be trusted with weapons. Only through the blatant abrogation of explicit constitutional rights is gun control even possible." (1988) Kopel relates that less than one in 3,000 gun owners commit murder. Each year approximately 7,000 individuals commit suicide and 300 or fewer people die in accidents involving handguns. As a matter of fact,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

NRA Warns of U.N. Gun Control (2006) the New World Disorder - WorldNetDaily. 16 June 2006. Online available at  http://worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=50671 

Foster, Sarah (1999) the 40-year Gun Grab: '60s disarmament plan still going strong, say U.N. critics. Panic in the Year Zero. 13 Dec 1999. WorldNetDaily. Online available at  http://worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=17280 

Bowers, Faye (2007) U.S. Steadies Its Aim at Gun Trafficking Into Mexico. 20 July 2007. Christian Science Monitor. Online available at  http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0720/p01s05-usfp.html?page=1 .

U.S. Spent $27 Million to Destroy Small Arms, Light Weapons (2006) U.S. Department of State 9 June 2006. USINFO.STATE.GOV online available at http://usinfo.state.gov/xarchives/display.html?p=washfile-english&y=2006&m=June&x=20060609171603sjhtrop0.2761042&t=xarchives/xarchitem.html
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Legitimacy of International Institutions

Words: 3173 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65492874

Legitimacy of International Institutions

International institutions are based on the multilateral treaties or the agreements among multiple states. States generally enter in the treaties to promote their common aims, and law recognizes the existence of international institutions. Typically, international institutions are established based on the charters that bind the member states together. "International institutions are the set of rules means to govern international behaviours" (Simmons & Martin 2001 P. 194). This definition is very important because international institutions have established set of rules guiding the conduct of member states. Based on the definitions of international institutions, it is revealed that member states are subject to abide by the decision of international institutions. However, there are hot debates among scholars and political actors whether international institutions posses legitimacy on the member states. (D'Amato,2007, Zurn, & Stephen 2010).

The objective of this paper is to investigate the legitimacy of international institutions.

Legitimacy…… [Read More]

References

BBC News (2011).Libya: UN Security Council votes sanctions on Gaddafi. BBC News Africa.27 February 2011.

Bodansky, D. (2011). International Relations and Legitimacy in International Law.

Sandra Day O'Connor College of Law Arizona State University.

Buchanan, A & Keohane, R.O. (2006). The Legitimacy of Global Governance Institutions. Ethics & International Affairs, 20(4): 405-437.
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Nixon's Policy Toward the U S S R

Words: 898 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95615030

hen a progressive Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, the fall of the Soviet Union was immanent and inevitable.

After the fall of the Soviet Union under Reagan's watch, his Vice President Bush inherited the problem of dealing with a fragmented Eastern Europe and Eurasia. Bush Sr.'s foreign policy toward Moscow was largely passive, arguably much more passive than any of his predecessors were because the Cold ar was over and the threat of nuclear war temporarily set aside. Moreover, the dissolution of the Soviet Union was still taking place and Bush Sr. watched while new nation-states emerged out of the Soviet Bloc. However, Bush Sr. negotiated nuclear disarmament treaties with Gorbachev and his successor Boris Yeltsin and willingly recognized the independence of many formerly Soviet republics.

Relations with Russia again grew tense under President Clinton largely because of the conflicts that arose in the Balkans. The Soviet Union…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bill Clinton's War in Yugoslavia." Retrieved Feb 27, 2008 at  http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Yugoslavia/BillClintonsWar_Yugo.html 

George Bush Sr. On Foreign Policy." On the Issues. Retrieved Feb 27, 2008 at  http://www.ontheissues.org/Celeb/George_Bush_Sr__Foreign_Policy.htm
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Rise of China

Words: 2354 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 45798899

Rise of China

THE POWER OF NUMERS - AND OF ARMS

China, a Growing Threat in Southeast Asia?

The appearance or reality of peace, stability and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region in the 1990s may be drawn from the popular compliance of the countries to the provisions of an agreement (Shuja 1999). This was the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, signed in 1968 and becoming effective in 1970, by the countries or States. Their number increased to 176. They agreed to give up the use of nuclear power for military purposes. Africa, Argentina, razil, Romania and Algeria were examples of such countries. ut this image of peace and unity in the region was shattered and vanished when India and Pakistan conducted nuclear tests in May 1998. India and Pakistan had a long-time feud and the tests sent the message to the rest in the region that the protagonists could be preparing…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bernier, J. And Gold, S (2003). China's Closing Window of Opportunity. 20 pages. Naval War College Review: U.S. Naval War College

Bremmer, I. (2005). The Dragon Awakens. 7 pages. The National Interest: The National Interest, Inc.

Gearan, A (2006). China Asks for Calm Amid Signs It Is Cracking Down on North Korea. 2 pages. Deseret News (Salt Lake City): Deseret News Publishing Company

Kyodo News. (2005). Taiwan's Chen Presses for arms Purchase in National Day Speech. 2 pages. Asian Political News: Kyodo News International, Inc.
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Challenging the Beijing Consensus China Foreign Policy in the 21st Century

Words: 24240 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 17194104

Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)

Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy

The "Chinese Model" of Investment

The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework

Operational Views

The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus

Trading with the Enemy Act

Export Control Act.

Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act

Category B

Category C

The 1974 Trade Act.

The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy

The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)

Expatriates

The Managerial Practices

Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)

China and western world: A comparison

The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods

Chapter 5

The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development

The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition

eferences

Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)

Chapter 1

Abbreviations

ACD arms control and disarmament

ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency

ADB Asian Development Bank

ADF Asian Development Fund

APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…… [Read More]

References

Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=34158088

Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database:
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Chemical Warfare the Twentieth Century

Words: 1261 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41360120

Some of the nerve agents such as VX and Tabun are also highly persistent in that their effects last in the field for longer periods of time. [Wisconsin Project, (2010)]

Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC)

The 1925 Geneva protocol prohibited the use of poisonous gases in warfare but flagrant violations of the accord by various nations is clearly evident when we glance through the wars that took place in the previous century. Starting with the Second World War, the Vietnam War, and the more recent Gulf wars, the use of chemical weapons has continued in sheer violation of the Geneva treaty. [Geneva Protocol, (1925)] The loopholes and the reservations in the Geneva protocol implied that the threat of chemical warfare was always looming large. It is only pertinent here to point out that not only the so called rogue states (Iran, Iraq, Korea) engaged in chemical warfare but also the U.S.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Gerard J. Fitzgerald, (2008), 'Chemical Warfare and Medical Response during World War 1', Am J. Public Health 98(4): 611 -- 625 available online at,  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2376985/ 

2) IDPH, 'Hydrogen Cyanide', retrieved Sep 6th 2010 from,  http://www.idph.state.il.us/Bioterrorism/factsheets/cyanide.htm 

3) Johan de Wittlaan, (2010), 'Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction (CWC) ', retrieved Sep 6th 2010, from,  http://www.nti.org/e_research/official_docs/inventory/pdfs/cwc.pdf 

4) Geneva Protocol, (1925) 'Protocol for the prohibition of the use in war of Asphyxiating, Poisonous, or other gases, and of Bacteriological methods of Warfare', retrieved Sep 6th 2010, from,  http://www.nti.org/e_research/official_docs/inventory/pdfs/genev.pdf
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Clausewitz Operation Barbarossa Operation

Words: 3765 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 34490310



Some contend that Hitler order Operation Barbarossa because there was the threat of imminent Soviet aggression toward Germany. This claim has been dismissed, for the most part, as Nazi propaganda. Whether or not ussia was going to attack Germany and whether or not Hitler's reasoning for wanting to preemptively strike or simply he had his eyes on the prize, both of these thoughts are make-believe thoughts. What this shows in the terms of war is that discourse is not just between two nations or territories, but discourse often goes on inside the minds of individuals in a somewhat abstract way. Thus, Hitler was obeying his own inner rules by choosing to go forward with Operation Barbarossa. It was attack or be attacked; kill or be killed. Take or be taken. "Thus reasoning in the abstract, the mind cannot stop short of an extreme, because it has to deal with an…… [Read More]

References:

1. Clark, Alan. Barbarossa. Harper Perennial. 1985.

2. Copeland, Dale C. The Origins of Major War (Cornell studies in Security Affairs).

Cornell University Press: 2001.

