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Drinking and Driving
Although this report is about the book that was written by ushworth M. Kidder called "How Good People Make Tough Choices: esolving the Dilemmas of Ethical Living," the paper is more of an opportunity for restoring face and candor with the University. We all have little problems and at times even big problems. "Sometimes we duck them. Sometimes we address them. Even when we address them, however, we don't always decide to resolve them. Sometimes we simply brood endlessly over possible outcomes or agonize about paths to pursue." (Kidder, 1996)
I would like to think that I attend a University that has faith in one's ability to be a student first, regardless of a person's minor blips in an almost perfect life. There are times when poorly thought out decisions a person makes can come back to haunt him or her. Like the majority of the world,…
Kidder, Rushworth M. (1996). How Good People Make Tough Choices: Resolving the Dilemmas of Ethical Living. New York: Simon & Shuster.
MADD. (n.d.). MADD Online. Retrieved December 6, 2004, from http://www.madd.org/stats/0%2C1056%2C1789%2C00.html
When you're late for work, do you stop to help a stranded motorist? Do you vote for a policy that helps America but throws your neighbor out of work? Complicated choices like these are some of the toughest dilemmas people face. Now, a former senior columnist for the Christian Science Monitor shows how to find the right answers to even the toughest ethical problems.
A number of states follow sobriety roadblock rules while some states like Minnesota, Oregon, hode Island, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin etc. have avoided sobriety roadblock techniques and their technique has been general patrolling.
Minimum Legal Drinking Age: Minimum legal drinking age has been the topic of debate in this country. In the past minimum legal drinking age was reduced to 18, 19, or 20 in some states. With reducing the minimum legal drinking age the issue of drunk driving and road accident surfaced. In the year 1984 legislation was made to counter this issue and Uniform Drinking Age Act which made the legal age back to 21 and imposed restrictions on states that did not raise their minimum legal drinking age back to 21. As result of this legislation all the states had their minimum legal drinking age as 21. "Those supporting the age-21 policy are not Prohibitionists. They are not…
Dime a Drink' Lobbying Backfires. The Register-Guard. February 11, 2005.
Komro & Toomey (2002). Strategies to Prevent Underage Drinking. Alcohol Research & Health. Vol: 26. Issue: 1.
D.C. Council Softens Drunken-Driving Law; Williams Hints Veto of Legislation. (October 19, 2005). The Washington Times.
Mejeur, J. (October 1999). Drunk Drivers Beware. State Legislatures. Vol: 25. Issue: 9.
Prevention curricula. Sometimes the content of these or similar curricula are delivered in other venues, e.g., youth clubs. (Strategies..., N.d., p. 5)
Level of Effectiveness
School policies regarding alcohol use on school property or at school sponsored events (These policies are especially important in high schools, but are even more important in colleges and universities.)
This strategy has been found to reduce substance use problems.
Media literacy programs to make youth more sophisticated about the manipulative techniques of advertisers
Some effects on attitudes have been found.
Prevention curricula. Sometimes the content of these or similar curricula are delivered in other venues, e.g., youth clubs
In general, research and evaluations have found that these programs have weak and inconsistent effects on alcohol use
Prevention of Impaired Driving
Establishment and enforcement of "zero tolerance" laws for drivers under 21
All States now have these laws. They can be very effective…
Arata, C.M., Stafford, J., & Tims, M.S. (2003). High School Drinking and Its Consequences. Adolescence, 38(151), 567+. Retrieved June 29, 2008, from Questia database:
Driving Drunk Dangerous
Mandatory license revocation and sentencing should be applied to all young adults who are convicted of drunk driving. In addition young adults who are found to drive drunk should be forbidden from riding in a vehicle with other young adult passengers for a period of up to one year.
Every year the number of fatalities and serious accidents that result from drunk drivers rises. There have been numerous laws enacted to combat the problem of drunk driving. None of these laws however have been directed specifically at young adults, and recent studies suggest that this population shows a growing trend toward drunk driving. Thus the aim of this paper is to argue for more severe penalties directed specifically at the young adult population, in the hopes that effective countermeasures may be established with regard to the drunk driving problem.
No one would argue that drunk driving is…
Grube, J.W. & Voas, R.B. Predicting underage drinking and driving behaviors. Addiction 91:1843-1857, 1996
National Highway Safety Traffic Administration. Traffic Safety Facts 1995, Report No.
DOT HS 808-471, Washington: Department of Transportation, 1996; In Shacket, R.W. & Yu, J.
Robin, G.D. "Waging the battle against drunk driving: Countermeasures, and Effectiveness." New York: Praeger Publishers, 1991.
This means that alcohol is made accessible to underage persons and in this way, they start consuming alcohol at a young age. It is for this reason that the legal drinking age should not be lowered, but actually increased to reduce the chances of it being made available to those who are underage. Increasing the minimum legal drinking age to at least 25 years, like India, will go a long way in ensuring that underage drinking does not take place. Teenagers can be able to access alcohol with the help of their older friends and siblings who may be in college. This will ensure that only responsible adults will have access to alcohol. There have also been cases of increased rates of binge drinking among college age youths and the increase in the minimum legal age for drinking will go a long way in helping preventing this (Kypri et al.…
Atwood, T. The Consequences of Underage Drinking. 1 May. 2006. 23 Apr. 2010,
Berridge V., Herring R. And Thom B. "Binge Drinking: A Confused Concept and its
Contemporary History" Social History of Medicine 22.3 (2009): 597-607
One recent study examined victim impact statements and their ability to reduce repeat offenses of drunk driving (ojek, 1999).
The study looked at those who had been arrested and convicted of drunk driving in which an accident occurred. It examined those who had been rearrested after being in attendance for a victim impact statement program and compared them to those who had been rearrested but had never been exposed to a victim impact statement program.
The study concluded that those who had been exposed to a victim impact statement with regard to their offense had a lower rearrest rate than those who had not heard victim impact statements.
The study examined the results of those who did not receive victim impact statements and found that legal punishment was often the only consequence of driving while under the influence (ojek, 1999).
By contrast, VIPs address the emotional component of the DUI…
BADOVINAC, K. (1994)The effects of victim impact panels on attitudes and intentions regarding impaired driving. J. Alcohol Drug Educ. 39 (3): 113-118, 1994.
BRAITHWAITE,(1989) J. Crime, Shame and Reintegration, New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1989.
FORS, S. AND ROJEK, D. (1997) DUI offenders' reactions to a required victim impact panel intervention, Athens, GA: University of Georgia, 1997, unpublished report.
Mejeur, Jeanne (2003) Still driving drunk: strict drunk driving laws don't do much good unless they are vigorously enforced. From: State Legislatures
With such a premier institute using this measure -- and extolling it highly -- I can almost certainly rely on its reliability.
I have decided to use these measures since they parallel more closely than other measures do variables of the study, are well matched to my study, and are accredited by researchers who have used them to be reliable measures.
1. Two demographic variables will be measured: gender and ethnicity. (Be sure to include demographic questions)
4. Draft of the survey goes here. . .
2. Alcohol will be measured by the Young Adult Alcohol Problems Screening Test Below is a copy of the measure (http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa65/AA65.htm)
Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)
Please circle the answer that is correct for you.
1. How often do you have a drink containing alcohol?
Monthly or less
Two to four times a month
Two to three times…
Driving hile Impaired in Canada
Tough new laws have been enacted in Canada in response to the problem of driving while impaired. In this case "impaired" means driving while intoxicated on alcohol -- being over the limit on blood alcohol (driving under the influence, DUI / driving while intoxicated, DI) -- or on drugs. This paper describes the issue, reviews the relevant legislation and laws, reviews the history of laws pertaining to impaired driving sanctions, and offers analysis of the contemporary legal situations regarding impaired driving laws in Canada.
hat is Impaired Driving?
