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Program Budget AssignmentDNA in confirming, identifying, and exonerating burglary investigations of crime suspects is common in many police departments. This helps them investigate crimes, although traditionally, it has been used in the most severe cases because of limited resources. It has been reported that DNA has improved the clearance rates for such serious crimes. They are most preferable for sex offenders who always leave behind biological evidence. The DNA effectiveness in such cases has improved the efforts to expand the evidence resulting from DNA in such cases, hence processing other types of crimes, such as those involving burglary. In this program budget assignment, I am seeking a $ 50,000 grant to improve the process of DNA evidence that has been collected. This will also involve examination of the evidence according to the criminal investigations in my local police department. The funding will help process the thirty DNA samples so that…
Roman, J. K., Reid, S. E., Chalfin, A. J., & Knight, C. R. (2009). The DNA field experiment: a randomized trial of the cost-effectiveness of using DNA to solve property crimes. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 5(4), 345-369. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11292-009-9086-4
, 2007, p. 153).
The research showed that DNA evidence can be a valuable tool for the criminal justice system, but the effectiveness of such evidence depends on a number of factors. Among the more salient of these factors was the need to ensure that the DNA sample is collected and stored properly, and that it is transported to a testing facility in a timely and appropriate fashion. Other issues that emerged from the research included the need to maintain a strict chain of custody for all DNA evidence, as well as the need to ensure that the results of DNA testing were interpreted in an informed manner. Finally, the research was consistent in emphasizing that although DNA evidence can help prove innocence and guilt, the accuracy of such evidence depends on the type of DNA testing protocol that is involved and how these results are used in the…
Black's law dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bridges, a. (2007). Falsely accused: DNA evidence proves rape accusation was a lie. The Forensic Examiner, 16(4), 83.
Dann, B.M., Hans, V.P. & Kaye, DH (2007). Can jury trial innovations improve juror understanding of DNA evidence? Judicature, 90(4), 152-153.
Gahn, L. (2005, March). DNA evidence collection procedures. Law & Order, 53(3), 72-73.
In 1866, Mendel discovered that there are "recessive" and "dominant" traits in plants, paving the way for understanding how genes work in predictable ways, and plowing the ground for later science, although his work wasn't "discovered" until 1900. In 1944, three scientists at the Rockefeller Institute in New York discovered that DNA is the carrier of the genetic information within the body.
In the early 1950s, scientists were by now aware that DNA was genetic material and that is was an acid made up of sugars, phosphate groups, and "equally matches bases," the Dolan center points out. That was all well and good, but the big question remained: HAT AS NATURE'S GENETIC CODE?
The man most responsible for "breaking the genetic code" was MARSHALL NIRENBERG in 1961; but "breaking it" (or identifying it) was only part of the puzzle. And then in 1965, NIRENBERG (working at the National Institutes of…
About.com. (2006). Definition for DNA. Retrieved 16 October, 2006, from www.about.com.
De Duve, Christian. (2006). The Origin of Life: chemistry and replicability imply that life
Is Likely to Arise wherever conditions mimic those that surrounded its birth on Earth.
Taipei Times. Retrieved 15 October, 2006, at http://www.taipeitimes.com .
Filtration-Based DNA Preparation for Sexual
Assault Cases. Journal of Forensic Science 9/2003 Vol.48, No.
The precision of DNA technology allows law enforcement authorities to definitively identify perpetrators of sexual assaults from microscopic amounts of their
DNA collected from victims using a cotton swab. It has enabled the FBI to establish the Combined DNA Index System ("CODIS"), a nationwide DNA data bank and identification system modeled in principle, after the AFIS automatic fingerprint identification system.
It is estimated that crucial DNA evidence collected in approximately half a million unsolved rape cases awaits scientific processing, partly because of the complexity and time consuming nature of technical aspects of the techniques involved. The U.S. House of Representatives has already passed legislation in the form of the DNA Sexual Assault Justice Act that would allocate a quarter of a billion dollars to the problem. The Senate is expected to do likewise.
Chief among the…
DNA Cold Case
Using DNA to Solve Cold Cases
Our federal, state and local law enforcement agencies are charged with the responsibility of bringing justice to every case that comes before them. Especially in the case of homicide, the importance of finding resolution through identification and prosecution (where possible) of perpetrators, is a top priority. This is true even as a considerable amount of time lapses since the emergence of a given case. hen an investigation reaches an impasse, exhausts its leads and ultimately finds itself without a trail to follow, it becomes a cold case. Cold cases typically find their way to the backburner as law enforcement agencies focus on solving crimes with more immediately available evidence. It is thus that cases go 'cold,' leaving investigators with no apparent directions to turn for resolution.
However, today, with the emergence and continued refinement in use of DNA evidence, many cold…
Gast, P. (2013). Cold-case murders of 4 females brought back to life by new images, DNA tests. CNN.com.
Goldstein, S. (2013). Arizona sheriff hopes DNA, facial reconstruction, will help crack 32-year-old cold case. New York Daily News.
National Institute of Justice (NIJ). (2012). Cold Case Investigations and Forensic DNA. NIJ.gov.
U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ). (2011). Solicitation: Solving Cold Cases with DNA. NCJRS.gov.
"The criterion for the admissibility of a confession has thus evolved into the quality of voluntariness. The aim of admitting into evidence only voluntary confessions is to prevent the introduction of unreliable evidence. & #8230; the result is that judges may exclude confessions where the coercion is blatant and obvious but not exclude confessions where the coercion" is more subtle -- the jury is left to decide the confession's veracity in this case (akefield & Underwager 20009).
Discuss and provide examples pertaining to the waiver of privilege against self-incrimination.
The protection against self-incrimination does not apply to "non-testimonial evidence" such as giving examples of one's voice, police line-ups, blood samples or fingerprints (Lesson 12, 2009, Slide 4)
The principal restriction of impeachment by the use of evidence of misconduct can result in a conviction of a witness. Explain this concept and give examples.
Impeaching the testimony…
Exceptions to the hearsay rule. (2009). Everything2.com. Retrieved May 28, 2009 at http://everything2.com/title/Exceptions%2520to%2520the%2520Hearsay%2520Rule
ELMO evidence presentation. (2009). Middle District of Pennsylvania. Retrieved May 28, 2009
Evidence. (2009). eNotes. Retrieved May 28, 2009 at http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/evidence-chain-custody
The police officer then called the dispatcher to check Caballes' license and see if he had any outstanding warrants. As he was writing the warning ticket, he asked for a criminal background check from the dispatcher and asked Caballes if he had ever been arrested. Caballes said no, but the dispatcher told the officer that Caballes had been arrested twice for distribution of marijuana. While the officer was writing the warning ticket, another trooper arrived with a drug detection dog. The dog walked around Caballes' car and signaled alert. Marijuana was then found in the trunk.
Caballes was arrested and charged with trafficking cannabis.
Before the trial, Caballes' motion to suppress the evidence found in the trunk was denied. Caballes was convicted and sentenced to 12 years in prison and ordered to pay a fine of $256,136. Caballes' lawyers appealed, arguing that the police officer did not have probable cause…
Dix, G.E. (2002). Gilbert Law Summaries: Criminal Procedure. USA: The Bar Bri Group.
Illinois v. Caballes (2005). Medill School of Journalism, on the Docket web site: http://www.medill.northwestern.edu/-secure/docket/mt/archives/000814.php
Koenig, D. (2005). An Introduction to Criminal Law. 3rd Edition. Lansing, MI: Thomas Cooley Law School.
Understanding Search and Seizure Law" (2005): http://www.nolo.com/article.cfm/objectID/DED24689-ADA8-4785-887A0B4A19A694DE/104/1.
The problems and future of DNA Testing
The scientific soundness of the DNA test has not been doubted at all. Courts have increasingly relied on the outcomes of DNA tests. The common man is at a loss to understand the complexities of the method, and as a result in jury trials it is not taken as standard proof but approached with hesitancy. Jurors are ignorant of science and the 'principles of modern genetics' and can get quite confused by all the jargon and confusing tactics of lawyers who are more interested in their cases rather than scientific truth. ("DNA Fingerprinting and Forensics," 2006) Thus the very process that can throw light on the proceedings and produce unfaultable evidence gets mired in sticky debates. The actual concern about the DNA test is not a confused jury but the process of collecting the data and analyzing it. There is no…
Aronson, Jay. D. (2007) "Genetic Witness: Science, Law, and Controversy in the Making of DNA" Rutgers University Press.
