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Drug Legalization as the Country
Words: 3788 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89122943
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"As a case in point we may take the known fact of the prevalence of reefer and dope addiction in Negro areas. This is essentially explained in terms of poverty, slum living, and broken families, yet it would be easy to show the lack of drug addiction among other ethnic groups where the same conditions apply." Inciardi 248()

Socio-economic effects

Legalizing drugs has been deemed to have many socio-economic effects. A study that was conducted by Jeffrey a. Miron, who was a Harvard economist estimated that by legalizing drugs, this would inject about $76.8 billion in to the U.S. every year. 44.1 billion dollars would come from savings made from the law enforcement measures and 32.7 billion would be from tax revenue. This revenue can be thought to be broken down as follows: 6.7 billion dollars from marijuana, 22.5 billion from heroin and cocaine and the rest from the other…

References

Blumenson, Eric, and Eva S. Nilsen. How to Construct an Underclass, or How the War on Drugs Became a War on Education. Massachusetts: Drug Policy Forum of Massachusetts, 2002. Print.

Campos, Isaac. "Degeneration and the Origins of Mexico's War on Drugs." Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 26.2 (2010): 379-408. Print.

Chabat, Jorge. "Mexico's War on Drugs: No Margin for Maneuver." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 582.ArticleType: research-article / Issue Title: Cross-National Drug Policy / Full publication date: Jul., 2002 / Copyright © 2002 American Academy of Political and Social Science (2002): 134-48. Print.

Council on Hemispheric Affairs. "Low Taxation Perpetuates Insecurity in Central America." 2011. May 5th 2012. .

Drug Legalization of Drugs Legalization
Words: 3087 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44577201
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Economists are concerned with the impact that the sale of drugs has on both individual and economic freedoms and frame their argument from this perspective. Others argue that reliance on the criminal justice system has not produced significant results and that it is time to reframe the argument to focus on the education, prevention, and treatment of drugs.

From the economic perspective, there are apparent differences between government prohibition and legalization of drugs. It has been estimated that total government expenditures devoted to the enforcement of drug laws is well in excess of $26 billion. These figures are also significant in state and local law enforcement agencies with drug related incidents making up one fifth of the total investigative resources and drug enforcement activities. Approximately 25% of the total prison population, municipal, state and federal, is made up of drug law violators. In fact, ten percent of all arrests are…

References

Millhorn, M., Monoghan, M., Montero, D., Reyes, M., Roman, T., Tollasken, R., & Walls, B. (2009). North Americans' attitudes toward illegal drugs. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(2), 125-141.

Miron, J.A. (2001). The economics of drug prohibition and drug legalization. Social Research, 68(3), 835-855.

National Institute on Drug Abuse (1998). The economic cost of alcohol and drug abuse in the United States. National Institute of Health Publication, 98-4327.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2009, April). National household survey on drug abuse main findings, 1998.

Drug Sentencing in the U S Criminal Justice
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 54369199
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Drug Sentencing in the U.S. Criminal Justice System

The objective of the research proposed in this document is to examine the issue of drug sentencing in the U.S. Criminal Justice System in order to determine if the sentencing used is effective in bringing about a reduction in drug offenses and the rehabilitation of prisoners in successful return to society following incarceration.

(1) Is drug sentencing in the U.S. Criminal Justice System effective in reducing repeat offenses?

(2) Are individuals successful returned to society following incarceration and rehabilitation programs?

(3) Is the U.S. Criminal Justice system succeeding or failing and are drug sentencing laws negatively or impacting the success of the U.S. Criminal Justice system in regards to drug sentencing laws?

Significance of the Study

The significance of the study is the additional knowledge that will be added to the already existing knowledge base in this area of study.

Methodology

The…

Bibliography

Clickman, Rubin (2011) Sentencing Guidelines in the American Justice System. FindLaw. Retrieved from: http://knowledgebase.findlaw.com/kb/2010/Nov/203582.html

Kansal, T. And Mauer, M. (2005) RACIAL DISPARITY IN SENTENCING: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. JANUARY 2005. Retrieved from:  http://www.prisonpolicy.org/scans/sp/disparity.pdf 

Stevens, John Paul CJ (2011) Our Broken System of Criminal Justice. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved from:  http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2011/nov/10/our-broken-system-criminal-justice/?pagination=false

Drug-Related Crime Many People Who
Words: 1590 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33725497
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One example of the kind of policy change that is being suggested by some in the particular war on Meth is the reduction of the ability of meth makers, especially large scale makers to realize the supplies of a small number of raw materials used to make the drug pseudoephedrine is quaaludes, as this drug was successfully removed from the radar screen by the banning of the chemicals used to make it, and this may be an option for all synthetic drugs.

Reurer 170)

orks Cited

Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.

Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.

Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.

Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.…

Works Cited

Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.

Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.

Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.

Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.

Drug Policies Major Policies History
Words: 3387 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8012701
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14). Soon, Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act, which was signed into law in 1937. Like the Harrison Act, the Marijuana Tax Act placed marijuana into the same category as the cocaine and opium drugs. It was now illegal to import marijuana into the United States (McWilliams, 1991). However, this law was ineffective in curbing marijuana use (Brecher, 1986, p. 14).

By the early 1940s narcotic addiction had significantly reduced in the United States (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999). However, this was not the result of legislative initiatives. Instead, it was because World War II was cutting off the "supplies of opium from Asia and interrupt the trafficking routes from Europe" (Inciardi, 1992, p. 24).

Several other legislative efforts in the supply reduction department served to establish more severe penalties for violations of drug laws, and tighten controls and restrictions over legally manufactured narcotic drugs (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999).…

References

1999). Recreational Drug Information. History of Drug Use U.S. Retrieved from the Internet at www.a1b2c3.com/drugs/.

Brecher, E. (1986). Drug Laws and Drug Law Enforcement: A Review and Evaluation Based on 111 Years of Experience,' Drugs and Society 1:1.

Drucker, Ernest. (1999). Harm Reduction: A Public Health Strategy. Current Issues in Public Health, 1: pp. 64-70.

Drug Policy Alliance. (February 17, 2005). Harm Reduction: Options that Work. Retrieved from the Internet at  http://www.drugpolicy.org/news/021705harm.cfm .

Drug Enforcement of the U S
Words: 1570 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 82357957
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All too often, the human stories of how and why certain people get involved in such rings are avoided. Tobon looked past this, and has become a valuable person to the Colombian community. The police even call him now, when they find the body of a mule. One way in which to deprive criminals of their unsuspecting dupes is by eliminating backbreaking poverty, by giving individuals a chance to pull themselves up by the bootstraps without having to resort to illegal measures. In the meantime, mules are a different sort of criminal than the ringleaders of these drug trafficking organizations, and so therefore ought to be tried in a court of law differently.

1. PBS (2009). The Border

Accompanying website Last accessed March 2010: http://www.pbs.org/kpbs/theborder/

2. -. Drug Trafficking in the United States DEA Fact Sheet.

Last accessed April 2010: http://www.justice.gov/dea/pubs/state_factsheets.html

3. Altschuler, David & Brounstein, Paul. (1992) Patterns of…

6. Sesin, Carmen. (2004, May 25). Caring for 'drug mules' who perish on the job. MSNBC.

Last accessed March 2010:  http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5050399/ 

 http://articles.sfgate.com/2007-01-28/news/17227058_1_san-diego-tijuana-border-initiative-crossings-at-san-ysidro-drug-trade

Court Services Management
Words: 1436 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1528913
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Court Service Management

How does a court system cope with a changing of the guard when a new administration is elected and key executives and managers are replaced, and/or when policy changes direction as a new political party assumes power?

The court deals with transitions of power by maintaining the established traditions and principles from the Constitution. This is used to ensure that case precedent is respected and to provide stability for the entire political system. As the basic guarantees of the Constitution will not change and cannot be adjusted based upon a new party coming to power. In this case, the structure and attitudes will remain the same. This is from the institution and its practices remaining in place. egardless of what is happening with transitions in power. (Koopmans, 2003) (Neubauer, 2012) (Oakley, 2009)

However, the courts will be impacted by these changes to a certain extent. This will…

References

Glannon, J. (2008). Civil Procedures. Frederick, MD: Kluwer Law.

Howard, J. (1999). The Shifting Wind. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.

Koopmans, T. (2003). Courts and Political Institutions. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Lane, S. (2012). Highway 420. Staten Island, NY: Sandi Lane.

Drug Use the Courage to
Words: 1835 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83058487
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The benefits of ending the cycle of drug and alcohol abuse far outweigh the pain and hard work involved. Living a clean and sober lifestyle allows people to make their own decisions, not decisions based on their physical need for drugs or alcohol. They will regain their self-respect, and find happiness in the things they were neglecting during their use and abuse. Finally, their body will be free of the physical tolls of alcohol and drugs.