The Ministry of Transportation in Ontario defines impaired driving as driving "while you ability is affected by alcohol or drugs… a deadly combination" (www.mto.gov.on.ca). The fact is that one drink can reduce a driver's ability to concentrate on the road and the traffic. Even one drink can affect a driver's reaction time, the MTO explains. The MTO…
Addario, Frank. (2008). Nasty Criminal Law Will Achieve Nothing for Public Safety.
Criminal Lawyer's Association. Retrieved Oct. 1, 2011, from http://www.criminallawyers.ca .
Bill C-2. (2007). An Act to amend the Criminal Code and to Make Consequential Amendments
To Other Acts. Parliament of Canada. Virtual Library. Retrieved Oct. 1, 2011, from http://www.parl.gc.ca .
Another dependent variable is whether the gestures or expressions from the other driver are polite and accommodating or angry and defiant.
Experimental Design and Expected Outcome
The experimenter will identify an exit lane from a highway where one exit lane requires drivers to merge from multiple lanes. To reduce other variables, the experimenter will use the same exit on the same highway for all trials in the experiment. The experimenter will not merge until almost reaching the point where the exit lane actually branches off the main highway near the point where a painted "island" absolutely requires a merge. The experimenter will be holding a piece of paper in one hand and gesturing apologetically and in a shoulder shrug with raised hands so as to create the impression that he is unfamiliar with the area and did not mean to cut into the lane to be rude or to take…
The insurance industry generally recognizes that male drivers pose a greater risk to their investments than do female drivers, and charge higher rates accordingly. While their findings are generally based on proprietary actuarial data, there have also been a number of studies about the role that gender plays in driving habits. Lonczak, Neighbors and Donovan (2007) designed a study to "examine the putative risk factors of driving anger, traffic citations and traffic-related injuries as a function of gender." The authors studied the issue measuring a number of different contributing factors including "sensation seeking, stressful events, negative affect, tobacco use and drinking behavior." The exit ramp merge portion of my study (hypothesis #2) will be conducted during rush hour when the merge can be conducted at relatively low speeds, as a necessary safety requirement. This portion of the experiment will therefore be subject to the "stressful event" criteria that Lonczak et al. studied.
Their study found that while men "reported more traffic citations and injuries (they) did not differ from women in reported driving anger." This makes an interesting point about the study that I have designed. The Lonczak study was based on self-reported survey data, while I have designed an experiential study. The difference between anger and citations between genders hints that there might be perception difference
The issue was a charged issue that many people felt very strongly about, i.e. race and was an allowable and supported social stigma, and yet when faced with the real life decision to break the taboo and serve Chinese people they did so with little hesitation and then effectively lied about it in self report. (Pager & Lincoln, 2005, p. 355)
Drinking and driving is a seriously socially charged issue that could have the same self-report results if given the correct avenue to do so. The self-report dogmatic dialogue regarding drinking and driving is an absolute rejection of the behavior (even after 1-2 drinks as is asked in the New Zealand Study) and yet this is an attitude and a self-report dogma, what we would say when offered the social choice, not a real reflection of how individuals would behave if given the opportunity to drink and drive. Another fault…
Brownfield, K., Fernando, K., & Halberstadt, J. (2003). Indirect Effects of Lowering the Drinking Age on New Zealand Students' Alcohol-Related Behaviours and Attitudes. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 32(1), 22. Retrieved May 28, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001970912
Fagan, J. (2005, September). Adolescents, Maturity, and the Law: Why Science and Development Matter in Juvenile Justice. The American Prospect, 16, 5.
Fillmore, M.T., Carscadden, J.L., & Vogel-Sprott, M. (1998). Alcohol, Cognitive Impairment and Expectancies. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59(2), 174.
A and Lincoln Q. Walking the Talk? What Employers Say vs. What They Do. American Sociological Review 70: 2005, 355-380.
Proposal for New DWI Laws for Missouri
DWI laws will always be contentious, with different viewpoints impacting on requirements of the laws. If rewriting the Missouri DWI laws the following would be recommended, the reasons for each recommendation are provided.
1. The legal limit; A person will be deemed to be intoxicated if they have a blood alcohol content higher than the level allowed. The level allowed for drivers of commercial vehicles will be 0%, for drivers under age of 21 and under it will be 0.01 and for drivers over the age of 21 it will be 0.05. The bill will also include any type of intoxication or undue influence of other substances which impair judgement.
There is a clear relationship between higher blood alcohol content and higher road traffic accidents (Karakus et al. 440; Fell and Voas 869). The implementation of a zero blood alcohol level would be…
Teenagers: Alcohol and Drunkenness
Discuss any insights or experience you have faced with Drinking Alcohol/drunkenness.
The challenges today in living a moral life are indeed formidable. There are many obstacles and difficulties that individual teenagers face and one of those obstacles has to do with the consumption of alcohol. Many experts on child develop comment on the fact that teenagers are drinking at younger and younger ages and that there is more of a pressure to drink large quantities of alcohol. So much of this can revolve negatively on the values in place with a given teen and their peer group. If certain teenagers value rowdiness and aberrant behavior, then consuming alcohol and acting drunk and belligerent can be seen as a sign of "coolness."
How could the five aspects offer help and direction:
Open to Growth
Part of teenage drinking and drunkenness is about experimentation. Most teenagers are going…
cell phone use while driving. Specifically it will discuss the increased use of cell phones in the United States, and the dangers of driving while talking on a cell phone. Talking on a cell phone while driving is dangerous. Studies show it is just as dangerous as drunk driving, and talking on a cell phone while driving should be banned nationally, not simply on a state-by-state basis.
CELL PHONES SHOULD E ANNED
Driving while talking on a cell phone has become quite controversial as more Americans use cell phones every day. Using cell phones in public can be annoying and downright rude, but driving while talking on a cell phone can be deadly. One analyst noted, "Driving and talking on a cell phone is like drinking and driving. In both cases, the driver's reaction time is slowed, especially in the event of a roadway mishap requiring urgent response. In addition,…
Author not Available. "Cell Phone Users Drive 'Blind'; Study Explains Why Hands-Free Phones Just as Bad As Hand-Held." U.S. Newswire, 01-27-2003.
Egan, Bob. "Commentary: Common Sense and Cell Phones." CNET.com. 23 May 2001. http://news.com.com/2100-1033-258172.html?legacy=cnet&tag=owv
Ferzan, Kimberly Kessler. "Opaque Recklessness." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 91.3 (2001): 597+.
Kanallakan, Jamie. "Cellular Phones: Policymakers Consider the Effects of Highway Usage." Spectrum: the Journal of State Government 74.1 (2001): 17.
hile each of these studies has reported a cardioprotective effect of alcohol, they differ over which type of alcoholic beverage provides the greatest benefit" (634).
Overlooked in many of these studies, though, is the fact that some people who categorize themselves as being one type of drinker compared to another may engage in other activities that are unhealthy from the outset (for instance, beer drinkers may be more likely to also be tobacco users) while others may engage in a wide range of healthy behaviors (for example, wine drinkers may not be smokers and may job or exercise regularly). As McGregor and his colleagues emphasize, "One inherent difficulty within these studies is that in the general population, drinkers distinguished as primarily wine, beer or spirits drinkers tend to differ in other important aspects. If, for example, wine drinkers are found to be healthier, it may be the result of a…
"Alcohol." 2009, Partnership for a Drug-Free America. [Online]. Available: http://www.drug free.org/Portal/drug_guide/Alcohol.
Booth, Brenda M., Joann, Kirchner, John Fortney, Robin Ross and Kathryn Rost, 2000, "Rural
At-Risk Drinkers: Correlates and One-Year Use of Alcoholism Treatment Services."