3. Grant, Gordon R. Operation Barbarossa: The German Campaign in Russia -- Planning
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Gender and International Relations International

Words: 10127 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 58775378

57).

Coker's article (published in a very conservative magazine in England) "reflected unease among some of his colleagues" about that new course at LSEP. Moreover, Coker disputes that fact that there is a female alternative to male behavior and Coker insists that "Whether they love or hate humanity, feminists seem unable to look it in the face" (Smith quoting Coker, p. 58).

If feminists are right about the female nature being more peaceful and "less aggressive" than men, then women pose a "far greater danger than men…" to the world and to international relations Coker continued. It was a less aggressive attitude toward international relations that "prevented us from deterring Hitler," Coker went on, referencing (without naming) Neville Chamberlain, England's Prime Minister who reportedly appeased Hitler rather than take a strong stand against the Third Reich.

On page 58 Steve Smith explains that in cases where feminine concerns are being…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Carpenter, R. Charli, 2005, 'Women, Children, and Other Vulnerable Groups: Gender, Strategic Frames and the Protection of Civilians as a Transnational Issue', International Studies Quarterly, vol. 49, 295-334.

Elshtain, Jean Bethke, 1995, Women and War, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Goldstein, Joshua S., 2003, War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Hooper, Charlotte, 2001, Manly States: Masculinities, International Relations, and Gender Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.
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America's Decision to Stay Out

Words: 5328 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 99155591



The U.S. Debate over Membership in the League of Nations

After the end of orld ar I, the world was weary of war and the ravages that it had taken on the European continent and it would seem reasonable to suggest that policymakers on both sides of the Atlantic would be eager to form some type of league to resolve future conflicts. According to Margulies (1998), "Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference in June 1919, where he played a major role in negotiating that treaty, which established the League of Nations, President oodrow ilson turned his attention to persuading the U.S. Senate to ratify the new treaty" (273). The Senate of the 66th Congress was almost equally divided between the Republican Party with 49 and the Democrats who fielded 47 senators (Marguilies). Although the president could rely on the majority of the Democrats…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Egerton, George W. Great Britain and the Creation of the League of Nations: Strategy, Politics,

and International Organization, 1914-1919. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North

Carolina Press, 1978.

Janas, Michael. 2006. "Woodrow Wilson's Western Tour: Rhetoric, Public Opinion and the League of Nations." Argumentation and Advocacy 42(4): 229.
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Cold War and the Conquest

Words: 3290 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 42083680

They could do it time and time again with success. The first electric car was used on the moon during the Apollo 14 (Endeavor and Falcon) mission (Kennedy Space Center).

Meanwhile in Russia

hile the space program in the United States was busy becoming a popular culture icon, the Russian space program took on a different personality. They still launched missions for "national prestige" (ade). However, the majority of Soviet missions were for military purposes. The Soviet economy played a major role in space efforts. The soviet economy was planned in five-year increments, with long-range military plans being made for the next ten years (ade). This significantly affected the pace of space program development. The Russian space plan was slow to react to American successes.

First generation Soviet launchers had poor reliability. The ten-year plan for the second generation was not approved until 1976 (ade). Third generation plans were approved…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aerospace. A Brief History: Space Exploration. Last Modified: January 21, 2005.  http://www.aero.org/education/primers/space/history.html . (Accessed October 30, 2008).

Angleo, J. Space Technology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 2003.

CNN.com. India launches first moon mission. October 22, 2008. CNN.com/Technology.  http://www.cnn.com/2008/TECH/space/10/22/india.space/index.html  (Accessed October 29, 2008).

Grayzeck, E. Apollo 13 Command and Service Module (CSM). NSSDC ID: 1970-029A. National Space center Data Center.  http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/nmc/masterCatalog.do?sc=1970-029A  (Accessed October 29, 2008).
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Hedley Bull - The Anarchical

Words: 3505 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60085000

Those strategies would include organizing themselves politically to address it "less to security against external threats" than to the emphasis on "civil freedom" within its own borders. Hence, Harris's point is that Kant delved into the moral side of the issue. As for the classical utilitarian point-of-view, Harris points to James Mill, who put forward the notion that a "properly educated electorate in a democratic polity" would push its government to do the proper thing; and what would be considered proper or "right," as Harris puts it, would be determined by an "international tribunal of cognoscenti" (Harris 726).

ith those two highly respected thinkers' views as backdrop, Harris moves into Bull's strategies and theories. Bull was "arguably" among the most "distinguished theorists of international relations since Kant," Harris states, and Bull was known for organizing his work around the idea of "Order" - which he treated as a "value and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bull, Hedley. 1977. The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics. New York:

Harris, Ian. 1993. Order and Justice in 'The anarchical society.' International Affairs, 69, 725-

Hoffman, Stanley. 1986. Hedley Bull and his contributions to international relations.

International Affairs, 62 (Spring): 179-188.
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Iraqi War Operation Iraqi Freedom

Words: 3405 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 62190091

687).

Many reasons for the war were offered by both the United States and British governments at various times. In the months leading up to the war, there were a plethora of reasons offered that made it difficult to rationalize and understand exactly why the war was necessary. The argument regarding weapons of mass destruction was one of the most argued points; however, there was much debate as to whether these alleged weapons of mass destruction even existed (Iraq Survey Group 2004). Another point of contention with the war in Iraq was whether or not there were right intentions. According to many scholars and lay persons, reiterated by Fishar and Biggar, there was serious opposition because the disarmament of Iraq seemed only the beginning of a larger agency established by the U.S., UK and their allies. Reasonable belief that weapons of mass destruction existed, for many, was not enough to…… [Read More]

Works cited

American Unbound: the Bush Revolution in foreign policy. Washington DC. Web. 2003.

Biggar, N. "Invading Iraq: what are the morals of the story?" International Affairs, 87.1

(2011): p. 29-30.

Davies, N. Blood on our hands: the American invasion and destruction of Iraq. Web. 2010.
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Changing Political Situation in North

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92613649

Although the saber-rattling is currently at normal levels, there have been some highly disruptive events in recent years that have kept tensions high. For example, despite their vehement and repeated denials, most international observers agree and the results of international inspections indicate that in March 2010, North Korea fired on and sank the South Korean warship, Cheonan, with a corresponding loss of South Korean lives.

Just a few months later, North Korea fired artillery shells on nearby Yeonpyeong Island in November 2010, and in August 2011, North Korean officials seized assets at Mount Kumgang, a jointly operated tourist site with South Korea.

