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Drug Screening Is Used More

Words: 3363 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39455260



In most cases, recreational drug use is seen as a victimless crime and a harmless activity. This attitude changes in the workplace if the drug use impairs performance to the detriment of other workers or if the work involves public safety, in which case tolerance for drug use drops significantly. Another reason why tolerance for some drug use is so high is because the attitude is a reaction to the apocalyptic warnings emanating from law enforcement and government, given that people know that mild marijuana use, for instance, is not the mind- and life-bending experience often claimed. Many do not see the problem as being as dire as it is made out to be, and so they do not see it in the way earlier generations did.

Casey J. Dickinson notes the increasing use of pre-testing for applicants as a way not assuring that the person hired does not use…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dickinson, Casey J. "New Vision Gets Results Before Employers Hire." The Central New York Businesss Journal (10 Dec 2004), 5.

Finkel, Kevin W. "Water Intoxication Presenting as a Suspected Contaminated Urine Sample for Drug Testing." Southern Medical Journal, Volume 97, Number 6 (June 2004), 611-613.

Fitzpatrick, Jr., John J. "State Labor Legislation Enacted in 2006: Minimum Wages, Workplace Security, Prevailing Wages, Equal Employment Opportunity, Wages Paid, Time off, Drug and Alcohol Testing, Child Labor, Human Trafficking, and Immigrant Protections Were among the Most Active Areas in Which Legislation Was Enacted or Revised during the Year." Monthly Labor Review, Volume 130, Issue 1 (2007). March 16, 2008.  http://www.questia.com/read/5020677401?title=State%20Labor%20Legislation%20Enacted%20in%202006%3a%20Minimum%20Wages%2c%20Workplace%20Security%2c%20Prevailing%20Wages%2c%20Equal%20Employment%20Opportunity%2c%20Wages%20Paid%2c%20Time%20off%2c%20Drug%20and%20Alcohol%20Testing%2c%20Child%20Labor%2c%20Human%20Trafficking%2c%20and%20Immigrant%20Protections%20Were%20among%20the%20Most%20Active%20Areas%20in%20Which%20Legislation%20Was%20Enacted%20or%20Revised%20during%20the%20Year .

French, Michael T., M. Christopher Roebuck, and Pierre Kebreau Alexandre. "To Test or Not to Test: Do Workplace Drug Testing Programs Discourage Employee Drug Use?" Social Science Research (March 2004), 45-63.
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Drug Legalization Is a Highly Controversial Issue

Words: 551 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35311989

Drug legalization is a highly controversial issue, which has been given top priority in political agenda. Many oppose legalization of cocaine but there are just as many people favoring legalization on various grounds. It is important to study both sides of the problem to see if legalization is practical or not. Those who oppose legalization of drugs maintain that cocaine is a dangerous drug which if legalized will send the wrong message that "it is OK to try such drugs" (Legalizing drugs may not be bad idea: 17 A). Opponents maintain that it is the responsibility of law enforcement agencies and other authorities to maintain stricter control over drug use in order to maintain "a delicate balance on drug initiatives." (Hemenway, 2002)

Drug legalization is a sensitive issue that many regard as problematic and believe that it is not in the jurisdiction of United States to allow or disallow legalization…… [Read More]

Works Cited

1)

Legalizing drugs may not be bad idea., USA Today, 10-11-1999, pp 17A

2)

HEMENWAY, D. Alexandria Arguments against states legalizing drugs, Arguments against states legalizing drugs., The Washington Times, 11-08-2002.
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Drug Culture in Lost Weekend

Words: 680 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 35655446

While Jacob's Ladder is a horror film, Jacob Singer, played by Tim Robbins, is haunted by hallucinations, which he is convinced are a result of secret government chemical or drug testing carried out on him during the Vietnam War. In this regard, Jacob's Ladder comments on the countless unknown substances that are secretly administered to unwilling subjects. This aspect of the film, although ultimately proving to be untrue as Jacob's hallucinations are a desperate attempt to cling to life and he really dies in Vietnam, focuses on a different aspect of drug culture: drug testing and manufacture. In Jacob's Ladder, Jacob and his fellow soldiers, serve as ersatz lab rats, considered to be disposable by the U.S. government.

On the other hand, the Insider, directed by Michael Mann, focuses on the power held by drug corporations and their ability to influence the media and public perceptions of individuals. The Insider…… [Read More]

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Drug Use Enforcement in the USA

Words: 1614 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54887083

Drug Trafficking

The author of this report is to answer a few questions relating to drug trafficking. The primary focus of the questions and answers will be on two sources in particular, those being the movie Traffic and the class text authored by Thio, Calhoun and Conyers. The questions include references to the links between drugs and crime, the roles and events surrounding certain people in Traffic and so forth. There will be references other than the two mentioned above throughout the answers, as is required by the parameters of the assignment. While many depict drug use as a victimless crime, this is far from being true and the scope of the people that can be affected by drug use, drug dealing and drug trafficking literally knows no bounds or limits.

Analysis

There is a heavy amount of examples of how drug use and crime are related, but the author…… [Read More]

References

Abbey, Antonia. 2011. 'Alcohol's Role In Sexual Violence Perpetration: Theoretical Explanations, Existing Evidence And Future Directions'. Drug and Alcohol Review 30(5):481-489.

Helfand, Ezra. 2015. 'U.S. Says Drug Abuse Needs Treatment, Not Just Jail'. NCADD. Retrieved October 16, 2015 (https://ncadd.org/in-the-news/358-us-says-drug-abuse-needs-treatment-not-just-jail).

IMDB,. 2015. 'Traffic (2000)'. IMDb. Retrieved October 16, 2015 ( http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0181865/?ref_=fn_al_tt_1 ).

Thio, Alex, Thomas C Calhoun, and Addrain Conyers. 2013. Deviance Today. Boston: Pearson.
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Drug Policies the Legacy of Outdated Moral

Words: 1032 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64185510

Drug Policies the Legacy of Outdated Moral Values and Moral Panics

A disinterested alien observer who came down to the planet Earth and saw the difference in how legal drugs such as alcohol and cigarettes were treated under the law when compared to illegal drugs would be hard pressed to explain the differential treatment. After all, alcohol and cigarettes cause or contribute to far more deaths, injuries, health problems, and social problems than illegal drugs. In fact, some illegal drugs, such as cannabis, are relatively free of side-effects when compared to those two legal substances. Furthermore, even some of the highly villianized hard drugs, such as heroin, are considered less addictive than nicotine. Therefore, it is difficult to understand why some substances are illegal and others are not. The reasons are not scientific or social; therefore, one must look at the history of drug policy in the Western world and…… [Read More]

References

Maguire, M., Morgan, R., & Reiner, R. (Eds.). (2007). The Oxford handbook of criminology.

Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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Drug-Related Terms Such as Tolerance Withdrawal Rebound

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32190120

drug-Related terms such as tolerance, withdrawal, rebound, physical and psychological dependence.

Tolerance

Tolerance is a form of physical dependence on a drug. It occurs when the body becomes accustomed to a drug and the nerve cells chemically and structurally counteract the drug's psychoactive effects. As a result, the drug abuser requires ever-increasing amounts of it to achieve the same physical and psychological effects. This condition is worsened when certain drugs are used at high doses for long periods (weeks or months), and may lead to more frequent use of the drug. Drug addicts often have to increase the dose to experience the same level of euphoria or "high" that they experience initially. ("Drug Dependence," Encarta)

ithdrawal

hen drug addicts stop the use of a drug too quickly, they may suffer from physical discomfort which is known as "drug withdrawal." Drug withdrawal is frequently characterized by nausea, headaches, restlessness, sweating, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Dependence." Drugscope. 2002. November 22, 2004.

"Drug Dependence." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003

Perkinson, Dr. Robert R. "Drugs of Abuse." 2003. November 22, 2004.

Withdrawal symptom of heroin is also known as "cold turkey"
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Drugs Affect Society Drugs Have

Words: 2392 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52119676



Angela Garcia goes at providing more information regarding Hispanic addicts in the U.S. And their personal experiences. She relates to how New Mexico treatment facilities deal with numerous cases of addicts who experience overdose several times in their lives, are unable to defeat addiction, and eventually experience death. These individuals are in a condition where they accept their situation and believe that there is nothing that can be done for them. To a certain degree, however, it appears that Hispanics reacted differently to heroin when compared to other racial groups in the U.S. Many Hispanics in New Mexico apparently use heroin as a means to compensate for how they feel as a result of "then recurring pains associated with the ongoing history of loss and displacement that had come to characterize Hispano life" (Garcia 2008:720). Such patients are considered to suffer from a chronic addiction and they are generally believed…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Dannemiller, K. "Juarochos: Fleeing Ciudad Juarez." Visual Anthropology Review: 2010.

2. Garcia, A. "The Elegiac Addict: History, Chronicity, and the Melancholic Subject." 2008.

3. Gilliam, Angela 1992 "Toward a New Direction in the Media "War" Against Drugs." Transforming Anthropology 3 (1): 19-23.

4. Heggenhougen, H.K. 1984 "TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AND THE TREATMENT OF DRUG ADDICTS: THREE EXAMPLES FROM SOUTHEAST ASIA." Medical Anthropology Quarterly 16 (1): 3-7.
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Drug Courts on Drug Abuse

Words: 2106 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86343601



The later stages focuses on dealing with the problems related to the drug use withdrawal like the withdrawal syndromes, the tendency to relapse. The later stages also focus on restoring the self dignity and also impacting the participant with the prerequisites to self-manage the drug abuse issue once the probation and treatment duration ends (Tara, 2007).