Journal of Studies on Alcohol 61(2): 267.
I'd nearly been killed by a repeat drunk driver and I was mad enough to climb into that squad car and make sure the driver got a lesson he wouldn't soon forget.
I was taken by ambulance to a local hospital for x-rays, my truck was totaled, and to this day the drunk driver or his parents have never reached out and said "sorry our son nearly killed you..." And "are you alright?" Instead there are the disclaimer letters from some high priced attorney outfit; the drunk driver's Dad is a judge. Nice; and the rules of justice bend for the killer he keeps in his house.
This is a true story and it makes you realize that drunk drivers really are killers; they murder people indiscriminately and with arrogance. The CDC (2006) states that male drivers are nearly twice as likely than female drivers to be intoxicated with a…
CDC (2006) - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Center for Disease Control. September 7, 2006
Howat P, Sleet D, Smith I. (1991) - Alcohol and driving: is the.05% blood alcohol concentration limit justified? Drug and Alcohol Review 1991;10(1):151-66.
California Department of Motor Vehicles (2006) - Accessed from the California DMV site on October 16, 2006:
Etiology of Campus Binge Drinking
Drinking and Alcoholism
A Failed Experiment in Social Control
The consumption of alcohol has always been a focus of government efforts to limits its use, due to the potential for abuse, the financial burden imposed upon social programs, and its association with criminal activity. Between 1920 and 1934 the consumption of alcohol was outlawed in the United States, with the intention of addressing these social problems. During the first year following the enactment of Prohibition, alcohol-related deaths, psychosis, and arrests all declined by 20-40%, but between 1921 and 1927 these measures reveal a sharp increase to near pre-Prohibition levels (Miron and Zwiebel, 1991). By the end of Prohibition, which correlates with the start of the Great Depression, alcohol consumption leveled out at around 60-70% of pre-Prohibition levels despite costing three times as much for a drink. Given the infamous criminal activity that emerged around the…
Amethyst Initiative. (2008). Amethyst Initiative: Rethinking the drinking age. Retrieved July 15, 2011 from http://www.amethystinitiative.org/statement/
Beseler, Cheryl L., Taylor, Laura A., Leeman, Robert F. (2010). Alcohol-Use Disorder criteria and "binge" drinking in undergraduates. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 71, 418-423.
Grucza, Richard A., Norberg, Karen E., and Beirut, Laura J. (2009). Binge drinking among youths and young adults in the United States: 1979-2006. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48, 692-702.
Leppel, Karen. (2006). College binge drinking: Deviant vs. mainstream behavior. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 32, 519-525.
Drinking Inadequate water
One must drink enough pure water on a daily basis for good health. However, many people forego water and concentrate on other fluids which have additional ingredients. These cannot be compared to water when it comes to health benefits. (McLennan, 2000)
Take the example of young kids, who mostly prefer sweet drinks such artificial juice and sodas. Likewise, teens go for energy drinks and sports drinks in lieu of water. (Simpson, & Mazzeo, 2017)
A recent Havard study found out that over half of the children in America are dehydrated. This has many negative implications on their health and academic performance. (McLenan, 2000)
Another study showed that a quarter of American children do not drink water daily. Boys were found to be 75% more likely to be dehydrated than the girls. (Valtin, 2002)
65 % of the human body is made up of water. This water helps…
Instead, it is a problem that the entire community must address. We all contributed to the deaths of these teens by remaining silent, but not holding a community vigil to stop such tragedies from repeating themselves. And so they did repeat themselves, more than fourteen times. And no one can be blamed but us -- the community?
So how can we make these lives that so many believe to be wasted matter? What can we do to honor the memory and stop the tragedy? The answer is simple: we must be upfront about our community's problems. Local schools, government agencies, parents' forums, and the media must band together so that we can broadcast our problem, telling teens that it is no longer acceptable. We won't stand for them to take another drink. It is no longer an action that fathers will smirk about and mothers will dismiss. Instead, we'll view…
The Dangers of Teenage Drinking:
The Possibility of Losing Life in Less than One Minute
There is no greater danger today than the juxtaposition of human force against machine. When this duality comes into play, there is no escape, and its clash can only lead to a violent end. One could envisage such a metaphor for any kind of accident, but especially for the automotive kind. Indeed, of any accident, car accidents are perhaps the most dangerous, with 39 million deaths a year, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. Of these accidents a good number are due to drinking, and especially to teenage drinking, of which one hears stories in newspapers almost daily. The following paragraphs will thus shed light on teenage drinking and why it is so incredibly dangerous, not only when it comes to cars and driving, but also when drinking socially, and drinking too much.…
College Binge Drinking and Violence
According to the National Institute of Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, binge drinking is a pattern of drinking alcohol that brings blood alcohol concentration to 0.08 gram percent or above, and typically corresponds to consuming 5 or more drinks for males or 4 or more drinks for females within about a 2-hour period (College pp).
According to a 1999 Harvard University School of Public Health College Alcohol Study, of the 44% of U.S. college students who admitted to binge drinking during the two weeks before the survey, the majority were white, age 23 or younger, residents of a fraternity or sorority (Fact pp). More than 70,000 college students are victims of alcohol-related sexual assault or date rape, while two-thirds report reckless behavior such as unprotected sex, unplanned sex, or driving while drunk (Binge pp). Alcohol poisoning is a severe and potentially fatal physical reaction to an…
Journal of American College Health. March 01, 2000. Retrieved October 22, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Venable, Riley H. "Predictors of undergraduate student binge drinking."
Journal of College Counseling. March 22, 2004. Retrieved October 22, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
One of those alarming physical changes is that the younger a person is when they begin drinking, even at low levels the more likely they are to become alcoholics. This change even overrides a known genetic predisposition for alcoholism. (Butler, July 4, 2006) Time forward ads regarding adult failure could be developed at a later time but again such images and concerns do not seem to sway teens. Funding for such a campaign would likely come from national and local foundations that stress clean living, and possibly from litigation funds that have been secured for healthier youth programs.
Alcohol use may begin simply as an exciting experiment, or as a way for a teen to feel a part of his or her peer group, lowering the feeling of awkwardness that often comes with the territory. Yet teen drinking can become a social disaster, that brings on extreme grief and loss.…
"AH shoes the best pillow when your a drunk teen and can't get up!" April, 10 2005 http://www.myspace.com/babyjenaya
"American Academy of Pediatrics Survey of Teen Alcohol Consumption: Summary Findings,"
American Academy of Pediatrics, September 30, 1998.
There has been an ever increasing trend of young people getting to the habit of too much drinking. This is rampant at the point where these youth become of legal age and to majority, that acts as the go ahead to binge drinking and absolute abuse of alcohol. There are various issues that are related to excessive drinking especially among the youth. These risks are emanated as one moves from one category to another as of these categories formed by the HNS (2010);
Lower-risk drinkers -- who are the teenagers drinking between 2-3 units and are at a lower risk of causing themselves health risks in the future. However they may be exposed to injury if operating machinery, dangerous driving, risk or drowning if planning to go swimming alone without peers, babies may be affected in the womb for teenagers who get pregnant these among other minor risks.
HNS (2010). The risks of drinking too much. Retrieved February 22, 2012 from http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/alcohol/Pages/Effectsofalcohol.aspx
Men's health (2012). 4 Strange Reasons You Drink Too Much. Retrieved February 22, 2012 from http://news.menshealth.com/reasons-for-binge-drinking/2012/01/21/
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, (2012). Underage Drinking: Why Do Adolescents Drink, What Are the Risks, and How Can Underage Drinking Be Prevented? Retrieved February 22, 2012 from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/AA67/AA67.htm
Perhaps it is unfair to label all younger drivers as reckless and dangerous. At the very least, they are most certainly less experienced and adept at driving, on average. Since a firm and enforced age is the best way to regulate who can drive for the first time, that is the method that should remain. On average, teen drivers are restricted or banned from driving for several reasons. Those reasons include insufficient brain development, lack of responsibility and a propensity to not pay proper attention. While typecasting people based on age is not always fair, there are reasons behind the age restriction.
