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Divorce is a traumatic experience for a child under any circumstances. They were certainly so in mine, in which several intervening factors complicated the ability to develop effective psychological coping mechanisms. I was nine years old when my parents got divorced. The divorce was not due to mutual consent or irreconcilable differences but the fact that my mother had an affair with my father's best friend, subsequently leaving the country. Being abandoned by my mother has had lingering effects on my psyche, impacting my ability to form intimate relationships and to trust others. Using my example, it is possible to evaluate the developmental, environmental, cultural, and systemic issues at stake during a major family trauma like divorce. Legal and ethical issues related to my personal case will also be discussed. The analysis will inform a thorough diagnosis and treatment plan, as well as suggesting possible alternatives.
The following issues are…
Hess, R.D. & Camara, K.A. (1979). Post-divorce family relationships as mediating factors in the consequences of divorce for children. Journal of Social Issues 35(4): 79-96.
Peck, J.S. & Manocherian, J.R. (1988). Divorce in the changing family life cycle. Chapter 15 in Changing Family Life Cycle. Pp. 335-369.
In regard to how a child's sense of family is affected by the remarriage of either parent, Ahrons points out that binuclear families have proven to be rather undesirable. This is more so the case given the unusual combination of both blood and non-blood relationships which according to Ahrons could effectively defy clear definition of roles.
indings from this study as the author further points out clearly indicate that children can only have an enhanced sense of biological family as well as maintain close relationships with their parents once the said parents reduce or minimize their conflicts. Thus in the final analysis, parental conflict and subsequent divorce does have a negative impact on the well-being of the affected children. The sample used for this particular study was largely random, with 98 pairs of individuals who were at some point in a marriage union being interviewed. Interviews involving the divorced parents…
Findings from this study as the author further points out clearly indicate that children can only have an enhanced sense of biological family as well as maintain close relationships with their parents once the said parents reduce or minimize their conflicts. Thus in the final analysis, parental conflict and subsequent divorce does have a negative impact on the well-being of the affected children. The sample used for this particular study was largely random, with 98 pairs of individuals who were at some point in a marriage union being interviewed. Interviews involving the divorced parents in this case were conducted in three phases. The collection of data involved extensive interviews with members of the family. In a way, the structure of the interview permitted respondents to tackle questions leveled to them in their own words. This further enhanced the reliability and comprehensiveness of the study.
Cui, M., Fincham, F.D. & Durtschi, J.A. (2011). The Effect of Parental Divorce on Young Adults' Romantic Relationship Dissolution: What Makes a Difference? Personal Relationships, 18 (3), 410-426.
When it comes to charting the impact of divorce on children, there also exists a need to determine how the same affects their attitude towards divorce going forward. A study conducted by Cui, Fincham, and Durtschi would enable us to determine just that. After comparing individuals whose parents had earlier on divorced with those who had been raised up in stable familial settings, the authors found out that the attitude young adults in the former scenario had towards divorce was more favorable than that of their counterparts in the latter scenario. The level of commitment young adults from divorced families had in any of the intimate relationships they were engaged in was significantly lower that the level of commitment their counterparts from intact families exhibited. Participants of this particular study were students pursuing undergraduate studies at one of the Southern universities. The choice of participants in this case enabled the authors to develop a rather meaningful picture of the issue at hand. From the onset, this study sought to identify "the association between parental divorce and young adults' romantic relationship dissolution" (Cui, Fincham, and Durtschi, 2011). The authors in this particular case had hypothesized that there would be
Improving the Divorce Rate
The divorce rate in many modern nations has been steadily climbing in recent generations. This is complex phenomenon that involves many factors and underlying social changes. There are cultural changes that seem to be altering the perceptions of marriage as well as socio-economic changes that also apply stress to many marriages. Despite the trend of an increase in the divorce rate, the benefits of marriage have timeless qualities such as greater economic advantages and a creating a better environment for raising children. Furthermore, there are many advantages to forming a lasting relationship with a partner and one of the strongest versions of this is the institution of marriage. This analysis will consider many strategies that could be used to reduce the divorce rate from different angles. It will consider general social and economic trends as well as strategies that could be used on an…
The no fault law should be revised, and ensured that the motives for the marriage were investigated at the time of the divorce. If the motives and actions indicate that the marriage would've ended in a divorce eventually, the appeal for divorce should be shot down. Moreover, the newspapers and selected electronic media has a duty to not publicize celebrity divorces as if they are some gallant acts, but to give a strong backlash to those going through the divorce for all the wrong reasons, so as to ensure that the society at large doesn't get influenced by such celebrities. Divorce should always be an option for those who need it. Sometimes, it is the only way out for the couple of a horrible fate. But those, who use marriage and divorce for ulterior purposes, the laws need to be stricter. Again, all divorce cases should be presented in front…
Babst, et al. Moral Argument, Religion, and Same-Sex Marriage: Advancing the Public Good. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2009.
Bastaits, K., K. Ponnet and D. Mortelmans. "Parenting of divorced fathers and the association with children's self-esteem." J. Youth Adolsec (2012): 41(12):1643-56.
BBC News. Britney's short marriage annulled. London: BBC News, 2004.
Denton, M.L. "Family structure, family disruption, and profiles of adolescent religiosity." J. Sci Study Relig. (2012): 51(1):42-64.
But it was not like that from the beginning."
The eformed Theology looks at marriage and divorce from the standpoint of being covenantal. They quote the Bible as saying in Malachi 2:14, "…because you have broken faith with her, though she is your partner, the wife of your marriage covenant" (Fielding, 2010). Fielding goes on to say,
"In the Old Testament, "divorce" was carried out by a literal physical execution of the guilty party for capital offenses, which were the same as what most people would consider divorceable offenses today, such as adultery, rape, incest, homosexuality, bestiality, murder, child-sacrifice, witchcraft, and blasphemy. "Divorce by death made remarriage possible, and freed the innocent partner from bondage to a guilty and unclean person," writes ousas John ushdoony in the Institutes of Biblical Law" (Fielding, 2010).
The eformist views almost all aspects of the Bible as being covenantal in relations to God's interactions…
Bacchiocchi, S. "The Marriage Covenant: A Biblical Study on Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage." n.d. Chapter 6. Retrieved on May 5, 2010 from http://www.biblicalperspectives.com/books/marriage/4.html
Feeney, J. "Divorce and Remarriage. Does God Permit it?" 2007. Retrieved on May 5, 2010 from http://www.jimfeeney.org/divorceandremarriage.html
Fielder, S. "Marriage, Divorce, and Remarriage -- a Covenantal Model." 2010. Retrieved on May 5, 2010 from http://reformed-theology.org/html/issue07/divorce.htm
Holman Christian Standard Bible. 2004. Holman Bible Publishers. Nashville, TN.
Moreover, a gradual increase of divorce rate has been found in this period as well.
Lyons, Linda. "Gallup Tuesday Briefing." Kids and Divorce 1.1 (2002):1-3.
Citing the study of Hetherington and Kelly, Lyons provided a more positive outlook on the effects of divorce as she states that the divorce experience can be a source of empowerment for the children. Lyons also looked at teen's perception and attitude towards marriage and divorce.
Mack, Kristin. "Childhood Family Disruptions and Adult Well-Being: The Differential Effects of Divorce and Parental Death." Death Studies 25.1 (2001): 419-443.
This empirical study, which employed psychological theories, examines family disruptions in general. Findings of the study show that adults who have had experienced parental divorcer are more likely to have lower quality of their own parent-child relationship. But they are more confident and have lower levels of depression as compared to those who have experienced parental deaths.
Black, Evan. "Reflections on the Special Issue: Divorce and its Aftermath." Family Process 46.1. (2007): 1-2.
For Black, the practice of divorce has become a ubiquitous practice affecting not only one's immediate relationships but also other domains of one's life. Black provided a grounded and contextual understanding of divorce via the story of the travails of a single mother with two children.
Brown, Kimberly. How Does Divorce Affect Adolescents? n.d. Oberlin College. 25 Nov 2006 http://www.oberlin.edu/faculty/ndarling/adfamb2.htm .
Brown provided a deep die profiling information on children with divorced parents. Not only does divorce affect the immediate behavior of the children but also it affects their future relationships. These children tend to have difficulties when it comes to dating and eventually marriage because of the trauma that they have gone through during their parents' divorce.