Champod, Christophe. (2004) "Fingerprints and Other Ridge Skin Impressions"
Lazer, David. (2004) "DNA and the Criminal Justice System: The Technology of Justice"
She had been struck several times in the head with a Toney Penna golf club -- so ferociously that the club had shattered into multiple pieces -- and then stabbed in the neck with the broken shaft the club's handle and part of the shaft had vanished. (Kennedy Jr., 2003, Martha Moxley section, ¶ 1)
From evidence retrieved from the autopsy, police determined Moxley's murder occurred at approximately10:00 P.M..
On July 10, 1998, 23 years after Moxley's murder, "Connecticut authorities convened a one-man grand jury consisting of Judge George Thim. The state's attorney Jonathan Benedict took over the Moxley case and began a multimillion-dollar effort to convict Michael Skakel" (Kennedy Jr., 2003, Mark Fuhrman section, ¶ 5). Until this time, Greenwich police and state investigators considered Ken Littleton as the primary suspect for the murder of Moxley (Fuhrman, cited in Kennedy Jr., Mark Fuhrman section, ¶ 7). According to prosecutors'…
Caldwell, Lori. (2004, June 8). Post-Tribune. Gun missing as evidence, so Gary man acquitted. Post-Tribune (in). Retrieved November 20, 2008 from HighBeam Research database.
Givens, Ann. (2006). Evidence bungled?: Blood work in DWI death trial might have been mishandled, according to testimony of troopers, others. Newsday (Melville, NY). McClatchy-Tribune Information Services. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from HighBeam Research database.
Caldwell, Lori. (2004, June 8). Post-Tribune. "Gun missing as evidence, so Gary man acquitted." Post-Tribune (in). 2004. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from HighBeam Research: www.highbeam.com/doc/1N11032253A4EBD8A1C.html
Complete coverage: Limo crash. (2008). Retrieved November 20, 2008 at http://www.newsday.com/news/local/longisland/ny-licrashsg,0,390101.storygallery?coll=ny-linews-headlines
It is possible that other people have already been through there and touched things, and those people must be eliminated as suspects. Avoiding further contamination, however, is vital to ensuring that the crime has the highest chance of being solved. In addition to wearing gloves, collecting evidence at a crime scene also involves making sure that the evidence, once collected, remains free from any contamination (Penrod, 2003). There are specialized containers which are used to collect certain types of evidence from crime scenes. Other evidence, such as hair or fibers, is usually just placed in a clean, dry baggie and sealed up. It is very important at that point that where the evidence came from and who collected it is documented. Any time it changes hands, that must also be documented. This can help to ensure that it can be used as evidence at trial, because there is allegedly no…
Penrod, S. 2003 Eyewitness identification evidence: How well are witnesses and police performing? Criminal Justice 18(1): 36-47.
Legal Concept of elevant Evidence
Brady v. Maryland, 373 U.S. 83 (1963)
Facts: Defendants Brady and Boblit were convicted of murder by the state of Maryland, with Brady admitting participation in the crime but stating that Boblit committed the actual act of killing the victim. Boblit confirmed this fact in a written statement recording his personal confession, but during the criminal proceedings prosecutors elected to withhold Boblit's confession from the court, as well as from Brady and his attorney. Upon being convicted of the murder, Brady challenged the decision on the basis of potential violations of the Fourteenth Amendment, which guarantees those accused of criminal conduct the right to due process. The Maryland Court of Appeals affirmed Brady's conviction, but remanded the case for retrial to reassess the question of punishment.
Issues: The prosecution's choice to withhold Boblit's written confession irrevocably altered the sentencing process for Brady, as the court…
Brady v. Maryland, 373 U.S. 83 (1963)
Change them often; (2) Use disposable instruments or clean them thoroughly before and after handling each sample; (3) Avoid touching the area where you believe DNA may exist; (4) avoid talking, sneezing, and coughing over evidence; (5) Avoid touching your face, nose, and mouth when collecting and packaging evidence; (6) Air-dry evidence thoroughly before packaging; and (7) Put evidence into new paper bags or envelopes, not into plastic bags. Do not use staples." (National Institute of Justice, 2007)
V. Future of CODIS
The work entitled: "Communication, Documentation and Information Services" states that in the future CODIS will "continue to place a major emphasis on upgrading technology in all areas of its responsibility." (Vest of Research, nd) in a National Institute of Justice report entitled: "The Future of Forensic DNA Testing: Predictions of the Research and Development Working Group" published in November 2000 states that "technology projections for 2010" include transition…
Combined DNA Index System CODIS (nd) Fast Facts from the DPS. Online available at http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/director_staff/public_information/Fast_facts/Codis.pdf
CODIS (2007) SAIC. Online available at http://www.saic.com/justice/codis.html
Lessons Learned From 9/11: DNA Identification in Mass Fatality Incidents. (2007) President's DNA Initiatives. Online available at http://www.dna.gov/uses/mass_fatalities/
Using DNA and Other Resources to Identify Missing Persons (2007) President's DNA Initiative Online available at http://www.dna.gov/uses/m_person/.
Ethical Pros & Cons of Criminal DNA data banks
DNA banking of criminal information is a source of controversy among many human rights activists. According to statistics, Criminal DNA databanks offer an effective means of controlling crime. Genetic information on criminals is being collected and stored in many states as a means of identifying current and future criminals. Statistics support the notion that collecting DNA information on criminals helps reduce crime. Case in point, the Division of Forensic Science has managed an average of 37 "hits" per month, where hits refer to a situation where DNA analysis of a crime scene has resulted in suspect matches from previously convicted offenders and subsequent arrest (DCJS, 2004). In Virginia the DNA databank database contains more than 200,000 of criminals (DCJS, 2004).
Proponents of DNA banks argue that DNA identifying information should be collected on larger segments of the population to better control…
DCJS - Department of Criminal Justice Services - DNA Databank Statistics (2004)
Retrieved February 6, 2004, http://www.dcjs.org/forensic/information/dna.cfm?menuLevel=1
Escanaba, Thomas L. "Strands of Justice: Do DNA databanks infringe on defendants' rights?" February 1998. Retrieved February 6, 2004, http://www.pbs.org/newshour/forum/july98/dna_databanks02.html
Fridell, Ron. "DNA Fingerprinting: the Ultimate Identity." New York: Franklin Watts: 2001.
human DNA sequence composed of a series of letters such as 'accagacagt' and the objective was to decipher this jumble of letters and interpret the results. I suppose I should report that the process went smoothly and that after a bit of research I now consider myself an expert in regard to the new science of DNA Sequencing. However, I have a thousand more questions now than before I began and even the answers I came up with may or may not be correct. I do know for a fact that this is a pretty new art or science and its potential seems limitless. "DNA itself has thus far shown only modest evidence of possessing any intrinsic catalytic activities, although the prospect that more will be discovered in the future is surely plausible." (Cantor & Smith, 1999, xv)
The internet has made so many sites and processes available to the…
Obviously, enterokinase gene being tied to this chromosome entails a great deal of research interest into the biological functions of the gene and the manner by which it contributes to disease. Defects in PRSS7 therefore are a direct cause of enterokinase deficiency which is a life-threatening intestinal malabsorption disorder. The disorder can be characterized by severe bouts of diarrhea and failure to thrive and thus create a situation of initiating activation of pancreatic proteolytic proenzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase a).
Animals, like humans, have to handle digestion of exogenous macromolecules without destroying endogenous constituents so the serine protease or enterokinase seems to be a fundamental digestive system requirement. In other words, all vertebrates such as mice or dogs have adapted a two step enzymatic cascade that is used to change pancreatic zymogens over to active enzymes in the lumen of the gut as discovered by researchers in Pavlov's laboratory in the early 1900's. "Extracts of the proximal small intestine were shown strikingly to activate the latent hydrolytic enzymes in pancreatic fluid. Pavlov considered this intestinal factor to be an enzyme that activated other enzymes, or a 'ferment of ferments' and named it enterokinase." (Stone, 2002)
The subject of DNA fingerprinting has become a prominent issue on several fronts. The applicable paradigms involved include law enforcement, privacy concerns and immigration, just to name a few. A few questions and concerns about DNA will be included in this repot including what precisely DNA fingerprinting is, how it is done, the step-by-step methods of fingerprinting, how DNA is compared on an electrophoresis (EPG), what precisely EPG is, whether the author of this report agrees with DNA fingerprinting everyone for medical reasons, why DNA is considered potential evidence in a court of law and whether the author of this report aggress with the government wanting to DNA-fingerprint everyone so that they can learn about disease propensity and other pieces of information. hile DNA fingerprinting has and will continue to render a large amount of benefit, the privacy and other rights of people to be fingerprinted are a…
Aarli, Ragna. "Genetic Justice And Transformations Of Criminal Procedure." Journal Of
Scandinavian Studies In Criminology & Crime Prevention 13.1 (2012): 3-
21. Academic Search Premier. Web. 14 Oct. 2014.
Ai, Bingjie, et al. "The Elimination Of DNA From The Cry Toxin-DNA Complex Is A
DNA Exonerations: John Kogut
The Path To Exoneration: John Kogut
The Path to Conviction
When 16-year-old Teresa Fusco left work at 9:45 PM on November 10, 1984 she became one among several young girls reported missing over the past several years [Centurion Ministries, 2013; Innocence Project, n.d.(a)]. In contrast to her predecessors, however, her body was discovered a month later in a wooded area several blocks from the roller rink where she worked. According to the autopsy, Teresa had been raped and murdered. Semen and sperm were collected from her body and the marks on her neck revealed that she had been strangled with a rope or cord. Also found at the scene were her jewelry and the murder weapon. The coroner's office, however, failed to conduct a blood type analysis on the semen.