The first main point to consider when it comes to why children under sixteen should not be driving, at least in an unrestricted way, is insufficient brain development. The ideas and theories about the broader subject development do vary. However, there are some things that…
hile milder forms of aggressive driving, such as horn-blowing, flashing lights, gesturing and shouting, are nothing new, the more violent forms of aggressive driving are becoming increasingly more frequent, and are generally referred to as 'road rage' (Nutter 2002). Many experts believe that this increase may be due to the frustration caused by rush-hour traffic and congested roads, yet others believe that the anonymity provided by the car is likely to induce more overt expression of aggression (Nutter 2002). For example, one study measured the effects of a stationary car at a green light by drivers of convertibles and four-wheel drive vehicles, and found that horn-honking of drivers of four-wheel-drive vehicles started earlier and lasted longer than drivers of convertibles, thus suggesting that anonymity produces higher levels of overt aggression (Nutter 2002). Many studies have shown that men are more overtly aggressive than women despite similarities in the reporting of…
Aggressive Driving. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Retrieved February 12, 2007 at http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/portal/site/nhtsa/menuitem.67eecd05574f18227983419cdba046a0/;jsessionid=FFRYt00l1rvGRtyXdXudta1O3WkR6TdnGjKxwG05mGoG8eqhZO5g!-1149177452
Mizell, Louis. (1996 November). Aggressive Driving. AAA Foundation for Traffic
Safety. Retrieved February 13, 2007 at http://www.aaafoundation.org/resources/index.cfm?button=agdrtext#Aggressive%20Driving
Nutter, Amanda. (2002 August 01). A comparison of reported levels and expression of anger in everyday and driving situations. British Journal of Psychology. Retrieved February 12, 2007 from HighBeam Research Library.
, 2005). At no time is any state obligated to comply with the federal guidelines for federal highway fund eligibility or to give up any sovereign rights established by the Tenth Constitutional Amendment. Furthermore, there is no issue of "withholding" or "withdrawing" any federal funds from states that choose not to comply with federal guidelines pertaining to the drinking age eligibility. Those monies are supplemental to any other federal funds and would not be offered except as an incentive to follow federal recommendations about the minimum drinking age. States do not have to comply if they prefer to lower the drinking age.
Reason # 3 -- Adults Younger than 21 are not as Responsible as Adults over 21
At the age of 18 or 19, most young people lack the fundamental abilities to make good decisions, especially about things such as taking risks and considering all of the consequences of…
Centers for Disease Control (2007) Teen Drivers: Fact Sheet. Retrieved October 22,
2011, from the CDC public website, at:
Dershowitz, A.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
However, "a 2003 study showed that in many countries with lower minimum drinking ages, 15- and 16-year-olds are less likely to become intoxicated compared with teens in the U.S. (Roan 2008, p.3).
Opponents of lowering the law in the U.S. have increasingly used medical science to support their position, pointing out that the teenage brain is less developmentally mature than an adult brain and "younger someone starts drinking, the greater the likelihood of developing alcohol dependence" (Roan 2008, p.3). But a 2006 Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine study shows that while it is true that prepubescents who begin drinking have dramatically higher rates of alcoholism, between 18 and 21, the difference is "insignificant" in terms of how age of first use affects later consumption. "hat we ought to look at is not keeping 18-year-olds from drinking, it's keeping 13-year-olds from drinking," concluded the study (Roan 2008, p.3).
Alias, Michaela. "Lowering the drinking age would benefit young adults." The Daily Collegian.
February 2, 2009. May 31, 2010.
"College presidents seek lower drinking age." Associated Press. August 18, 2008. May 31, 2010.
Furthermore, it appeared that the consumption of alcoholic beverages among the youth increased throughout the three-year duration of the survey. In terms of the young females (in high school), the drinking path has been described as "an absolute disaster" (Fyfe, 2010). The primary explanation as to why alcopops became even more popular among the youth is given by the inability of the tax to impact the parents -- who in most cases are the very sources of alcohol. "As parents were the primary source of alcohol among current drinkers, their ongoing preference for premixed spirits may not be surprising, as it is likely that these beverages are affordable to most parents, even after the tax increase" (Fyfe, 2010).
The Australian case of the excise tax on alcopops reveals a limited efficiency in reducing binge drinking among adolescents and it is expected that the same results would be registered within the…
Fyfe, M., 2010, Alcopop tax fails to curb teenage drinkers, The Age, http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/alcopop-tax-fails-to-curb-teenage-drinkers-20100925-15rnz.html last accessed on September 27, 2010
Mossman, S., 2008, Alcopop drinks 'fuelling binge dirnking', The Sydney Morning Herald, http://news.smh.com.au/national/alcopop-drinks-fuelling-binge-drinking-20080327-21x5.html last accessed on September 27, 2010
Riley, G., 2006, Price elasticity of demand, Tutor2U, http://tutor2u.net/economics/revision-notes/as-markets-price-elasticity-of-demand.html last accessed on September 27, 2010
Ryan, S., 2008, Alcopops binge drinking stat5istics doubted, The Australian, http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/alcopops-statistics-doubted/story-e6frg6no-1111116519824 last accessed on September 27, 2010
However, college students are not an easily quantifiable demographic. Their age and other characteristics vary greatly, making it impossible to precisely categorize them. Second, it will be difficult to select random participants because, with the use of alcohol, the people most likely to participate in the study are those who enjoy drinking alcohol. This will effect the results because people who drink alcohol have a higher tolerance and thus will show less effect after consuming it. Third, because of the use of alcohol the company will have to ensure that all participants are legal. Further, the participants will have to be informed that they are drinking an intoxicating substance. This will make having a control and experimental group impossible because those drinking alcohol will have to know they are drinking, which could create a mental effect on their performance and thus effect the overall results. For these reasons, as chief…
Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process." Responsible Science. Vol. 1:30, NAS, 1992.
Girdner, Ellen R.R. (2001): Evaluating Research Articles from Start to Finish. London: SAGE Publications.
Criminal laws absolutely prohibit furnishing alcohol to minors, even formally requiring bartenders to check the identification of any patron who appears even slightly older than the legal age for alcohol consumption (Schmalleger 1997). Conceivably, the same absolute standard could easily be applied to drinking in conjunction with driving. Furthermore, when it comes to protecting their own financial interests, bartenders often enforce standards beyond what it required by law: they may prohibit certain forms of attire associated with violent criminal gangs, and they often serve drinks in plastic cups, precisely because they are fully aware of the degree to which alcohol impairs good judgment and that glass bottles and glassware are capable of inflicting much more damage in situations where intoxicated patrons provoke physical altercations.
In fact, bartenders know or should know that the social culture of alcohol consumption, particularly among certain demographic groups, makes it the norm rather than the…
Friedman, L.M. (2005) the History of American Law (3rd Edition).
New York: Touchstone.
Geeting, J. (2003) the Badge: Thoughts from a State Trooper.
Indian Wells, CA: McKenna Publishing Group.