There is a typical decline in the standard of living of mother-headed families, for children of divorce, that often pushes them below the poverty level. A number of developmental problem, in children, are associated with a lack of economic resources. A child's nutrition and health may be negatively affected by economic hardship. Educational items such as: private lessons, educational toys, computers, and books are also often difficult for single-parent families to afford, as often found in the loss of income experienced by custodial mothers. educed income may force the family to move into lower income neighborhoods, where school systems are not as adequately funded. Lastly, living in poverty can be stigmatizing for the child, which can lead into the entry into deviant subcultures.
The general well-being of children of divorce is also negatively affected by the conflict during the separation period. This interparental hostility is a severe stressor for children.…
Amato, P. & Keith, B. (Jul 1991). Parental divorce and the well-being of children: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 110(1). Retrieved July 27, 2009, from PsycArticles.
Civitci, N., Civitci, A., & Fiyakali, N. (May 2009). Loneliness and life satisfaction in adolescents with divorced and non-divorced parents. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 9(2). Retrieved July 27, 2009, from Academic Search Complete.
Divorce rates by state: 1990, 1995, and 1999-2004. (19 Oct 2005). Retrieved July 27, 2009, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvss/divorce90_04.pdf .
Heatherington, E. (Oct 1979). Divorce: A child's perspective. American Psychologist, 34(11). Retrieved July 27, 2009, from Academic Search Complete.
Agreements and Disagreements
hen we consider the arguments and perspectives of both Coontz and May on the subject of divorce in America, some disagreements emerge, though by and large the two agree in principle if not on all of the details. From the above discussion of the two authors' points-of-view on divorce in America, it is more than evident that there is some disagreement in what the authors believe to be at the heart of current rises in divorce rates in the United States. Coontz, on the one hand, argues that changes in the underlying cultural attitudes and beliefs about marriage shifted around two hundred years ago, and that these new beliefs are still having an effect on the institution of marriage, specifically through divorce. May, on the other hand, looks to socioeconomic changes in the history of the country to account for rising divorce rates, and ties the historical…
Coontz, Stephanie. "The Origins of Modern Divorce." Family Process 46.1 (Mar. 2007): 7-16.
May, Elaine Tyler. "The Pressure to Provide: Class, Consumerism, and Divorce in Urban American, 1880-1920." Journal of Social History 12.2 (Winter 1978): 180-193.
Divorce can have a tremendous effect on the lives of children and the parties that are getting the divorce. More than half of all marriages in America end in divorce. It is believed that the people that are affected the most by divorce are children, over a million of them experience divorce in their families each year. During the decade between 1990 and 2000 about 15 million children, under the age of 8, became products of divorced families. It is estimated that by 2010,over 50% of children will come from a single family home. The purpose of this discussion is to explore the effects of divorce on children and their parents.
Divorces can devastate the most important relationship in a child's life, and experts believe that divorce can have a negative effect on the relationships that children have later in life. When children have experienced the divorce of their parents…
Divorce, "the legal dissolution of a marriage" (American Heritage Dictionary, Fourth Edition) is considered as the bane of the contemporary American society ruining the lives of not only the two people involved but also deteriorates the well being of the children with divorced parents. Research shows that the number of children experiencing parental divorce is as large as one million every year, in the United States (Amato et al.: 895). Innumerable theories and studies have been conducted, addressing the similar issue, outlining the causes as well as the effects of divorce on the victimized family in particular and on the nation in general. Causes of divorce are many from extremely low levels of satisfaction to appalling levels of commitment and gradual weakening of bond due to adultery or abuse (Sprecher). Hence, divorce is a problem worldwide, augmenting at an alarming pace, compelling researchers and experts in the field to take…
Amato, Paul R.; Loomis, Laura S, Booth & Alan, Parental divorce, marital conflict, and offspring well-being during early adulthood (Children and Generations). Vol. 73, Social Forces, 03-01-1995, Pages: 895(21).
Sprecher S. "I Love You More Today Than Yesterday': Romantic Partners' Perceptions of Changes in Love and Related Affect Over Time," Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 76, No.1, February 15, 1999.
Saluter A. Marital Status and Living Arrangements, Census Bureau Report, March 1994
Carter J & Carter D., Sound finances help build sound marriage, The Washington Times, 05-30-2000,-Page: E4
In the study by Nusinovici et al. (2018), the researchers used a quantitative method to assess the impact of divorce or separation of parents on their preterm children’s (preterm meaning born before 35 weeks) academic performance at 5 years of age. Thus, the main variables included in this study were: 1) the subject had to be a preterm baby, 2) the subject’s parents had to be separated or divorced at some point prior to the child’s 5th year (at which point children typically enroll in kindergarten), and 3) and the child had to be in school and able to be assessed by a teacher. The purpose of the study was to see whether there was any correlation between the variables of premature birth, parental divorce or separation, and academic achievement of the child at 5 years of age. The method used was purposive sampling, survey data of “clinical anomalies…
Nusinovici, S., Olliac, B., Flamant, C., Müller, J. B., Olivier, M., Rouger, V., ... & Hanf, M. (2018). Impact of parental separation or divorce on school performance in preterm children: A population-based study. PloS one, 13(9), e0202080.
Adolescent adjustment and well-being: Effects of parental divorce and distress
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of divorce or separation on an adolescent’s psychological adjustment, investigate if there are any gender differences in the effect of divorce, the impact of time on the adolescent after divorce, and the effect of divorce on the adolescent after controlling for parental symptoms of depression and anxiety (Størksen, Røysamb, Holmen, & Tambs, 2006).
The independent variables for this study were divorce and parental distress. These two variables were selected because the researchers wanted to establish the effect of divorce on adolescents and compare it to those of adolescents whose parents had not divorced or separated. Adolescents who had grown up with one parent were included in the no divorce group since they had only known a single parent. Parental distress was used to determine the impact this would have…
Divorce and Communication
In the past few decades, divorces have become much more common than they traditionally were. Lack of communication has been identified by psychologists, marriage counselors, and clergy members as the main reason why families end in divorce. The last-reported U.S. divorce rate for a calendar year, available as of May, 2005, was .38% divorces per capita per year (National Center for Health Statistics, 2005). Since every divorce involves two people, the percentage becomes somewhat more meaningful if you double it; for example, .74% of the entire population gets divorced every year (National Center for Health Statistics, 2005). This paper will first analyze the divorce statistics in the United States, along with a discussion of the issue of communication as it relates to the reasons behind divorce, family breakups, conflict in marriage caused by different cultures, lack of friendship in a marriage, and what can be done to…
Boland, J.P. & Follingstad, D.R. (1987). The relationship between communication and marital satisfaction: a review. J Sex Marital Ther. 13(4), 286-313.
Dreyfus, Edward. (2002). Making your Marriage Work. Retrieved June 28, 2005 from http://www.planetpsych.com/psychology101/relationships/making_marriage_work.htm .
National Center for Health Statistics. (2005). Divorce Rates in the United States. Retrieved June 26, 2005 from http://www.divorce.rates.reform.com
Segrin, Chris; Taylor, Melissa; Altman, Julie. (2005). Social cognitive mediators and relational outcomes associated with parental divorce. Journal of Social and Personal
The Significance of Present-Day Changes in the Institution of Marriage:
Today, it is a fact that more and more marriages are becoming impermanent and less long lasting than they ever have been before. What is the cause for this phenomenon? Levi-Strauss maintain that today, there is an equal division of labor, and as a direct consequence, what happens is that the rights and responsibilities between both the partners of opposite sexes becomes equalized, and as a result, there is less dependence of one partner on the other. Perhaps the so called 'woman's movement' may have also contributed to this type of occurrence, and various other changes in society, including a considerable lessening of housework, and also the sexual revolution that took place during the sixties may also have contributed to the upsetting of the balance of the equation between men and women. Consider housework, for example, today. (Nazzari, pp:…
Coughlan, W.G. Marriage Breakdown. In A.P. Elkin (ed) Marriage and the Family in Australia. Angus and Robertson, 1957.
Eekelaar, John. Regulating Divorce.
Clarendon Press, 1991.
Glendon, Mary Ann. The Transformation of Family Law: State, Law and family in the United
Data will be collected using a survey instrument. The instrument will be designed by researchers for the purposes of this particular study and will feature two sections. The first section will ask for some brief familial and biographical information. First and foremost, the survey will ask the life and marital status of the respondents' parents, accounting for single mothers, single fathers, legal non-biological guardians, divorced parents, remarried parents and married parents. This section will also ask for information regarding siblings and other particulars of the family living situation. Surveys will not ask for names or other individual identifiers, insuring anonymity and privacy for all respondents.