For someone like Jared, working to end his alcohol abuse will improve his life in many ways. First, working toward change will show his wife, his mother, and the rest of the people who love him that he does not want to hurt them and wants to change. While other problems may exist in Jared's marriage and life, he owes it to himself and those that he loves to try. He might spend more…

Effects of Drugs on the Economy
Words: 2964 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 89660913
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Drugs on the Economy

History of drugs in the United States

How drugs affect the United States Economy both positively and negatively

How decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stand to lessen the burden on tax-payers

Wonder drugs like morphine, heroine, and cocaine to mention but a few pose a lot of problems to the entire American society. Americans have had to grapple with the deleterious effects of drug abuse and addiction. estrictions were imposed at the beginning of the 20th Century through domestic and overseas law enforcement to contain the drugs epidemic. Such enforcements were initiated to limit opium and cocoa crops (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2012). This term paper seeks to give a brief history of drugs in the United States of America and subsequently outline how drug use affects the American economy both positively and negatively. The paper also endeavors to list how decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stands…

References List

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011). Prisoners in 2010 (revised). Retrieved June 22, 2012 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=2230

Drug Enforcement Administration. (2012). Illegal drugs in America: A modern

History. Retrieved June 22, from http://www.deamuseum.org/museum_ida.html

Easton, S. (2009). Legalize Marijuana for Tax Revenue. Retrieved June 22, from  http://www.businessweek.com/debateroom/archives/2010/03/legalize_mariju.html

Social Issue Alcohol Drugs Consider a Social
Words: 1118 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83850354
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Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.

Social issue: Drug abuse

The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…

References

Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.

Retrieved at:

http://articles.cnn.com/2011-11-01/justice/justice_crack-cocaine-sentencing_1_powder-cocaine-fair-sentencing-act-crack-penalties?_s=PM:JUSTICE

Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:

Federal Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences and Their
Words: 2517 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 18974474
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Federal Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences and Their Impact on Recidivism

There is much controversy regarding mandatory sentencing and its impact on the American society throughout recent times. In many ways, prisons are used as a means to control crime, to protect society from it, with criminals being deterred from continuing to commit illegalities as a direct result of the time they spend behind bars. Mandatory minimums were generally introduced with the purpose of preventing future recidivism. The authorities considered that the uncomfortable nature of prison life and the social status associated with being in prison were enough to persuade criminals to refrain from ever expressing interest in illegalities once they were set free. Other schools of thought appear to think just the opposite as some believe that prison time actually has a negative impact on convicts, while others believe that criminals experience little to no change consequent to staying in…

Works cited:

Book:

Goldberg, Raymond, "Drugs Across the Spectrum, 7th ed.," (Cengage Learning, 5 Oct 2012)

Kitwana, Bakari, "The Hip-Hop Generation: Young Blacks and the Crisis in African-American Culture," (Basic Civitas Books, 2008)

Lyman, Michael D., "Drugs in Society: Causes, Concepts, and Control," (Newnes, 25 Sep 2013)

Juvenile Delinquency Drug Crimes
Words: 9197 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69293543
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Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes

Researchers are now focused on developing and evaluating programs designed to break the drug-crime cycle that is common in juvenile delinquents. This paper will summarize existing literature about programs designed to prevent the juvenile drug-crime cycle and, based on that literature, identify interventions that offer the best chances for success. This paper will also provide guidelines and recommendations for developing a comprehensive juvenile justice system that can best address the needs of juvenile offenders involved with drug crimes.

This thesis is expected to make a contribution to the selection of successful interventions and the development of collaborative partnerships in the juvenile justice system, drug treatment programs, and other agencies as they attempt to break the cycle of drugs and crime afflicting U.S. juveniles.

Introduction

With the prevalence of drug crimes among juveniles and the complexity involved in their treatment, which must involve both the child…

Bibliography

Abuse and Dependence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 5 (1): 201-211.

Allison, M., and Hubbard, R.L. (1985). Drug abuse treatment process: A review of the literature. International Journal of the Addictions 20:13211345.

Anglin, M.D., and Hser, Y. (1990). Treatment of drug abuse. In Drugs and Crime, vol. 13, edited by M. Tonry and J.Q. Wilson. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Ball, J.C., Rosen, J.A., Flueck, J.A., and Nurco, D.N. (1981). The criminality of heroin addicts: When addicted and when off opiates. In The Drugs-Crime Connection, edited by J.A. Inciardi. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Southwestern Border Combating Drug Trade
Words: 4279 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37872183
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Combating Drug Trade Along the Southwestern Border

Proposed Strategy for Combating the Drug Trade along the Southwestern Border

The issue of drug trafficking and smuggling has been a serious concern for both Mexico and the United States for decades. Mexico has been identified as the primary supplier of narcotics to the U.S., with the Southwestern border accounting for between 90 and 95% of all illicit drugs smuggled illegally into the U.S. market. In 2007, the presidents of the two countries held a summit, where they pledged to work together, collaboratively in the fight against drug trafficking. Today, substance use accounts for approximately 26% of crimes committed in the U.S. Both the U.S. and the Mexican governments recognize the security threat posed by illicit drug use, and have committed themselves to addressing the problem once and for all. The two countries have implemented numerous initiatives geared at curbing the growth of…

References

Beith, M. (2010). The Last Narco: Into the Hunt for El-Chapo, the World's Most Wanted Drug Lord. New York, NY: Grove Press.