Despite continuing efforts by the international community to resolve this longstanding political and military stalemate, there have been some changes in the composition of the top political leadership in South Korea that may adversely affect these negotiations. In fact, South Korean President Lee Myung-bak and his inner circle…… [Read More]

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Illicit Arms Trade in South

Words: 2310 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 78740334

Involved people in these illegal transfers take advantage of institutional weaknesses and corruption to achieve their objectives.

One of the constant features found along the research is the weak handling of systematic information by the state authorities, especially from the police bodies. At the same time, the lack of channels that facilitate the free access to information about official proceedings make it difficult for the citizens to take part in solving the problem (ibid.).

The borders' porosity is another risk for democracy because bordering zones are strategic spaces for different illicit traffics which look to be controlled by organized crime. Internationalization of crime and its organization structures represent a problem for national security and for the region's stability.

Illegal traffic of fire arms is associated with other illicit traffics which are complemented mainly with drug traffic. Economic resources generated with those actions at the sideline of law are higher than…… [Read More]

References

Camacho, Daniel Avila . " Interrelationship between Drug Trafficking and the Illicit Arms Trade."

Unidir.org. Unidir.org, 2012. Web. 9 Apr 2012. .

Cullinan, Jeanna . "Latin American Leaders Demand Action on Illicit Arms Trafficking ."
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Why Did the US-Led Coalition Invade Iraq in 2003

Words: 3425 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29133185

U.S. Invasion of Iraq- easons

US Invasion of Iraq: easons

The epublic of Iraq is located in South West Asia. Baghdad is its capital and Kuwait, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the Persian Gulf, Iran and Turkey are its neighboring countries. More than 95% of the population in Iraq is Muslim. The members of Shiites sect are the main inhabitants of the country (The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2009).

Saddam Hussein Takriti came in power after the resignation of President Bakr in 1979. It was immediately after his presumptuous control that a fight with Iran began which continued for eight years. The war ended in 1988 with a cessation of hostilities by the United Nations. Although Iraq was supported by the United States in Iran-Iraq war but it strongly criticized Hussein's tyrannical strategies and unrelenting arms increase. In 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait. International trade sanctions were established on Iraq by the…… [Read More]

References

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth ed., s.v. "Iraq." New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.  http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=117025268 (accessed June 25, 2011).

Deaver, Michael V. . Disarming Iraq: Monitoring Power and Resistance. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.
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History Cold War

Words: 1236 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54425379

causes that led to and accentuated the Cold ar, and look at its affect on modern scientific developments in arms and the space race. The Cold ar led to developments in rocketry and science that have given rise to new technologies that the world uses every day.

The Cold ar really began during the Second orld ar, when talk of post-war treaties between the United States, Great Britain, and Russia were put on hold until the war ended. "From early in 1942 the American Government had repeatedly proclaimed the principle that no final decisions on matters of postwar frontiers or systems of government should be made until the end of the war" (Graebner 5). "The growth of distrust and opposition between the United States (U.S.) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) begins with Joseph Stalin's pre-orld ar II behavior. The U.S. And Great Britain provided war tactics and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Authors. "40th Anniversary of the Mercury 7." NASA. 18 April 2002.  http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/40thmerc7/intro.htm 

Editors. "Space Channel." FutureFantastic.net. 2002.  http://www.futurefantastic.net/exhibits/space/introduction.htm 

Graebner, Norman A. "How the Cold War Began." The Cold War: Ideological Conflict Or Power Struggle? Boston: Heath, 1963. 1-10.

Haggerty, James J. "Spinoff 1996." NASA. 1996.
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Current War With Iraq

Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60435926

Persian Gulf War of 1991 aimed to stop the invasion and occupation of Kuwait by Iraqi forces. Ordered by Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein, the military action aimed to take control of the small country's immense oil reserves. y the time U.S. President George ush declared a cease-fire on February 28, 1991, Iraqi forces had already fallen. As part of the Gulf War treaties, the trade embargo on Iraq, sanctioned by the United Nations when Iraq first invaded Kuwait, was not lifted and a UN special commission was assigned to oversee the destruction of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction (WMD), including medium-range missiles and chemical and biological weapons as well as the facilities in which they were developed. Nevertheless, UN military forces were withdrawn from Iraq and Hussein was not pushed out of power. While the current war on Iraq has been called the "War for Iraqi Freedom," the events leading…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Banville, Lee. "U.S. - Iraq Relations After the Gulf War." PBS Online NewsHour. 25 Mar, 2003.  http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/middle_east/iraq/us_policy.html .

Key points of resolution on Iraq." BBC News World Edition. 25 Mar, 2003.  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2412837.stm .

Persian Gulf War." Encyclopedia Britannica 2003 Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 25 Mar, 2003  http://search.eb.com/eb/article?eu=60828 .

Powell presents evidence to U.N. In the case against Iraq." PBS Online NewsHour Update. 25 Mar, 2003.  http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/powell_02-05-03.html .
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General Assembly Reform at the United Nations

Words: 1810 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33111502

assembly reform at the United Nations

Ever since the Cold War ended there have been so many problems the world has been faced with; this includes new threats to its peace and stability also. National and international conflicts based on historical, social, economic, ethnic and other factors, pose an extensive threat to the world causing greater instability. These problems are coupled with the problems of an explosive population increase, poverty, and environmental degradation affecting the entire planet. This is international environment the United Nations has to play an important role in to fulfill its responsibilities effectively in implementing the new reforms in all aspects. [CF Publications: What Future for the UN? A Prelude to the 58th UN General Assembly]

Financial eform of the United Nations

The financial reform of the United Nations is one of the most serious issues that they face at present. Japan is one country that has…… [Read More]

References

At the Plenary Meeting of the 58th General Assembly on the Follow-up to the Outcome of the Millennium Summit (Item 60) and the Report of the Secretary-General on the Work of the Organization (Item 10), 6 October 2003, available at  http://www.un.int/japan/statements/haraguchi031006.html , accessed on: March 31, 2004

CFR Publications: What Future for the UN? A Prelude to the 58th UN General Assembly, available at  http://www.cfr.org/publication.php?id=6251,accessed  on: March 31, 2004

Culture and Education, available at  http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/un/pamph2000/reform.html , accessed on: March 31, 2004

United Nations OnLine Position Paper, available at http://www.unol.org/pospapers/ppeu.html, accessed on: March 31, 2004
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Religion and Wars

Words: 5869 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87135313

relationship exists between difference of religion and the occurrence of civil wars within societies. The relationship between religious groups to society can be defined against the backdrop of war. Powerful emotions surround both conflict and military conflict (Yinger, 1946). A direct relationship has been recognized for several year regarding religion and violence. Students of organized religion "have frequently pointed out the ease with which most church leaders shift, at the outbreak of war, from an explicit antiwar position to a vigorous pro-war policy" (Yinger, p. 176). However, despite the seemingly strong tie between religion and war, it is critical to also acknowledge that while religion seems a backdrop for many wars, many other factors have contributed as well. Political aspirations and agendas have had as much to do with war as religion. The complex intermingling of these many different factors will be explored in greater detail below.

ecent research suggests…… [Read More]

References

Allen, John L. (N.D.) "As Vatican Calls for Peace, diplomat plans defense of 'preventive war.' {Online} Available:  http://www.natcath.com/NCR/Online/archives/013103/013103j.htm 

Armstrong, K. (1991). "Peace in Palestine." Holy War. New York: Doubleday. p4.

Clausewitz, Carl Von. (1992). "What is War?" On War (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976). 75-89; excerpt reprinted in U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, C610 Syllabus/Book of Readings. 205011. Fort Leavenworth: USACGSC, July 1992.