In the second section of the survey, aata will be collected using a Fixed Alternatives Likert Scale survey. Here, 20 statements will be presented to the respondent. The respondent will be asked to circle one of five numbered responses:
-2. Strongly Disagree
The break-up of a marriage involving children in the middle childhood stage is an increasingly frequent occurrence in modern society. Children experience these divorces in a variety of ways, depending on the quality of the relationship between the parents and children. Either way, the effect upon self-esteem could be significant. Children learn behavior patterns from parents. When parents face self-esteem issues from being unable to make their relationship work, this will undoubtedly affect children as well. Children might also blame themselves for the break-up of the marriage, and thus carry this often unnamed burden with them until adulthood. A divorce could therefore be a devastating thing for children, and careful attention should be paid to possible therapy options.
Parents that stay together regardless of endless conflict could be equally damaging for the development of self-esteem in middle childhood. Constant hostility and tension between parents could badly affect the growth…
Kim, Lauren S. (April, 1997). "Locus of control as a stress moderator and mediator in children of divorce." In Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Plenum Publishing Corporation. From online database Findarticles.com.
Lengua, Liliana J. (December, 1996). "Self-regulation as a moderator of the relation between coping and symptomatology in children of divorce." In Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Plenum Publishing Corporation. From online database Findarticles.com.
Wolchik, Sharlene A. (August, 2002). "Fear of abandonment as a mediator of the relations between divorce stressors and mother-child relationship quality and children's adjustment problems." In Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Plenum Publishing Corporation. From online database Findarticles.com.
Among the factors which this article elucidates are necessary to be considered, Hetherington et al. indicate that "the long-term effects are related more to the child's developmental status, sex, and temperament; the qualities of the home and parenting environments; and to the resources and support systems available to the parents and child than they are to divorce or remarriage per se." (Hetherington et al., 303)
From a clinical treatment perspective, the article by Konstam (2009) is particularly useful. This presents the view that for those verging on adulthood who experience the divorce of parents, there is a more sophisticated and thus more complex sense of loss which is difficult to interpret. This is experienced differently than the dissolution of a marriage for young children who may lack the wherewithal to have observed clear warning signs. Here, Konstam suggests that clinical assistance can be a valuable resource for contending with issues…
Amato, P. (2000). The Consequences of Divorce for Adults and Children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 11-26.
Amato, P. & Cheadle, J.(2008). Parental divorce, marital conflict and children's behavior problems: A comparison of adopted and biological children. Social Forces, 83
Baker, a. (2005). The Long-term effects of parental alienation on adult children:
Few people would say that divorce helps children except in cases of abuse. Divorce can create tremendous confusion in children of any age. One of the keys to preventing psychological, behavioral, or social problems is honesty. A non-profit group called Health Guide offers advice for parents going through a divorce. The organization recommends honesty and communication as keys to helping children cope and preventing mental or behavioral health problems. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry also recommends age-appropriate honesty and openness. The Health Guide also points out that many children "go through their parents' divorce with relatively few problems or permanent negative effects." Those children who experience acute stress require special care and attention.
Depression, anxiety, social withdrawal, and a lack of interest in those things that used to give the child pleasure are some of the psychological symptoms of childhood stress. A divorce could add to existing…
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. "Children and Divorce." May 2008. Retrieved Oct 14, 2008 at http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_and_divorce
Cherlin, Andrew J. "Generation Ex." The Nation. Nov 27, 2000. Retrieved Oct 14, 2008 at http://www.thenation.com/doc/20001211/cherlin
Gallagher, Maggie. "The Divorce Thing." National Review Online. Aug 13, 2003. Retrieved Oct 14, 2008 at http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/comment-gallagher081303.asp
Help Guide.org. "Coping with Divorce." Retrieved Oct 14, 2008 at http://www.helpguide.org/mental/children_divorce.htm
A good number of studies over the years have linked deviant behaviors such as juvenile delinquency and anti-social behavior to children living in broken homes (Bandura & Walters in Demo & Acock, 1988, p.636). Dornbusch et al.'s (in ibid.) nationwide study among 12-17 male and female children of divorced families found that adolescents living in household with only their mothers performing the sole parent role are more likely to engage in deviant acts while the presence of an additional adult lessens the likelihood of committing deviant acts.
Long have we known about the negative effects of divorce, I believe it is high time to look at the under-acknowledged domain of the divorce literature, i.e. The positive effects of divorce. According to Hetherington & Kelly in Lyons (2002, p.1), three-fourths of the children from divorced families have actually grown to be resilient and lead lives with healthy…
Cooney, T.M. et al. (1995). Surviving the Break-Up? Predictors of Parent-Adult Child Relations After Parental Divorce. Family Relations, 44, 153-161.
Demo, DH & Acock, a.C. (1988). The Impact of Divorce on Children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50, 619-648.
Henning, J.S. & Oldham, J.T. (1977). Children of Divorce: Legal and Psychological Crises. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 1, 55-58.
Lyons, L. (2002). Gallup Tuesday Briefing. Kids and Divorce 1, 1-3.
(Coleman et al., 2006) there are more significant differences between race and ethnic groups in beliefs about intergenerational assistance than are expected by chance the differences are not large. As expected, White European-Americans perceive that less help should be given to older adults than is true of African-Americans and Asian-Americans. Unexpectedly, European-Americans and Latinos rarely differ in their beliefs about intergenerational assistance. When differences exist among the three minority groups, it is typically because African-Americans and Asian-Americans perceive that more help should be given to older family members than Latinos. The family plays a unique role in forming and sustaining intimate relationships; however, there have been notable changes in the family in the past 50 years. As marriages are being delayed, birth rates are decreasing, and maternal employment, divorce, cohabitation, and births to single mothers are increasing, the course of intimate relationships is becoming more diverse and less stable and…
Bean, R.A., Crane, D.R., & Lewis, T.L. (2002). Basic research and implications for practice in family science: A content analysis and status report for U.S. ethnic groups. Family Relations, 51, 15-21.
Bramlett, M.D., & Mosher, W.D. (2001). First marriage dissolution, divorce, and remarriage: United Stales (Advanced Data from Vital and Health Statistics No. 323). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Chadiha, L.A., Veroff, J., & Leber, D. (1998). Newlywed's narrative themes: Meaning in the first year of marriage for African-American and White couples. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29, 115-130.
Coleman, M., Ganong, L.H., & Rothrauff, T.C. (2006, December). Racial and Ethnic Similarities and Differences in Beliefs about Intergenerational Assistance to Older Adults After Divorce and Remarriage. Family Relations, 55(5), pp. 576-587.
All of the couples shared the following conditions: both living in Israel, divorced for at least 1 1/2 years, at least one child between 2 and 16 years of age, and the mother having custody (Nehami, 2003). Furthermore, the fathers all had contact with their children after the divorce, which is not universal (Nehami, 2003). This is a very specific sample. It would be difficult to suggest that the study would generalize to all people. It might generalize to all divorced people in Israel sharing the same characteristics, which would be a significantly large population. However, different legal systems are going to show bias towards fathers or towards mothers, which changes the nature of the divorce process. In fact, in some areas, men must be the initiators of divorce, so that would not even be a variable. Therefore, in many ways, this study simply cannot be generalized to different populations.…
Nehami, B. (2003). Divorced process variables and the co-parental relationship and parental role fulfillment of divorced parents. Family Process 42, a (1): 117-31.
Before dawn I called for you,
My poem, but you didn't come.
I had woken up to the song
Of the cardinal perched
On the fence. You weren't at my desk in all the words that I wrote down and crossed.
You weren't in my shoes nor in the letters that had come and gone all month
Nor in the space held by a window,
Its fourteen trees, its seven stars
That always lag behind.
The poetic features in this poem are subtle yet effective. The line breaks are positioned so that there is some enjambment (going over into the next line) to give an articulate, forceful rendition of the poet's feelings. The subject of the poem is not difficult to ascertain. The poet is writing literally, about a divorce poem, not merely a divorce, and not merely a poem. You will note the "d" sound repeats itself…
One such area is how divorce affects the children of divorce once they are married and have children of their own. Do they have difficulty committing? Are they more likely to delay marriage? Answers to these types of questions may prove beneficial to examining further the long-term effects of divorce on children.
esources in Palm Spring California include family and individual counseling services throughout the city. Some of these resources include The Counseling Center located at 1111 E. Tahquitz Canyon Way in Palm Springs, CA 92262. The phone number for the counseling center is (760) [HIDDEN] In addition, there is the Smoketree Counseling Services located at 2825 E. Tahquitz Canyon Way in Palm Springs, CA 92262. The phone number for smoketree is (760) [HIDDEN] Additionally there are other counselors in the area specializing in therapy as it relates to divorce. One such therapist is Nancy Ackerman. She has more…
Jeynes, W.H. (2001). The Effects of Recent Parental Divorce on Their Children's Consumption of Alcohol. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(3), 305. Retrieved February 23, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Lengua, L.J.,Wolchik S.A., Sandler I.N., West S.G.(2000) The Additive and Interactive effects of Parenting and Temperament in Predicting Adjustment Problems in Children of Divorce. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. 29 (2), p.232.