If this is the idea that we convey here today what is going to stop the imposition of regulations in other areas of the State's social and economic life just because Congress feels that there might be a relationship to highway use or safety. In the end this is going to allow Congress to effectively be able to regulate almost any area of a State's social, political, or economic life on the theory that use of the interstate transportation system is somehow improved. The bigger question is whether or not this infringement upon the State's rights, which have been afforded to them by the Constitution, is going to stop with this or are we going to see it spill over into other areas. I feel that setting this precedence is only going to open the door for further abuses and violations of the State's rights as they have been given.…
solutions to the problem of distracted drivers by looking at the advantages and the disadvantages of each solution. Distracted drivers account for at least 1.2 million car accidents every year, according to the Automobile Association of America. Drivers can be distracted by anything from conversation with a passenger in the car, to eating and drinking while driving, or talking on a cell phone. Clearly, driving while distracted is a dangerous occupation on today's highways, and it must be regulated, before more people lose their lives due to senseless and selfish distracted drivers.
One major factor in driver's distraction is eating and drinking while driving. "Driving is a task that requires the driver's full attention,' said ick Meyers, chief of accident information for the Illinois Department of Transportation. 'To distract one's self with lunch or eating doesn't do justice to the importance of driving. It is a responsibility'" (Librach 01). The…
Glanz, William. "Lawmakers Hold off on Cell Phone Ban." The Washington Times 10 May 2001: 9.
Ledford, Joey "Dialing+driving = danger on roads." The Atlanta Journal and Constitution. 25 Jan.1998, pp C02.
Librach, Phyllis Brasch. "Meals on Wheels: Dining a La Car-Te is Popular Habit Among Americans." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 27 June 1994, pp 01.
Stutts, Jane C., et al. "Distractions in Everyday Driving." American Automobile Association: Foundation for Traffic Safety. 2003. 2 Aug. 2004. http://www.aaafoundation.org/pdf/DistractionsInEverydayDriving.pdf
Alcohol has extreme effects on physical and social functioning that has the potential to harm people who are not involved with the actual consumption. If an individual who has consumed alcohol chooses to drive while intoxicated then the potential for harm is increased exponentially. Of course, the effects on the body itself demonstrate that alcohol is a dangerous drug that should not be available to the general public. As with many illegal or controlled substances or other objects, it has been shown time and time again that the general public often needs protection from themselves, and protection from each other. hen the dangers are also translated to innocent victims like strangers, and close friends, the choice should be removed for those not responsible enough or strong enough to avoid the temptation. Since the existence and knowledge of alcohol cannot be removed, the legality can be and serious punishment imposed on…
Cambridgeshire Alcohol Advisory Service. "Alcohol -- the Effects on the Body."
Drinksense. Accessed 9 December 2006 at http://www.gurney.co.uk/drinksense/factsheets/effects.htm .
KeRo Corporation. "Drink Driving Statistics." Alcohol Alert. Accessed 9
December 2006 at http://www.alcoholalert.com/drunk-drivingstatistics.html.
In this paper, we began with an examination of a college pub as a place where there is a culture of consumption of services and products. Like any other part of material culture, the culture of consumption is just as much a part of technology as it is any other part of material culture. The technology of alcohol goes back into human memory to a time prior to written language. In this essay, we examined alcohol as a technology of consumption in the broader context of human culture .
Charest, M. (2011, September 22). The virtual pub project. etrieved from http://proteus.brown.edu/charest/2588.
Lemonnier, P. (1986). The study of material culture today: Toward an anthropology of technical systems. Journal of Anthropological Anthropology, 5, 147-186 .
Luther, S.S. (2003). The culture of affluence: Psychological costs of material wealth. Child Development, 74(6), 1581 -- 1593.
Prentice, D.A., & Miller, D.T. (1993). Pluralistic…
Charest, M. (2011, September 22). The virtual pub project. Retrieved from http://proteus.brown.edu/charest/2588.
Lemonnier, P. (1986). The study of material culture today: Toward an anthropology of technical systems. Journal of Anthropological Anthropology, 5, 147-186 .
Luther, S.S. (2003). The culture of affluence: Psychological costs of material wealth. Child Development, 74(6), 1581 -- 1593.
Prentice, D.A., & Miller, D.T. (1993). Pluralistic ignorance and alcohol use on campus: Some consequences of misperceiving the social norm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Illinois Department of Conservation Police Law Enforcement
The American system of local governance for the purpose of maintaining parks and other recreational areas is political as well as democratic, and is based on certain citizens' awareness and desire to create better living conditions as far as environment is concerned, for the benefit of future generations. This entails preservation and conservation of natural parks and wildlife to a large extent. This is especially true in the case of the citizens of Illinois, who are always on the campaign for more open spaces, more parks, and more as well as better recreational facilities for its citizens. Officials are elected for the purpose of looking after and governing the problems that arise from these forests and natural forest preserves, and these officials do believe and also demonstrate the same determination and strongly idealistic beliefs of their predecessors, of the days gone by. The…
Blagojevich, Rod. (April 2004) "Illinois's Multi-Year strategy to Control Drug and Violent Crime FFY2004" Retrieved at http://www.icjia.state.il.us/public/word/Byrne/ByrneStrategy.doc . Accessed on 28 October, 2004
Carlile, Harry E. "Keeping our parks a safe place to play" Retrieved at http://www.lib.niu.edu/ipo/ip960919.html . Accessed on 27 October, 2004
DUI, International Referral Database of DUI, DWI, Impaired and Drunk Driving, Drinking and Driving, Lawyers & Attorneys" Retrieved at http://www.lawyers.ca/international/summaryoflaw.asp. Accessed on 28 October, 2004
Educational information: Illinois Department of Natural Resources" (2003) Retrieved at http://dnr.state.il.us/lands/education/index.htm. Accessed on 27 October, 2004
I would incorporate much in the way of nonverbal communication to entice the students to remain engaged while listening to what I had to say. I think the best method of deliverance would be the use of live communication followed up by literature the students would take with them. The use of media, including interviews with other students and their experiences with drug and alcohol abuse would be relevant and useful in this context.
Using the Yale attitude changing approach, I would establish credibility by approaching students as a peer and victim of abuse; the messages I provided would allow for two sides of the argument, meaning students could offer their own objections to what it is I had to say. The messages given would be of support rather than designed to persuade students directly, so I would take a peripheral route to persuasion. Using these methods and approaches will…
Atwood, K.D. (2006,) Recognition of facial expressions of six emotions by children with specific language impairment. Brigham Young University. Retrieved November 2, 2007: http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/ETD/image/etd1501.pdf
Block, L.B. & Keller, P.A. (1997), Effects of self-efficacy and vividness on the persuasiveness of health communications. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 6(1): 31.
Murphy, N.A. (2007). Appearing smart: The impression management of intelligence, person perception accuracy, and behavior in social interaction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(3): 325-39.
Like alcohol, tobacco use is prohibited by minors but permitted by adults. Also like alcohol, tobacco use is detrimental to the health of the user, except even more so.
Whereas alcohol consumption generally benign and only acutely harmful when it is overused, tobacco use (especially in the form of cigarettes) is extremely dangerous for practically all users. This is simply a function of the fact that "typical" use of tobacco entails physical addiction to nicotine, its primary active ingredient. For this reason, it is very rare for smokers to use tobacco too infrequently to become chronic daily users
In contrast, most alcohol users do not partake so often that it compromises their physical health.
The dramatic long-term medical consequences of long-term tobacco use are universal as well as predictable; in fact, the medical community is united in the position that tobacco use causes more preventable illness and death than all…
Brecher, E.M. (1972) Licit and Illicit Drugs: The Consumers Union Report.
Boston: Little, Brown & Co.
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age
New York: Little Brown & Co.
S. Constitution is on the side of the distilled spirits advertisers. The right to advertise is constitutionally protected commercial free speech under the First Amendment (Distillers spirits advertising in perspective). The First Amendment protection afforded to distilled spirits advertising is equal in scope to the First Amendment protection afforded to the advertising of all other legal products and services, certainly wine and beer.