The drug courts are also said to be significant to the economy of the U.S. The drug courts save the taxpayer money for each participant in the treatment as compared to the same individual or one with a similar problem but going through the criminal court system. This is realized by the reduced recidivism cases among the graduates from the treatment facilities recommended by the drug court systems (Daniel, 2003).

In general, the drug use is very addictive and a problem that dealing with it in the U.S. society is very difficult. This is…… [Read More]

References

Amanda B.C., & Michael R., (2005). The State of Drug Court Research. Retrieved may 30, 2010

from www.courtinnovation.org/_.../state%20of%20dc%20research.pdf

Belenko, S. (2001). Research on drug courts: A critical review 2001 update. National Drug Court

Institute Review, 4, 1 -- 60 www.20.drugpolicy.org/docUploads/2001drugcourts.pdf
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Have Stiff Drug Laws Helped or Hurt the Criminal Justice System

Words: 1901 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 4814440

Drug Laws

The Shortcomings in our Current Drug Law Policy: Research Proposal

As a major policy issue in the United States, the ar on Drugs has been one of the most monumental failures on modern record. At a cost of billions of taxpayer dollars, thousands of lives lost and many thousands of others ruined by untreated addiction or incarceration, America's policy orientation concerning drug laws is due for reconsideration. Indeed, the very philosophical orientation of the ar on Drugs and of the current drug policy in the United States has been one of prosecution and imprisonment rather than one of decriminalization, treatment and rehabilitation. As our medical and scientific communities characterize addiction as a disease, the United States government continues to characterize this disease as a crime. And in doing so, it has created an unnecessary criminal class in the United States. The research proposal will set out to prove…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Debusmann, B. (2012). Obama and the failed war on drugs. Reuters.

DeMelo, D. (2005). Merton's Strain Theory. Criminological Theory.

DeMelo, D1. (2005). Cloward & Ohlin's Differential Opportunity Theory. Criminological Theory.

Eldredge, D.C. (1998). Ending the War on Drugs: A Solution for America. Bridgehampton, NY: Bridge Works.
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Correctional Issue of Drugs

Words: 1348 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 68200432

Drugs in Federal Corrections

Corrections issues

One of the issue faced by the criminal justice system is offenders with drug problems. esearch has indicated that almost 70% of criminals entering the correctional institutions have injected drugs 12 months prior to their incarceration (uiz, Douglas, Edens, Nikolova, & Lilienfeld, 2012). These patterns of drug abuse clearly demonstrate that many prisoners begin their prison terms with drug problems. If the problem is not recognized early, it results in demand for drugs within the correctional facility. This demand creates problems and challenges for prison administrators. Prisoners use of drugs results to increased safety risks, violence, corruption, and occupational health. There is also a risk of the prisoners resulting to extreme measures in order for them to access the drugs. They may commit acts of violence, or use threats. The issue of drug results in an increased risk of contracting diseases like HIV /…… [Read More]

References

Chak, E., Talal, A.H., Sherman, K.E., Schiff, E.R., & Saab, S. (2011). Hepatitis C virus infection in USA: an estimate of true prevalence. Liver international, 31(8), 1090-1101.

Exum, J.J. (2010). Sentencing, Drugs, And Prisons: A Lesson From Ohio. U. Tol. L. Rev., 42, 881.

MacDonald, M., Greifinger, R., & Kane, D. (2012). The impact of overcrowding. International Journal of Prisoner Health, 8(1).

Ruiz, M.A., Douglas, K.S., Edens, J.F., Nikolova, N.L., & Lilienfeld, S.O. (2012). Co-occurring mental health and substance use problems in offenders: Implications for risk assessment. Psychological assessment, 24(1), 77.
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Criminal Policy of Drug Court

Words: 3736 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85191739

Drug Courts: A Program to Reinvent Justice for Addicts

For the past several decades, drug use has had an overwhelming effect upon the American justice system, with drug and drug-related crime being the most common offense in almost every community (Drug Strategies, 1996). eyond the troubling ability of these problems to fill prisons to capacity, the traditional judicial system seemed to have no deterrent effect on these crimes (Drug and Crime Facts, 1994). A disturbing "revolving door" pattern had emerged, with drug offenders moving through the system in a predictable pattern of arrest, prosecution, conviction, incarceration, and release. In a few weeks, sometimes only a few days, the same person was back in the system again, arrested for drug possession or a drug-related crime (National Association of Drug Court Professionals [NADCP], 1997). A particularly difficult problem faced by the system was the growing use of crack cocaine in the 1980s…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bean, Philip. (1996, October). "America's Drug Courts: A New Development in Criminal Justice." Criminal Law Review. 720-740.

A scholarly review of the American drug court by a British attorney.

Brumbaugh, Alex. (1994) "Why Drug Courts Work." 3 Dec. 2002. http://www.silcom.com/~alexb/drugcrts.htm

Discussion of the various counseling techniques available to drug court clients, with an emphasis on acupuncture.
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Drug Profile

Words: 1740 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26459243

Drug Profile

Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, odriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and…… [Read More]

References

Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (CDMHAS). (n.d.). Drugs with addictive potential. Retrieved 08 March 2012 from:  http://www.ctclearinghouse.org/topics/customer-files/Drugs-with-Addictive-Potential-071105.pdf 

Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A journey. (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Fernandez, G., Rodriguez, O., & Villa, R. (2011). Neuropsychology and drug addiction. Papeles del Psicologo, 32(2), 159-165.

Hyman, S., & Malenka, R. (2001). Addiction and the brain: The neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Neuroscience, 2, 695-703.
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Drug Culture in Film

Words: 1707 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86662737

Drug Culture Midterm

Prior to this course, I had a very narrow interpretation of drug culture in regards to film. The films I was most familiar with were those that focused on marijuana such as Cheech and Chong films, Pineapple Express, Half-Baked, and the Harold and Kumar trilogy among others. Additionally, the only other heroin-centric film I was aware of was Trainspotting, and the only other cocaine-centric film that had made an impression on me was Blow. However, as the term progressed, I became aware of how the general public perceived these drugs and how addiction was depicted in films.

Additionally, my definition of drug culture expanded to include things that are not necessarily consumed but that still alter a person's perceptions or contribute to addiction. These different types of addictions and mind-altering phenomena are most evident in Videodrome and The Social Network.

Question 1b.

There are several films that…… [Read More]

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Drug Culture Final the Second

Words: 1767 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88370120

Brick and Cutter's Way can be categorized as both thrillers and films noir due to the fact that the narratives of these films revolve around an investigation into the mysterious deaths of young women at the hands of power-hungry men. While the investigation in Brick is fueled by a desire to expose a drug trafficking ring at a high school, thus making drugs a central issue, drugs in Cutter's Way are not a factor that contributed to the deaths of the individuals Cutter was looking into. However, that is not to say that drugs to not play a major role, as Cutter is heavily addicted to alcohol, which causes him to be discredited despite the fact that he is able to solve not only the crime at hand, but also reveal why his father was targeted by the same murderer years before.

On the other hand, Cabin in the Woods,…… [Read More]

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Drug Usage the Use Drugs

Words: 4084 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41436016

Drug addiction is not merely a failure of will or weakness in character, however having this 'brain disease' does not absolve the addict of responsibility for his or her behavior, but it does explain why an addict feels compelled to continue using drugs (Leshner 2001). Environmental cues that surround an individual's initial drug use and development of the addiction, actually become "conditioned" to the drug use and thus are critical to the problem of addiction (Leshner 2001).

Therefore, when those cues are present at a later time, "they elicit anticipation of a drug experience and thus generate tremendous drug craving" (Leshner 2001). This type of cue-induces craving is one of the most frequent causes of drug use relapses, independently of whether drugs are available and even after years of abstinence (Leshner 2001).

In March 2006, it was reported that researchers from Liverpool, England discovered a gene that directly affects the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Changeux, Jean-Pierre. (1998 March 22). Drug use and abuse. Daedalus. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Eaves, Lindon J. (2005 July 01). Familial influences on alcohol use in adolescent female twins: testing for genetic and environmental interactions. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Goldman, Erik. (2005 July 01). Genetic tests could improve future drug abuse treatment. Family Practice News. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Heroin Addiction Cuts Across All Social Boundaries, Caron Foundation Study Reports.
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Drug Alcohol Abuse Drug and Alcohol

Words: 2315 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76887406

Substance use is frequently associated with child abuse and domestic violence. It also is a leading contributor to marital dissatisfaction, family breakups and rejection of family members. The importance of the family in understanding alcohol and drug use and abuse is underlined by these highly destructive consequences of alcohol and drug dependency on the abuser and the family. (Lala; Straussner; Fewell, 17)

Peer Group plays an important part in resolving the problem as they are able to take the drug or alcohol abuser more into confidence compared to others since most people associate themselves with their respective peer group in terms of habits, tastes and concerns. It has been demonstrated that a drug abuser will definitely abide by a member of the peer group to which he belongs and obey requests of abstinence more than anyone else. Educational system also plays an important role in tackling the prevalence of the…… [Read More]

References

Ammerman, Robert T; Ammerman, Peggy J. Ott; Tarter, Ralph E. (1999) "Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse" Routledge.

Lala, Shulamith; Straussner, Ashenberg; Fewell, Christine Huff. (2006) "Impact of Substance

Abuse on Children and Families: Research" Haworth Press.