Chandler, D.G. (1996). "The English Civil Wars, 'Islam vs. Christianity'." Atlas of Military Strategy. Boston: Sterline Publishing Company. Pp.30-33., 54-55
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Persistent Threat Historical Background of

Words: 5786 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 46613349



According to Toronto Star reporter Stephan Handelman in an article printed in 2005, the U.S. senior intelligence analysts consider China to be the greatest long-term threat to U.S. stability. China's military force and computer intelligence has reached its peak. Both the Europeans and the U.S. agree that the expansion of the Chinese military is more than "worrisome."

Another article posted on November 16, 2007 by the Washington Post claims that spying by China in the United States is the biggest threat keeping American technologies secret. Advances by the Chinese military are catching U.S. intelligence officials by surprise. It has also been suggested that the U.S. Department of Defense could inadvertently outsource the manufacturing of key weapons and military equipment to China. China is attempting to reverse its move into free markets by setting up state-owned enterprises and control over the 12 major industries, which include oil, telecommunications, shipping, automobiles, steel…… [Read More]

Resources

1. Article: online

Kim Zetter (February 3, 2010). Threat Level: Privacy, Crime and Security Online

Report Details Hacks Targeting Google, Others, (1), 1.  http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2010/02/apt-hacks/ 

2. Article Publication: online and hardcopy
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English Literature Martin Luther King

Words: 1686 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94070402

It is also more likely to create a constructive rather than a destructive outcome, it is a process of conflict resolution that may aim to arrive at the truth of a given situation rather than simple victory for one side and it is the only technique of struggle that is consistent with the teachings of the major religions (eber and Burrowes, n.d.).

Nonviolent action is a method by which people who reject passivity and submission, and who see struggle as necessary, can have their conflict without violence. Nonviolent acts are not seen as an attempt to steer clear of or ignore conflict. They are one reaction to the problem of how to act effectively in politics, particularly how to wield powers effectively. It consists of acts of protest and persuasion, noncooperation and nonviolent intervention designed to undermine the sources of power of the opponent in order to bring about change…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burstein, Stanley M. And Shek, Richard. 2005. "World History Ancient Civilizations." Texas:

Holt, Rinhart and Winston

Jones, Chris. 2008. "Analysis of Martin Luther King Jr.'s Letter from Birmingham Jail."

Web. 27 April 2010.
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Allied Visions The Success of

Words: 4453 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 85512244

In IBM's case, the Department of Justice found that their efforts were mired in failure. Unfortunately, IBM was so central to the economic operations of Germany and occupied Europe that it was necessary to preserve IBM's role in the economy of Europe so as not to jeopardize the postwar occupation.

Part II-Present Corporatist America and Comparisons with Fascist Italy-

When the Wall Street Journal, the United States' newspaper of record for financial affairs makes an explanatory note, it gives us all pause. Gerald F. Driscoll in "An Economy of Liars" takes aim at both the Obama and George W. Bush administrations when he speaks about the present economic reality and asserts "We call that system not the free-market, but crony capitalism. It owes more to Benito Mussolini than to Adam Smith ("An Economy of Liars" 2010)."

If a communist agitator on the proverbial soapbox spouted this statement, it could be…… [Read More]

References

Alter, J. 2006, the Defining Moment: FDR's Hundred Days and the Triumph of Hope,

New York, Simon and Schuster.

Black, E. 2001, IBM and the Holocaust, Crown Publishers, New York.

(1965) "The Economy: We Are All Keynesians Now," Time, Available from  http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,842353-1,00.html
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Bush v Obama Foreign Policies

Words: 3671 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 74573903

The administration's disregard for international norms led to the excesses at Abu Ghraib Prison in Iraq, and attempts to circumvent congressional oversight over the activities of the Administration backfired. Faced with increasing criticism at home and the inability to stabilize Iraq, the Bush Administration began to temper its approach with realism. The Administration agreed to a bipartisan Iraq Study Group, led by former Secretary of State James Baker and Democratic Congressman Lee Hamilton (Baker & Hamilton, 2006). The report prepared by the group was quite critical of the Bush Administration's policies in Iraq, and though many of those criticisms were rejected, the Administrated still took the criticism seriously, and a year later began to pursue a new approach, which eventually helped to decrease the level of violence in Iraq.

The Obama Administration's approach to Iraq War reflects the liberal views of Obama who warned in 2002 that "a U.S. occupation…… [Read More]

References

Ahmad, I. (2010). The U.S. Af-Pak Strategy: Challenges and Opportunities for Pakistan. Asian Affairs: An American Review, 37(4), 191-209.

Bacevich, a. (2010) Washington Rules: America's Path to Permanent War. New York: Metropolitan Books.

Bacevich, a., (November 6, 2005) the Realist Persuasion. The Boston Globe, retrieved on March 13, 2011, from  http://rempost.blogspot.com/2006/04/realist-persuasion.html 

Baker, J.A., & Hamilton, L.H. (2006) the Iraq Study Group Report: The Way Forward -- a New Approach. New York: Vintage Books.
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American Foreign Security Policies What

Words: 1788 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 36781574

But the U.S. must also set an example to the world on human rights, and that begins with a rejection of the kind of abuses that were carried out at Abu Ghraib in Iraq during the U.S. occupation of that sovereign nation.

orks Cited

Biden, Joseph. (2009). Biden Lays Out U.S. Foreign Policy Goals, Approaches. America.gov.

Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://www.america.gov.

Blanton, Shannon Lindsey. (2005). Foreign Policy in Transition? Human Rights, Democracy,

and U.S. Arms Exports. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 49, 647-667.

Butler, Desmond. (2010). Lawmakers stretching out Russia nuke pact debate. The Seattle

Times. Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://seattletimes.nwsource.com.

Cardenas, Sonia. (2009). Human Rights in Latin America: A Politics of Terror and Hope.

Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Hamid, Shadi, and Brooke, Steven. (2010). Promoting Democracy to Stop Terror, Revisited,

Policy Review, No. 59, 45-58.

McCain, John. (2010). National History and Universal Values: Prioritizing Human Rights…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Biden, Joseph. (2009). Biden Lays Out U.S. Foreign Policy Goals, Approaches. America.gov.

Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from  http://www.america.gov .

Blanton, Shannon Lindsey. (2005). Foreign Policy in Transition? Human Rights, Democracy,

and U.S. Arms Exports. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 49, 647-667.
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U S Foreign Policy Towards North

Words: 2229 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 45131135

(Efimova, 2007, paraphrased)

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

North Korea underwent internal changes as well as changes due to external factors that placed North Korea in a defensive stance in its focus on strategically avoiding threats and in rebuilding its own self-reliance economically. For North Korea since the erlin Wall fell the use of conventional weapons by North Korea in defending itself from external foes has not been a feasible proposition, therefore, it is apparent that North Korea acquired nuclear capabilities because of the value of these capabilities as use as a method for ensuring adequate self-defense in what the regime in North Korea views as a highly unstable security environment and one in which North Korea is quite terrified that will result in the United States becoming aggressive from a military standpoint.

It really can not be held as true that the reason for the development of nuclear capability in North…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Lin, Liu (2006) The North Korean Nuclear Test and Its Implications. Central-Asia -- Caucasus Institute Silk Road Studies Program. Online available at: http://www.silkroadstudies.org/new/docs/Silkroadpapers/2006/LiuLin%20Final061204.pdf.