The Nassau County police were under tremendous pressure to solve these disappearances, especially Teresa's rape and…
Centurion Ministries (2013). Dennis Halstead, John Kogut, & John Restivo, Long Island, NY. CenturionMinistries.org. Retrieved 6 Oct. 2013 from http://www.centurionministries.org/cases/dennis-halstead-john-kogut-and-john-restivo/.
Drumm, David. (2013, May 11). Why the FBI doesn't record interrogations. JonathanTurley.org [blog]. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2013 from http://jonathanturley.org/2013/05/11/why-the-fbi-doesnt-record-interrogations/ .
Editors. (2013, Jan. 1). America's retreat from the death penalty. New York Times, A18. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2013 from http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/03/15/maryland-death-penalty/1989977/ .
Gootman, Elissa. (2003, Jun. 12). DNA evidence frees 3 men in 1984 murder of L.I. girl. New York Times, B1, B5. Retrieved 7 Oct. 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2003/06/12/nyregion/dna-evidence-frees-3-men-in-1984-murder-of-li-girl.html .
atson and Crick
The fact that James atson and Francis Crick were able to discover the structure of DNA is, in retrospect, somewhat shocking. By the early 1950s, it had become clear that the riddle of DNA's structure would be solved through X-ray crystallography, while atson admits in the fourth chapter of The Double Helix that "I knew nothing about the X-ray diffraction techniques that dominated structural analysis" (atson 31). Moreover, some of the best scientists who did have a knowledge of X-ray crystallography -- like Linus Pauling in America and Rosalind Franklin in the UK -- were consciously working on the structure of DNA at the same time that atson and Crick got involved. Additionally, atson was extraordinarily young at the time of the discovery. Although Crick was "thirty-five, yet almost totally unknown" at the time of their collaboration (atson 7) but atson was born in 1928 and in…
Smith, Hal. Lecture Notes, Humanities 4317. University of Houston-Victoria, 2014.
Watson, James D. The Double Helix. New York: Scribner Classics, 1998. Print.
Rule: Any out-of-court statement offered to prove the truth of the matter asserted is generally inadmissible as hearsay. (801-802) However, hearsay may be admitted, in a prosecution for homicide or in a civil case, if the declarant, while believing the declarant's death to be imminent, made the statement about its cause or circumstances. (804(b)(2).
Application: Here, the defense attorney's objection is premised on the fact that the deceased Sam's statements are I inadmissible as hearsay, as an out-of-court statement by a person unavailable for trial, offered to prove that the other driver was driving on the wrong side of the road. However, Trooper Jones may offer this statement because it falls under the (804(b)(2) hearsay exception, as a statement in a civil case that the declarant made while his death was imminent.
Conclusion: The basis for the defense attorney's objection is hearsay because the deceased Sam's statement is an out-of-court…
In 1953, the true structure of DNA and the mechanisms by which it passes on genetic information from one generation to the next was discovered by Crick and Watson at the University of Cambridge who proposed that DNA was structured as a double helix which could unwrap itself and thus create exact copies. Undoubtedly, "This was the culmination of a brilliant piece of detective work" and turned out to be the biological key to molecular biology and modern biotechnology. Exactly how Watson and Crick managed to unravel the mysteries of DNA is still not clear, yet they did manage to "assemble the information like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle to produce their model of the structure of DNA" (2009, "The Search for DNA," Internet). Following the work of Watson and Crick in 1953, the genetic code itself was revealed between 1961 and 1965 and in 1972, the first successful DNA…
"James Watson & Francis Crick." (2009). Time. Internet. Retrieved May 13, 2009 from http://www.time.com/time/time100/scientist/profile/watsoncrick.html .
"The Search for DNA -- The Birth of Molecular Biology." (2009). Internet. Retrieved May
13, 2009 from http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/BC/Search_for_DNA.php.
Afterwards I poured the liquid through a strainer, just as it had been done with the peas in the given demonstration and I noticed that the poor substance was even thinner than the one obtained at the blender. I added 35 ml of liquid detergent and then I swirled. I waited around 9 minutes and then I moved the object of my research into three test tubes, being aware of the fact that the detergent had continued the task of the blender and has broken the sacks of the cells, allowing the DNA to be found. I poured the substance in such a way that only 1/3 of each test tube would be filled, and then I added pineapple juice, which played the role of the enzymes cutting the proteins.
After that I started to stir the mixture, making sure that my action would detain the success of my experiment…
DNA, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA
Hershey a, Chase M (1952). www.jgp.orgJ Gen Physiol, pp. 36
Alberts, Bruce; Alexander Johnson, Julian Lewis, Martin Raff, Keith Roberts, and Peter Walters (2002). http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?call=bv.View..ShowTOC&rid=mboc4.TOC&depth=2Molecular Biology of the Cell; Fourth Edition. New York and London: Garland Science
DNA Forensics, at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/forensics.shtml
The Three Types of Evidence
ithin the Federal Rules of Evidence, there are two specific types -- direct evidence and circumstantial evidence (Unit 2, n.d.). In both of these two groups, there are three types of evidence which will be discussed here. These are demonstrative, testimonial, and physical. It is important to explain what each one of these is, how they are different from one another, and also to give an example of each kind of evidence for clarity of understanding. All evidence, however, no matter what category it falls into, must be both material and relevant in order to comply with rules of admissibility.
Demonstrative evidence is generally used as a visual aid (Unit 2, n.d.). In other words, it can include maps, graphs, charts, and many other types of aids that may be used in the court room in an attempt to prove either innocence or guilt.…
Alverson, J.B. & Smagac, S.S. (1998). Brain mapping: Should this controversial evidence be excluded? Federation of Insurance & Corporate Counsel Quarterly.
American Academy of Neurology (1989). Assessment: EEG Brain Mapping, 39 Neurology 1100.
Unit 2 -- Overview of the Federal Rules of Evidence (n.d.). http://ruby.fgcu.edu/courses/cpacini / courses/acg4939-6935/acg6688fedrulesevid.pdf.
At the time that yrd was tried in 1985 DNA technology was not capable of forensic analysis of biological evidence however; in 1997 a comparison was conducted of yrd's DNA with the bodily fluid in the rape kit that had been collected at the time of the incident resulting in yrd's exoneration for this crime. The importance of proper preservation of biological evidence is highlighted in this case and not only for the purpose of obtaining a conviction but also for the purpose of ensuring that the wrong individual is not charged, found guilty and sentenced to prison for a crime that they did not commit.
VI. Most Common Applications of lood Evidence
The work of George Schiro entitled: "Collection and Preservation of lood Evidence from Crime Scenes" states that prior to the documentation and collection of blood evidence the value of the evidence must be recognized by the crime…
Catalin, Marian; Andrei, Anghel, and Mitrasca, Oana (nd) Modern Methods of Collection and Preservation of Biological Evidence for Human Identification by DNA Analysis. Biochemistry Department, "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy from Timisoara. Online available at: http://www.oglethorpe.edu/faculty/~k_aufderheide/Forensic_Science/Web_Documents/Catalin_Andrei_Mitrasca.pdf
Jones, Cynthia E. (2005) Evidence Destroyed, Innocence Lost: The Preservation of Biological Evidence Under Innocence Protection Statues. The American Criminal Law Review. 1 Oct 2005. Online available at: http://www.allbusiness.com/legal/laws/1047368-1.html
Ladd, HC and Ladd, C. (2001) Preservation and Collection of Biological Evidence. Croat Med J. 2001 Jun;42(3):225-8. Online available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11387627
Schiro, George (nd) Collection and Preservation of Blood Evidence From Crime Scenes. Louisiana State Police Crime Laboratory. Online available at: http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/blood.html
This can contribute directly to human health and development (Agio). orlaug (1999), who won the Nobel Prize in 1970 for his work in developing high-yield wheat and other grains in third-world countries, stresses that genetic engineering is essential due to the worldwide population growth. Other organizations supporting genetically modified foods are the American Medical Association, the International Association of African Scientists, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Of course, there are always two sides to every coin, and individuals such as Ronnie Cummins, national director of the ioDemocracy Campaign, a grassroots organization that promotes organic food and opposes genetic engineering in agriculture, states that genetically modified foods can result in production of items that are toxic, carcinogenic, and allergenic. She warns that widespread planting of GM crops could cause unexpected harm to the environment; as crops are engineered to…
AgBio World, Scientists in support of agricultural biotechnology. February 27, 2008 http://www.agbioworld.org/declaration/index.html
BioDemocracy. Hazards of genetically engineered food and crops. Ronnie Cummins. http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge-free.cfm
N. Borlaug, (1999) Biotech can feed eight billion in the next century. New perspectives quarterly 25(1): 129-132
D.A. Christopher. (2000). The Gene genie's progeny. In the World & I. Washington, DC: Washington Times Corporation.