Many believe that advertisers should not be allowed to target underage audiences with products that are harmful to their health even if it means limiting constitutional protection because many children are not capable of making good choices. Research shows that youth exposure to alcohol advertising increases awareness of that advertising, which in turn influences young people's beliefs about drinking, intentions to drink, and drinking behavior (Alcohol advertising on television, 2001 to 2003: more of the same).
Opponents of advertising alcohol on television are growing more vocal as…
Alcohol advertising on television, 2001 to 2003: more of the same. Retrieved November 9, 2005 from Web site: http://camy.org/research/tv1004/
Beaver, W. (1997, July-August). What to do about alcohol advertising. Business Horizons.
Retrieved November 9, 2005 from Web site: http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1038/is_n4_v40/ai_20141970#continue
Bivins, T. (2004) Mixed media. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbarum Associates, Inc.
They develop a tolerance to alcohol and simply need more to satisfy their craving (MayoClinic, 2009a). This is a key difference between alcoholism and other drug addictions.
The causes of alcoholism and drug addictions are complex and involve the interaction of several factors. The first is genetics. Certain genetics factors can cause a person to be more vulnerable than others to develop alcoholism and the other addictions mentioned. A person's emotional state can also affect their propensity to develop substance abuse. Certain psychological factors, such as low self-esteem, peer groups that have substance abuse problems, or other factors that promote drinking and drug abuse also play a role in the development of substance abuse. Social and cultural factors also play a role, such as advertisements that glamorize drinking, or media that send messages regarding substances are also factors in the development of an addiction (MayoClinic, 2009a).
Substance abuse affects…
Abbott, A. (2002). Health Care Challenges Created by Substance Abuse: The Whole Is
Definitely Bigger Than the Sum of Its Parts. Health and Social Work. 27 (3): 162+.
Anderson, N. (ed) (2004). Alcohol Abuse and Dependence. Encyclopedia of Health and Behavior Management. Sage Publications. Retrieved March 25, 2010 from http://www.
The primary threat comes from competitors.
C. The industry is relatively small right now, but there is growth in the demographic because today's new drinkers are from the so-called "millennial" demographic, a large generation. In general, however, drinking is down, and there is more focus on quality over quantity among all but the youngest drinkers.
3. Marketing Strategy
A. Cost leadership strategy, be the cheapest and let everyone know it
B. Mainly online promotion, and through major retailers.
C. Packaging will be basic, with a thin cardboard back and plastic front. Make the device easy to access and keep packaging costs low. Coloring should be "serious," so red and black. Large lettering, too. Streamlined packaging as much as possible for the bar owners.
D. Pricing is going to be $4.99, an industry-leading price
E. The brand is Arrive Alive. We want to focus on branding in the promotional strategy.
Does Tom meet the actus reus requirement to be prosecuted for the deaths?
Yes, Tom meets the actus reus requirement, because he knows he is an epileptic and willingly operated a vehicle without medical authorization: thus, he willfully placed himself and others in a potentially dangerous situation. Though he did not will the seizure at that moment, he knew that there was always a possibility that he might have an epileptic fit any time, so he meets the actus reus requirement by choosing to get behind the wheel in the first place.
In fact a similar case happened in 1955, when a driver suffering from a seizure killed four individuals on the road. The driver was convicted and lost the appeal on the grounds that he knew of his condition prior to operating the vehicle and thus was responsible for what happened as a result. The court ruled…
Leppik, I. (2006). Epilepsy: A Guide to Balancing Your Life. NY: Demos Medical
Lehman, J., Phelps, S. (2008). West's Encyclopedia of American Law. MI: Gale.
People v. Decina. (1956). Appeals Court. Retrieved from http://www2.onu.edu/~s-veltri/documents/Decina.pdf
The iPad is also differentiated with the screen technology, internal memory size and support for expanded Application Programmer Interface (API) calls so developers can create applications for it quickly. This has led to many news organizations creating iPad-specific applications to further promote their content, and also has led to many universities creating entire courses delivered on the iPad.
From a promotion standpoint, Apple excels at event marketing and the ability to manage multichannel marketing programs. The launch was coordinated across all Apple retail locations, which is how the company uses promotions and distribution to its advantage. Apple concentrates on promotions to drive traffic into their stores, in effect uniting these two areas of the marketing mix. Promotion is also heavily influenced by Steve Jobs, who heavily promote the iPad during the launch event in San Francisco. The iPad's promotional strategies also led to Apple creating entire segments of their stores…
There are a number of forces that will impact the strategy of Hot ings. The legal and regulatory environment governs a number of different aspects of the business, from licensing to human resources policies to food handling and other aspects of the business. There are regulations at the federal, state, municipal and possibly county levels. Food handling and alcohol are the most important elements within the regulatory environment as violations of these regulations can result in shut down, legal action or the closing off of revenue streams. Proper training must be given to all staff with respect to the different food and alcohol regulations in order to keep the business running.
The economic environment is of critical importance because the number of times people eat or drink outside of the home is dictated in large part by their disposable income. In good economic times, people go out more…
Chathoth, P.; Tse, E. & Olsen, M. (2005). Turnaround strategy: A study of restaurant firms. International Journal of Hospitality Management. Vol. 25 (4) 602-622.
Food Product Design. (2010). Economy key to casual, fine dining recovery. Food Product Design. Retrieved March 28, 2011 http://www.foodproductdesign.com/news/2010/11/economy-key-to-casual-fine-dining-recovery.aspx
Hamilton, R. (2010). Defending against threats to intellectual property. In Defense of Data. Retrieved March 28, 2011 from http://www.entrepreneur.com/2011/01/-all-through-the-recession.php
Horovitz, B. (2008). Casual dining chains hunger for change. USA Today. Retrieved March 28, 2011 from http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/food/2008-10-13-casual-dining-restaurants_N.htm
In here, the teens are seeking for adventure and experiment with different ideas. During this time, the adolescent battles over his own set of values vs. The set established by parents and other adult figures. They also begin to take on more control of educational and vocational pursuits and advantages. It is during this time that adolescents' self-dependence and a sense of responsibility become apparent, along with their quest to contribute to society and find their place in it.
With the way they respond to peer pressure, social demands and other factors that lead to irresponsible actions, teens should know their consequences. Excessive drinking, smoking and drugs can cause damage to vital organs including liver, lungs, heart and pancreas. It can also cause death, not only of the person who consumed such but of a third party as well. Drinking while driving may cause an accident or worse, even death…
Robert Sherman. (2003). Teenage Behavior Problems - Parental Interventions
Retrieved April 22, 2007. At http://www.character-education.us/interventions.htm
Teenage Risk-taking: Biological and Inevitable? (2007). Retrieved April 22, 2007 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/04/070412115231.htm
Adolescence. (2007). Retrieved April 22, 2007 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolescence
Connect a Minimum Personal Concurrent Milsestone elating Their Lives Theories Concepts Assocated Milestones
Examples of Adolescent Danger
Adolescence can be a particularly difficult time period in the lives of most people. These crucial few years (spanning between 13 and 20) represent the formative stages in a person's development that will eventually solidify into adult characteristics that will remain, for the most part, for life. As such, there are a number of crucial processes that adolescents go through while emerging from childhood and before arriving into adulthood. During these tumultuous years many will incur increasing levels of responsibility that are mitigated with rewards and potential entrapments that are all typical steps in maturation. Yet as great as the results of a happy, healthy adolescence may be, there is infinite potential for people to falter and succumb to their fledgling developing minds, bodies, and most importantly, emotions during this critical juncture. Many…
Jacobs, J.A. (2001). Book Reviews.