Yongho, Kim and Yi, Yurim (2005) Security Dilemmas and Signaling During the North Korean Nuclear Standoff. Asian Perspective. Vol. 29, No.3, 2005, pp. 73-97. Online available at: http://www.asianperspective.org/articles/v29n3-d.pdf

Xizhen, Zhang and Brown, Eugene (2000) Policies Toward North Korea: A Time for New Thinking. Journal of Contemporary China. Vol. 9, Issue 25, November 2000. pp.535-545.

Sujian, Guo and Stradiotto, Gary A. (2007) The Nature and Direction of Economic Reform in North Korea. Political Studies, Vol.55, No. 4 December 2007. pp. 754-778(25) Blackwell Publishing.
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Roman History Rome v Carthage

Words: 2986 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 39014777



After this, there could have been very little perceived threat left; not only were the Carthaginian's surrendering rather peacefully, but they were even giving up their means of waging war effectively. The giving up of weapons in an age when manufacture and shipping -- the two methods by which any commodity, military or otherwise, can be obtained -- took an extended period of time meant that the Carthaginians were showing themselves to desire peace not only in the short-term, but as a general social principle.

Their submission to the Romans, then, should have been the end of the war. If the reason behind Rome's military invasion of the Carthaginian territory was the possible threat the area presented to Rome, then its disarmament would have solved that problem. The Romans refused to let the issue go, however, demanding that the entire city of Carthage be destroyed right to the ground.

It…… [Read More]

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Brutal Peace Chapter Seven Chapter

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 375752

But despite the rhetorical agreement amongst all of the occupying Allied powers, de-Nazification in Eastern vs. estern Germany had a very different character. Soviets were less interested in prosecuting war criminals and more interested in eliminating all individuals and aspects of culture deemed counterrevolutionary (Mazower 238). Destroying German capitalism and private ownership of agriculture was the priority, not feeding the hungry or finding former Nazis. However, estern de-Nazification was hardly superior -- it was done on a case-by-case basis, did not exclude former Nazis from public life, and most Germans believed that lower-level officials were prosecuted, while those really responsible for war crimes were set free in the American zone (Mazower 239). Interestingly enough, the French were probably the most successful in their de-Nazification efforts, given that they focused on German youth, and changing German culture more than former Nazis (Mazower 240).

Massive financial outlays, meager social changes, and "back-pedaling"…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mazower, Mark. Dark Continent. New York: Vintage, 2000.
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China India Peace Threats Analysts

Words: 2430 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 878300

ut India could catch up if it successfully encouraged private companies to compete and survive, put a check on poorly performing financial institutions and those yielding to political compromises. These measures could help boost India's savings and investment. On the other hand, China also needed to catch up with India's institutional strength (Prime).

ut both continue to be plagued with respective problems. China continues to suffer from serious situations, such as an uneven competition in the private sector, a very sluggish financial sector, and trade patterns, which enhanced foreign but not domestic markets. It appears ahead of India because of the time element. It instituted reforms more than a decade before India's. Nothing could tell when and how India could catch up or match China's phasing. Some critics assumed that China's successes became the basis of its regional leadership in the 21st century. Understanding the underlying forces behind the development…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Business Editors, 2007, Competitive outsourcing opportunities, Business Wire, Gale

Group

Dahlman, Carl J., 2007, China and India: emerging technological powers. Issues in Science and Technology, ProQuest Information and Learning Company

Herd, Richard and Sean Dougherty, 2007, Growth prospects in China and India
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British Labour Party That Came

Words: 1797 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43147590



Conclusion

The modern Labour Party (also known as New Labour) has come a long way from its Socialist roots in the last two decades particularly since Tony Blair became its leader in 1994 and repositioned the Party as a centrist rather than a leftist Party. There is no doubt that the move was a success as the Labour Party won the historic 1997 elections by a landslide and has not lost an election since. The electoral success has come at the expense of the Party's socialist credentials though.

eferences

Hills, J, 1998, Thatcherism, New Labour and the Welfare State, CASEpaper Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion: London School of Economics. Available from http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/case/cp/Paper13.pdf[April27, 2008]

History of the Labour Party, 2008, New Labour for Britain, Available from http://www.labour.org.uk/history_of_the_labour_party[April27, 2008]

King, a., Denver, D., McLean, I., Norris, P., Norton, P., Sanders, D., et al. (1998). New Labour Triumphs: Britain at the Polls.…… [Read More]

References

Hills, J, 1998, Thatcherism, New Labour and the Welfare State, CASEpaper Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion: London School of Economics. Available from  http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/case/cp/Paper13.pdf [April27, 2008]

History of the Labour Party, 2008, New Labour for Britain, Available from  http://www.labour.org.uk/history_of_the_labour_party [April27, 2008]

King, a., Denver, D., McLean, I., Norris, P., Norton, P., Sanders, D., et al. (1998). New Labour Triumphs: Britain at the Polls. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers.

The Labour Party Manifesto: 1983, 2008, British Party Election Manifestos Since 1945, Available from  http://www.psr.keele.ac.uk/area/uk/man/lab83.htm [April27, 2008]
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International Law and the Use

Words: 1984 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63908669

And Article 25 of the Charter enjoins all members to "... accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council (Turner)."

On the other hand, leading lawyers contended that ritain would violate international law if it also used armed force against Iraq like the U.S. (Waugh 2002). Two leading barristers Rabinder Singh QC and Alison MacDonald said that the use of force against Iraq would be justified only if its leaders directly attacked ritain or its allies or an attack was imminent. They added that the attack should not be one that could be averted except with the use of force. They required the UN Security Council to authorize the use of force in concrete and "clear terms." They believed that Security Council resolutions did not authorize such use of force against Iraq. The United Kingdom was not entitled to that last recourse. Another barrister said that the UK…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bush, G.W. (2002). Statement on signing the authorization for using of military force against Iraq resolution of 2002. 2 pages. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents: U.S. Government Printing Office

Cook, M.L. (2002). The proper role of professional military advice in contemporary uses of force. 14 pages. Parameters: U.S. Army War College

Krieger, D. (2002). Law vs. force. 2 pages. Humanist: American Humanist Association

Rivkin Jr., D.B. And Casey, L.A. (2000). The rocky shoals of international law. The National Interest: The National Affairs, Inc.
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Double Helix the Book the

Words: 845 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94830406

He smiled and nodded his head when I first explained that to him.

One day when atson was doing his research in Copenhagen working on his DNA discoveries, he received some journal articles that I had written, that were sent over from the U.S. He later told me when we met in London that he did not understand everything I was saying in the language of lab chemistry, but that he liked some of my interesting sentences. He said that when he writes his book to tell the world how he discovered the DNA secrets, he would write it in a way that would be fun to read even for a person not up to speed in deep math and chemistry. e exchanged letters in Europe in 1952 and agreed to meet.

During our meeting at a coffee house in London, atson and I were joined by atson's sister Elizabeth.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Watson, James D. (1980). The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA. New York W.W. Norton & Company.
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Chemical and Biological Cb Agents

Words: 1396 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35819702

egardless, highly possible plans can be devised could result in huge numbers of deaths that range into the thousands for chemical agents and the hundreds of thousands, or maybe millions, with biological ones6. Bioterrorists have successfully utilized agents ranging from the ones that rapidly cause death, such as nerve agents and cyanide, to those that impact hours after exposure, such as mustard gas and pulmonary agents.

John Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies compared potential biological agents to determine which maximum credible event would offer the greatest risk for a public health response. In this case, the "maximum credible event" is defined as an occurrence that could cause significant loss of life, as well as disruption, panic, and a total overwhelming of the civilian health-care resources. 7

To fit this definition of a maximum credible event, the CB must include some of the following properties: be highly lethal, easily produced…… [Read More]

References

Henderson, Donald a "Smallpox as a biological weapon." Journal of the American Medical Association, 283 (1999), 2127-2137

Kortepeter Mark G. And Gerald W. Parker, "Potential Biological Weapons Threats." Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal. 5 (1999): 523-525

Report No. 2000/02: Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Terrorism." Perspectives. http://www.csis-scrs.gc.ca/en/publications/perspectives/200002.asp. Accessed 2 July 2007

Sidell, Frederick R. And David R. Franz. Introduction to chemical and biological agents. Medical aspects of chemical and biological warfare. Washington, D.C.: Borden Institute, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 1997
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United Nations Has the United

Words: 1623 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15438173

Once all countries, big, small, rich and poor, realize that their greater good lies in maintaining global peace without any "ifs and buts" they can join forces to reform the UN and make it a more effective body.

orks Cited

Charter of the United Nations." United Nations' Official ebsite. 2007. March 10, 2007. http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/index.html

Holmes, Kim R. "New orld Disorder: A Critique of the United Nations." Journal of International Affairs. 46: 2, 1993. pp: 323-340

Kant, Immanuel. "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch." 1795. Mount Holyoke College. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm

Mallaby, Sebastian. "Bound to Fail." Newsweek International, March 5, 2007 issue. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/17311792/site/newsweek/

Slavin, Barbara and Bill Nichols. "Bolton a 'guided missile.'" USA TODAY. 11/30/2003. March 10, 2007 http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2003-11-30-bolton-usat_x.htm

The Charter of the United Nations was signed by the representatives of 50 countries on June 26, 1945; the start of its preamble states: "e the peoples of the United Nations [are] determined to save…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Charter of the United Nations." United Nations' Official Website. 2007. March 10, 2007.  http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/index.html 

Holmes, Kim R. "New World Disorder: A Critique of the United Nations." Journal of International Affairs. 46: 2, 1993. pp: 323-340

Kant, Immanuel. "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch." 1795. Mount Holyoke College.  http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm 

Mallaby, Sebastian. "Bound to Fail." Newsweek International, March 5, 2007 issue.  http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/17311792/site/newsweek/
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Ladies and Gentlemen the Media

Words: 1005 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30638953

Jackie Cabasso, executive director of the Western States Legal Foundation, an environmental and disarmament advocacy group, fears that ongoing and developing technology gives the U.S. capacity to design super nuclear armament in the near future, and that by maintaining these "weapons research, development, testing and production capabilities at the laboratories" (Center for Defense Information (1995)) we are providing the breeding ground for a future Apocalypse.

Charles Curtis, Under-Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy of the Clinton administration, admitted that nuclear weapons research was still ongoing, although this was not directed towards designing new weapons bur rather to sustaining the old. Given the uncertainty of current global affairs, he felt strongly that America's security needs to be in place.

In 1995, a Special Task Force on Alternative Futures for the Department of Energy National Laboratories, also known as the Galvin Task Force met and its specific recommendations regarding the nuclear…… [Read More]

References

Biello, D."A Need for New Warheads?" Scientific American, November 2007

Center for Defense Information (1995) Managing America's nuclear arsenal  http://www.cdi.org/adm/Transcripts/826/ 

Hansen, Chuck. U.S. Nuclear Weapons: The Secret History. Arlington, TX: Aerofax, 1988.

MacKenzie, Donald A. Inventing Accuracy: A Historical Sociology of Nuclear Missile Guidance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990
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Tea Party the American Tea Party the

Words: 3344 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 48526296

Tea Party

The American tea party

The Tea Party is a populist movement that promotes several conservative values which include the following;

Limitations on the authority of the U.S. federal government

eduction of government spending and the national debt

eduction of personal and corporate taxes

This is a party that has been known over the historical moments to pull frustrated and concerned Americans together to protest against excessive government spending coupled with increased debt burden. This conservative group has it that the government's growing involvement in business and indulgence in individual freedom is a deviation from conservative values.

Since its inception to date, the mission of the Tea Party Coalition has been to organize and launch in a rapid response fashion special nationwide projects that will help to advance the goal of a return to a constitutionally limited government that does not go overboard, through whichever arm to disenfranchise the…… [Read More]

References

David W. Koeller, (1999). The Boston Tea Party 1773. Retrieved July 28, 2011 from  http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/usa/teaparty.html 

Eye Witness to History, (2002). The Boston Tea Party, 1773. Retrieved July 28, 2011 from  http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/teaparty.htm 

James L. Roark et.al. Eds. The American Promise: A History of the United States. Fourth Ed.

Vol I. Bedford/St. Martin's: New York.
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Crisis as Robert Kennedy Reveals

Words: 1066 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 31211771

S. wanted Europe to respect its boundaries, but had no intention of respecting Europe's:

Imagine, Mr. President, what if we were to present to you such an ultimatum as you have presented to us by your actions. How would you react to it? I think you would be outraged at such a move on our part. And this we would understand…Our ties with the Republic of Cuba, as well as our relations with other nations, regardless of their political system, concern only the two countries between which these relations exist. And, if it were a matter of quarantine as mentioned in your letter, then, as is customary in international practice, it can be established only by states agreeing between themselves, and not by some third party. Quarantines exist, for example, on agricultural goods and products. However, in this case we are not talking about quarantines, but rather about much more…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kennedy, Robert. Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis. NY: W.W.

Norton & Company, 1999. Print.

"Khruschev Letter to President Kennedy." Web. 10 Nov 2011.

Perkins, John. Confessions of an Economic Hit Man. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-
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Law Help Protect the Environment and What

Words: 2725 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 96804056

law help protect the environment and what steps can citizens take to ensure that the law accomplishes this goal?

Protection of the environment is important for our health, but humans affect the system through various means such as through polluting water and atmosphere with toxic gasses, with oil, with car fuels, and with debris that is plunked into the waters as well as depleting the fisheries and filling the air with smog and the earth with pollution.

It is for this reason that legislation is put into effect to curb our destruction and to teach us how to look after the environment in better ways. The state employs its own regulations, but it needs a synthesis of both state, business and citizen involvement to safeguard the environment, and motivation from both business and citizen is not always forthcoming. The following essay discusses policies that have been implemented to help protect…… [Read More]

References

Amos, W. (2011) Development of Canadian Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Drilling: Lessons from the Gulf of Mexico RECIEL 20 (1)

British Columbia v. Canadian Forest Products Ltd., [2004] 2 S.C.R. 74, 2004 SCC 38

Bruce, JP (2011) Protecting Groundwater: The Invisible but Vital Resource C.D. Howe Institute

DeMarco, Jerry V;Valiante, Marcia;Bowden, Marie-Ann (2005) Opening the Door for Common Law Environmental Protection in Canada Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 15, 2
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Conflict in Drc Case Study Conflict in

Words: 4232 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 70586802

Conflict in DC (Case Study)

Conflict in DC

Conflict in the Democratic epublic of Congo

Background of DC Conflict

The Democratic epublic of Congo (DC), otherwise also known as epublique Democratique du Congo from their French masters and formerly Zaire is a nation situated in Central Africa boasting of a very brief coastline that runs approximately 37 Kms. DC is the third largest country in the entire Africa and stands at 12th position in terns of size in the world scale with 2,345 Square Kms (U.S. Department of State, 2010). It is the eight in the world in terms of population and fourth in Africa with the 71 million populations.