Then we would move to the individual characteristics of the evidence collected like the subjecting of the blood samples collected from both the scene and the suspect belongings to a DNA sampling to verify if the blood found on both locations has specific common characteristics. Testing the fiber of the gloves to ascertain that they belong to a pair and same manufacturer and not merely identical, (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Lab., 2010).
On the accurate collection of the evidence and their storage will require a specialized team from the forensic department so as to ensure the evidence does not lose its credibility.
On the lack of cooperation with the police and engaging the police in a two hour road chase before he is arrested, there will be need to acquire a testimony of the police themselves and the re will be need to presented the written arranged appointment…
Crain Communications Inc., (2003). Circumstantial Evidence is Sufficient to Establish Sexual
Discrimination. Retrieved June 24, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FXS/is_9_82/ai_107835615/
The Free Dictionary, (2011). Definition: Circumstantial Evidence. Retrieved June 24, 2011 from http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Circumstantial+Evidence
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Lab., (2010). The Characteristics of Physical Evidence.
opportunity create evaluate impression evidence. As read textbook, pattern evidence, part, examined naked eye. Select learning activities base assignment. a. Create impression patterns choice.
Impressions: Footprints and tire marks
The first of the forensic impressions I selected for my analysis consisted of footprints. "Impressions occur when two objects come in contact with one another, and one object leaves behind distinguishing markings on or in the other" (Gaensslen & Larsen 2013: 213). A footprint is classified as an impression because it has depth (three-dimensional character) in material space (Gaensslen & Larsen 2013: 213). "A positive impression is identical to the object that made it, whereas a negative impression is its mirror image. The shoe prints left in the mud are negative impressions; they are negatives of the shoes' soles. In this scenario, the positives would be the shoes' soles" (Gaensslen & Larsen 2013: 214). In this instance, the impression of the…
Gaensslen, R.E., & Larsen, K. (2013). Introductory forensic science. San Diego, CA:
Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Murray. (n.d.). Footprints can play an important role in solving crimes. Footprint lab.
This is because inorganic evidence is mostly based upon running the data through an a central database like the FBI's CODIS to see if there is a match (Schoester, 2006, 31-42)
The Strengths/eaknesses of Inorganic Evidence
A major strength of this type of evidence is it involves the physical collection of crime scene evidence. Evidences such as broken furniture or windows or are picked that is able to be positively identified in court. Inorganic evidence is also effective in solving a criminal case than organic evidence. This is due to the fact that inorganic evidence is based upon an individual's judgment to make it possible to eliminate possibilities give a crime investigator a chance to be more in touch with the crime scene. Such judgment is vital when dealing with a crime scene in the initial stages of an investigation where possibilities need to be narrowed down (Brown & Davenport,…
Brown, T., & Davenport, J. (2011). Forensic science: Advanced investigations. Belmont, CA: Cengage.
Maithil, B.P. (2008). Chemical, physical and biological microtraces: Unnoticed vital evidentiary clues in crime investigations. The Indian Police Journal, 15(1), 23-31.
Schoester, M.V. (2006). Forensics in law enforcement. New York, NY: Nova Science Pub Inc.
Forensic Pathology: Forensics and DNA
DNA is part of the building blocks of human life and individuality: "DNA is present in nearly every cell of our bodies, and we leave cells behind everywhere we go without even realizing it. Flakes of skin, drops of blood, hair, and saliva all contain DNA that can be used to identify us" (Norrgard, 2008). DNA has long been a major part of forensics testing used in criminal cases for over forty years. "At its inception, DNA testing could only be performed by laboratories with molecular diagnostic capabilities" (Calaluce, 2010, p.2). The controversy surrounding DNA testing that made it more heavily scrutinized when it first debuted largely revolved around the fact that it was considered a "soft science" and that DNA evidence was viewed as simply not as reliable as other types. However, this controversy has since been eliminated: and there is absolutely no valid…
Calaluci, J. (2010). Guide to Forensic Pathology. New York: CRC Press.
Dvorsky, G. (2012, October 1). How forensic pathologists used maggots to identify an "unrecognizable" body. Retrieved from io9.com: http://io9.com/5947925/how-forensic-pathologists-used-maggots-to-identify-a-badly-burned-body
Norrgard, K. (2008). How ethical is it to keep a database of convicted felons' DNA profiles? Can we rely on DNA fingerprints for conviction? Many ethical issues surround the use of DNA in forensic technology. Retrieved from Nature.com: http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/forensics-dna-fingerprinting-and-codis-736
Rosner, D. (2004, May 20). How does DNA Fingerprinting Work. Retrieved from thenakedscientist.com: http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/articles/article/dalyacolumn8.htm/
While black men can be incredibly diverse-looking, she may focus on those features that tend to differentiate them from white men. This is a risk in any cross-racial identification, where someone may notice differences from their own ethnic group, but fail to look beyond those features that stand out as "other" in his mind, which makes any person in that racial group a possible suspect.
In fact, it is impossible to overplay the role that misidentification has played in so many wrongful convictions. It is difficult for many people to realize that DNA evidence did not play a role in older convictions; the technology simply was not available. Furthermore, when DNA evidence first became available, it was a new technology that was not fully understood by all of the actors in the criminal justice system. In those early times, there were investigators, prosecutors, and fact finders who would believe a…
Innocence Project. (2011, October 21). New Orleans man wrongfully incarcerated for 30 years exonerated of rape that new DNA evidence proves he didn't commit. Retrieved from http://www.innocenceproject.org/Content/New_Orleans_Man_Wrongly_Incarcerated_for_30_Years_Exonerated_of_Rape_that_New_DNA_Evidence_Proves_He_Didnt_Commit.php
e should be thankful for this amazing technological development," (Hatch, 2000).
The death penalty must be altered, not abolished. In all new cases, if DNA evidence is not provided as conclusive for the conviction of the arrested, then capital punishment should not even be a consideration. There are already appeals processes in place for those who presently serve on Death Row, and in many of these cases, the inmates have pleaded for DNA testing. This should be executed on a case-by-case basis, pending the jurisdiction of the local judicial system. It was found in the research for this analysis that many of the authors who approve of using DNA testing for exoneration, oppose DNA evidence that has been presented during the time of trial. Much like those who oppose the death penalty and those who support it, there will be continued debate over this new science, which is offering legendary…
American Civil Liberties Union. (2010). DNA Testing and the Death Penalty. Retrived April 16, 2010, from www.aclu.org.
Banner, Stuart. (2002). The Death Penalty: An American History. Cambridge, MA:
Hatch, Orrin G. (June 13, 200). Post-Conviction DNA Testing: When Is Justice Served?
Sinclair Billy Wayne, & Sinclair, Jodie. (2009). Capital Punishment: An Indictment by a Death-Row Survivor. New York, NY: Arcade Publishing.
John Wayne Gacy, Jr.