Love, K.M. And Murdock T. (2004) Attachment to Parents and Psychological well being: An Examination of young Adult College Student in intact Families and Step Families Journal of Family Psychology. 18 (4)
Nielsen, L. (1999). College Aged Students with Divorced Parents: Facts and Fiction. College Student Journal, 33(4), 543.
Ananat & Michaels (2008) concur with the emphasis on income being the deciding factor upon the divorced child's success. They found that divorce significantly "increases women's odds of having very high or very low income. In other words, while some women successfully compensate for lost spousal earnings through child support, welfare, combining households, and increasing labor supply, others are markedly unsuccessful. e conclude that by raising both poverty and inequality, divorce has important welfare consequences" (Ananat & Michaels 2008). Some women use divorce as a vehicle of self-empowerment, for other women who are unable to compensate, poverty becomes more severe in a single-income household. Another interesting finding of Ananat & Michael's research is that "having a female first-born child significantly increases the probability that a woman's first marriage breaks up," and this may account for the lower incomes of children with divorce, if women still tend to earn less than…
Ananat, E., & G. Michaels. (2008). The effect of marital breakup on the income distribution of women with children. The Journal of Human Resources, 43(3), 611. Retrieved August
9, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1521034461).
Steele, F., W. Sigle-Rushton, & Y. Kravdal. (2009). Consequences of family disruption on children's educational outcomes in Norway. Demography, 46(3), 553-574. Retrieved
August 9, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1799973811).
Are Social Networking and Sites Increasing the Rate of Divorce?
The first element of this hypothesis is: are divorce rates really increasing? Generalized references to divorce seem to consistently say "the divorce rate is increasing" and "50% of all U.S. marriages end in divorce." However, if 50% of all U.S. marriages ended in divorce in 1980, and the same percentage in 1990 and the same in 2000 and the same in 2010, then at least in that respect, the rate of divorce is not increasing. According to "Divorce Rates," the per capita rate of divorce in the U.S. was: "1991, 0.47%; 1992, 0.48%; 1993, 0.46%; 1994, 0.46%; 1995, 0.46%; 1995, 0.43%; 1997, 0.43%; 1998, 0.42%; 1999, 0.41%; 2000, 0.41%; 2001, 0.40%; 2002, 0.38%; 2005, 0.36%" (Americans for Divorce Reform, 2006), and according to the "Divorce Statistics and Studies Blog," the divorce rate in 2010 was 0.36% (Divorce Statistics…
Americans for Divorce Reform. (2006). Divorce Rates - Divorce Statistics. Retrieved from divorcereform.org: http://www.divorcereform.org /rates.html
Divorce Statistics and Studies Blog. (2011, July 1). Divorce Statistics and Studies Blog. Retrieved from familylaw.typepad.com: http://familylaw.typepad.com/stats/
Kendall, T.D. (2010). The Relationship Between Internet Access and Divorce Rate. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Volume 32, Number 3, 449-460.
Live Science Staff. (2010, January 26). College-Educated Women More Likely to Stay Married. Retrieved from livescience.com: http://www.livescience.com/8049-college-educated-women-stay-married.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+Livesciencecom+ (LiveScience.com+Science+Headline+Feed)
Divorce is one of the bitter truths of life and is taking place in innumerable families worldwide. It can prove to be an upsetting experience for the parents. However, both the parties should think of their children before taking any decision as divorce affects the lives of the children in a real bad way.
These days, it is totally impossible for people to ignore the substantial and extensive consequences of divorce. The social scientists believe that the ever increasing rate of parents separating or ending their marriages is not only bad for the society but is also an upsetting and destructive experience for the children. The divorce not only has the tendency to devastate a whole household or family life but it also affects the education acquirement process, job reliability, income likely, physical health, and emotional well-being of the family members. Children of divorced parents involve themselves in alcohol and…
Fagan, P.F., and Robert R. "The Effects of Divorce on America." World and I Oct. Questia. Web. 31 May 2012. .
Kelly, J.B., and R.E. Emery . "Children's Adjustment Following Divorce: Risk and Resilience Perspectives." Family Relations. (2003): 352-362. Print.
Koplewicz, H.S., and A. Gurian. "Divorce and Children." Child Study Center. September/October 2001: n. page. Web. 31 May. 2012. .
McCoy, J. "Divorce Matters." Family Life. 3. (1996): n. page. Web. 31 May. 2012. .
divorce, which by definition is the final termination of matrimonial union flanked by two parties and the legal process has to be followed, The research aims at bringing out the causes and the impact or effects of divorce by so doing the paper will highlight some causes and effects about the topic and then arguments supporting the ideas will be spell based on supporting references.
Divorce is the final termination of matrimonial union flanked by two parties, many at times the approval of court of law and in some cases other legal authorities are needed to authenticate this process. This process features many issues like spousal support, where children are involved we have child support and custody and finally we have distribution of property.
Subsequently to the refinement, marriage came to be well thought-out as a common bond that is among the non-Catholic expanses based on this ground civil authorities…
Blackstone (1984), "Commentaries on the Laws of England" p. 435 (Legal Classics Library spec. ed.
Pamela J. Smock, (1993) "The Economic Costs of Marital Disruption for Young Women over the Past Two Decades." Demography 30: 353-371.
Robert Coombs (1991), "Marital Status and Personal Well-Being" A Literature Review," Family Relations 40:97-102; I.M. Joung, et al.
Rowd, Alisha (2011), "Common Causes of Divorce." 3 Jan. 2008 EzineArticles.com. 8 Feb.
Also, given the new family set-up that will be brought about by the divorce, it is then considered important to provide financial assistance to the children and/or spouse (if needed). An impending divorce can be submitted to mediation before starting a court action. In this process, a neutral party shall be known as the Mediator will assist the couple in working out and settling their divorce issues. Through this process, the husband and wife will be given an opportunity to amicably settle their financial and marital differences and come up with divorce solutions such as financial assistance (aab, 2001).
Again, let me reiterate that this paper has taken the mediation route whereby the process of working out a couple's marital differences with the help of a mediator is suggested. Why have we taken this route, you may ask. Again, note that mediation proceedings help the husband and wife…
Raab, H. (2001). Alternatives to Litigation. Retrieved from http://www.collaborativefamilylawfl.com/raab-divorce-in-florida.html on May 22, 2009.
SFLK (2006). Dealing with Divorce Depression. Retrieved from http://www.sfla.co.uk/divorcedepression.htm on May 22, 2009.
Tesler, P.H. & Thompson, P. (n.d.). The Emotional Roller Coaster of Divorce. Retrieved from http://www.womansdivorce.com/emotional-stages-of-divorce.html on May 22, 2009.
"Is Reconciliation an Option" (n.d). Retrieved from http://savemarriagetips.com/is_reconciliation_option.php on May 22, 2009
I will also solicit from individual his or her basics demographics and personal information such as rough socio-economic status ('I make approximately ($-) per month); vocational occupation; characteristics of place that respondent lives in; details of children (amount, ages, etc.) and how respondent feels program impacted his children; age children were when divorce occurred: details of support system (if any) and of extended family (if any). I will also ascertain that I am targeting individuals who have been divorced once and not remarried and that they have not introduced any other significant partner in their lives at the moment. This is so as to control for possible confounding elements. Stakeholders and participants in this sense are participants of the online / forum / chatgroup / blog environment.
Two of the ethical precautions that I will take will include coding the respondent's genuine or pseudo online identity so that he…
Bowler, G.M., Jr. (2010). Netnography: A method specifically designed to study cultures and communities online. The Qualitative Report, 15(5), 1270-1275.
Lansford, J.E. (2009). Parental divorce and children's adjustment Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4 140-152
If there are no significant differences in student counselor perceptions of marriage, then student counselors can be trained in pre-marital and marital therapies without reference to the counselor demographic. The goals of the treatment remain the same.