Laufer, William S. The Legacy of Anomie Theory: Advances in Criminological Theory.
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Drug Intervention Annoted Bibliography Anglin

Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82854004

" American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 21(1), 111-35. A research team led by Dr. Michael French gathered to estimate the costs and benefits of residential and publically funded treatment programs for addiction issues. The team was derived from the University of Miami. Program and the client related economic cost estimates were obtained using data collected at the site with the drug abuse treatment cost analysis program (DATCAP). It was concluded that the economic benefit to society was almost four times what the cost of treating residential clients. Short-term follow-up treatment was also beneficial and the economic benefit was even higher.

Hanlon, T.E., Kinlock, T.W., Nurco, D.N. (1991). "Recent research on the relationship between illicit use and crime." Behavioral Sciences & the aw, 9(3), 221-242.

The study reviews previous research on the correlation of drug use and criminal behavior resulting in arrest since 1980. Advances were noted in crime…… [Read More]

Lennings, C.J., Copeland, J., Howard J. (2003). "Substance use patterns of young offenders and violent crime." Aggressive Behavior. 29(5), 414-422. This study's hypothesis was that alcohol use is a significant predictor of violent crime in committed by the youth. Researchers studied 300 juveniles that had been incarcerated in the prison system of New South Wales. Of the 300, more than 70% admitted to having committed violent crimes. Most correlated with the onset of violent crimes was alcohol use followed by cocaine use. The findings accounted for the correlation that exists between the use of substabce and aggressive, violent crime and so, further supported the "Goldstein hypothesis" which believes that substance abuse facilitates violent behavior directly.

White, H.R., Widom, C.S. (1997). "Problem behaviours in abused and neglected children grown up: prevalence and co-occurrence of substance abuse, crime and violence." Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 7(4), 287-310. The report discussed the correlation of alcohol abuse, drug abuse, non-violent crime and violence concerning children who were abused and neglected during the course of their development through childhood. The study was longitudinal (the subjects were studied over time into adulthood). It was found that abused and neglected females and males have a higher correlation in substance abuse and non-violent arrest. Abused and neglected females were found to be at a higher risk for both drug abuse or dependency diagnosis as well as arrests for violent crime.

Zarkin, G.A., Dunlap, L.J., Hicks, K., Mamo, D. (2005). "Benefits and costs of methadone treatment: results from a lifetime simulation model." Health Economics. 14(11) 1133-1150. Research examined prior studies that included the cost and benefits of methadone abuse treatment. These papers have often been written on single case studies. While valuable to society, the sample size limitation also limits the research because they view heightened problems as being able to be treated in one incident of treatment. A simulation model was created to embody the longitudinal study of the heroine use, criminal behavior, health care and employment of a population between the ages of 18-60. It was found that the model (which takes into account the dynamics of heroine use and views it as a, acute and reoccurring circumstance) finds that the benefits of treatment using this model far outweigh those produced by static models.
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Drug-Related Crime Many People Who

Words: 1590 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33725497

One example of the kind of policy change that is being suggested by some in the particular war on Meth is the reduction of the ability of meth makers, especially large scale makers to realize the supplies of a small number of raw materials used to make the drug pseudoephedrine is quaaludes, as this drug was successfully removed from the radar screen by the banning of the chemicals used to make it, and this may be an option for all synthetic drugs.

Reurer 170)

orks Cited

Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.

Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.

Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.

Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.

Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.

Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.

Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.
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Drug Laws Changes in Drug

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42977176

Therefore, a closer look at what is needed is in order.

Needed Changes, Stakeholders and Barriers to Change

The decades that followed ockefeller and Felony Offender made it clear that these laws were in dire need of change for a variety of reasons. Perhaps most importantly among the reasons for a need for change was the fact that many of those in need of recovery from drug addiction were instead being locked away in prison, burdening the justice system, breaking up families and torturing people with a definite disease. On the other side of the argument, however, barriers to change in these policies was led by staunch conservatives who, not realizing the many facets of drug addiction, were too fast to dismiss addicts as criminals who were only getting what some felt they deserved (nysda.org). In reality, however, there are effective solutions to the debate.

Effective Solutions to the Debate…… [Read More]

References

Current Developments in the Rockefeller Drug Laws. Retrieved November 30, 2007 from the World Wide Web: http://www.nysda.org/Hot_Topics/Rockefeller_Drug_Laws/rockefeller_drug_laws.html

The Rockefeller Drug Laws. Retrieved November 30, 2007 from the World Wide Web:  http://www.drugpolicy.org/statebystate/newyork/rockefellerd/index.cfm 

Drug Laws
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Drug Law Reform Pro According to the

Words: 402 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26420633

Drug Law Reform (Pro)

According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), the United States' policy on illegal drugs is threefold: stopping drug use before it starts, healing the country's drug users, and disrupting the market. The United States' war on drugs has been going on for at least the last three decades. Given the duration of this war, some have questioned the effectiveness of it, wondering if the money spent is really making a difference and bringing about results.

Actually, the effects of this policy on illegal drugs have been mixed. According to a study conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) covering current and emerging trends in drug abuse for 21 major U.S. metropolitan areas, some drugs are decreasing in use while others are increasing. For example:

C]rack accounted for a substantially greater percentage of primary admissions than powder cocaine in all [surveyed] sites.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

InfoFacts Nationwide Trends. The National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2003.  http://www.drugabuse.gov/Infofax/nationtrends.html .

The Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2003.  http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/index.html .
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Drug Policies Major Policies History

Words: 3387 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8012701

14). Soon, Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act, which was signed into law in 1937. Like the Harrison Act, the Marijuana Tax Act placed marijuana into the same category as the cocaine and opium drugs. It was now illegal to import marijuana into the United States (McWilliams, 1991). However, this law was ineffective in curbing marijuana use (Brecher, 1986, p. 14).

By the early 1940s narcotic addiction had significantly reduced in the United States (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999). However, this was not the result of legislative initiatives. Instead, it was because World War II was cutting off the "supplies of opium from Asia and interrupt the trafficking routes from Europe" (Inciardi, 1992, p. 24).

Several other legislative efforts in the supply reduction department served to establish more severe penalties for violations of drug laws, and tighten controls and restrictions over legally manufactured narcotic drugs (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999).…… [Read More]

References

1999). Recreational Drug Information. History of Drug Use U.S. Retrieved from the Internet at www.a1b2c3.com/drugs/.

Brecher, E. (1986). Drug Laws and Drug Law Enforcement: A Review and Evaluation Based on 111 Years of Experience,' Drugs and Society 1:1.

Drucker, Ernest. (1999). Harm Reduction: A Public Health Strategy. Current Issues in Public Health, 1: pp. 64-70.

Drug Policy Alliance. (February 17, 2005). Harm Reduction: Options that Work. Retrieved from the Internet at  http://www.drugpolicy.org/news/021705harm.cfm .
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Drug and Alcohol the Effects

Words: 2365 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 79848069

And they can often escape into substance abuse and addiction" (Study reveals rise in drug, alcohol abuse during economic downturn).

One of the most important ways in which an increasing rate of drug and alcohol abuse and addiction affects the economy is the spiraling cost of healthcare and rehabilitation. The increase in addictions also creates a gap between the need for treatment and rehabilitation and available resources. This in turn places economic pressure on state and local government. This is especially difficult to maintain in a recessionary economic climate. "States, local governments, and non-profits are all facing tremendous budget shortfalls -- and they are cutting the resources to help this growing group of addicts in trouble, just when they need it the most" (Study reveals rise in drug, alcohol abuse during economic downturn).

The following illustrations provide a clear indication of the amounts that have been spent on alcohol and…… [Read More]

References

Allen J. ( 2006) Drugs a Factor in Many Sexual Assaults, Study Says. Retrieved September 27, 2009, from  http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/501383/drugs_a_factor_in_many_sexual_assaults_study_says/ 

Bennet W. (1999) the Index of Leading Cultural Indicators. New York: Broadway

Books.

Drug addiction. Retrieved September 27, 2009, from http://www.economicexpert.com/a/Drug:addiction.htm
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Drug Use the Courage to

Words: 1835 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83058487

The benefits of ending the cycle of drug and alcohol abuse far outweigh the pain and hard work involved. Living a clean and sober lifestyle allows people to make their own decisions, not decisions based on their physical need for drugs or alcohol. They will regain their self-respect, and find happiness in the things they were neglecting during their use and abuse. Finally, their body will be free of the physical tolls of alcohol and drugs.

For someone like Jared, working to end his alcohol abuse will improve his life in many ways. First, working toward change will show his wife, his mother, and the rest of the people who love him that he does not want to hurt them and wants to change. While other problems may exist in Jared's marriage and life, he owes it to himself and those that he loves to try. He might spend more…… [Read More]

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Drug Rehab Reimbursements Drug Rehabilitation

Words: 725 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81333096



However, not all facilities are prohibitively costly. Serenity Lane in Eugene, Oregon, proclaims as part of its marketing and advertising plan that it accepts almost all insurance plans, and trumpets the fact that it offers value deals like the "ExSL (Long-Term Program)" that requires only a relatively modest fee of $6,495 per 30 day period, with a 60 day recommended minimum stay" and "partial financing available and a $500 discount for paying cash up front" (Treatment Costs at Serenity Lane," Official ebsite, 2007). In contrast, a stay of the same duration at the more famous Betty Ford Center is $23,000 ("Programs," the Betty Ford Center, 2007).