Crime Scene and Discovery
When the police were called to search John Wayne Gacy's home in Des Plaines, Illinois on December 13, 1978, they were not aware that their investigation into the disappearance of fifteen-year-old Robert Piest would lead them to uncover some of the most grisly murders committed in the United States (Evans, 2007). Piest was last seen leaving a pharmacy where Gacy, then working as a contractor, had recently completed a remodeling job (Office of the Clark County Prosecuting Attorney, 2012). Three hours after his disappearance, his mother, Elizabeth Piest, notified the Des Plaines Police Department and Lt. Joseph Kozenczak was tasked with leading the investigation (Sullivan & Maiken, 1983, p. 7; ell & ardsley, n.d.). During his initial investigation, Lt. Kozenczak learned that Gacy had recently offered Piest a job and proceeded to go to Gacy's home, located at 8213 Summerdale Ave, to…
Associated Press. (2011, October 13). Detectives exhume bodies of eight unknown victims of 'Serial-killer Clown' John Wayne Gacy in bid to identify remains. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from Mail Online: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2048363/John-Wayne-Gacy-Detectives-exhume-bodies-8-unknown-victims.html
Bell, R., & Bardsley, M. (n.d.). John Wayne Gacy, Jr. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from TruTV.com: http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/notorious/gacy/8.html
Crime and Investigation Network. (2005). John Wayne Gacy: Killer Clown. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from Crime and Investigation Network: http://www.crimeandinvestigation.co.uk/crime-files/john-wayne-gacy-killer-clown/arrest.html
Donovan, D. (2011, November 29). Another Gacy victim identified thorugh DNA evidence. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from Daily Herald: http://www.dailyherald.com/article/20111129/news/711299790/
Corrections/Police - Criminal Justice
Innocents Project Exoneration
On November 19, 1991, 14-year-old Cateresa Matthews left her great-grandmother's house in Dixmoor, Illinois. She was not seen again until December 8, 1991, when her body was found on a well-worn path running along I-57 as it passes through Dixmoor. "She had been shot in the mouth at close range with a .25 caliber pistol. She was also an apparent victim of sexual assault, as her body was naked from the waist down. A pair of white panties was found around her right ankle, and her jeans were draped across her chest. Seminal fluid was recovered from the vaginal and rectal swab of the victim" (obert Taylor, n.d).
The police made no arrests and apparently had no leads in the case for over ten months, until October 20, 1992. On that date, a police report specified that Keno Barnes, 15, supposedly…
Exonerated, freed and facing a new life. (2011). Retrieved from http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2011-11-25/news/ct-met-dna-freedom-
Law School's Exoneration Project helps free wrongly convicted man. (2011). Retrieved from http://news.uchicago.edu/article/2011/11/04/law-school039s-exoneration-project-helps-free-wrongly-convicted-man
Robert Taylor. (n.d). Retrieved from http://www.innocenceproject.org/Content/Robert_Taylor.php
" This category of identifiers, is however, weak. There are apparently a list of indicators such as name and address that have to be removed from the database in order to use the DNA evidence without notifying the person. When these markers are removed, the evidence is considered public. Yet there are potentials for those markers to resurface and privacy can never be ensured. Even though Angrist is in favor of a public pool of DNA evidence for the lofty goals of science, he agrees, "de-identification is increasingly difficult." It is becoming hard to disconnect names, dates, and places from the hemoglobin and NA. Science appreciates access to DNA because it can link certain traits with others and thereby advance scientific knowledge.
Although it is important to protect a person's privacy regarding DNA, it is too difficult to do so given the rampant greed in the biomedical industry and the…
Angrist, Misha. "Genetic privacy needs a more nuanced approach." Nature. 6 Feb, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.nature.com/news/genetic-privacy-needs-a-more-nuanced-approach-1.12363
Nature. "Genetic Privacy." 17 Jan 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.nature.com/news/genetic-privacy-1.12238
The Washington Times. "Editorial: Preserving Genetic Privacy." The Washington Times. 21 Feb, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/feb/21/preserving-genetic-privacy/
On June 14, 2007, a man covered in blood waved down a passing motorist on Interstate 55 in Illinois. He had gunshot wounds in the arm and leg. It was 5:40 in the morning in Channahon Township, Illinois. Nearby, the man's 2004 Ford Expedition carried the dead bodies of the man's wife and three children, ages 12, 11, and 8. They had all been shot to death. After pulling over, the motorist phoned 911, and the man was rushed to hospital. It was Christopher Vaughn, 32-year-old cyber crime and computer security investigator.
The police questioned Vaughn in hospital. Vaughn's initial statement revealed an outlandish story he would cling to during the course of his defense. Vaughn claimed that his wife asked him to pull over, then suddenly pulled out a gun, shot at him, killed her three children, and finally shot herself dead. The police did not believe Vaughn…
An, J.H., Shin, K., Yang, W. & Lee, H.Y. (2012). Body fluid identification in forensics. BMB Reports. Retrieved online: http://126.96.36.199/W_files/ksi3/02618129_pv.pdf
Boyle, L. (2012). Computer security expert 'shot dead his wife and three children in family SUV so he could move to Canada and live alone. Daily Mail. 20 Aug, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2191188/Christopher-Vaughn-case-Trial-dad-accused-killing-wife-kids-begin.html
Fisher, J. (2012). Christopher Vaughn Murder Case: A Matter of Ballistics and Blood Spatter Analysis. Retrieved online: http://jimfishertruecrime.blogspot.ca/2012/09/christopher-vaughn-murder-case-matter.html
Haggerty, R. & Walberg, M. (2012). Pathologist testifies in Vaughn case. Chicago Tribune. Sept 5, 2012. Retrieved online: http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2012-09-05/news/ct-met-christopher-vaughn-trial-0906-20120906_1_gunshot-christopher-vaughn-vaughn-case
A 1400-year-old volcanic or other induced "winter" likely spurred the divergence possibly even later than 150,000 years ago, brought about by an explosion of Toba in Sumatra. The elimination of this bottleneck 10, 000 years later allowed another wave of emigration from Africa. Volcanic winter may have succeeded in the reductions of populations to levels low enough for founder effects, genetic drift and local adaptations to produce rapid population differentiation (Ambrose 623 -- 651) .
This new research posits new assumptions about evolutionary rates, anagenesis, gene flow and population stability. Most biological evolution consists of the following two processes: anagenesis and cladogenesis. Anagenesis describes the transformations that occur within a single lineage, that is, as a population develops new characteristics. Cladogenesis, describes the splitting of a single species into two or more groups that later subsequently diverge in their individual traits through the anagenetic process. Gene flow and population stability…
Ambrose, Stephen H. "Late Pleistocene human population bottlenecks, volcanic winter, and differentiation of modern humans." Journal of Human Evolution. 34. (1998): 623 -- 651. Print.
Johanson, Donald. "Origins of Modern Humans: Multiregional or Out of Africa?" Action
Bioscience.org. 2011. Web. 6 May 2011.
Forensic Case Study
The abduction of Enrique Camarena
The abduction of Enrique Camarena presents numerous interesting and unusual features regarding the gathering of forensic evidence. Many of obstacles that arose over the course of the investigation can be traced to the fact that the DEA Special Agent was apprehended in Mexico, where U.S. laws about preserving evidence did not apply. The Mexican police force (at least at the time of the abduction in 1984) was much more prone to corruption and bribery by persons engaged in illegal drug trafficking than U.S. law enforcement. ather than seeing to assist the DEA in bringing the murderers of Camarena to justice, the Mexican police often acted as obstacles, not assistants.
The real perpetrators of the murder of Camarena concocted a scheme with certain select members of the Mexican policy whereby Camarena's body (and the body of Capt. Alfredo Zavala, a Mexican…
Collecting evidence from human bodies. (2001). CA Department of Justice. Retrieved:
Gaensslen, R.E., & Larsen, K. (2013). Introductory forensic science. San Diego, CA:
Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Forensics is a very important part of a crime scene investigation. There used to be a time when murders or crimes were left unsolved due to the lack of evidence. However with the advances in technology and research in forensics, crime solving has become a lot easier. The branch of science, which helps out in finding out important evidence, is known as Forensics Chemistry. Forensics Chemistry employs methods, which help in finding clues, which couldn't be found in any other circumstances. We can simply call it the application of a brand of chemistry at the scene of a crime. This is a science which helps us investigate chemical substances and can help trace the cause of the death of a human being by finding useful evidence. However it's not important that the crime scene may be a site of murder or theft. It could also be due to…
Neufeld, Peter L. & Colman, Neville 1990, 'When Science Takes the Witness Stand', Scientific American, vol. 262, no. 5, May, pp. 46-53
Coelli, Andree 1989, 'One Chance in 165 Million', Australian Law News, September, pp. 22-6
Scutt, Jocelynne 1990, 'Beware of New Technologies', Legal Service Bulletin, vol. 15, no1, February, pp. 9-12.
Introduction to Forensic Chemistry
A good example is the 1985 murder of convenience store clerk Cynthia Barlieb, whose murder was prosecuted by a district attorney bent on securing execution for Barlieb's killer (Pompeilo 2005). The original trial and all the subsequent appeals forced Barlieb's family, including four young daughters, to spend 17 years in the legal process - her oldest daughter was 8 years old when Cynthia was first shot, and 25 when the process ended without a death sentence (Pompelio 2005). During those 17 years, Cynthia Barlieb's family was forced to repeatedly relive her murder.
hen a person is murdered, it is understandable that American society demands justice, particularly on behalf of the victim's family and loved ones. But we can not advocate capital punishment under the guise of protecting the interests of victims' families, and then cut those members out of the process when they do not support the death penalty. and,…
American Civil Liberties Union (2002). "ACLU Praises Supreme Court Refusal of 'Sleeping Lawyer' Case as 'Acknowledgment and Reminder' of Death Penalty Problems." Retrieved Sept. 30, 2006 at http://www.aclu.org/capital/unequal/10466prs20020603.html .