3. How can it be applied to marriage and couple counseling?
As the authors suggest, the findings can be applied to help counselors and especially student counselors because the results cannot necessarily be extrapolated to other contexts. The findings show that while age, gender, and marital status might not bias the counselor when treating clients, those factors cannot be ignored. The findins can be applied to a cross-cultural counseling setting. Moreover, the findings suggest that counselors could become more aware of the needs of couples, when couples are experiencing trouble or when individuals come to counselors with complaints that can be traced to the relationship. Moreover individual counseling issues can be located within…
Stephens, O.A. (2012). Student Counsellors' Perceived Causes of Divorce among Couples in Lagos Metropolis. Ife PsychologIA, 20(2), September 2012
5). While divorce can lead to safety for children and adults caught in violent and abusive relationships, it can also lead to increased violence down the line. Studies indicate that children who grow up in abusive situations often tend to become abusive themselves as adults, and this means that abuse and violence could continue to grow in our culture as these children grow up and continue the ongoing cycle of abuse and violence.
Another bedrock of American culture is religion, and divorce goes against many religious teachings. The freedom to worship any religion we please is a foundation of the country and our culture, and religious worship tends to go down in divorced families. Fagan and ector continue, "eligious worship, which has been linked to health and happiness as well as longer marriages and better family life, is less prevalent in divorced families" (Fagan, and ector). This means that…
Butler, Ian, et al. Divorcing Children: Children's Experience of Their Parents' Divorce. London: Jessica Kingsley, 2003.
Cozort, Larry a. "Is the Tax Court Becoming a Divorce Court? The Answer Could Change How the Innocent Spouse Rules Are Interpreted." Journal of Accountancy 195.2 (2003): 35+.
Doherty, William J., et al. "Why Marriage Matters: Twenty-One Conclusions from the Social Sciences." New York: Institute for American Values, 2002.
Editors. "Divorce Statistics." Divorce Magazine. 2005. 5 Nov. 2008. http://www.divorcemag.com/statistics/statsUS.shtml
They can go one of two ways, if they have social and emotional problems brought on by the divorce. They can spend their teenage years being wild and out-of-control, or they can spend them as a virtual recluse, rarely leaving their rooms except to go to mandatory functions such as school. Neither one of these options is very good, and both can lead to more problems later on in life.
When children become wild and hard to control, parents are often at a loss as to how to help them. It is difficult enough to control a wild, unruly teenager when there are two parents in the house, but much more difficult when there is only one parent. To compound the problem, that single parent often works two jobs or long hours to provide food, clothing, and shelter for himself or herself and the children. This absence from the house…
Ahrons, C.R. & Tanner, J.L. (2003) Adult children and their fathers: Relationship changes 20 years after parental divorce. Family Relations, 52: 340-351.
Amato, P. & DeBoer, D. (2001). The transmission of marital stability across generations: Relationship skills or commitment to marriage? Journal of Marriage and Family, 63: 1038-1051.
Biblarz, T.J., & Gottainer, G. (2000) Family Structure and Children's Success: A Comparison of Widowed and Divorced Single-Mother Families. Journal of Marriage and Family. 62: 533-548.
Hetherington, E.M. (2003) Intimate pathways: changing patterns in close personal relationships across time. Family Relations, 52: 318-331.
More of them end up in mental health clinics and hospital settings. There is earlier sexual activity, more children born out of wedlock, less marriage, and more divorce. Numerous studies show that adult children of divorce have more psychological problems than those raised in intact marriages." (Kupelian, 2005) it is reported in the work entitled: "Reflections on Distressed Couples Contemplating Divorce One Study of the Structured Separation Process" that the high divorce rate has caused family therapists to search for ways for families to make necessary transitions during divorce in what is termed a structural marriage separation. While this cannot assure happiness for couples or their children this method is clearly preferable to the chaos that often ensues when a couple separates. (Mize, Nelson, Sutter, and Mize, 2005)
Summary & Analysis
The factual evidence provided in this case which is under analysis was provided in a brief sketch only which…
Kupelian, D. (2005) How America Can End Its Divorce Epidemic. World Net Daily 7 April 2005. http://www.stolenvows.com/epidemic.htm
Waite, L.J.; Browning, D.; Doherty, W.J.; Gallagher, M.; Luo, Ye; and Stanley, S.(2002) Does Divorce Make People Happy? Findings from a Study of Unhappy Marriages. Institute for American Values. 2002, New York, NY http://www.americanvalues.org/UnhappyMarriages.pd
Mize, L.K.; Nelson, K.; Sutter, E.; and Mize, M.J. (2005) Reflections on Distressed Couples Contemplating Divorce One Study of the Structured Separation Process.
Wallerstein, Judith S.; and Lewis, Julia M. (2004) the Unexpected Legacy of Divorce: Report of a 25-Year Study. Psychoanalytic Psychology 21:353-370. 2004.
Of course, the amount of transitions (the amount of divorce in the family) greatly increases the risk for children to settle in satisfying marriages and divorce themselves when young adults.
Protective factors reducing impact of divorce on children
The research question here is whether there are any factors that may be considered that are empirically proved to be able to mitigate the effect of divorce in children.
Within the last decade, researchers have identified various such factors each having a range of associated variables themselves.
1. Competent custodial parents and parenting: One of the best protective factors is the quality of parenting following divorce and the psychological adjustment of the custodial parents. Effective parental behavior such as warmth, nurturing, emotional support, authoritative discipline, and age appropriate behavior demonstrate the best means for providing emotional support for children as compared to parents who are withdrawn, inattentive and provide coercive discipline (Sandler…
Amato, P. (2010). Research on divorce: Continuing trends and new developments Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 650-666 .
Bausermann, R. (2002). Child adjustment in joint-custody vs. sole-custody arrangements: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Family Psychology, 16, 91 -- 102.
Kelly, J. (2007). Children's Living Arrangements Following Separation and Divorce: Insights From Empirical and Clinical Research. Fam Proc 46,35 -- 52.
Lansford, J.E. (2009). Parental divorce and children's adjustment Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4 140-152
Critical Thinking and Divorce
Critical thinking refers to reflective thinking whereby a person views an event or incident objectively to develop arguments and then tries to reach some sound unbiased conclusions. The ability to think critically has occupied a pivotal position in last few decades because it allows a person to reach a conclusion that has not been colored by bias or pre-conceived notions about a certain person or issue. However critical thinking is something that most people are required to learn and not everyone is born with the skills to critically analyze a situation. Let us see how critical thinking has been defined and that will help us understand what exactly is meant by this term. We can then go on to apply critical thinking to the process of divorce.
John Dewey was one of the early thinkers to develop and present a sound definition of critical thinking. To…
Dewey, J. (1909) revised edition (1993). How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
McPeck, John. 1981. Critical Thinking and Education. New York: St. Martin's.
Siegel, Harvey. 1988. Educating Reason: Rationality, Critical Thinking and Education. New York: Routledge.
Watson, G., & Glaser, E. (1941, 1980). Manual: The Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal. New York: Harcourt
Divorce Among the Gulls
This section, "Pictures at a Scientific Exhibition" is about young college students in the 1960s. They have to conduct laboratory experiments on rats, and other small animals and they have to kill the animals cruelly to do the experiments. The author shows how the students start out squeamish about killing the animals, but by the end of the physiology course, they are immune to the suffering of the animals they kill and maim. He also says that the course did not discover anything new about science, and so really, the animals died horribly for nothing. The author thinks that scientific training makes people less compassionate and less caring, and that does not make them any better scientists. In fact, he thinks it makes them less wise and less humane. He thinks that scientists should be more rational and that would make them better scientists. His…
Position -- Against Divorce
Audience -- a couple that is in the danger of getting divorce
Marriage comprises of many changes and challenges and is the largest step that anyone makes. It is considered that the marriage of a Christian with great care and it is an occasion of great celebration. Marriage between two individuals is an event of great public celebration of God's grace and blessing. (Before you marry) Divorce is an event of failure and is considered as an individual disaster. Most religions consider divorce to be involving in sinful violation of God's law. (Bible Solutions to Divorce Problems) The present day's problem is the prevalent support for divorce and the common occurrence of divorce. Today, it is a fact that more and more marriages are becoming impermanent and less long lasting than they ever have been before. I am against the issue of getting divorced in…
Before you marry. Retrieved from http://www.stjudeparish.com/growth/prep/marriage/default.asp
Accessed on 12 October 2005
Champion, John. The Engine of a Matrilineal Society: Alternative Routes. Retrieved from http://www.ukmm.org.uk/publics/flj.htm Accessed on 12 October 2005
Hicks, Olan. Bible Solutions to Divorce Problems. Retrieved from http://www.theophilus.org/divorce.html Accessed on 12 October 2005
Divorce as an experience is never easy for anyone, not the adults and especially not the children, on which the effects of divorce can take a serious toll. However, there are some factors that play a significant role in determining the impact of that experience for the child. Age, the way the entire procedure of divorce is handled, how mature parents have behaved throughout it, how the environment of the home remained pre and post divorce all are instrumental in effecting the psychological well-being of the child, whose mind is still young enough to develop imprints that can last a lifetime (University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension, n.d).