Quality forms of rehabilitative assistance exist for individuals in a variety of income brackets. Also, for individuals who qualify, there are Medicaid assistance programs provided by the federal government. However, less costly programs often have longer waiting lists and offer less comprehensive, quality, and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Health Insurers Block Mental Health Parity Bill." Drug Rehabs.com. 23 Sept 2007.  http://www.drug-rehabs.com/health-insurers-block.htm 

How Do I pay for a Drug Rehab?" Therapist Unlimited. 23 Sept 2007. http://therapistunlimited.com/rehabs/Articles/Drug+Rehabs/How+Do+I+pay+for+a+Drug+Rehab

Oregonians Gain Benefit of Parity MH Coverage." Psychiatric News.

40(19): 2. 7 Oct 2005. APA Website.  http://pn.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/40/19/12
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Social Issue Alcohol Drugs Consider a Social

Words: 1118 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83850354

Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.

Social issue: Drug abuse

The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…… [Read More]

References

Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.

Retrieved at:

http://articles.cnn.com/2011-11-01/justice/justice_crack-cocaine-sentencing_1_powder-cocaine-fair-sentencing-act-crack-penalties?_s=PM:JUSTICE

Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:
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Teen Drug Abuse - Prescription or Not

Words: 5056 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15688478

Teen Drug Abuse - Prescription or Not

Differences between nonalcoholic offspring of alcoholics (family history positive, FHP) and matched offspring of nonalcoholics (family history negative, FHN) have been identified on a variety of behavioral, cognitive, and neurological measures. Compared to FHN teens, FHP adolescents and young adults demonstrate more disturbed school careers, impulsivity, rebelliousness, and nonconformity (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006); poorer neuropsychological performance (Worden & Slater, 2009); and significantly lower amplitude in P300 brain waves, which are believed to measure selective attention (Cicero, et al. 2005). Further, following ingestion of alcohol, sons of alcoholics report less body sway and less subjective intoxication (Grant, et al., 2005), higher levels of flushing (McBride, 2011), and decreased P300 amplitudes when performing difficult tasks (Foster, et al., 2009).

Not all individuals with a family history of alcohol dependence become alcohol and/or drug abusers, however, and genetics alone cannot account for…… [Read More]

Resources

Ajzen, I. (2010). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. (2006). Youth risk behavior surveillance -- United States, 2005. MMWR 2006, 55.

Cicero, T.J., Inciardi, J.A., & Munoz, A. (2005). Trends in abuse of OxyContin and other opioid analgesics in the United States: 2002-2004. The Journal of Pain, 6, 662-672.

Drug Enforcement Administration. (2005). Prescription pain medications: Frequently asked questions and answers for health care professionals and law enforcement personnel. Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, 19(1), 71-104.
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Michael Stein's Memoir The Addict Michael Stein's

Words: 1331 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69728148

ICHAEL STEIN'S EOIR: THE ADDICT

ichael Stein's emoir

Relationships

Relationships with family

Addiction psychology deals with clinical psychology and involves the collection of data and information to perform diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, and post-treatment assessment of substance addicts. The psychologists and clinicians rely on information gathered by eminent researchers in the field studies and co-relate the symptoms and treatment performed in case study researches. By application of concepts, ideas, treatment interventions, and rehab initiatives, medical professionals try to create value for both the addict and the surrounding environment. Since addictions are broadly categorized into two subcategories, substance addition and process addiction, present study only includes literature based on substance addiction. ichael Stein's book called 'The Addict' assumes the central theme of the paper with an emphasis on 'relationships' dynamics of substance addiction. Empirical research findings from peer reviewed literature will also be described to substantiate the discussion along with citation of…… [Read More]

McKeganey, J.M.N. (2000). The Recovery from Dependent Drug Use: addicts' strategies for reducing the risk of relapse. Drugs: Education, Prevention, and Policy, 7(2), 179-192.

Palmer, R.S., & Daniluk, J.C. (2007). The perceived role of others in facilitating or impeding healing from substance abuse. Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 41(4).

Stein, M. (2009). The Addict: One Patient, One Doctor, One Year. William Morrow.
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Suicide and Drug Abuse There

Words: 1965 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62445591

There is a gradual move in considering that the combination of both these explanations is what should be the actual position to take on the issue of alcoholism and drug addiction. This mode of thinking suggests the acceptance of the gene explanation on one side in that the research does confirm that genes that are inherited goes a long way in explaining the behavioral pattern of the individual with regard to alcoholism and drug addiction, yet at the same time it also suggests that the lifestyle pattern that is adopted by the individual could also be a major factor in the behavioral pattern of the individual with regard to alcohols and drugs. (Frequently Asked Questions)

This means that not only is a hereditary factor only a predisposition but the behavior of the individual in social situations where the consumption occurs and the maintenance of control on these situations. This also…… [Read More]

References

Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Men" Retrieved at http://www.4woman.gov/mens/men.cfm?page=110&mtitle=alcoholAccessed on 20 March

Balch, Burke, J; O'Bannon, Randall, K. "Why We Shouldn't Legalize Assisting Suicide"

Retrieved form http://www.nrlc.org/euthanasia/asisuid1.html. Accessed on 20 March 2005

Frequently Asked Questions" National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
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Gore Vidal -- Drugs in

Words: 1354 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97778036

ouldn't the government need the same amount of money, or perhaps even more, to regulate the new drug system. I can' only imagine the bureaucracy necessary to manage the legal trade of things like heroin, crack cocaine and meth.

The other prong of Vidal's argument is that "forbidding people the things the like or think they might enjoy only makes them want those things all the more." He claims that this psychological insight is obvious and yet denied by our government. As evidentiary support, he points to prohibition, but his arguments about prohibition don't directly support his thesis. He argues, correctly, that crime increased because of the prohibition of alcohol, and that the law caused a general contempt for the government, but he does not prove that people wanted to drink more because alcohol was prohibited to them.

The analogy between alcohol and drugs also does not hold up to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Caruso, David B. "Higher Cigarette Taxes Lure Buyers to Black Market." The Huffington Post.  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2008/04/10/higher-cigarette-taxes-lu_n_96094.html  April 10, 2008

"Number of Adult Smokers." Smoking from All Sides.  http://smokingsides.com/docs/us_adults_bystate95 . November 8, 1996

"Richard M. Nixon." United States History.  http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1948.html .
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Government Doesn't Legalize Drugs The

Words: 1782 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1928809

akalar, JD, 'Marijuana as Medicine: a Plea for Reconsideration', 1876

Journal of the America Medical Association, June 21, 1995 - Vol. 273, No. 23, at http://www.calyx.com/~olsen/MEDICAL/lester.html

Policy Analysis: Thinking About Drug Legalization," at http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa121.html

Alternatives to the War on Drugs," at http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/4727/alt-wod-faq.html

Frequently Asked Questions," at http://www.paranoia.com/drugs/marijuana/hemp/FAQ-alt.hemp

Americans for Compassionate Use," at http://www.acu.org/~acu/

Ethan a. Nadelmann, "Thinking seriously about alternatives to the drug prohibition," Daedalus v.123:3, at http://www.calyx.com/~mariolap/debate/ethan1.html

NASRO Issue rief, Spring 1995 vol. 1, no.1,"Rethinking the War on Drugs and Crime: New Approaches to Local Polic." http://www.dscc.org/cwa/report.html

Policy Analysis: Thinking About Drug Legalization," at http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa121.html

Fish, Jefferson M, Ed. How to Legalize Drugs. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc.. July 1998, 675 pages., pp. 161

Lester Grinspoon, MD, James . akalar, JD, 'Marijuana as Medicine: a Plea for Reconsideration', 1876 Journal of the America Medical Association, June 21, 1995 -- Vol. 273, No. 23, at http://www.calyx.com/~olsen/MEDICAL/lester.html

Alternatives to the War…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fish, Jefferson M, Ed. "How to Legalize Drugs." Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc.. July 1998, 675 pages;

Lee P. Brown, "Eight Myths About Drugs," Vital Speeches of the Day, City News Publishing Co. 15 July 1994;

Lester Grinspoon, MD, James B. Bakalar, JD, 'Marijuana as Medicine: a Plea for Reconsideration', 1876

Journal of the America Medical Association, June 21, 1995 - Vol. 273, No. 23, at http://www.calyx.com/~olsen/MEDICAL/lester.html
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Green County Drug Court the Green County

Words: 788 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88364526

Green County Drug Court

The Green County court system has finally decided to implement a "drug court" to bring about some much-needed changes in the current system. The county has authorized a new judge and is debating the merits whether that individual should be elected or appointed. The court is also considering the questions of whether it should operate on a due process model or a crime control model and whether juveniles should be adjudicated.

Green County elects its judges, but in this instance it is recommended that the drug court judge be appointed. The primary reason is expedience. Political campaigns, in addition to being costly in terms of money, are costly in terms of time. Green County needs to address its drug problem immediately and can do so by appointing a judge.

Election campaigns can also take the focus away from an issue. The recent brouhaha over President Obama's…… [Read More]

Reference

Gruenewald, P.J., Johnson, K., Shamblem, S.R., Ogilvie, K.A., and Collins, D. (2009).

Reducing adolescent use of harmful legal products: Intermediate effects of a community prevention intervention. Substance Use & Misuse 44(14), pp. 2080-2098.
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Gambino Drug Family Their Entire Drig Business

Words: 1738 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63848743

Gambino Drug Family." Their entire drig business was based in New York City. This paper will mirror the Gambino's nationwide and international structure and operating techniques relating to the drug business. Likewise a contrast of the Gambino's from their past to present function in prohibition, drug nexus, political corruption, and various other criminal activities will be analyzed. Gradually, the Gambino household had different business interests that made them much more noteworthy in the Italian Mafia. The paper will also assess various law enforcement tools, which can be used to against this drug family.