American Civil Liberties Union (2002). "DNA testing and the death penalty." Retrieved Oct. 1, 2006 at http://www.aclu.org/capital/innocence/10392pub20020626.html .
Amnesty International (2006). "Death penalty." Retrieved Sept. 30, 2006 at http://www.amnestyusa.org/abolish/index.do .
Antonio, Michael E. (2006). "Arbitrariness and the death penalty: how the defendant's appearance during trial influences capital jurors' punishment decision." Behavioral Sciences & the Law. March 2006.Vol.24, Iss. 2.
These breath-testers use a range of technologies including electrochemical fuel cells, infrared absorption, metallic oxide semiconductors and disposable color-change testers.
The disposable breath-testers are cheap to purchase and very useful in detecting alcohol in a person's system. When the test is positive, to check for other drugs in his system, the person is required to give a blood sample for confirmation by a laboratory. In addition his urine sample is also taken to test for the presence of other drugs in his system.
Breath testers have been in use in the United States since the 1940s. Then the machines used to detect alcohol were not as accurate as the ones used today. Nowadays mostly infrared absorption devices are used. They have a sample chamber from where the breath passes. This comes in contact with the infrared light, which counts the ions of alcohol thus measuring the alcohol level.
1. Jerry W. Kilgore - "DNA Samples Prove to Be Effective in Solving Crimes." Magazine Title: Corrections Today. Volume: 65. Issue: 4. July 2003. 28.
2. "DNA Money." Newspaper Title: The Washington Times. March 12, 2003. A06.
3. Richard S. Julie - "High-Tech Surveillance Tools and the Fourth Amendment: Reasonable Expectations of Privacy in the Technological Age." Journal Title: American Criminal Law Review. Volume: 37. Issue: 1. Publication Year: 2000. Page Number: 127
4. News Story: Camera detects concealed weapons in real-time. [ http://news.thomasnet.com/fullstory/463051 ] Accessed Aug 21, 2005
This places a significant burden upon the labs and the forensic experts that prosecutors depend on to produce forensic evidence. The article explains that there is a serious problem associated with crime lab ethics, which has been heightened in recent years. The article asserts that many crime labs have been cited for sloppy procedures and producing erroneous evidence (Morrison and Roane, 2005). The fact that crime labs are not required to be accredited adds to the problem because there are not any standard procedures that govern the management of the labs. Under new laws all federally funded crime labs will have to be accredited by 2006 but currently 30% of the federally funded crime labs do not have any accredidation (Morrison and Roane, 2005).
The article also reports that many experts such as crime lab technicians, coroners, forensic anthropologists and police chemists have been fired for presenting erroneous evidence in…
Botluk, D., Mitchell B. 2005. "Getting a Grip on the 'CSI Effect': The National Clearinghouse for Science, Technology and the Law at Stetson University College of Law. http://www.llrx.com/features/csieffect.htm
Morrison D., Roane K.R. (2005) The CSI Effect.. U.S. News. Retrieved August 13 at http://www.usnews.com/usnews/culture/articles/050425/25csi.htm
Prosecutors feel the CSI Effect. February 10, 2005. Retrieved August 13 at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/02/10/eveningnews/main670360.shtml
Rincon, P. (2005). CSI shows give "unrealistic view." BBC News. Retrieved August 13 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4284335.stm
Post response questions, requires a position support position evidence assigned readings. Please correct sources APA. Each question 1.5 pages length. The reading attached. 1. Critics death penalty contend evidence wrongful conviction offenders sentenced death powerful evidence favor abolishing death penalty
One of the foundational principles of the American system of justice is that it is better to let a guilty man go free than it is to condemn an innocent man as guilty. The existence of the death penalty seems to belie this principle. Once someone has been put to death, there is no way to reconsider the verdict. No matter how heinous the crimes of the clearly guilty people put to death, there also have been innocent persons convicted of capital crimes. Despite all of the controls put into place within the American justice system, mistakes have been made in the past and fortunately many of these defendants were…
African Fossil ecord Contributions
African Fossil ecord
African Fossil ecord Contributions to the 'Out of Africa' Theory
The African fossil record represents the foundation upon which modern archeologists base many of their theories concerning the evolutionary history of modern humans (Klein, 2008). When combined with DNA sequencing, the African fossil record shows that modern humans probably emerged about 200-150 ka (thousand years ago) and expanded into Eurasia as recently as 50 ka. This 'Out of Africa' theory would therefore not exist without the African fossil record.
The human fossil record reveals that humans split into three morphologically distinct species approximately 500,000 years ago; Homo sapiens, H. neanderthalensis, and H. erectus, in Africa, Europe, and Asia, respectively (Klein, 2008). The African fossil record contains no evidence that Neanderthals were ever in Africa, therefore it is assumed that modern humans emerged in Africa in the absence of a Neanderthal contribution (Klein, 2011).…
Klein, Richard G. (2008). Out of Africa and the evolution of human behavior. Evolutionary Anthropology, 17, 267-281.
Shea, John J. (2011). Refuting a myth about human origins: Homo sapiens emerged once, not as modern-looking people first and as modern-behaving people later. American Scientist, 99, 128-135.
Improving the Science of Fingerprinting: A Literature Review
Fingerprints are one of the most commonly employed tools that we have in investigating crime. This powerful forensics methodology has contributed to the solving of countless criminal cases and has been used as convicting evidence in courts of law. However, as this literature review shows, even the use of fingerprints is in a state of evolution as we gain ever greater and more accurate tools in the struggle to investigate and solve crimes.
At the outset of the discussion, the text by Neumann (2012) helps to dismantle the notion that fingerprints are infallible as a way of drawing identity. According to the research provided by Neumann, fingerprints achieve a certain statistical probability that makes identity matches likely but not certain beyond a doubt. This finding helps to underscore the critical imperative of continuing forensics research, such that we may come in…
Hess, E. (2010). Facial Recognition: A Valuable Tool for Law Enforcement. Forensic Magazine.
Hildebrandt, M.; Kiltzm, S. & Dittmann, J. (2013). Printed fingerprints at crime scenes: a faster detection of malicious traces using scans of confocal microscopes. Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics, 8665.
Merkel, R.; Breuhan, A.; Hildebrandt, M.; Vielhauer, C. & Brautigam, A. (2012). Environmental impact to multimedia systems on the example of fingerprint aging behavior at crime scenes. Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics, 8436.
Neumann, C. (2012). Fingerprints at the crime-scene: Statistically certain, or probable? Significance, 9(1), 21-25.
Evolution be Taught in Schools?
Introduction / Thesis (Part One)
The debate between those that believe in creationism -- or "intelligent design," a refined offshoot of the creationism theory -- and those who believe in the science of evolution, spilled over into the schools in the United States many years ago. Conservative Christians and others who are in denial vis-a-vis Charles Darwin's research and theory argue that at the very least their religious-based theories should be placed side-by-side in public school textbooks. Scientists, biologists, teachers, scholars and others who accept the empirical nature of scientific evolution have battled to keep creationism and intelligent design (ID) out of the science textbooks -- with some degree of success albeit in certain conservative communities and states politicians and school board members have overruled logic by those insisting that ID be part of science textbooks. Some objective scholarship sees this debate as another example…
Antolin, Michael F., and Herbers, Joan M. (2001). Perspective: Evolution's Struggle for Existence in America's Public Schools. International Journal of Organic Evolution, 55(12),
Armenta, Tony, and Lane, Kenneth E. (2010). Tennessee to Texas: Tracing the Evolution
Controversy in Public Education. The Clearing House, 86(3), 76-79.
For instance, in the eyes of the courts, an offense's level could be equated to the guideline for the seriousness of a crime. The next aspect of the scorecard was the offender's personal or associative criminal history. Prior offenses dictated a level of conviction frequencies and social offenses. Therefore the personal criminal history of an individual ends up playing a major role in the sentencing guidelines. A person's propensity to repeat offences entails longer sentences. The person that had a history of repeat offenses offered a greater threat and therefore was often thought to be more dangerous to society. but, how does the justice system maintain a culprit's history without an ability to utilize integrated processes?
This is a prime example of where justice information systems integration could have far reaching implications. In regard to sentencing, first time offenders in one community may not have been labeled as serial offenders…
Avolio, Frederick M. (2000, March 20). Best Practices in Network Security -- as the Networking Landscape Changes, So Must the Policies That Govern Its Use. Don't Be Afraid of Imperfection When it Comes to Developing Those for Your Group. Network Computing.
