Disarmament Essays (Examples)

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But the threshold nuclear-weapons states will not give up their nuclear option without seeing proof of a timetabled move towards a nuclear-free world. The road towards the nuclear-free destination includes still deeper reductions in the nuclear arsenals of the five nuclear-weapons states; further constraints on the deployment of their nuclear weapons on the territories of other states, for example by means of regional nuclear-weapon-free zones; the entry into force of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; the negotiation of a ban on missile test flights and on the production of fissile materials; and so on.
Thakur 15)

One point that Thakur also makes if that this development of strategic and cultural demands is not achievable unless the demand is global, and includes a zero tolerance policy, which will allow the situation to be more easily investigated and confiremed.

International agreement will be much easier to achieve on a zero than on a low-limit….

International Peace Conference
The purpose of this work is to examine the First International Peace Conference and identify the background, or what led to the meeting of delegations, the factors, actors and what was as stake. Further to explore the decisions and interactions that took place as well as the outcomes of the conference. Finally to evaluate the outcome and examine what might have been done differently as well as how the effect of a different outcome may have demonstrated itself historically.

The spring and summer of 1899 was witness to the gathering of twenty-six nations of the world for the First International Peace Conference which was held at the "House in the Woods" at The Hague by generous offer of The Netherlands Queen, Wilhemenia. Although the gathering failed to effectively address disarmament the adoption of other important agreements and conventions paved the way for collective efforts to follow.

Elements that Helped….

This when the Army must spread out its resources to engage threat WMDs and WMD networks. The concept applies to counterforce operations, sensors, protection, and training.
Leveraging new technologies. Many of the required capabilities presented in the strategy will be possible only through applications of new technology. The Army must leverage these new technologies.

Enhance training. Unit training is currently more flexible and quickly adaptive in comparison with institutional training. but, it often lacks valuable consistency and standardization.

Institutional training content updates, approval, and resourcing it is tied to processes too slow to remain current. Future training will prepare soldiers and leaders to exercise sound judgment in the analysis of data / information, understanding cultural impacts on operations and to act in periods of uncertainty.

These ideas are providing a background for implementing new technology and key strategies for improving the countermeasures and neutralization of WMDs. However, this research is not talking about….

U S Arms Exports the Impact
PAGES 11 WORDS 3541

In February of 2001, the government responded to pressures to relieve some of the suffering, the Emir loosened many of the laws. The U.S. considers Bahrain and important non-NATO ally in the ar against Terrorism, often using Bahrain as a staging area fro entry into Iraq. For this reason, the Bush administration continues to support increases in arms transfers to Bahrain. eapons transferred to Bahrain have included large and small weapons from shot guns to M60 tanks.
Indonesia

In 1999 Indonesian armed forces killed citizens in East Timor in response to the formation of anti-independence militias that were being organized. The government forces were equipped with U.S. M-1-6 rifles and other U.S. military equipment. The militia was also equipped with $1 billion in U.S. arms and training. In this case, the U.S. had been supporting the illegal occupation of East Timor since 1975. The U.S. supplied arms to both forces and….

NPT -Non-Proliferation Treaty
Ever since the First World War, various countries in the western world had started researching in military weapons and artillery in order to strengthen their country's security. Newer and more advanced weapons continued to be inducted in the armed forces of developed and industrialized nations in the world particularly Soviet Union, United States of America, United Kingdom, Japan and Germany. While all these countries had started their researches for development of nuclear weapons as early as 1930s, the United States of America officially emerged as the first country to have nuclear weapons developed.

While development of nuclear weapons was initially considered as an individual nation's effort to strengthen its country's security and sovereignty, it was in August 1945 when the idea of nuclear proliferation and nuclear warfare alarmed the international community. This was when the United States of America bombed to cities in Japan, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, using nuclear….

Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality
The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1

The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this code in….

S. had provided the technology needed to promote the development of nuclear weapons. However, the U.S. argued that it had provided civilian instead of military technology, therefore had not violated the treaty.
The Politics of Proliferation

The politics of non-proliferation are complex. In the case of the U.S., the agreement and terms must satisfy every party involved. On one hand, the U.S. is under an obligation built on trust, that it will reduce the number of nuclear weapons in its arsenal. However, it must still maintain an arsenal that is capable of acting as a deterrent against first attach by non-treaty countries with nuclear weapons. These two goals compete with one another. The U.S. is not the only nuclear weapon owner with this conflict. Every member of the non-proliferation treaty faces this same dilemma.

Nuclear arms negotiations have taken place amidst an atmosphere of deception and mistrust. Full disclosure is often entangled with….