Steinberg, L. (2007). "Risk Taking in Adolescence: New Perspective from Brain and Behavioral Science." Association for Psychological Science. 16 (2): 55-59
Sugar, M. (1970). "Children of Divorce." Pediatrics. 46 (4): 588-595.
Millions of dollars are spent on test-prep manuals, books, computer programs and worksheets (Gluckman, 2002). Static/captive learning can help teachers around the nation prepare their students for standardized testing.
Significance of the Study to Leadership
A principal is the leader of the campus. The challenge for the principal is to know his or her district's mandated curriculum and make sure teachers are able to deliver it (Shipman & Murphy, 2001). As the key decision-maker for the use of time and space, principals must be aware of how the use of time and space affects instruction. Principals need to know how best to use assessment data based on relevant content standards with teachers, school communities. Improved student learning is always the focus of assessment.
ecause of high stakes testing, teachers are always assessing to monitor student progress and plan the scope and sequence of instruction. Principals can work to structure school…
Anglin, Gary J., Vaez, Hossein, and Cunningham, Kathryn L. (nd) Visual Representations and Learning: The Role of Static and Animated Graphics. Visualization and Learning. Online available at: http://www.aect.org/edtech/33.pdf
Arnold, T.C., & Dwyer, F.M. (1975). Realism in visualized instruction. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 40, 369 -- 370.
de Melo, H.T. (1981). Visual self-paced instruction and visual testing in biological science at the secondary level (Doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1980). Dissertation Abstracts International, 41, 4954A.
Dwyer, F.M. (1969). The effect of varying the amount of realistic detail in visual illustrations designed to complement programmed instruction. Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 6, 147 -- 153.
Soda Consumption and its link to obesity in California
The soda sugary drink consumption has increased tenfold along with its availability. California Center for Public Health Advocacy (CCPHA) confirms that the overall exposure and consumption of soda and sugary drinks amongst children is extremely harmful. The even recently released fact sheets that supported the related harms as well as their concerns towards increasing soda consumption. After reading the article, it became quite clear that the increase in the soda consumption was an after-shoot of the media promotions of unhealthy diets and junk consumption. Increasing attractive advertisements also gave the food industry the opportunity to exploit the increased attractiveness and thus penetrate the market for huge profits.
CCPHA also pointed out the trends of limited physical activities that were also decreasing the overall health of the children. This is also a major concern and makes me realize the overall…
Therefore, today's society in the United States is diverse, which is something a social worker needs to understand and know how to deal with each diverse group. Furthermore, through research, it has been discovered most ethnic groups that live in the United States consist of young people, which means by staying in this country, they grow accustom to their surroundings. Once they have grown accustom to living here, they feel like this is their home to start a life with their own families. This continues the growing number of ethnic groups in this country.
Due to the educational accommodations that schools and college campuses make for students that have ethnic backgrounds, there is not enough prejudice of one group to let a Holocaust to occur in the United Stated. Furthermore, this country believes in freedom of speech to allow one ethnic to be isolated from the rest and condone any…
Dennen, Johan. THE 'EVIL' MIND: PT. 3. CRUELTY AND 'BEAST-IN-MAN' IMAGERY. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://rechten.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/FILES/departments/Algemeen/overigepublicaties/2005enouder/EVIL_CRU/EVIL_CRU.pdf
Citrome, Lesilie,. (2007). Aggression. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3005.htm
Hall, Kathy Jo. (1997). Carl Rogers. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?query=Throughout+this+Jim+knocks+the+clay+figurines+head+of+and+crushes+the+body+while+shouting&invocationType=spelling
Seal, B., A. Bradford, and C. Meston. 2009. The Association Between Body Esteem and Sexual Desire Among College Women. Archives of Sexual Behavior 38, no. 5, (October 1): 866-72. http://www.proquest.com.library.capella.edu / (accessed April 1, 2010).
Saints and the oughnecks by William Chambliss is a masterpiece study in Seattle suburb in the 1970s and it demonstrates the significance of connecting the macro and micro factors together. (Conformity, deviance and Crime) The Saints and the oughnecks were two clusters of boys from the same Hanibal High School, who got involved in the same kinds of abnormal behaviors but were branded differently by the public. (Violence; Disease or Attitude) The Saints belonged to upper-middle-class families, while the oughnecks belonged to a lower socioeconomic setting. (Conformity, deviance and Crime) The saints were a cluster of eight young men of fine, steady, white upper-middle class families on the pre-college track in high school, who were vigorous in school affairs, who associate in unbelievably large amounts of absenteeism, much of drinking and driving, quite a bit of little stealing and vandalism, and loads of deceiving in school, but cope up to…
"Conformity, deviance and Crime" (2003) Retrieved from http://www.wwnorton.com/giddens4/chapters/chapter7/welcome.htm Accessed on 14 November, 2004
'Self-Fulfilling Prophecies" Retrieved from http://www94.homepage.villanova.edu/peter.knapp/IthemeSFP.htm Accessed on 14 November, 2004
'Theories of Deviance: Conflict Theory" Retrieved from http://www.d.umn.edu/~bmork/2306/Theories/BAMconflict2.htm Accessed on 14 November, 2004
'The Saints and the Roughnecks" Retrieved from http://chat.wcc.cc.il.us/~kwestman/Week_7_Chambliss01.htm Accessed on 14 November, 2004
The consequences of even a few dissatisfied customers can be enormous: "Dissatisfied customers turn to competitors; loyal customers spend more, refer new clients, and are less costly to do business with" (Arendt & Harris, 1998, p. 27). The authors point out that because it costs about five times more to gain a new customer than to keep an existing one, and since dissatisfied customers tell at least twice as many friends about bad experiences than they tell about good ones, it is clearly to the small business owner or manager's advantage to seek high levels of customer satisfaction and retention.
According to Gebhardt and Townsend (1990), although the notion that little things can add up to have an enormous positive effect has gained wide acceptance, many companies continue to remain sluggish in their response to the reality that little things can also have an immensely negative impact on a company's…
Arendt, L.A. & Harris, J.H. (1998). Stress Reduction and the Small Business: Increasing Employee and Customer Satisfaction. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 63(1), 27.
Benjamin, S. (1997). Words at work: Business writing in half the time with twice the power. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Clarke, M.A. (1997). Policies and perceptions of insurance: An introduction to insurance law. Oxford: Oxford University.
Cummins, J.D. & Tennyson, S. (1992). Controlling Automobile Insurance Costs. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 6(2), 96.
The main downside to cloud computing is if something goes wrong with the provider of the cloud, the entire system and its data could be compromised. Network and connectivity problems with the provider could result in the entire system becoming inaccessible, bringing productivity to a standstill. Finally "before adopting this technology, you should know that you will be surrendering all your company's sensitive information to a third-party cloud service provider" (Viswanathan 2012).
Q3. Informal Poll: smart phones and tablets, which features and capabilities have you found most and least desirable?
My smartphone gives me a great deal of peace of mind. Not only can I call people -- I can also check my email, Facebook, and other social media accounts very easily. It enables me to stay in touch with both friends and work wherever I am. When I am driving, I can use my phone's GPS applications to ensure…
Springen, K. (2012). High-tech health: 11 Best health-related mobile apps.
Chicago Magazine. Retrieved:
Viswanathan, P. (2012). Cloud computing -- is it really all that beneficial? Advantages and disadvantages of cloud computing. About.com. Retrieved:
It's Just Too Late' by Calvin Trillin is the story of FaNee Cooper, a rebellious child who dies in a tragic car accident. While there are several characters that contribute to her death, namely her mother and Charlie Stevens, FaNee is the only one who can truly be held responsible for her death.