Capital Punishment in U.S. Hit 30-Year Low in 2003. Ed. All American Patriots. (March 1, 2005). Retrieved on April 21, 2005, from All American Patriots at http://www.allamericanpatriots.com/m-news+article+storyid-6869-PHPSESSID-c7528df1df14be6397da4e89e25a7374.html.
Dekker, Marcel. (n.d.). Security of the Internet. Retrieved on April 21, 2005, at http://www.cert.org/encyc_article/tocencyc.html#Overview
Holmes, Amir., Webster, Lawrence P., & Sullivan, Teri (2004). JIEM Reference Model. SEARCH, the National Consortium for Justice Information and Statistics. Retrieved on April 21, 2005, at http://www.search.org/integration/JRM1.0.1.pdf
He did so, his client was convicted, and now his client is appealing that conviction.
In the meantime, there was no way that his client could have given him those details of the other rapes unless he had committed them, so the lawyer knows that he is guilty of the other crimes. Whether the lawyer is concerned about his client and whether he will be prosecuted for the other crimes if he tells the D.A. must cross the lawyer's mind. However, the fact that the client was almost gloating about the way he did not get caught and how he will get out of prison 'while he is young and can still have some fun' would likely be upsetting to the moral compass of the lawyer.
Those who argue that lawyers do not have morals are misguided. Lawyers simply do what they are required to do for their jobs and…
There are many situations and concerns in the world that require using ethical thought. There are many issues we read about an learn about when we have to ask ourselves what we believe in. hich side do we take on euthanasia or abortion or sexual morays? It is the responsibility of all people to explore these issues so that their opinions are education and well-informed. It is the lazy individual who formulates their opinions on innuendo and rumor. hat is ethical? hat is moral? hat is right? hat is good? It is everyone's responsibility to ask themselves these questions and formulate their own answers to these extremely important issues. Perhaps one of the most controversial topics for debate is over the ethical right of the death penalty. Some feel the penalty to too severe and inhumane. Others feel the penalty is just and not used often enough. How…
Axtman, Kris. "Judicial Rarity: Death Penalty in a Rape Case." The Christian Science Monitor.
"Facts About the Death Penalty" (2011). Retried from www.deathpenaltyinfo.org
MacKinnion, Barbara (2007). Ethics. Thomas Wadsworth.
"Roper v. Simmons." (2005). Supreme Court of the United States.
Hair is also in contact with chemicals in shampoos, and any dyes, gels, sprays or other cosmetics that may be placed on the hair (11).
Since there is no standardized method for cleaning these external contaminants off of the hair prior to analysis, the potential for inaccurate results from external contamination is widespread. There is no way to tell in the laboratory if a chemical is contained within the hair, and therefore came from with in the body, or if it is on the surface of the hair and did not come from within the body (12). An enormous amount of scientific research studies have indicated that hair analysis is unreliable as a diagnostic tool in crime solving. For example, in one study, the researchers took hair from the head of a single individual and sent portions of the sample to six laboratories; the results varied widely from laboratory to…
43. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).
44. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).
45. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).
One of the most brutal crimes in North Carolina occurred in 1984 when a young white newspaper reporter, Deborah Sykes, was assaulted, raped, sodomized, and stabbed to death a few blocks from her workplace in Winston-Salem (Stern & Sundberg, 2006). Darryl Hunt, a 19-year-old black man was charged with this crime despite the absence of any physical evidence linking him to the crime. Hunt’s charges were largely based on an eyewitness’ identification that was made by a former member of Klu Klux Klan. He was later convicted of the crime and sentenced to life imprisonment by a jury of 11 whites and one black. However, in 1994, DNA testing showed that Hunt did not rape the victim, which generated significant doubts on his involvement in the murder of Deborah Sykes. Despite these findings, Hunt stayed behind bars for another decade for a crime he did not commit before his release…
Hayes was pressurized into making a statement which placed him and Matthews at the scene of the crime. Hayes and Matthews were no where near the scene of the crime when it happened. Hayes had to make a forced statement where he claimed he drove Matthews to the store and only heard gunshots after Matthew entered the store. He did not bother to ask Matthews about the activity inside Hayes was also forced into making a false confession. The prosecutors relied on this false confession and the witnesses' confession to try Matthews.
The prosecutors used witness testimony to convict Matthews. They did not have any forensic or scientific evidence which could link Matthews to the murder. One of the witnesses alleged that he managed to catch a glimpse of Matthews in the rearview mirror at the scene of the crime. The district attorney believed that it was enough evidence to…
Why is Ryan Matthews still in jail?, Alan Maass June 11, 2004
Justice at last, Eric Ruder, June 25, 2004 case that cries out for justice, Billy Southern, the New Abolitionist, 2004
Ryan Matthews exonerated in murder, Gwen Filosa, Time Picayune, 2004
Green iver Killer
In 1982, the remains of a number of young women started to show up in the area surrounding Seattle. These women were all relatively young and shared a lifestyle, prostitution and street life, that made them easy targets for a killer. Before the slayings officially ended in 1998, a total of 42 women would be thought to be potential victims of the Green iver Killer with the potential for many more being added to the list. Some believe that as many as 90 women may have been murdered by Gary idgeway. idgeway eluded police for almost two decades, even though he was a suspect in several of the disappearances, and was finally caught as a result of DNA evidence garnered from some of his earliest victims. This paper looks at the early life of Gary idgeway as it applies to the case, the murders themselves, how forensic…
Douglas, J. (2007). Interviewing murderers and suspects: Learn about the crime and the killer. The Forensic Examiner, 16(2), 44-51.
Guillen, T., & Smith, C. (2003, Nov 6). What went wrong? Police at first failed to notice a pattern. The Seattle Times. Retrieved from http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/news/local/greenriver/1987/part1.html
Lackey, B., Jones, C., & Johnson, J. (2005). Gary Leon Ridgeway: Green River Killer. Retrieved http://maamodt.asp.radford.edu/Psyc%20405/serial%20killers/Ridgway,%20Gary %20-%202005.pdf
Lewis, J.A., & Cuppari, M. (2009). The polygraph: The truth lies within. Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 37(1), 85-92.
American legal system is that a person innocent of a crime he or she may be accused of until proven guilty by a jury of peers. This means that the mutual decision of a jury had innumerous affects on both an individual and society. Based on this, it is clear that all aspects of how and why a jury makes decisions should be examined. An area that is particularly important is the presentation of evidence and its affect how a jury's verdict. More specifically, how does the presentation of DNA evidence affect the verdict in a trial?
To find an answer to this particular question, it is possible to set up an experiment that will mimic a court case with the presence of DNA evidence. Some metholodgical questions are:
Why is an experiment the best choice to answer this question, and what are its drawbacks?
How should the dependent variable…
Convicted wrongfully for the murder of a man by the name Delbert Baker, Juan Roberto Melendez-Colon spent more than seventeen years on death row awaiting his execution. His eventual release came after Mr. Baker's real killer confessed to the said murder. Now a free man, Melendez-Colon adds his voice to the call for the abolition of the death penalty. In his opinion, wrongful conviction cases cannot be resolved using DNA testing. In response to proponents of the death penalty who are somehow convinced that DNA testing could easily resolve persistent cases of wrongful conviction, Melendez-Colon points out that DNA "is quite limited because it is not present in the great majority of murder cases." To back up his assertion, Melendez-Colon observes that since 1973, only 17 of the 139 death row exonerations involved DNA. In his opinion, there is a huge amount of money that the…
Like Melendez-Colon, Philip Brasfield and Carl M. Cannon are also of the opinion that DNA testing cannot help resolve the inherent shortcomings of the capital punishment system. According to Brasfield, although post-conviction DNA testing has been of great significance in helping expose the fallibility of the said system, "DNA tests are useless in cases where no evidence is found at the crime scene." This statement effectively reinforces Cannon's assertion that DNA is largely irrelevant in a significant number of other cases including but not limited to non-rape cases. For this and several other reasons, the authors appear convinced that the execution of innocents cannot necessarily be prevented through the utilization of DNA evidence. In the opinion of both authors, the death penalty should be abolished so as to bring to an end the killing of innocents in the name of justice.
My Opinion on the Topic
It is highly likely that a significant number of people have been wrongfully convicted and subsequently executed since the 1976 reinstatement of the death penalty in the U.S. In my opinion, embracing the utilization of DNA testing (both pre and post-conviction) could help solve some of our capital justice system's fundamental flaws. Given that the said testing has in the past helped exonerate quite a number of death row convicts, its widespread utilization could help solve many more innocent lives. With that in mind, the federal government needs to further increase funding to programs that seek to enhance both the availability and quality of DNA testing. That way, we do not necessarily have to abolish the death penalty.