UN Security Council
PAGES 15 WORDS 5883

UN Security Council
Proliferation of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons to terrorist organizations is inarguably one of the greatest menaces threatening international peace and security today.[footnoteef:1] Since the turn of the century, this sentiment has grown in strength across the world, and as a countermeasure to this threat, in 2004, the United Nations Security Council passed esolution 1540 to combat the dangerous nexus between the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and terrorism. Adopted under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, the esolution mandates that all member states criminalizes and put into place a national enforcement system to deter and punish proliferation activities. Additionally, provisions under esolution 1540 entail physical safety and security measures, as well as the adoption of border and export controls to detect, deter, prevent, and combat illicit trafficking. [1: During the 2010 Washington, DC Nuclear Security Summit, the United States President Barack Obama stated that "it….

The United States and the rest of the coalition members all argue that there was enough authority in the resolutions that already existed from the Security Council to justify using force for the invasion of Iraq. On the 10th of November of 2002, Secretary of State Colin Powell indicated that the United States believed that there were material breaches in the past, as well as new and current material breaches that necessitated enough authority to take action.
Iraq consistently violated many of the Security Council resolutions created by the United Nations and many of these dealt primarily with inspection of facilities and disarmament. Because Iraq continually violated these resolutions the rationale for military action came about largely from this issue. The fact that the terrorist attacks had taken place and there were possible links between Iraq and Al Qaeda also caused much of the tension. The disregard for these resolutions,….

' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister ajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).
As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the Cold….

" (Foster, 1999) Within this framework there is no reference to gun ownership by individuals and according to Foster's report: "...it is reasonable to assume that private arms are intended for destruction under the term." (Foster, 1999)
The work of David . Kopel, a former assistant district attorney in Manhattan and presently a practicing attorney in Colorado writes in the work entitled: "Trust the People: The Case Against Gun Control" a policy brief published at the Cato Institute that: "Gun control is based on the faulty notion that ordinary American citizens are too clumsy and ill-tempered to be trusted with weapons. Only through the blatant abrogation of explicit constitutional rights is gun control even possible." (1988) Kopel relates that less than one in 3,000 gun owners commit murder. Each year approximately 7,000 individuals commit suicide and 300 or fewer people die in accidents involving handguns. As a matter of fact, police….

Legitimacy of International Institutions
International institutions are based on the multilateral treaties or the agreements among multiple states. States generally enter in the treaties to promote their common aims, and law recognizes the existence of international institutions. Typically, international institutions are established based on the charters that bind the member states together. "International institutions are the set of rules means to govern international behaviours" (Simmons & Martin 2001 P. 194). This definition is very important because international institutions have established set of rules guiding the conduct of member states. Based on the definitions of international institutions, it is revealed that member states are subject to abide by the decision of international institutions. However, there are hot debates among scholars and political actors whether international institutions posses legitimacy on the member states. (D'Amato,2007, Zurn, & Stephen 2010).

The objective of this paper is to investigate the legitimacy of international institutions.

Legitimacy of International Institutions

To….

hen a progressive Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, the fall of the Soviet Union was immanent and inevitable.
After the fall of the Soviet Union under Reagan's watch, his Vice President Bush inherited the problem of dealing with a fragmented Eastern Europe and Eurasia. Bush Sr.'s foreign policy toward Moscow was largely passive, arguably much more passive than any of his predecessors were because the Cold ar was over and the threat of nuclear war temporarily set aside. Moreover, the dissolution of the Soviet Union was still taking place and Bush Sr. watched while new nation-states emerged out of the Soviet Bloc. However, Bush Sr. negotiated nuclear disarmament treaties with Gorbachev and his successor Boris Yeltsin and willingly recognized the independence of many formerly Soviet republics.

Relations with Russia again grew tense under President Clinton largely because of the conflicts that arose in the Balkans. The Soviet Union had….

Rise of China
PAGES 7 WORDS 2354

Rise of China
THE POWER OF NUMERS - AND OF ARMS

China, a Growing Threat in Southeast Asia?

The appearance or reality of peace, stability and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region in the 1990s may be drawn from the popular compliance of the countries to the provisions of an agreement (Shuja 1999). This was the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, signed in 1968 and becoming effective in 1970, by the countries or States. Their number increased to 176. They agreed to give up the use of nuclear power for military purposes. Africa, Argentina, razil, Romania and Algeria were examples of such countries. ut this image of peace and unity in the region was shattered and vanished when India and Pakistan conducted nuclear tests in May 1998. India and Pakistan had a long-time feud and the tests sent the message to the rest in the region that the protagonists could be preparing for a nuclear….

Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy

The "Chinese Model" of Investment

The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework

Operational Views

The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus

Trading with the Enemy Act

Export Control Act.

Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act

Category B

Category C

The 1974 Trade Act.

The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy

The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)

Expatriates

The Managerial Practices

Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)

China and western world: A comparison

The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods

Chapter 5

The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development

The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition

eferences

Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)

Chapter 1

Abbreviations

ACD arms control and disarmament

ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency

ADB Asian Development Bank

ADF Asian Development Fund

APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast Asian Nations] egional Forum

ASDF Air Self-Defense Forces

AShM anti-ship missiles

ASW antisubmarine warfare

AWACS airborne warning and command system

BIS Bank for International Settlements

BWC Biological Weapons Convention

CATIC China Agribusiness Development Trust and Investment Corporation

CBM confidence-building….

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8 Pages
Term Paper

Military

Nuclear Disarmament Using the Tools

Words: 2991
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Term Paper

But the threshold nuclear-weapons states will not give up their nuclear option without seeing proof of a timetabled move towards a nuclear-free world. The road towards the nuclear-free…

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3 Pages
Term Paper

Military

Republic Manages Its Imperial Reach 1900-1914

Words: 1078
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Term Paper

International Peace Conference The purpose of this work is to examine the First International Peace Conference and identify the background, or what led to the meeting of delegations, the…

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15 Pages
Research Paper

Military

Countermeasures and Neutralization of Weapons

Words: 4042
Length: 15 Pages
Type: Research Paper

This when the Army must spread out its resources to engage threat WMDs and WMD networks. The concept applies to counterforce operations, sensors, protection, and training. Leveraging new technologies.…

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11 Pages
Term Paper

History - Israel

U S Arms Exports the Impact

Words: 3541
Length: 11 Pages
Type: Term Paper

In February of 2001, the government responded to pressures to relieve some of the suffering, the Emir loosened many of the laws. The U.S. considers Bahrain and important…

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6 Pages
Essay

Military

Npt -Non-Proliferation Treaty Ever Since the First

Words: 1855
Length: 6 Pages
Type: Essay

NPT -Non-Proliferation Treaty Ever since the First World War, various countries in the western world had started researching in military weapons and artillery in order to strengthen their country's security.…

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35 Pages
Term Paper

Drama - World

Post War Iraq a Paradox in the Making Legitimacy vs Legality

Words: 14187
Length: 35 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the…

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10 Pages
Thesis

Military

U S Nuclear Policy Non-Proliferation vs

Words: 3464
Length: 10 Pages
Type: Thesis

S. had provided the technology needed to promote the development of nuclear weapons. However, the U.S. argued that it had provided civilian instead of military technology, therefore had not…

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15 Pages
Research Paper

Military

UN Security Council

Words: 5883
Length: 15 Pages
Type: Research Paper

UN Security Council Proliferation of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons to terrorist organizations is inarguably one of the greatest menaces threatening international peace and security today.[footnoteef:1] Since the turn of…

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15 Pages
Term Paper

American History

International Law and the Invasion

Words: 5121
Length: 15 Pages
Type: Term Paper

The United States and the rest of the coalition members all argue that there was enough authority in the resolutions that already existed from the Security Council to…

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26 Pages
Thesis

History - Asian

Indian-Israeli Relations Valuable to India's

Words: 9235
Length: 26 Pages
Type: Thesis

' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of…

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7 Pages
Term Paper

Law - Constitutional Law

Gun Control and Gun Trafficking

Words: 2567
Length: 7 Pages
Type: Term Paper

" (Foster, 1999) Within this framework there is no reference to gun ownership by individuals and according to Foster's report: "...it is reasonable to assume that private arms are…

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10 Pages
Term Paper

Government

Legitimacy of International Institutions

Words: 3173
Length: 10 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Legitimacy of International Institutions International institutions are based on the multilateral treaties or the agreements among multiple states. States generally enter in the treaties to promote their common aims, and…

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3 Pages
Term Paper

Drama - World

Nixon's Policy Toward the U S S R

Words: 898
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Term Paper

hen a progressive Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev came to power, the fall of the Soviet Union was immanent and inevitable. After the fall of the Soviet Union under Reagan's…

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7 Pages
Research Paper

Military

Rise of China

Words: 2354
Length: 7 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Rise of China THE POWER OF NUMERS - AND OF ARMS China, a Growing Threat in Southeast Asia? The appearance or reality of peace, stability and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region in…

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60 Pages
Dissertation or Thesis complete

Economics

Challenging the Beijing Consensus China Foreign Policy in the 21st Century

Words: 24240
Length: 60 Pages
Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete

Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus) Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy The "Chinese Model" of Investment The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework Operational Views The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus Trading…

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