At first glance it appears that Charlie Stevens is responsible for FaNee's death. This is based on the fact that he was driving the vehicle that crashed, killing FaNee, and is reaffirmed by the fact that the jury found him responsible. Yet there are several reasons why this simplistic blame is not accurate.
The first reason is that Charlie was not acting like himself that night, he was driven to drive chaotically by FaNee's actions. FaNee led Charlie to believe that they were being chased by her father who had a gun and would kill them.…
Trillin, Calvin. 'It's Just Too Late.' In Patterns for College Writing: A Rhetorical Reader and Guide. Kirszner, Laurie G. & Mandell, Stephen R. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989.
Rove made an art form out of stirring up his client's opponents with whispers, innuendos and lies, while his candidates stood high above the dust and dirt. "A lot of times it wasn't enough for Karl to just win. He had to crush you in the process," according to "an adversary" quoted in Moore and Slater's book on page 28. On page 175-176, the details of Guerrero's demise are written out fully; Rove produced a "mass mailing" in 1992, as Guerrero was running for re-election as State Railroad Commissioner; it suggested she was "soft on crime, pro-gay rights, antigun, and an enemy of traditional family values." Soon thereafter, came the Rove-driven word that Guerrero was not a graduate as she claimed, and she fell like a big oak tree.
The methodical way in which Rove plowed acting Governor Ann Richards into the dust for his candidate, George . Bush, is…
Moore, James, & Slater, Wayne. (2003). Bush's Brain: How Karl Rove made George W. Bush
Presidential. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
oles in an Investigation
In this kind of investigation whereby the police psychologist is investigating the homicide of a high profile member of the community, the police psychologist plays several roles. One is that he or she will be involved in collecting and analyzing of psychological evidence that pertains to the homicide case. In this role, the police psychologist will be involved in a process that starts at the scene of the crime whereby he will use scientific principles and formulas to help in solving the crime. In this role, fingerprint collection and analysis of other identifiers of the crime scene is essential to solving the case. The psychologist will also be involved in analyzing of impressions of the crime scene to see what they match and also run the crime scene impressions and collected fingerprints with comparisons of others in the police database. Identification and analysis of…
Durand & Barlow. (2007). Essentials of Abnormal Psychology. Mason, Ohio.: Cengage Learning.
Feldman, F. (2013). A PSYCHOLOGIST'S ADVENTURES, PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL. The American Journal of Psychology, 126(1), 119-124. doi: 10.5406/amerjpsyc.126.1.0119
Hansen, M. (2000). Suicidal Missions: Psychological autopsies to uncover motivation in suspicious deaths are themselves now suspect. ABA Journal, 86(3), 28-29. doi: 10.2307/27841067
Hartwig, M., Granhag, P.A., Stromwall, L.A., & Kronkvist, O. (2006). Strategic Use of Evidence during Police Interviews: When Training to Detect Deception Works. Law and Human Behavior, 30(5), 603-619. doi: 10.2307/4499497
Therefore, it recommends legislative restrictions irrespective of strictly economic factors.
ennessy, D.A. And Wiesenthal, D.L. (2005). Contemporary Issues in Road User
Behavior and Traffic Safety. Toronto: Nova.
This source is a trade book authored by two professors of Public ealth: Dwight ennessy of the State University of New York at Buffalo and David Wiesenthal of York University in Toronto. The book provides a comprehensive analysis of all behaviors related driver behavior, particularly in relation to safety. It details issues such as unsafe assumptions about safe following distances and signaling, drivers' beliefs about their abilities relative to other drivers, and various behaviors by drivers that impact detrimentally on safety. In addition to practices such as map-reading and grooming while driving, the authors also devote considerable attention to the practice of cell phone use by drivers. With respect to cell phone use in particular, the authors conclude that cell phone use dramatically…
Hennessy, D.A. And Wiesenthal, D.L. (2005). Contemporary Issues in Road User
Behavior and Traffic Safety. Toronto: Nova.
This source is a trade book authored by two professors of Public Health: Dwight Hennessy of the State University of New York at Buffalo and David Wiesenthal of York University in Toronto. The book provides a comprehensive analysis of all behaviors related driver behavior, particularly in relation to safety. It details issues such as unsafe assumptions about safe following distances and signaling, drivers' beliefs about their abilities relative to other drivers, and various behaviors by drivers that impact detrimentally on safety. In addition to practices such as map-reading and grooming while driving, the authors also devote considerable attention to the practice of cell phone use by drivers. With respect to cell phone use in particular, the authors conclude that cell phone use dramatically decreases driver attention and increases the risk of driver error leading to vehicular accidents corresponding to that effect.
Yes: Carla T. Main
Carla Main believes the drinking age should remain at 21, and she bases the first part of her discussion on a project called "The Amethyst Initiative," which has issued a statement calling for an official probe into the drinking laws as they now stand. The aim of the Amethyst Initiative is to have the drinking age of 21 lowered because the current laws are simply not working. Main is in agreement with the Amethyst Initiative on this point: the current laws are not working, and they should be reexamined. However, Main does not agree with the objectives of the Initiative beyond this. She explains why by laying out the history of the 21 Laws and the changes in society that have occurred since they have been in place (Main, pp. 58-59).
Main's primary issue with the arguments put forth by the Amethyst Initiative and similar groups…
Main, C.T. (2009). Underage drinking and the drinking age. In R. Goldberg (Ed.), Taking sides:
Clashing views in drugs and society (pp. 58-67). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
McMullen, J.G. (2006). Underage drinking: does current policy make sense? In R. Goldberg
(Ed.), Taking sides: Clashing views in drugs and society (pp. 69-81). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
From day one, when a teenager reaches the age of 16 to 18, it has always been a dream to drive a car to school, to the mall or to a friend's house. It is at this point in time wherein driving turns into a fad rather than a skill, to impress, to flaunt and to enjoy, A usual part of adolescence. The car or any kind of vehicle becomes an accessory to a teenager caring only to his or her personal enjoyment and satisfaction. Most often, responsibilities are only secondary to an endless list of teenage pleasure and delight. The need for speed is a race against time and life. For them having to drive is an expression of freedom.
ut for the caring parents of these teenagers, here is the real score as indicated by Dr. Dale Wisely, Ph.D (2005)., Clinical Psychologist.
"...nothing you will deal…
Mary Carskadon, (1995-2005)Inside the Teenage Brain, Frontline
Retrieved Aug 11,2005, Website
Childrens Hospital and Health System (2005),Teenage drivers
¶ … client, whose name is Kate and is the main character in the 2013 film Smashed, displays compulsive behavior and a marked addiction towards alcohol and the classic symptoms of alcoholism in the scene in which she parks her car before going to teach elementary school. This scene takes place early one in the film, and indicates the sort of behavior that will characterize Kate's descent into alcoholism. Despite the fact that she is late for work because she is hung over, she still cannot refrain from consuming more alcohol -- in the form of whiskey, straight. This scene indicates that not only is Kate psychologically addicted to this substance, but it is also affecting her ability to engage in normal activities (such as work). Drinking hard liquor prior to beginning a work day in which one will be grooming the future of young children is extremely dysfunctional behavior.…
FANTASTIC LITERATURE IN "THE DEAD LOVER"
The hesitation of characters when confronted with questions of reality is clearly depicted in The Dead Lover and becomes the driving force of the plot through the experiences of the protagonist Romuald as recounted by him at the age of sixty-six. The hesitation of Romuald to confront the question of which of his experiences -- the ones as the priest or the one as Seignior Romuald of Venice -- are real forms the basis of much of the plot. This hesitation is built into the constitution and personality of the protagonist as he is a young priest recently ordained and is not mature enough to deal with the temptations of the world that he comes across for the first time since his education in a cloistered environment is complete.
Romuald's Hesitation to Accept the Reality of his Vocation