The effects of the breaking up of a family can be very consequential for the growing up child, and can even result in effects like having sex before the age of 16, getting pregnant at a young age like 20, including the…
Alastair McPhee, F.C. (2009). Disruptive Behaviour within the classroom: an ecosystemic view of pupil behaviour. Retrieved Sept 4th, 2011, from University of Glasgow: https://dspace.gla.ac.uk/bitstream/1905/805/3/McPhee_Craig.pdf
Ceridian Corporation. (n.d). Helping Children deal with Change. Retrieved Sept 4th, 2011, from Georgia 4-H: http://georgia4h.org/omk/edresources/KidsAndChange.pdf
Pow, H. (2011, May 8th). Divorce's toll borne by Children. Retrieved Sept 4th, 2011, from The Sunday Telegraph: http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/divorces-toll-borne-by-children/story-fn6e0s1g-1226051650069
University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension. (n.d). The Effects of Divorce on Children. Retrieved Sept 4th, 2011, from UNH: http://extension.unh.edu/Family/Documents/divorce.pdf
Case Study of “Julie”: The Effects of Divorce on a Teenager
1. Identifying information
The client, “Julie,” is a white, 14-year-old female 9th grade student with no siblings and a single mother, “Anne.” She presents for this first counseling session well groomed, appropriately dressed, and reports being in a relationship with a 17-year-old boyfriend who is a senior at her school.
2. Initial Impression
The client is intelligent and articulate, but she is also shy and reluctant to make eye contact. Despite her apparent shyness, Julie was responsive to questions and gesticulated a great deal, including the use of “air quotes” and swinging her legs when speaking.
3. Presenting Issues and Concerns
When she was 2 years old, Julie’s father died in an automobile accident. Her mother, who is employed full-time as an accountant, subsequently remarried when Julie was 12 years old. Three months previously, Anne…
Teens may be especially resentful of the way this disrupts their schedules and interferes with school, friendships, work, and other usual activities (Wallerstein, 2000). And further, especially in the case of a needy, now single parent, older children and teens in particular may now face a perceived necessity of their becoming the needy parent's new and often only source of emotional support (Wallerstein). At this same time, the older child or teen's own emotional needs begin to go (and often remain) largely or entirely unmet thereafter by one or both divorced parents (Fagan).
When this occurs, the permanently life-altering; long-term damaging psychological result is often that it effectively truncates childhood or adolescence prematurely and thereby causes older children or teens to feel that they must now act like adults themselves, thus suddenly forcing them to become more independent, self-confident, selfless and self-sufficient than they genuinely feel (Wallerstein). Older children and…
Fagan, P.F. (May 14, 2004). The social scientific data on the impact of marriage and divorce on children. The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.org/
Fagan, P.F., & Rector, R. (2007). The effects of divorce on America.
Backgrounder: The Heritage Foundation, No. 1378. http:www.elsevier.com / retrieve/pii/S0194659504000061.html.
This article is of extreme importance in this research study. It adds to the other articles mentioned by discussing the importance of protective factors in detail and urging caution when espousing a correlative relationship between cause and effect in divorce and the reaction of children.
eon, K. (2003). Risk and Protective Factors in Young Children's Adjustment to Parental
Divorce: A Review of the Research. Family Relations, 52(3), pp.258-270.
In this article, eon (2003) attempts to address a gap in the research of divorce's affects on children by examining divorce's affects on small children. Citing Amato (2001), eon points out that research has previously shown children to face hardship because of divorce, although they "adjust well" (pg. 258), however, he suggests that these results generally take into account older children. eon (2003) looks primarily at the variable of early childhood development as it is impacted by divorce. Interestingly, eon (2003) found…
Leon, K. (2003). Risk and Protective Factors in Young Children's Adjustment to Parental
Divorce: A Review of the Research. Family Relations, 52(3), pp.258-270.
In this article, Leon (2003) attempts to address a gap in the research of divorce's affects on children by examining divorce's affects on small children. Citing Amato (2001), Leon points out that research has previously shown children to face hardship because of divorce, although they "adjust well" (pg. 258), however, he suggests that these results generally take into account older children. Leon (2003) looks primarily at the variable of early childhood development as it is impacted by divorce. Interestingly, Leon (2003) found results that were remarkably similar to Amato's, noting that children with divorced parents tended to be associated with developmental problems such as being withdrawn or having behavior problems. However, it would be easy to argue that other factors were responsible for these results. In addition, interpreting the results of these tests was made difficult by various factors that might lead to their invalidation, such as the fact that the data was collected from self-report surveys (Leon, 2003). Still Leon (2003) concludes that divorce certainly impacts the lives of young children very greatly and the developmental level of young children should determine how professionals such as psychologists respond to the issue of divorce in the child's home. Further, while parenting skills were important mitigating factors for both older and younger children after divorce, Leon (2003) points out that for younger children, it is most important that parents be warm and loving.
In reality, such a parent would have difficulty raising a child on his or her own and the finances that he or she previously invested in providing the child with entertaining activities need to be directed at buying more important resources for the child.
A parent who is no longer in charge of his or her child's life has practically no problems buying a great deal of things for his or her child and thus influences the child in feeling that he or she is not receiving enough attention from the parent holding custody. Children can also be affected by the fact that parents often believe that there is a competition between themselves and their peers concerning who receives the most appreciation from the child.
IV. Children's development
hereas people are well-aware that divorce can be harmful for a large number of children who see their parents getting separated, the…
Amato, Paul R. "The Consequences of Divorce for Adults and Children," Journal of Marriage and the Family 62.4 (2000)
DeBord, Carmen, "The Effects of Divorce on Children," Retrieved November 11, 2011, from the North Carolina State University Website: http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/pdfs/fcs471.pdf
Leo, John, "The Sleeper Effect," Human Life Review Fall 2000.
Palosaari, Ulla and Aro, Hillevi, "Effect of Timing of Parental Divorce on the Vulnerability of Children to Depression in Young Adulthood,"Adolescence 29.115 (1994)
Therefore, extra attention should be given to keeping promises and basic daily routines.
inslow, Emily B.; olchik, Sharlene a.; Sander, Irwin. "Preventive Interventions for Children of Divorce." Psychiatric Times; 2/1/2004; Pp.
Meckler, Laura. "U.S. Compiles Divorce Statistics." AP Online; 7/24/2002; Pp.
Sirica, Jack. "The Children of Divorce." Newsday; 5/19/1994; Pp.
Pruett, Marsha Kline. "Only God Decides: Young Children's Perceptions of Divorce and the Legal System." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 12/1/1999; Pp.
Conan, Neal. "Analysis: Effects of divorce on children." Talk of the Nation:
National Public Radio; 1/31/2002; Pp.
Neuman, Gary M. Helping Your Kids Cope ith Divorce the Sandcastles ay.
Random House Inc. 1999; pp.4, 6.
Lansky, Vicki. Vicki Lansky's Divorce Book for Parents: Helping Your Children
Cope ith Divorce and Its Aftermath. Book Peddlers.1996; Pp. 2.
Meckler, Laura. "U.S. Compiles Divorce Statistics." AP Online; 7/24/2002; Pp.
inslow, Emily B.; olchik, Sharlene…
Winslow, Emily B.; Wolchik, Sharlene a.; Sander, Irwin. "Preventive Interventions for Children of Divorce." Psychiatric Times; 2/1/2004; Pp.
Meckler, Laura. "U.S. Compiles Divorce Statistics." AP Online; 7/24/2002; Pp.
Sirica, Jack. "The Children of Divorce." Newsday; 5/19/1994; Pp.
Pruett, Marsha Kline. "Only God Decides: Young Children's Perceptions of Divorce and the Legal System." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 12/1/1999; Pp.
Marriage and the Bible: Understanding the Concept
In ancient Israel, marriage was largely a social construct arranged between parents for their children -- divorce was possible but largely for the very rich, and even the Old Testament presumption was that marriage was a lasting, lifelong covenant (Elwell 1996: 346). The custom of marriage was often that of a "family" affair, with the parents governing the union rather than the personal will of the participants (Elwell 1996: 740). Today, marriage is largely considered a matter of personal choice without theological significance, much less an analog to the relationship of humanity and God (Elwell 1996:743). Although some aspects of the modern conception of marriage may seem to have positive benefits, in terms of its stress upon the spiritual bonds between individuals rather than social needs, the Biblical concept of marriage as that of a permanent union that cannot be dissolved because of…
Elwell, W. (1996). Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Baker Publishing Group.