DC is neighbored by Central Africa epublic and Sudan from the northern side, the Atlantic Ocean is on its West, to the south Zambia and Angola border it and wanda, Uganda and Burundi are its neighbors to the East.

DC…… [Read More]

Reference

Claudia Rodriguez, (2007). Sexual Violence in South Kivu, Congo, Forced Migration

Retrieved February 11, 2011 from  http://www.vday.org/drcongo/background 

Electoral Institute for the Sustainability of Democracy in Africa, (2011). Democratic

Republic of the Congo. Retrieved February 10, 2011 from  http://www.eisa.org.za/WEP/drc.htm
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Arms Sales to the Third

Words: 1297 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46952975

S.S.R.'s collapse have left America as the only global Super Power, but burdened with a $4/5 trillion deficit, declining economic- military resources and uncertain leadership. America's internationalism will increasingly rely on closer cooperation with the United Nations and the West to foster international stability and stronger Western solidarity (2).

Chinese arms sales to the Middle East became controversial, particularly in the United States, because of China's willingness to export tactical and strategic missiles, regardless of the consequences to regional stability. In response, the United States began to pressure and to restrain its ballistic-missile exports. Chinese leaders maintained that their country had adopted a prudent and responsible policy on arms sales, selling only a limited quantity of weapons. Nevertheless, China's attempts to use the international security framework to its own advantage were contradictory. China's withdrawal from the Perm Five arms-transfer talks, sale of M-11 missile components to Pakistan, undercut the credibility…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Keller, William W. & Nolan, Janne E., the Arms Trade: Business as Usual?. Vol. 109, Foreign Policy, 12-01-1997

Rimanelli, Marco, East-West arms control and the fall of the U.S.S.R., 1967-1994: radical change or expedient accommodation?. Vol. 29, East European Quarterly, 06-22-1995pp 237(37).

Sismanidis, Roxane D.V., China and the Post-Soviet security structure.. Vol. 21, Asian Affairs: An American Review, 04-01-1994 pp 39.

Author not available, arms trade., the Hutchinson Dictionary of World History, 01-01-1998
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Framing A Comparison of the

Words: 7306 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26294702

One contextual tool that has been widely manipulated in international events by both sides is language translations and mistranslations. Due to the language barrier between the Chinese and American people, the audience on each side can only hear the other party's voice through media's translations, which by no means, may be immune to contextual framing.

Given the sensitive time, sensitive location and sensitive nature of this collision, both parties would have adopted all kinds of contextual framing techniques to occupy the moral high ground, and accuse the other side of wrongdoing. Since the foreign policy report in China is strictly controlled by the Communist Party, the news event portrayed by the Chinese media would be more homogenous and one-sided.

H2a: By adopting similar contextual framing techniques, both mainstream newspapers tend to depict their own side as morally superior, whereas the other party as the wrongdoer. As to the degree of…… [Read More]

References

China-Us Relations. (2001). International Journal on World Peace, 18(1), 99.

Eckholm, E. (April 27, 2001). Beijing Journal; A Pilot Is Lost, and a Communist Titan Is Found. New York Times, A2.

Harland, B. (2001), The Hainan Incident. New Zealand International Review, 26(4), 27.

Paez, D., Pennebaker, J.W. & Rime, B. (eds.). (1997). Collective memory of political events: Social psychological perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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Corrections Police Law Enforcement Police Technology

Words: 3819 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94009628



The middle of the decade of the 1980's was witness to the creation of the Technology Assessment Program Information Center and the Technology Program Advisory Agency. Their functions were as follows:

Technology Assessment Program Information Center: Picked up laboratories for testing equipment, supervised the testing process, published reports concerning the results that the lab released after testing.

Technology Program Advisory Agency: This was a large advisory body of senior local and federal law enforcement officials which are the predecessors to that which exists today

Important in the advancement of police protection was the creation and application in use of pepper spray.

VI. The Role of the National Institute for Justice in the Development of Law Enforcement technology:

The National Institute of Justice issued a "mandate in its capacity as the criminal research and development arms of the U.S. Department of Justice was to improve and strengthen the nations' system of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Are U.S. Police Agencies Being Outpaced in Technology-policeone.com 09-28-04 [Online] available at http://www.policeone.come/policeone/frtonend/parser.cfm?object+Product Categories&te

Visteon Provides the Latest in Law Enforcement Technology to Alkland County Sheriff Bouchard PR Newswire 10-29-05 [Online] available at  http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?ctrlInfo+Round9a%AProd%ADOC%AP11-10-04 

Satellite Technology Boosts Officer Safety 26 Jan 2004 [Online] available at http: www.staffordshire.police.uk/news306.htm

NIJ: Autoloading Pistols for Police Officers: NIJ STandard Series: Law Enforcement and Corrections Standard and Testing [Online] available at http://wwwlncjrs.org/txtfiles1/173943.txt
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History of the League of Women Voters

Words: 4175 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19333396

history of the League of Women Voters rightly begins with the very inception of the Women's Movement and the fight for liberation in the United States. During the early history of the United States there was little, if any respect for the principles of women's rights. In an intensely patriarchal society a man " ... virtually owned his wife and children as he did his material possessions. If a poor man chose to send his children to the poorhouse, the mother was legally defenseless to object." (Women's History in America) The history of women's movements in the United States is largely a reaction to this system of exclusion and male-dominance.

The start of the history of the fight for women's rights begins with a tea party hosted by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, in New York. Mrs. Stanton expressed her feelings of discontent at the situation of women in society. This meeting…… [Read More]

Bibliography

A biography of America: The sixties. learner. February 13, 2005..  http://www.learner.org/biographyofamerica/prog24/feature/ 

Eisenberg B. And Ruthsdotter M. Living the Legacy:

The Women's Rights Movement 1848 -- 1998. February 12, 2005. http://www.legacy98.org/move-hist.html

LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS. Houghton Mifflin. February 13, 2005.
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Bush vs Bush Iraq Redux

Words: 2512 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7590197

Primarily, both Bushes wanted to show the world that America is a powerful force with which to be reckoned -- even if not a single or sole superpower, a force that can at least militarily have its way in the world, especially with regard to rogue, weaker states.

Also, both Bushes believed in cut-and-dried reactions. Communism and Saddam Hussein are simply "bad" without complicating factors such as reasons or motivations for their actions. Going hand in hand with that assessment, communism and Saddam Hussein must be defeated thoroughly, recognizing that even small victories on the part of Iraq, for instance, could draw support to Hussein's ranks and erode America foreign policy world opinion.

However, that is where the similarities ended. For George Bush, the homeland in the United States was never under a serious threat. The most perilous years of the Cold War were behind America when Bush took the…… [Read More]

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Peace Agreements and International Intervention

Words: 3606 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65074896

Peace Agreements and International Intervention

A peace treaty is an agreement between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a war or armed conflict. Treaties are often ratified in territories deemed neutral in the previous conflict and delegates from these neutral territories act as witnesses to the signatories. In the case of large conflicts between numerous parties there may be one global treaty covering all issues or separate treaties signed between each party. In more modern times, certain intractable conflict situations, especially those involving terrorism, may first be brought to cease-fire and are then dealt with via a peace process where a number of discrete steps are taken on each side to eventually reach the mutually desired goal of peace and the signing of a treaty. Some ceasefires, such as the one following the American Revolution, may last a number of years and follow a tortuous process.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berdal, Mats and David M. Malone, eds. Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000.

Chomsky, Noam. "Peace Process' Prospects." July 27, 2000. June 27, 2005. .