Eye Witness Memory and Identification
In the contemporary legal environment, an eyewitness plays a critical role in the legal system. A correct eyewitness identification has helped in advancing an investigation, and can be used to solve a complex case. Despite the importance of eyewitness identification in a legal system, eyewitness misidentification is being identified as the contributing factor to wrongful convictions based on the DNA testing. Typically, the eyewitness misidentification leads to 70% of wrongful convictions based on the DNA evidence in the United States. In cases after cases, it has been proven by the DNA that eyewitnesses are mostly inaccurate. For example, a review of 311 cases reveals that 73% of the convictions have been due to the eyewitness errors leading to wrongful convictions. Evidence have also revealed that eyewitness identifications can sway strong alibis, juries and police. Unfortunately, the memory of some eyewitnesses is either unable to recall…
Arkowitz, H. & Lilienfeld, S.O. (2010). Why Science Tells Us Not to Rely on Eyewitness Accounts. Scientific America Mind.
Green, M. (2013). Eye Witness Memory is Unreliable. Visual Expert.
Hope, L., & Sauer, J.D. (2014). Eyewitness memory and mistaken identifications In book: Investigative Interviewing: The Essentials, Carswell: M. St.-Yves.
Malpass, R.S. & Topp, L.D. (2005) Eye Witness Memory and Identification. The Defender
DECISION -- S & MAPE vs. UNITED KINGDOM
The cases of S & Marper v United Kingdom involved the claims of two individuals that their rights had been violated by the retention of their fingerprints and identifying DNA material by police after their exoneration from the criminal charges against them. The bases of their claim was that: (1) Section 1 of Article 8 of the European Convention on Human ights (ECH) guarantees that "Everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence" and that Section 2 of Article 8 prohibits any "interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the…
The Economist (December 4, 2008). DNA and human rights -- "Throw it out: A court decision limits the scope of police DNA databases." Accessed online:
he debate on Neanderthal man's place in human evolution has continued unabated since the discovery of the first Neanderthal fossil in 1856. One camp believes Neanderthal man is a human ancestor and should be classified as a subspecies of modern man -- homo sapien neandertalis. he opposing view argues that Neanderthal man is a distinct species - homo neandertalis - a species entirely separate from modern humans. his paper argues that Neanderthal man is indeed related to modern humans by looking at key elements of the Neanderthal physiology, behavior and cultural life.
Recent findings on the mitochondrial DNA taken from the right humerus of a Neanderthal skeleton failed to show significant similarities with the mitochondrial DNA of modern humans. According to the study, one sequence of Neanderthal DNA shows significant variances from the same sequence in moderns. From this, researchers concluded that Neanderthals diverged about 600,000…
Trinkaus and Shipman, p 356.
Trinkaus and Shipman, p 255
Kate Wong, "Paleolithic Pit Stop," Scientific American, < Scientific American http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?colID=1&articleID=000F0825-AC71-1C72-9EB7809EC588F2D7,13 November 2002.
Rubin "Hurricane" Carter has become a symbol, both negative and positive, for American's judicial system.
Rubin carter's case has had a profound impact on accused and convicted criminals today. The advent of DNA technology has helped to reduce the number of wrongful convictions, and has also been instrumental in exonerating a number of convicted prisoners. hile DNA technology has had an important impact on the criminal justice system, experts argue that the number of wrongful convictions is an increasing problem in the United States. One website lists 22 potential wrongful convictions on Texas' death row alone. Racism played an important role in Carter's original conviction, and today allegations of racism continue to plague the criminal justice system. The legal damage to the right of habeas corpus by the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 has reduced the ability of prisoners to demand the right to be brought before…
Bos, Carole. RUBIN "HURRICANE" CARTER. Law Buzz. 23 March 2004. http://manhat1.spfldcol.edu/manhat2-bin/link_visit?crs=0340/ENGL11422&id=byihmhzoBDvJsR&loc=584&url= http://www.lawbuzz.com/justice/hurricane/hurricane.htm
Citizens United for Alternatives to the Death Penalty (CUADP). 22 March 2004. http://manhat1.spfldcol.edu/manhat2-bin/link_visit?crs=0340/ENGL11422&id=byihmhzoBDvJsR&loc=6132&url= http://www.cuadp.org/pris/pot.html
Hurricane. 2000. Starring: Denzel Washington, Vicellous Reon Shannon, and Deborah Kara Unger. Director Norman Jewison.
Roberts, Paul Craig. From Blackstone to Bentham: Why Wrongful Conviction Is On The Rise. 22 March 2004. http://manhat1.spfldcol.edu/manhat2-bin/link_visit?crs=0340/ENGL11422&id=byihmhzoBDvJsR&loc=6424&url= http://www.lewrockwell.com/roberts/roberts4.html
It is the premeditated and cold-blooded killing of a human being by the state. This cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment is done in the name of justice. It violates the right to life as proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human ights. Amnesty International opposes the death penalty in all cases without exception regardless of the nature of the crime, the characteristics of the offender, or the method used by the state to kill the prisoner. (Abolish the death penalty, 2008, p. 2).
Despite these increasingly vocal protestations from at home and abroad, a majority of the states in America continue to retain the death penalty as a lawful punishment for capital offenses today. While the trend toward abolishing capital punishment was apparent in recent years, it would seem reasonable to assert that the death penalty will continue to be practiced in the United States for the foreseeable future and…
Abolish the death penalty. (2008). Amnesty International. [Online]. Available: http://www.amnesty.org/en/death-penalty .
Bird, D.G. (2003). Life on the line: Pondering the fate of a substantive due process challenge to the death penalty. American Criminal Law Review, 40(3), 1329.
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Burke, A.S. (2006). Improving prosecutorial decision making: Some lessons of cognitive science. William and Mary Law Review, 47(5), 1587-1588.
twenty million years ago the Indian plate collided with Asia; this generated the Himalayan mountain range, which drastically altered the earth's climate forever after. Basically, "The climate became drier and the forests of what is now Africa and Asia contracted. The result was an increased area of savanna habitat, with fewer trees." (Campbell, 711). This brought about environmental and ecological changes that animals already adapted to one way of life needed to alter in order to survive. It is widely believed that humans and apes diverged from a "common humanoid ancestor only about 5-7 million years ago." (Campbell, 711). It is not difficult to imagine that one of the leading forces that caused the early hominoids to split lineages was the widening of the savanna. Essentially, many groups of animals that had become suited to tree-dwelling needed to adjust to life on the open plains; out of these pressures came…
1. Campbell, Neil A. Jane B. Reece. Biology: Sixth Edition. New York: Benjamin Cummings, 2002.
2. Class Notes. "HPN: Homo Erectus." 2005.
3. Cowen, Richard. History of Life: Third Edition. Malden: Blackwell Science, 2003.
4. Geocites. "Homo Erectus." Geocites.com, 2005. Available: http://www.geocities.com/palaeoanthropology/Herectus.html.
genetic basis for the accusation that Thomas Jefferson fathered a child with one of is slaves. The writer explores the DNA evidence that was examined and discusses the odds that it conclusively identifies Jefferson as the father. There were two sources used to complete this paper.
For many years rumors had circulated that Thomas Jefferson fathered a child with a certain slave. It was handed down through the folklore lines as fact and commonly accepted among many African-American groups. As technology became more advanced and mankind had the ability to test such stories it became evident that it was a wives tale. Thomas Jefferson did not father a child by the slave in question, however, it was discovered that he did indeed father a different child by the same slave. Historical folklore has always accepted that Jefferson was the father of Sally Heming's firstborn son. Evidence has proven however, that…
Author not available, GENETIC EVIDENCE: THOMAS JEFFERSON FATHERED SLAVE CHILD., Xinhua News Agency, 10-31-1998.
Marshall, Eliot, GENETICS:Which Jefferson Was the Father?., Science, 01-08-1999.
Rational for Selecting Juries
Page 3 Generalizations about juries
Page 4 General comments: jury service
Page 4 General comments: summoning juries
Page 5 General comments: Simpson jury
Page 6 Jurors errors and DNA analysis
Role of Juries
Close Scrutiny of Juries and Jury Selection
Role of Juries
There is rarely any debate when it comes to the pivotal role of juries in the United States' system of justice. It is the "foundation of the American justice system" and is "Vital to our democracy and our system of checks and balances," according to the American Judicature Society (AJS). The AJS goes on to call the jury system " ... the fundamental safeguard of our constitutional liberties." Certainly it is not perfect and it can be manipulated by shrew lawyers in some cases, but true, fair, outcomes are possible and those outcomes depend on the quality of the jurors who are chosen…
American Judicature Society. (2010). Role of the Juror. Retrieved November 23, 2015,
from http://www.ajs.org .
Fuchs, E. (2012). Nine Ways To Get Out Of Jury Duty. Business Insider, Retrieved
November 23, 2015, from http://www.businessinsider.com .