Divorce and Marriage
Divorce and remarriage
Divorce and Marriage is Permissible
In the current modern society, a breakup of the traditional marriage is the most significant challenge. Prior research on this matter suggests that 43% of first marriages end separation and possible within 15 years. Although these results are disputable, it is undisputable that the divorce is on the rise across the globe. The increase in divorce is the main cause of societal problems such as early pregnancies (teen pregnancies), suicide, alcohol, and substance abuse, and the hesitation of young people to engage in marriage. Therefore, divorce has resulted into many societal problems, and children have to pay the price. Disturbingly, a comparison between the Christians and non-Christians show that Christians are more prone to divorce (Paechter, 2013).
Therefore, it is clear that the divorce is a church problem. Considering that, Christianity teaches that lasting faithful marriages are part of…
Clark, A. (2004). Parallel Classic Commentary on the New Testament. Chattanooga, TN: AMG
Clark, K.D., & Rakestraw, V.R. (1995). Readings in Christian ethics: Issues and applications.
Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Academic Publishers.
Eldredge, R. (2002). Can Divorced Christians Remarry? Camarillo, CA: Choice.
Divorce / Counseling
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 2009 in the United States there were approximately 1,077,000 marriages. That is 6.8 people per 1,000 citizens got married. On the other hand, 3.4 persons per 1,000 were divorced. That includes data from the U.S. Census, and 44 of the 50 states were included in the data. Using data from an earlier Census, the CDC reports that in 2002, the "probability of a first marriage ending in separation or divorce" within 5 years after the couple was married is 20% (CDC). The probability of a "premarital cohabitation" (that is, people living together but not joining in matrimony) ending in separation within 5 years is 49%. And after ten years, the probability "…of a first marriage ending is 33%, compared with 62% for cohabitations" (CDC). These statistics, especially relating to the high percentage of people who get…
Bernard, Janine M. (1981). The Divorce Myth. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 60(2), 67-72.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2002). New Report Sheds Light on Trends and Patterns in Marriage, Divorce, and Cohabitation. Retrieved November 22, 2011, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/02news/div_mar_cohab.htm .
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Marriage and Divorce. Retrieved November
22, 2011, from http://www.cdc.gov/fastats/divorce.htm .
The author of this response is asked to analyze the tenure and divorce happenstance for eight executives and draw any relevant conclusions about the data and its patterns. The author is asked to ask about the correlation or even causality between tenure as an executive and divorce. The correlation is to be defined in terms of magnitude, direction and practical importance. The question of how much of whether executives have been divorced can be accounted for by the length of their tenure is posed as well as how much of tenure can be explained by whether there has been a divorce.
Formulas & Analysis of Data
In looking at the data, it is not hard to see that executives with tenure have a higher prevalence of divorce than those that do not. For example, of the five executives with over 10 years of service, only one is not…
Kleiman., C. (2000, May 2). Evidence Short That Long Hours Cause Divorce - Chicago Tribune. Featured Articles From The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 29, 2013, from http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2000-05-02/business/0005020115_1_matrimonial-marital-breakups-marriage
MathIsFun.com. (2013, April 29). Ratios. Math is Fun - Maths Resources. Retrieved April 29, 2013, from http://www.mathsisfun.com/numbers/ratio.html
MathIsFun.com. (2013, April 29). How to Calculate the Mean Value. Math is Fun - Maths Resources. Retrieved April 29, 2013, from http://www.mathsisfun.com/mean.html
The objective of this study is to answer the question of whether the popular argument that children are better off when divorce makes one or both of the child's parents happier is true as argued by arbara Defoe Whitehead.
The work of arbara Dafoe Whitehead gained attention when she wrote the book 'The Divorce Culture'. Whitehead speaks of 'expressive divorce' or the notion that "divorce is an instrument for self-development, self-actualization, self-expression -- that is a way to be a new and better me. That is, one is obligated to pursue divorce if it seems to promise greater personal happiness and that obligation comes before other obligations in the marital commitment." (Miller, 1997) However, Dafoe additionally states divorce has "…hurt children…has created economic insecurity and disadvantage for many children who would not otherwise be economically vulnerable. It has led to more fragile and unstable family households. It has…
Whitehead, Barbara Dafoe (nd) The Making of a Divorce Culture.
Baskersville, Stephen, Ph.D. (2004) Strengthening Marriage Through Divorce and Custody Reform. The Family in America. The Howard Center for Family, Religion and Society. May 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.profam.org/pub/fia/fia_1805.htm
Gallagher, Maggie (1997) First things: End No-Fault Divorce?. Leadership University. Aug/Sept 1997. Retrieved from: http://www.leaderu.com/ftissues/ft9708/articles/gallagher.html
Smiley, Jane (2010) Divorce! It's Good for the Children! The Huffington Post. 12 Nov 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jane-smiley/divorce-its-good-for-the-_b_782469.html
Divorce Affects Children and Teenagers
This paper presents a discussion about how divorce affects children and teenagers. The writer takes a sociological path in exploring the long-term affects on the individuals and then how that related to society. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
During the last four decades the divorce rate began to climb not only in America but also across the globe. As families began to live in separate houses researchers took on the task of studying the affects of the divorce on children and teenagers (Dunn, 1999). Now, four decades later the results are in and the experts agree divorce has an undeniable negative impact on children and teenagers. This is not to say the negative impact cannot be counterbalanced but it must be recognized as a given for groups of people affected by divorce if the world wants to correct the affects from…
Karen Thomas, On the Adolescent Hot Line: The sensitive issues Parents' divorce can compound the tough teen years., USA Today, 10-12-1998, pp 04D.
Ross Dunn (VOA-Jerusalem), Study: Children Affected by Divorce., Israel Faxx, 02-11-1999.
Author not available, CHILDREN DO SUFFER MOST FROM A DIVORCE., USA Today, 01-22-1996.
Wheaton, Blair. 1990. "Life Transitions, Role Histories, and Mental Health." American Sociological Review 55:209-23.
divorce affects the personality of Latino children
Family normally indicates to a group of persons directly associated with kinship, wherein the adult members are liable for the care of their children. The kinship involves genetic ties or ties coming out of marriage. Marriage is considered to be a sexual union between two adults, socially recognized and approved. Marriage and therefore the family in western societies are related to monogamy. A major change has emerged in the common structure of family life during the post-war periods. A high proportion of women participated in the paid labor force, which has a direct impact on growth of divorce and considerable numbers of children are forced to reside either in single parent households or with stepfamilies. Cohabitation has progressively become normal in many of the industrial nations. Many other forms of social and sexual relationship are about to flourish in the future. Still marriage…
"Chapter 15: the Family and Intimate Relationships" Retrieved from http://www.wwnorton.com/giddens4/chapters/chapter15/welcome.htm
Accessed 8 November, 2005
"Child Psychology Lesson 1. Issues in Child Development" Retrieved from http://www.kuce.org/isc/previews/psyc/psyc333_lesson.html
'Children in the Middle" Retrieved from http://modelprograms.samhsa.gov/print.cfm?pkProgramid=207
Business Plan for a Financial Divorce Software
Business Plan Divorce Software
Business Plan relating to the Sales of a new Financial Divorce Software.
Business Plan relating to the Sales of a new Financial Divorce Software
Keys to Success
Legal Form of Ownership
Location and Facilities
Products and Service
Ps of Marketing
Financial Statements and Projections
evenue and Cost Estimate
Forecasted Profit and Loss Statement
Forecasted Balance Sheet
Financial planning is involved in every aspect of life. Individuals and businesses have to formulate their daily, monthly, and yearly budgets in order to achieve a balance between their incomes and expenditures.…
Association of Divorce Financial Planners, (2012). Divorce Financial Planning. Retrieved on July 7th, 2012, from
Blythe, J. & Megicks, P. (2010). Marketing Planning: Strategy, Environment and Context, 3rd Edition. U.K: Prentice Hall
Cadle, J., Paul, D., & Yeates, D. (2010). Business Analysis, 2nd Edition. Swindon: British Informatics Society
Francis, P. (2010). Creating the Marketing Executive of the Future Using Key Deming Principles, Journal of Executive Education, 9 (1): 127-138
Divorce on Children
Children of divorce can be negatively impacted by the separation of parents and the concomitant stress associated with the parents' relationship. These negative effects can range from mild cases to extreme, and can differ according to gender and age (i.e., development level of the child). External factors also play a part in the degree of the effect of the divorce, such as socioeconomic conditions of the family, integration in the community/society, the social behavior of the child, interaction with siblings/peers, and the level of continued involvement of the parents in the life of the child. Children of divorce can be assisted through various types of therapy, such as Art Therapy and Play Therapy, both of which help to facilitate cognitive and emotional skills within the child, as the two sides of the child's brain develop (the logical and the emotional side). Narratives are particularly helpful in that…
The high divorce rates in First World nations have encouraged researchers, family counselors, and religious advocates to investigate the core foundations for the creation of a successful marriage. Starting in the 1960s, evolving social context ultimately shifted the rationale in why individuals choose to marry, and over time, divorce has come to be viewed as the preferred alternative to an unhappy marriage. One main fundamental principle to achieve marital success is to recognize women desire love, while men simultaneously need respect to feel fulfilled within the relationship. Emotional intelligence within a relationship and acknowledging various marital myths also contribute to the fundamental elements of marital success. Dissociating from marital myths and misconceptions is an essential part to understanding the true foundations for a happy and successful marriage. Appreciating and understanding how attachment styles affect marital relationships is also essential. These beliefs and attachment styles contribute to the marital…
Eggerichs, E. (2004). Love and Respect: The Love She Desires, The Respect He Desperately
Needs. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
Gottman, J. (1993). A Theory of Marital Dissolution and Stability. Journal of Family
Psychology, 7(1), p. 57-75.