National and international structure and operating approaches related to the drug business

The Gambino's drug business structure and operating approaches come from really sturdy links with the Sicilian Drug trade (Critchley, 2008). Till 1914, there were no genuine laws or borders against the drug market in the U.S. (Critchley, 2008). The Boylan anti-drug Law, enacted by the…… [Read More]

References

Bruno, A. (n.d). The Gambino Family. Retrieved May 18, 2013 from  http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/gangsters_outlaws/family_epics/gambino/1.html 

Buscaglia, E. (2003). Controlling Organized Crime and Corruption in the Public Sector. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from  http://www.unodc.org/pdf/crime/forum/forum3_Art1.pdf 

Critchley, D. (2008). The Origin of Organized Crime in America: the New York City Mafia, 1891-1931. London: Rutledge.

Find Law. (2011). Racketeering/RICO. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from  http://criminal.findlaw.com/crimes/a-z/racketeering_rico.html
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Economic Effect of Legalizing Drugs

Words: 2438 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41551324

Economic Effect of Legalizing Drugs

The program for banning the trading and using of narcotic drugs like cocaine, heroine, and marijuana is one of the most essential public welfare program, attracting so much political discourse on the effectiveness of the 'war on drugs' and the substitute programs like legalization, rehabilitation through decriminalization, drug treatment, and medical marijuana. Economists vehemently criticized the success of the war on drugs pointing to the adverse consequences like violent crime and corruption, and suggested the substitute programs like drug legalization and decriminalization. Milton Friedman has since been upheld the legalization of drugs. Garry, Becker, George Schultz, Thomas Sowell and William Niskanan have also approved the liberalization strategy. (Prohibition vs. Legalization: Do Economists each a Conclusion on Drug Policy?)

The legalization envisages exerting regulatory government control over drug sales more practically through the state clinics or stores. There is stringent ban on the advertisement, declaring the…… [Read More]

References

Cussen, Meaghan; Block, Walter. Legalize Drugs Now! The American Journal of Economics and Sociology. July, 2000. Retrieved from  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0254/is_3_59/ai_65348069  Accessed on 15 December, 2004

Maginnis, Robert L. Legalization of Drugs: The Myths and the Facts. Family Research Council. Retrieved from http://www.sarnia.com/groups/antidrug/argument/myths.html Accessed on 15 December, 2004

News and Views from the Dismal Science. Dr. Econ's commentary on local, regional, national, and global economic affairs. Augusta Business Chronicle. September 2001. Retrieved from http://www.aug.edu/~sbajmb/abc065.htm Accessed on 15 December, 2004

Thornton, Mark. Prohibition vs. Legalization: Do Economists Reach a Conclusion on Drug Policy? Paper presented at the Southern Economic Association Convention, New Orleans, Louisiana. November 2002. Retrieved from  http://www.mises.org/journals/scholar/thornton3.pdf  Accessed on 15 December, 2004
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Criminalization of Drugs Criminalization

Words: 3284 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7281672

war on drugs has been an unmitigated disaster that has fallen short of its intended objectives, and done nothing but blotted up taxpayers' money, opened up avenues for organized crime, and filled up the prison systems with mere drug users and possessors as the real traffickers and drug lords get enriched. Four decades since the launch of the war on drugs, violent crime caused by the drug trade continues to be a serious social concern. Four administrations have personally waged a war on drugs, characterized mainly through the criminalization of drugs and other harmful substances; yet these efforts have done little to decrease the availability and use of drugs in America. The country still tops the world in illegal drug use. A recent report by CNN, for instance, showed that approximately 500, 000 persons were in prison for drug-related crimes in 2012, compared to only 40,000 in 1989 (Branson, 2012).…… [Read More]

References

ACLU. (2015). Against Drug Prohibition. American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). Retrieved August 6, 2015 from  https://www.aclu.org/against-drug-prohibition 

Branson, R. (2012). War on Drugs -- A Trillion Dollar Failure. CNN. Retrieved August 6, 2015 from  http://edition.cnn.com/2012/12/06/opinion/branson-end-war-on-drugs/ 

California NORML. (2015).Guide to California's Marijuana Law. California NORML. Retrieved August 6, 2015 from  http://www.canorml.org/camjlaws.html 

Dillon, Z. (2012). Symposium on Overcriminalization. The Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 102(3), 525-527.
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Legalization of Drugs Laws Against

Words: 1556 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98421142

Drug treatment represents only part of the equation to combat drug-related crime. Alternatives to the war on drugs such as legalization, decriminalization and harm reduction may initially sound like they are more compassionate approaches to the drug problem, but the reality is that they won't work as shown by the Netherlands's experience with decriminalization of drugs. The truth is that the war on drugs has accomplished a great deal more than these alternatives ever could and that Americans are a lot better off because of it. For all the reasons presented in this paper, the legalization of drugs is a really bad idea.

ibliography

10 main pros and cons on medical marijuana. ProCon.org. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.org/pop/conflicts.htm

Cromie, W.J. (1998, March 19). War on drugs a failure, Americans say." Harvard University Gazette Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/1998/03.19/WaronDrugsaFail.html

Drug use trends (2002, October) Office…… [Read More]

Bibliography

10 main pros and cons on medical marijuana. ProCon.org. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site:  http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.org/pop/conflicts.htm 

Cromie, W.J. (1998, March 19). War on drugs a failure, Americans say." Harvard University Gazette Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/1998/03.19/WaronDrugsaFail.html

Drug use trends (2002, October) Office of National Drug Control Policy. The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site:  http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/factsht/druguse/ 

Effectiveness of the war on drugs (2002). Drug Policy Alliance. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site:  http://www.drugpolicy.org/library/factsheets/effectivenes/index.cfm
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Alcohol and Drug Problems

Words: 1570 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78310371

Drug and Alcohol Abuse on Families and Community

Drug and alcohol abuse are found to have devastating impact on families of addicts and their larger community. These addictions can destroy family dynamics and relationships thereby giving birth to extreme stress, resentment, behavioral disorders and disintegration within the family. When a member of the family is diagnosed with alcohol or drug addiction, others members are likely to become extremely involved in the situation that adds to stress and tension eventually giving birth to a dysfunctional family unit. Involvement, whether physical, emotional or simply psychological, is bound to leave a deep impression on the behavior of families, often resulting in development of deviant behavior in other family members. This is a negative though natural response to the stressful situation. Milhorn Jr. (1994) in his guide for families with drug addicts contends:

The effects of drug addiction on the user's family are profound.…… [Read More]

References

Bekir, P., McLellan, T., Childress, A.R. And Gariti, P. (1993) Role reversals in families of substance misusers: A transgenerational phenomenon. International Journal of the Addictions. 28, 613-630

Culvert, Edward R. (2001) Another Angle: Families Of Drug Addicts; (Second in a Series of Articles on Drug Addiction) New York Voice Inc./Harlem USA; 11th July.

Dore, M.M., Kauffman, E., Nelson-Zlupko, L. And Granfort, E. (1996) Psychosocial Functioning and Treatment Needs of Latency-Age Children from Drug-Involved Families. Families in Society 77, 595-603.

Milhorn Jr. Thomas. (1994) Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Authoritative Guide for Parents, Teachers, and Counselors. Perseus Books (Current Publisher: Perseus Publishing) Cambridge, MA.
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Fictional Drug Abuse Case

Words: 5191 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 7740320

Chemical Dependency

Jesse Bruce Pinkman is one of the most important characters in the popular TV series, 'Breaking Bad'. He plays the deuteragonist (2nd most important character) in the series, partnering with Walter White in his methamphetamine drug ring. Pinkman acts as a dealer and manufacturer of methamphetamine, and is also a methamphetamine user. Jesse was also a former student in White's chemistry class.

According to the program script, Pinkman was born September 14, 1984, into a middle income family in Albuquerque, New Mexico. While still in high school, he began using and dealing methamphetamine. After being thrown out of the house for his continued drug use, he moved into his Aunt Ginny's place, and looked after her until she died of lung cancer. After her death the ownership of the house fell to his parents who allowed him to continue staying there. The rift between Pinkman and his family…… [Read More]

References

Bettmann, J., Russell, K., & Parry, K. (2013). How Substance Abuse Recovery Skills, Readiness to Change and Symptom Reduction Impact Change Processes in Wilderness Therapy Participants. Journal Of Child & Family Studies, 22(8), 1039-1050. doi:10.1007/s10826-012-9665-2

DSM-5.pdf (PDFy mirror). (n.d.). Retrieved May 19, 2015, from https://archive.org/stream/pdfy-85JiVdvN0MYbNrcr/DSM-5#page/n136/mode/1up

Gregorowski, C., Seedat, S., & Jordaan, G.P. (2013).A clinical approach to the assessment and management of co-morbid eating disorders and substance use disorders. BMC Psychiatry, 13(1), 1-12. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-289

Hall, W., Farrell, M., & Carter, A. (2014). Compulsory treatment of addiction in the patient's best interests: More rigorous evaluations are essential. Drug & Alcohol Review, 33(3), 268-271. doi:10.1111/dar.12122
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Childhood With Drug Parents Growing

Words: 1836 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85662874

It is very likely that many children have been less fortunate than me and that they either became drug addicts themselves or they came to live on the streets as a result of having parents who express more interest in drugs than in their own children.