Collier, Paul and Anke Hoeffler. "Greed and Grievance, Policy Research Paper 2355." World Bank Development Group. May 2000.

Fitzpatrick, Sheila. The Russian Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
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Terrorism There Are a Number

Words: 9571 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28900701

Fundamentally, the insurgents are fighting an enemy with superior weaponry, technology, and resources, so therefore, must seek avenues to mitigate these disadvantages. In other words, insurgent forces out vastly outdone in the traditional aspects of warfare, so they are forced to resort to unconventional modes of attack.

Early in his book, the Army and Vietnam, Krepinevich provides the broad game plan an insurgent force must follow to achieve final victory:

As developed by Mao in China and adapted by Giap in Vietnam, contemporary insurgency is a third world phenomenon comprising three phases: first, insurgent agitation and proselytization among the masses -- the phase of contention; second, overt violence, guerrilla operations, and the establishment of bases -- the equilibrium phase; and third, open warfare between insurgent and government forces designed to topple the existing regime -- the counteroffensive phase."

Primarily, this form of warfare consists of the formation of a political…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anonymous. 2004. Imperial Hubris. Washington, D.C.: Brassley's, Inc. Page, xxi.

Barringer, Mark. 1999. "The Anti-War Movement in the United States." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press Available: www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/vietnam/antiwar.html.

Bush, George W. 2002. "The National Security Strategy of the United States of America." Speeches delivered September 17 and June 1.

Butler, Smedley D. War is a Racket. New York: Feral House, 2003.
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History After the Second World

Words: 1370 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71856255

Bush hoped to show the world, and especially ussia, that our superiority gave us options that other countries did not have in shaping diplomacy and world policy. However, this was new ground for any U.S. president, and the Bush administration seemed tentative in their dealings with ussia. Another writer notes, "For those issues that were beyond the cold war, such as profound change engulfing Europe and ussia, the Bush administration was usually quite tentative and cautious, allowing others to take the foreign policy initiative" (Scott 36). Thus, the Bush administration was strong on the Middle East and terrorism, but soft on ussia and the Soviets.

President Clinton's foreign policy was strong, because the U.S. held the clear advantage in weaponry and manpower after the fall of the U.S.S.. Another author notes, "No one could remotely challenge U.S. military and economic capacity and insofar as America's 'core concepts' were driving the…… [Read More]

References

Ambrose, Stephen E. Rise to Globalism: American Foreign Policy Since 1938. New York: Penguin Books, 1997.

Leffler, Melvyn P. "Bush's Foreign Policy." Foreign Policy Sept.-Oct. 2004: 22+.

Oliver, James K. "The Foreign Policy Architecture of the Clinton and Bush Administrations." White House Studies 4.1 (2004): 47+.

Scott, James A., ed. After the End: Making U.S. Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold War World. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998.
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Hizballah Terrorist Group Hizbollah Also

Words: 2401 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25858984

Husayn al-Musawi, a member of a contingent of the Hizbollah party, said that "Even if we, the people of Islamic Amal, do not have relations with those who committed these attacks, we are nevertheless on the side of those who defend themselves, by whatever means they have chosen." (Kramer 1990) Additionally, Musawi stated that "I supported their glorious attacks against the U.S. And France," (ibid.). This more-than-tacit support of terrorist actions such as suicide bombings and other clandestine attacks on peacekeeping or other troops is more than enough to define the organization as one which supports terrorist actions and condones their use against innocent soldiers, peacekeeping troops, and civilians.

After this condoned attack, Hizbollah terror has not achieved such a marked event in one act of terrorism; however, they have supported terrorist actions that have grown in number each year since the Israeli pullout of Lebanon and which have, as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Diaz, T., and Newman, B., 2005. Lightning out of Lebanon: Hezbollah Terrorists on American Soil, Presidio Press.

Y., 1989. Israel's Fateful Hour. New York, NY: Harper & Row

Information Division article of Israel Foreign Ministry, published online at  http://www.ict.org.il/inter_ter/orgdet.cfm?orgid=15#documentsand  accessed 10/29/05.

Kramer, M., 1990."The Moral Logic of Hizballah." In Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind, ed. W. Reich (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 131-57.
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Inter-Parliamentary Union and Its Role

Words: 16130 Length: 59 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43330627

8).

Likewise, the Institute of Agriculture required a quorum of two-thirds of its members for voting purposes and for the balancing of votes according to the size of the budgetary contributions (owett, 1970). While this analysis of these early forms of public international unions is not complete, it does suggest that they were beginning to identify the wide range of interests involved in modern international commerce and what was required to mediate disputes rather than war over them. According to owett (1970), despite the growing body of research into the history and purpose of international public unions, the authorities have not reached a consensus on their classification; however, the constitutional developments and innovations made by the public unions are important considerations for policymakers today because they presaged those made by contemporary inter-governmental organizations (owett, 1970).

In the first instance, the trend towards permanence of association was distinct, no matter whether…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Armstrong, D., L. Lloyd and J. Redmond. 2005. International Organization in World Politics, 3rd ed. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.

Avruch, Kevin, Peter W. Black and Joseph A. Scimecca. Conflict Resolution: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Bar-Siman-Tov, Yaacov. 2004. From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bell, Lynda S., Andrew J. Nathan and Ilan Peleg. 2001. Negotiating Culture and Human Rights. New York: Columbia University Press.
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Colin Powell General Colin L

Words: 2231 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71228625

Powell was unanimously approved by the Senate and became the first African-American to hold that position. His service as Secretary of State is a clear example of his reticence, yet readiness, for war. hile Powell is known for "the so-called Powell doctrine -- that U.S. military power only be used in overwhelming strength to achieve well-defined strategic national interests," (answers.com 3) he made a famous speech to the United Nations in which he voiced support for the war in Iraq. Although he clashed with the often "hawkish" members of the Bush hite House such as Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, "one of Powell's best known moments as secretary of state was his speech last year [2003] to the U.N. Security Council in which he made a case for invading Iraq" (King 3). The initial invasion of Iraq was billed as necessary by the Bush hite House because of the threat…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Academy of Achievement. "Colin Powell Biography." January 11, 2006.  http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/pow0bio-1 

America's Promise. "General Powell's Message to America." 2006.  http://www.americaspromise.org/WhyHere.aspx?id=124 

Answers.com. "Colin Powell." 2006.  http://www.answers.com/topic/colin-powell 

King, John; Koppel, Andrea; Malveaux, Suzanne; Labotte, Elise. "Powell resigns with three other Cabinet secretaries."  http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/11/15/powell/
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Disobeying the Law Have Always

Words: 1405 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59457095

By developing military weapons that can hurt a large percentage of people if deployed, what the country is doing is the exact opposite of what it is required to do. If I am not getting the benefits I expect, this means I can disobey the law if the moral need to do so arises.

Gratitude then becomes a vague term. I am grateful to the state for something such as property on which I live, rights that I have had, access to education and healthcare I have enjoyed. In exchange for these, I am expected to obey the law. Fair enough! But if obedience of law hurts my rights or rights of some other person, should I still follow the law? This is the question that we need to ask ourselves. There is more than one case where we might actually end up hurting the moral rights of someone while…… [Read More]

References

Rawls, J., 'Legal obligations and the duty of fair play,' S. Hook ed., Law and Philosophy (New York: N.Y.U. Pr., 1963)

Hart, H. 'Are there any natural rights,' Philosophical Review 64 (1955)

Ross, W. The Right and the Good (Ox! ford: Oxford U. Pr. 1930).