This is so strong of a correlation in their analysis that it generated an R2 correlation coefficient of.84 at the.01 level of confidence according to Niehuis & Huston (1999). In summary, the escalating divorce rate is attributable to the action of partners, yet more fundamental than that, where a difference in religiosity occurs at any point, yet most typically at the later stages of a marriage, the higher the divorce rate.
Amato & Wallin (2001) - People's reasons for divorcing: gender, social class, the life course, and adjustment. Paper presented at the 63rd Annual Conference of the National Council on Family Relations, November 8-11, 2001, Rochester, New York, USA. Paul Amato and Denise Wallen. Penn State University.
CDC (2001) - National Center of Health Statistics. Advance Data, Number 323. ay 31, 2001. First arriage Dissolution, Divorce, and Remarriage:
United States. Dr., osher and Bramlett. Division of Vital Statistics.
McCarthy (1978) - a comparison of the probability of the dissolution of first and second marriages. Demography Journal. 15 (3):345-59. 1978.
Niehuis & Huston (1999) - Premarital origins of the risk of marital disruption. 8p; 1999 Presented at the 61st Annual Conference of the National Council on Family Relations, Irvine, CA, Nov 12-15, 1999. Niehuis, Sylvia;
Huston, Ted L.
Children cope with Divorce
In today's world, people are increasingly becoming independent as well as less compromising. There was a time when people used to value marriage, children and were understanding towards each other and had the capacity to work their differences in order to live together in harmony and peace. The case today is quite the opposite. We see a hike in the statistics of divorce and separations for various reasons.
People tend to argue that women are now more independent and do not need a man to complete them. This may be so but this freedom is definitely making them more focused on themselves which sometimes leads to a stubborn, uptight attitude and leads to a divorce. Men on the other hand, tend to still have those dominating attitudes where they want to be the head of the household and can simply not tolerate any interference towards that…
Butler, Ian. Divorcing Children: Children's experience of their parent's divorce. Jessica Kingsley Publications, 2003.
Hetherington, E. Mavis. Coping with Divorce, Single Parenting, and Remarriage: A Risk and Resiliency Perspective. Lawrence Erlbaum Associations, 1999.
Isaacs, Marla Beth. The Difficult Divorce: Therapy for Children and Family. Basic Books, 1986.
Kelly, Joan B. Surviving the Breakup: How children and parents cope with divroce. Basic Books, 1996.
In the Bible, it talks about divorce, marriage and birth. This is designed to provide humankind with a blueprint as to areas that should be respected and those tactics which are most effective in the process. To fully understand what is taking place requires examining each one. This will be accomplished by looking at these concepts in order to gain a greater understanding of them. Together, these elements will highlight theological principles and their impact on stakeholders.
In the Bible, divorce is designed as an avenue to prevent couples from effectively running away from their problems and not respecting the institution of marriage. This is occurring with God discouraging these practices and associating them with adultery. Evidence of this can be seen in Deuteronomy 24: 1 -- 4 which says, "If a man marries a woman who becomes displeasing to him because he finds something indecent about…
Holly Bible New International Version. (2007). Lebanon, TN: The Gideon's
As a result, the child's threshold for withstanding teen relationship challenges is reduced in future.
These personality traits are especially developed during adolescence because this is the period to which the boy would be defining ideologies behind relationships. It is also during this time that the boy's mental faculties would best comprehend attributes that define the relationship between a man and a woman. When the child is in the age group of 10-12/13, the impact might not be so domineering on the child's development as compared to later stages (14-18) in the life of the child (Livaditis, 2002).
Children brought up by narcissistic mothers are more likely to have a low self-esteem than those brought up by caring mothers. Narcissistic mothers make their children feel bad about themselves, thereby making the boy less confident, especially in his young adult life (between the ages of 13-18) (Chen, 2005). It is…
Chen, J. (2005). Cultivating Resilience in Children from Divorced Families. The Family
Journal, 13(4), 452-455.
Fine, M.A. (2003). Divorce, Childhood. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum
Divorced: Policy to Protect the hildren of Terminated Marriages
While the unity of marriage is largely viewed across-cultures as the transformation of a loving, adult relationship into the spiritually-supported formal organization of family, its institutional roots must be divided into two distinct subgroups of origin, that of the religious and that of the secular. In the hristian faith, marriage is the formal act of announcing monogamy in partnership on the evangelical path of righteousness before God; in the Jewish culture, it is the formal promise to perpetuate the religion of God's chosen people. Islam, Hindu, Native American, and traditional African cultures are among the multitude that claim a moral significance in the social celebration of religious marriage.
While the universal symbolism is undeniable, its legal application is more complicated. Despite the high esteem in which marriage is held through the lens of religion, in the eyes of the law where…
Carlson, Allan. "Between Two Worlds: The Inner Lives of Children of Divorce." National Review. Vol. 7, Iss. 20. New YorkL Nov. 7, 2005. P. 54.
Waite, Linda J. "Does Divorce Make People Happy? Findings from a Study of Unhappy Marriages." The Coalition for Marriage, Family, and Couples Education. July 11, 2002. Available Online: http://www.smartmarriages.com/does.divorce.html
Rising Divorce Rates
The Need for and Purpose of the Project
Impact of Divorce on Children
Chapter 5-Conclusions, Summary and Recommendations,
The Need for and the Purpose of the Project
Divorce has become popular throughout the many years it has existed and divorce rates continue to increase. More than a million people a year get a divorce (Tucker-Ladd 35). Young couples are more commonly known to get a divorce, than those who have been married for two or three years (35). Forty percent of men and fifty percent of women are divorced before that age of thirty (35). About fifteen to twenty percent of people ages 35 to 55 are now currently divorced (35). About twenty percent of marriages last less than fifteen years (35). Recent statistics say that sixty-five to seventy percent of new marriages will fail (35).
There is one thing in…
Berry, Dawn Bradley. "The divorce recovery sourcebook." Los Angeles: Lowell
House, c 1998
Bienenfeld, Florence Ph. D, M.F.C.C. "Do It Yourslef Conflict Resolution for Couples." Franklin Lakes, NJ: The Career Press, 2000.
Cavin, Shelly Smith. "Personality Types and Interpersonal Communication."
Coaching Divorce Couples
One of the most fundamental issues in America today is divorce. With exponentially rising divorce statistics this culture has become known as the culture of divorce. (iley, 1991) With these changes in the social fiber of our culture come many problems and concerns for individuals, both the children of divorced couples and the individual partners themselves, as well as their extended families. Divorce is an often avoided subject of research simply because so many people are afraid of the changes that divorce has had and will continue to have on the fiber of our society.
The challenge is then to develop useful and structured plans for easing divorce's impact upon the individuals who comprise that society. Divorce can not be avoided, as either a social concept in need of expert research or as a real social phenomena that is the end of nearly half of all marriages.…
The Coalition for Collaborative Divorce. (2001) "Divorce Coaches Help Couples
Through Emotional Process: June 28, 2001." retrieved January 1, 2004 at http://www.nocourtdivorce.com/news_text.phtml?pressID=30 .
Collins V.F. & Wall G. (2004) "Keeping Legal Fees Down." Retrieved at http://www.lectlaw.com/files/fam09.htm .
DivorceInfo.com, (2003) "Coaching In Divorce." Retrieved January 1, 2004 at http://www.divorceinfo.com/coaching.htm .