My experiences are definitely traumatizing and I would not want anyone going through what I endured. Despite this, I managed to find a meaning for everything that has happened to me and I succeeded in using my forces with the purpose of improving my condition. Unlike ordinary people, I would not allow myself to be put down by the conflicts I've seen in my family, by the fact that I was often isolated, or by the emotional violence that I have been subjected to. I will certainly remember the time I spent with my family for most of my life, but the fact that…… [Read More]

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Short Answer Questions on Drugs

Words: 1208 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68309460

economic impact of drug use in the United States might initially seem easy to measure. A legal trial is an expensive proceeding: police officers, prosecutors or public defenders, judges, stenographers, and bailiffs are employees of the state, and even if jurors are barely remunerated, defense attorneys are lavishly remunerated. To prosecute someone for dealing marijuana is an expensive undertaking, and to do so under a "three strikes" law, where the crime is suddenly elevated to a horrific felony with extreme penalties, is even more expensive. The greater expense comes with convictions: America has the largest imprisoned population in the world, with more people behind bars in this country than comprise the entire populations of other sovereign nations. Imprisonment is not a cheap proposition. We can then consider the further economic impact, legally and morally speaking, of drug use in the current extensive misuse of civil forfeiture laws. Ostensibly designed to…… [Read More]

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National Prescription Drug Database Slowly

Words: 339 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 26242571

Knowledge of the program's existence within a state can also hopefully act as a deterrent for an addicted 'doctor-shopper.'

Article Relevance: Doctors are growing increasingly cautious about prescribing pain medication. This is unfortunate, given the fact that not treating pain can be equally dangerous as over-treating pain. States' lack of sharing of information in the name of state's rights and patient privacy is interfering with doctors' abilities to provide appropriate care. Currently, 41 states have used federal funding to monitor and share information about the use of prescription drugs across state lines. Doctors in non-participating states, however, can still use other states' data about patients when making decisions about prescribing drugs. Doctors all states should consult records if they have any question about a patient's honesty: this can either flag a potential addict, or set their mind at ease when they write a prescription for a patient who says that…… [Read More]

One problem for law enforcement is the lack of a consistent medical and legal bookkeeping strategy for individuals being prescribed addictive prescription painkillers. Prescription drug addicts will often go from doctor to doctor, crossing state lines to get their 'fix' and often succeed in persuading unsuspecting doctors to give them more opiates. The 2005 National All Schedules Prescription Electronic Reporting allocated $50 million to states to create a program that will allow doctors interstate access to patient records, to make sure that the patient is not 'doctor swapping.' Although the program is still under-funded, and many states, including Vermont, are not actively participating in the program, it is hoped it will cut down on the number of patients using doctors to provide them with their 'fix.'

Author's Points: A coherent system across all 50 states is required for doctors to have the security of knowing that they have a full and complete picture of a patient's medical history before prescribing a potentially addictive opiate painkiller. Knowledge of the program's existence within a state can also hopefully act as a deterrent for an addicted 'doctor-shopper.'

Article Relevance: Doctors are growing increasingly cautious about prescribing pain medication. This is unfortunate, given the fact that not treating pain can be equally dangerous as over-treating pain. States' lack of sharing of information in the name of state's rights and patient privacy is interfering with doctors' abilities to provide appropriate care. Currently, 41 states have used federal funding to monitor and share information about the use of prescription drugs across state lines. Doctors in non-participating states, however, can still use other states' data about patients when making decisions about prescribing drugs. Doctors all states should consult records if they have any question about a patient's honesty: this can either flag a potential addict, or set their mind at ease when they write a prescription for a patient who says that he or she is in pain.
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Analyzing Prevalence Among Alcohol and or Drug Users for HIV AIDS Infection

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98994622

Alcohol and/or Drug Users for HIV / AIDS Infection

People abuse/use a number of both legal and illegal substances, recreationally. Of these, the most commonly abused substance is alcohol. Drugs include cocaine (which includes crack), pot or marijuana, amphetamines (speed), ecstasy, and heroin. Drugs have the potential to intensify risks of an individual contracting HIV infection, and are capable of giving rise to special issues in already-infected individuals (University of California, 2011).

Substance abuse is associated with innumerable risk factors. One factor that serves to hamper efforts towards preventing HIV spread and proper treatment of those who are infected is alcohol use or misuse by infected or at-risk populations. esearchers are now gaining deeper insights into the multifaceted link between HIV infection and consumption of alcohol. Drug/alcohol abuse may impair an individual's judgment, causing him/her to participate in sexual activities that put him/her at risk (Bryant, Nelson, Braithwaite & oach,…… [Read More]

References

Bryant, K. J., Nelson, S., Braithwaite, R., & Roach, D. (2010). Integrating HIV / AIDS and alcohol research. Alcohol Health & Research World, 33(3), 167-178

Substance Abuse Issues (2014). Retrieved June 20, 2016 from  https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/staying-healthy-with-hiv-aids/taking-care-of-yourself/substance-abuse-issues/ 

University of California (2011). What is the connection between alcohol, other drugs, and HIV? Retrieved June 20, 2016 from  http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/hiv?page=basics-00-16
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Businesses and Drug Tests

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82042889

people engage in recreational activities. Sometimes these activities involve the use of alcohol or drugs. Although people can engage in some alcohol and drug usage dependent on state and federal legislature, many drugs remain prohibited. Because most drugs remain prohibited, it is important for businesses to monitor the potential usage of drugs amongst its employees. It is important for a business to have employees that are healthy and can function at their best most of the time. Therefore, drug testing should be implemented at least annually, for most jobs.

Companies must perform drug testing on their employees for several reasons. The first reason is preventative. Drug users often incur higher medical expenses versus the employees not on drugs. By identifying a potential drug user, the company can take the steps necessary to remove that employee and avoid unnecessary medical costs.

The second reason is deterring drug use. Employees applying for…… [Read More]

References

Davies, P., Francis, P., & Jupp, V. (2016). Invisible crimes: Their victims and their regulation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Knowlton, E. (2016, May 7). Maria Sharapova failed drug test at Australian Open - Business Insider. Retrieved from  http://www.businessinsider.com/maria-sharapova-meldonium-failed-drug-test-australian-open-2016-3 

NIH. (2017). DrugFacts: Marijuana | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved from  https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana
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Marijuana Is a Gateway Drug

Words: 1406 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 38583269



References

Cherry, Kendra. (2013). What is a cross-sectional study? About.com. Retrieved:

http://psychology.about.com/od/cindex/g/cross-sectional.htm

Cross-sectional vs. longitudinal studies. (2009). At Work, 55. Retrieved:

https://www.iwh.on.ca/wrmb/cross-sectional-vs.-longitudinal-studies

Guns don't kill people; people kill people

While I appreciate your efforts to apply the three criteria of judging causation to the question of gun control, I think there are other variables that must be taken into consideration in evaluating the first criteria. Even if the intention may be present regarding the desire to kill another human being, regardless of whether there is a gun present or not, it is difficult to argue that the presence of guns make the commission of a crime far easier than many other weapons. Stabbing or harming someone in a fist fight can be deadly, but it is much easier for someone to coolly and impersonally use a gun to commit murder from a distance.

Perhaps a better way of phrasing the…… [Read More]

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Overlapping Neural Correlates for Food and Drug

Words: 1721 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 7093978

Overlapping Neural Correlates for Food and Drug Addiction

Food Addiction

The Neural Correlates of Food and Drug Addiction Overlap

A recent popular press article in the Huffington Post reviewed a recently published research article that revealed the brain functions in a similar manner whether a person is addicted to food or drugs. Women scoring high as emotional eaters and exposed to a milkshake preferentially activated the anterior cingulate cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and caudate, as imaged by fMI. The lateral orbitofrontal cortex was less active when compared to the brains of subjects scoring low as emotional eaters. These areas correspond to those that have been found to be involved in drug using/seeking behavior, which suggests the mechanisms involved in food and drug addiction are similar or the same. Previously published research studies support this conclusion, although addiction-related behaviors are very complex and additional studies will be…… [Read More]

References

Coletta, Maria, Platek, Steven, Mohamed, Feroze B., van Steenburgh, J. Jason, Green, Deborah, and Lowe, Michael R. (2009). Brain activation in restrained and unrestrained eaters: An fMRI study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118, 598-609.

Gearhardt, Ashley N., Yokum, Sonja, Orr, Patrick T., Stice, Eric, Corbin, William R., and Brownell, Kelly D. (2011). Neural correlates of food addiction. Archives of General Psychiatry, Published online ahead of print April 4, 2011. Retrieved April 5, 2011 from  http://archpsyc.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/archgenpsychiatry.2011.32v1 

Goldstein, Rita Z., Tomasi, Dardo, Alia-Klein, Nelly, Carillo, Jean H., Maloney, Thomas, Woicik, Patricia A. et al. (2009). Dopaminergic response to drug words in cocaine addiction. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(18), 6001-6006.

Killgore, William D.S. And Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A. (2006). Affect modulates appetite-related brain activity to images of food. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39, 357-363.
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Smuggling of Drugs Into Prison

Words: 1411 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 43266895

Prison Substance Abuse

If there are two things that plague prisons the most other than violence, they would obviously be drug dependency and mental illness. Quite often, there is a combination of the two in the same prisoners. However, there is also the problem of active drug use and dealing in prison and that shall be the focus of this brief research report. Within this report, there will be a statement of purpose, a description of the research design, the overall research findings, a discussion section and then a conclusion with a resolution. eferences to scholarly literature will pervade this report. While prisons and their personnel due to their best to curb or even stop substance abuse in prison, the influx of drugs is never-ending and the importation thereof is done in many different ways.

Statement of Purpose

The purpose of this study is fairly easy. The amount of literature…… [Read More]

References

Forsyth, Simon J., et al. "Striking Subgroup Differences In Substance-Related Mortality After Release From Prison." Addiction 109.10 (2014): 1676-1683. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 6 Dec. 2015.

Obstbaum, Yaira, and Sasu Tyni. "Who Receives Substance Abuse Treatment In The 'Real World' Of The Prison? A Register-Based Study Of Finnish Inmates." Journal Of Scandinavian Studies In Criminology & Crime Prevention 16.1 (2015): 76-96. Legal Collection. Web. 6 Dec. 2015.

Wood, Steven R., and Anthony, Jr. Buttaro. "Co-Occurring Severe Mental Illnesses And Substance Abuse Disorders As Predictors Of State Prison Inmate Assaults." Crime & Delinquency 59.4 (2013): 510-535. ERIC. Web. 6 Dec. 2015.

Zarkin, Gary A.1, et al. "Lifetime Benefits And Costs Of Diverting Substance-Abusing Offenders From State Prison." Crime & Delinquency 61.6 (2015): 829-850. Education Abstracts (H.W. Wilson). Web. 6 Dec. 2015.
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Drug Abuse in Eastern Kentucky

Words: 3027 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 29623389

drug use and abuse in the United States and presents differing approaches that are used (or proposed) to get a handle on the problem. There is no doubt that the drug abuse issue is not new and it is not being reduced by any significant amount. This paper presents statistics and scholarly research articles that delve into various aspects of the drug abuse issue in the United States, with particular emphasis on drugs that are abused in eastern Kentucky and generally in the Appalachian communities.

History of Drug Use & Availability

The history of illegal drug use in the United States goes back to the 19th Century, according to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). The DEA has a Museum in Arlington, Virginia, that illustrates the history of drug discoveries, drug use, and drug abuse through the years. The DEA reports that morphine, heroin, and cocaine were "discovered" in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2008). Drugs and Crime Facts / Drug Use / Youth. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://bjs.ojp.usdog.gov.

Drug Enforcement Agency. (2012). Illegal Drugs in America: A Modern History. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from  http://www.deamuseum.org .

Grant, Judith. (2007). Rural women's stories of recovery from addition. Addiction Research and Theory, 15(5), 521-541.

Havens, Jennifer R., Oser, Carrie B., and Leukefeld, Carl G. (2011). Injection risk behaviors
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Drug Usage the War on

Words: 951 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64588456

To begin with, once the drugs have already been taken and an addiction problem has already developed, the best strategy is treatment (Marlatt & Donovan, 2005). Because these two substances, drugs and alcohol, are so damaging to the body, the best initial treatment would be to detox. This allows for the body to get used to the idea of not having any stimulant or depressant to regulate emotions and gives the individual the opportunity to start from scratch (Botvin & Griffin, 2005). Being completely free of the substance will also allow for a more thorough treatment to be implemented without the fear of a relapse.

After the initial detoxification stage, psychological treatment needs to be provided to these individuals as their body is going to go through a complete physiological change that is inevitably going to unbalance their emotions. Aside from the physical addiction that individuals go through when attempting…… [Read More]

References:

Allen, M., Donohue, W.A., Griffin, a., Ryan, D., & Turner, M.M.M. (2003). Comparing the Influence of Parents and Peers on the Choice to Use Drugs a Meta-Analytic Summary of the Literature. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 30(2), 163-186

Botvin, G.J., & Griffin, K.W. (2005). Prevention science, drug abuse prevention, and life skills training: Comments on the state of the science. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 1(1), 63-78.

Marlatt, G.A., & Donovan, D.M. (Eds.). (2005). Relapse prevention: Maintenance strategies in the treatment of addictive behaviors. The Guilford Press.

Miller, H.V. (2010). Acculturation, social context, and drug use: Findings from a sample of Hispanic adolescents. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 36, 93-105. doi: 10.1007/s12103-010-9086-y
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Drug Abuse Scenario Analysis

Words: 1958 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 41487760

drives under the influence of alcohol, it is a criminal offense abbreviated as driving under the influence (DUI). However alcohol is but one of the many substances that can interfere with one's driving capability. DUI charges can also be pressed against individuals who are driving under the influence of other kinds of drugs, including illegal drugs and even prescription medication. Taking drugs and driving at the same time, whether the drugs are just prescription muscle relaxers or medicinal marijuana is illegal and a DUI offense. The argument that one took drugs because of doctor's orders is not a defense to DUI charges. Various drugs have different effects on drivers. The drugs that impair concentration, judgment, alertness and/or motor skills are regarded as dangerous and in several cases even more dangerous than alcohol. Driving while having a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of more than 0.08% or higher is illegal in the…… [Read More]

References

African-Americans, Substance Abuse and Spirituality - Minority Nurse. (2013, March 29). Retrieved from  http://minoritynurse.com/african-americans-substance-abuse-and-spirituality/ 

Cohagan, A., Worthington, R., & Krause, R. (2013, July 3). Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation . Retrieved from  http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/805084-overview#aw2aab6b3 

FindLaw. (n.d.). Driving Under the Influence of Drugs - FindLaw. Retrieved from  http://dui.findlaw.com/dui-charges/driving-under-the-influence-of - drugs.html

MedlinePlus. (n.d.). Steroids: MedlinePlus. Retrieved from  http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/steroids.html
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Drugs Explored in Music

Words: 1892 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 29720651

social poblem of using and selling dugs is potayed in music. I'm inteested in studying this because music has at once been accused of gloifying dug cultue and also as being one of the few means of allowing uses to vent on the ealities of dug cultue. Clealy, the elationship between dugs and music is a complex one. This pape will seek to shed light on the motivations fo atists to incopoate dug cultue in thei songs and what they pesumably gain fom it, and what society pesumably gains fom it as well.

The fist song that this pape will examine when it comes to the teatment of dugs as subject matte fo songs is in the wok of 2 Pac in his famous song, "Changes." This song is so emakable in that it addesses a temendous amount of social injustice in that is still alive and well in the…… [Read More]

references. Music Ther Perspectives, 69-76.

Duff, C. (2003). Drugs and Youth Cultures: Is Australia Experiencing the 'Normalization' of Adolescent Drug Use? Journal of Youth Studies, 433-447.

Genius.com. (n.d.). Corner Bodega. Retrieved from genius.com:  http://rap.genius.com/50-cent-corner-bodega-coke-spot-lyrics 

Genius.com. (n.d.). The Way We Get By. Retrieved from Genius.com:  http://rock.genius.com/Spoon-the-way-we-get-by-lyrics 

Lyrics.com. (n.d.). Changes 2 pac. Retrieved from lyrics.com:  http://www.lyrics.com/changes-lyrics-2pac.html
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Drugs and Terrorism in Germany

Words: 759 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70884211

Germany Illicit Drugs and Terrorism Issues

Germany's illicit drugs range from use of ecstasy, cannabis, cocaine, and heroin. Germany has made recent efforts as of February, 15th 2012 with the adoption of a National Strategy on Drug and Addiction Policy through the Federal cabinet that has the main aim of aiding individuals in reducing and avoiding their overall consumption of illicit and licit substances and associated addictive behaviors. Through prevention, addiction help, counseling/treatment, harm minimization efforts, and repression Germany hopes to provide the necessary changes to reduce drug usage. Germany is also making efforts towards battling terrorism through the creation of the BFE. The anti-terrorist unit aims to react quickly to potential or actual terrorist attacks through five locations and 250 security operatives.

Disputes

Drug Possession and injection does not make up most drug disputes within Germany. Drug dealing, purchasing drugs online has become a big problem and that is…… [Read More]

References

EMCDDA,. (2016). Germany country overview - www.emcdda.europa.eu. Emcdda.europa.eu. Retrieved 27 November 2016, from  http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/countries/germany 

Foster, A. (2016). Terrorism in Germany: Past terror attacks and plots. Express.co.uk. Retrieved 27 November 2016, from  http://www.express.co.uk/news/world/652765/Terrorist-attacks-Germany-Terrorism-Foiled-plots-Threat-Security-Islamic-State-ISIS 

OSAC,. (2016). Germany 2016 Crime & Safety Report. OSAC. Retrieved 27 November 2016, from  https://www.osac.gov/pages/Contentreportdetails.aspx?cid=19030 

Tzanetakis, M., Kamphausen, G., Werse, B., & von Laufenberg, R. (2016). The transparency paradox. Building trust, resolving disputes and optimising logistics on conventional and online drugs markets. International Journal Of Drug Policy, 35, 58-68.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.12.010
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Drug and Alcohol Abuse in the Military

Words: 2583 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 36327230

Army Substance Abuse Program, in terms of the program's history, its employment requirements, and the rationale behind them. It looks at various jobs within the hierarchy of this program, from the commanders responsible for implementing the program on the level of installations or garrisons, to the trained personnel taking urine samples. By way of demonstrating the utility of the continued education requirement even for the personnel collecting urine, the paper notes the existence of such widespread willingness to deceive testing, and then reviews recent peer-reviewed studies with potential relevance for successful implementation of Army Substance Abuse Program theories, curricula, and policies.

Introduction

The Army Center for Substance Abuse Programs was first established in 1971 in response to a law requiring the Secretary of Defense to identify, treat, and rehabilitate members of the U.S. military determined to be dependent upon alcohol or illicit drugs; similar legislation followed to require the same…… [Read More]

References

Lande, R.G.; Marin, B. (2009) Biomarker characteristics of alcohol use in the U.S. Army. J Addict Diseases 28: 158-163. DOI:10.1080/10550880902772506

Larson, M.J.; Wooten, N.R.; Adams, R.S.; et al. (2012). Military combat deployments and substance use: Review and future directions. J Soc Work Pract Addict 12: 6-27. doi: 10.1080/1533256X.2012.647586

McFarling, L.; D'Angelo, M.; Drain, M.; et al. (2011). Stigma as a barrier to substance abuse and mental health treatment. Military Psychology 23: 1-5  http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08995605.2011.534397 

Milliken, C.S.; Auchterlonie, J.L.; Hoge, C.W. (2007). Longitudinal assessment of mental health problems among active and reserve component soldiers returning from the Iraq War. JAMA 298: 2141-2148 doi:10.1001/jama.298.18.2141
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Drug and Alcohol Dependency

Words: 3384 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 17580804

Alcohol and substance abuse is a prevalent problem among youth. Effects of alcohol and substance abuse range from mental health problems like depression and suicide ideation to dating violence, to poor academic performance (adliff, Wheaton, obinson, & Morris, 2012). Early exposure to substance and alcohol abuse in the home may lead to an earlier instance of drug and alcohol abuse. This is because of the higher degree of availability and potential lack of parental involvement. This research paper aims to highlight the various ways in which drug and alcohol abuse affect youth from within and outside the home.

Effects of alcohol and substance abuse on high school youth

Academic failure can be one effect of substance and alcohol abuse. One study notes the lack of school commitment from youth experimenting with drugs and alcohol (Kelly et al., 2015, p. 627). The study examined gender, and substance/alcohol abuse in a 30-day…… [Read More]

References

Benjet, C., Borges, G., Medina-Mora, M., & Mendez, E. (2013). Chronic childhood adversity and stages of substance use involvement in adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 131(1-2), 85-91.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.12.002 

Epstein-Ngo, Q., Cunningham, R., Whiteside, L., Chermack, S., Booth, B., Zimmerman, M., & Walton, M. (2013). A daily calendar analysis of substance use and dating violence among high risk urban youth. Drug And Alcohol Dependence, 130(1-3), 194-200.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.11.006 

Gauffin, K., Vinnerljung, B., Fridell, M., Hesse, M., & Hjern, A. (2013). Childhood socio-economic status, school failure and drug abuse: a Swedish national cohort study. Addiction, 108(8), 1441-1449.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.12169 

Ivanov, I., Liu, X., Shulz, K., Fan, J., London, E., & Friston, K. et al. (2012). Parental substance abuse and function of the motivation and behavioral inhibition systems in drug-naive youth. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 201(2), 128-135.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2011.08.004
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Legal Response to Drugs

Words: 1236 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9481766

Drugs

Decriminalization of drugs is an ineffective legal policy that has harmed millions of Americans. Since Nixon's declaration of "war" on drugs, American policy towards mind-altering substances has been as violent and futile as the term "war on drugs" would suggest. Drug use is not qualitatively different from alcohol use. The prohibition of alcohol failed miserably in the early 20th century, leading also to a proliferation in profitable black market businesses that fueled organized crime. The same pattern has been occurring with mind-altering substances of all types. Drug cartels have blossomed throughout the Americas, and the global black marketplace is teeming with criminal behaviors that are linked to protecting the lucrative but illegal drug trade. If trading in drugs were akin to trading in alcohol, then drug cartels would no longer need the massive stashes of weapons used to protect their property. The war on drugs has ruined far more…… [Read More]

Reference

Sledge, M. (2013). The drug war and mass incarceration by the numbers. The Huffington Post. Retrieved online:  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/08/drug-war-mass-incarceration_n_3034310.html
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Signs and Treatment of Drug Overdose a Comparison of Heroin and Ecstasy

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4199194

Drug Overdoes

Ecstasy vs. Heroin overdoses -- treatment and diagnosis

For many EMTs, depending on the city and time they are stationed in, one of the most common problems they will have to cope with is dealing with a drug overdose. However, although all drug overdoses are dangerous, not all illegal drug overdoses are the same, symptomatically or in their treatment. A great deal of misinformation exists regarding drug overdoses and their treatment in popular culture -- even the popular film "Pulp Fiction" which depicts a 'successful' treatment of snorted heroin is in fact inaccurate -- ephedrine to the heart would not have saved a victim of a heroin overdose in real life. (Kuhn, 2003)

hen dealing with any suspected drug overdose, the first thing to determine is in fact the victim's symptoms are indeed due to the ingestion of a drug, rather than of alternate cause. This is especially…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ecstasy Overdose." (2004) Drug Overdose.Com. Retrieved on June 17, 2004 at  http://www.drug-overdose.com/heroin.htm 

Heroin Overdose." (2004) Drug Overdose.Com Retrieved on June 17, 2004 at  http://www.drug-overdose.com/ecstasy.htm 

Kuhn, Cynthia, et al. (2003) Buzzed: The Straight Facts about the Most Used and Abused Drugs from Alcohol to Ecstasy. Second Edition. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
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Legalizing Drugs

Words: 1008 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62692066

Drug Legalization

This week, Columbian drug smugglers surgically opened six Labrador retriever and Rottweiler puppies and stuffed packets of heroin inside their bellies. Countless human beings have willingly stuck packages of illegal substances into any available bodily orifice or swallowed unknown quantities only to pass them out later. These instances indicate the grimly extreme lengths drug smugglers are willing to go in order to circumvent American drug prohibition laws. Drug trafficking is one of the world's most dangerous businesses; trafficking is intimately connected to crimes ranging from theft to murder to terrorism. In an article in Canadian paper the National Post, Ted Carpenter notes that both leftist and rightist paramilitary groups have "been financed largely by that country's cocaine trade." Carpenter continues to state, "The harsh reality is that terrorist groups have been enriched by prohibitionist drug policies that drive up drug costs ... hat anti-drug crusaders refuse to acknowledge…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carpenter, Ted Galen. (4 Jan 2005). "Drug Prohibition is a terrorist's best friend." National Post.

'Heroine found hidden in puppies' bellies." (5 Jan 2005). MSNBC.com. <  http://msnbc.msn.com/id/6791103/ >.

Ostrowski, James (1989). "Thinking About Drug Legalization." CATO Institute. <  http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa121es.html >.

'Speaking Out Against Drug Legalization." United States Drug Enforcement Agency. <  http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/demand/speakout/ >.
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The Drug Policy in the Us

Words: 941 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14621883

Drug Abuse in America

(Approximately one page)

Looking at drug abuse in America, what are the most important predictive factors in drug abuse? Why does it matter and how does it inform American understanding of drug related issues in society? How does crack or methamphetamines impact the physiological, psychological, and social conditions of abusers? How would your response impact policy?

Drug abuse in the United States is rampant and the country has been involved in a War on Drugs for several generations. Today in the United States, according to the ureau of Justice Statistics, 55% of federal prisoners and 21% of state-level prisoners are incarcerated on the basis of drug-related offenses which represents an incarcerated population greater than the population of Wyoming; the federal government is spending over twenty-two billion dollars alone on a so-called war that 76% of the population view as a failure (Head, Key Facts About the…… [Read More]

Bloom, S. (2015, July 2). States Where Marijuana Is Legal, Decriminalized or Medicalized. Retrieved from Celebstoner:  http://www.celebstoner.com/news/marijuana-news/2013/08/23/marijuana-laws-nationwide/ 

Kain, E. (2011, July 5). Ten Years After Decriminalization, Drug Abuse Down by Half in Portugal. Retrieved from Forbes:  http://www.forbes.com/sites/erikkain/2011/07/05/ten-years-after-decriminalization-drug-abuse-down-by-half-in-portugal/ 

Stebbins, S. (2015, September 16). The next 11 states that will legalize marijuana. Retrieved from Market Watch:  http://www.marketwatch.com/story/the-next-11-states-that-will-legalize-marijuana-2015-09-16
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How to Help an Addict

Words: 800 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87541872

Drug addiction manifests in many ways, but drug and alcohol dependency are by far the most pervasive of all kinds of drug addiction (Marks, 2009). Not less than 125, 000 Americans lose their lives to drug addiction and alcoholism every year (Marks, 2009).

Drug addiction and alcoholism are chronic conditions that are characterized by alterations in the brain, which have the power to make an individual to have uncontrollable desires for alcohol and drug abuse in spite of the harmful effects (Marks, 2009).

People suffering from drug addiction or alcoholism are not "immoral" or "weak'. Just like diabetes and hypertension, the conditions are real diseases occasioned by behavior, environmental influences and genetics.

Alcoholism and Drug Addiction: isk Factors

Not one factor has been found to singly contribute to the development of drug addiction and alcoholism (Marks, 2009). The development of addiction in a person can be influenced by the individual's…… [Read More]

References

Ramani, A. (n.d.). Impact of Drug Abuse on Health and Society - Reference. Retrieved September 12, 2015, from  http://www.medindia.net/patients/patientinfo/impact-of-drug-abuse-on-health-and-society.htm 

Hedy, M. (2009, April 20). Risk Factors for Drug Addiction and Alcoholism -- Addiction

Center- EverydayHealth.com. Retrieved September 12, 2015, from  http://www.everydayhealth.com/addiction/drug-addiction-and-alcoholism-risk-factors.aspx 

DrugFacts: Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction (2009). National Institute on Drug