BJS. (2015). Drugs and Crime Facts. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved January 6, 2015 from  http://www.bjs.gov/content/dcf/duc.cfm 

Campbell, H. (2010). Drug War Zone: Frontline Dispatches from the Streets of El Paso and Juarez. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.

Engel, R. S. & Johnson, R. (2006). Toward a Better Understanding of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Search and Seizure Rates. Journal of Criminal Justice, 34 (6), 605-617.

Drug Tysabri That Was Tested
Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97795125
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According to these authors, the fatal tragedy could easily have been avoided by taking more time for more focused and carefully planned clinical trials. According to this view, it was unethical to test Tysabri in the way it has been done, and furthermore irresponsible to enter it into the market before all side-effects were ascertained.

3. Interested parties: The interested parties in this case include Walter Smith, Anita's widower, as well as Cambridge biotechnology and Elan Corp. From Smith's point-of-view, the companies are at fault for causing harm to his wife, and potential harm to many others using the drug. His current assertions regarding the reentry of the drug into the market appear to be well thought out and mature, focusing on the future benefit of patients rather than on his own need for revenge.

From the point-of-view of the companies, the drug is developed to help those suffering from…

Drug Abuse Scenario Analysis
Words: 1958 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 41487760
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drives under the influence of alcohol, it is a criminal offense abbreviated as driving under the influence (DUI). However alcohol is but one of the many substances that can interfere with one's driving capability. DUI charges can also be pressed against individuals who are driving under the influence of other kinds of drugs, including illegal drugs and even prescription medication. Taking drugs and driving at the same time, whether the drugs are just prescription muscle relaxers or medicinal marijuana is illegal and a DUI offense. The argument that one took drugs because of doctor's orders is not a defense to DUI charges. Various drugs have different effects on drivers. The drugs that impair concentration, judgment, alertness and/or motor skills are regarded as dangerous and in several cases even more dangerous than alcohol. Driving while having a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of more than 0.08% or higher is illegal in the…

References

African-Americans, Substance Abuse and Spirituality - Minority Nurse. (2013, March 29). Retrieved from  http://minoritynurse.com/african-americans-substance-abuse-and-spirituality/ 

Cohagan, A., Worthington, R., & Krause, R. (2013, July 3). Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation . Retrieved from  http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/805084-overview#aw2aab6b3 

FindLaw. (n.d.). Driving Under the Influence of Drugs - FindLaw. Retrieved from  http://dui.findlaw.com/dui-charges/driving-under-the-influence-of - drugs.html

MedlinePlus. (n.d.). Steroids: MedlinePlus. Retrieved from  http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/steroids.html

Drug Trade
Words: 382 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43058166
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Drug Trade

The international drug trade affects countless numbers of people personally, whether due to addiction or to organized crime-related death, or to imprisonment. How ever, the drug trade can also be placed in a broader social, political, and economic context. The international drug trade is a thriving black market industry. Its commodities are not exchanged on the New York Stock Exchange but in shady deals on darkened shipping docks. The international drug trade is, however, a lucrative industry, and its participants reap definite financial benefits.

The drug trade impacts the legitimate global economy by diverting funds towards policing, court costs, and other punitive procedures. Border patrols and other preventative measures also cost taxpayer money that could be diverted elsewhere.

Moreover, the thriving drug industry means that impoverished people are willing to risk the concurrent dangers associated with the trade in order to reap higher wages. For example, Afghani farmers…

Works Cited

'Drug Programme." United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved 1 Oct 2005 from http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/undcp.html

Yamane, Maki. "The Drug Trade." 18 Feb 1997. Retrieved 1 Oct 2005 from  http://www.chez.com/bibelec/publications/international/drugtrade.htm

Court Proceeding
Words: 1589 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57364703
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Criminal Court Observation

I must admit that when I entered the courthouse I was a bit nervous. It was my first time to attend any trial, let alone a criminal one. However, I thought that a criminal case would be far more interesting than a civil one. Yet, despite my decision, and my belief that it would be "no big deal" to watch a criminal court case, I began to feel very nervous the minute I hit the line for the metal detector. It's funny -- but I always feel just a little bit paranoid before I go through one of those machines -- almost as if I really were hiding some kind of weapon without knowing it.

Anyway, as I finally made my way into the courtroom after a long wait at security, I certainly did not feel any more at ease. For one, the room was too warm,…

American Drug Policy
Words: 3213 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 17883284
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Drug Policy

American Drug Policy: Marijuana

Marijuana is one of the most vilified drugs in history and it very difficult to see just why this is so. The United States used to have a thriving agricultural concern that consisted of hemp (marijuana) famers producing plants for their fibers and seeds. The fibers were used in products such as rope and paper and the seeds were used to make oil which served as a lubricant and a food additive. Unfortunately, people became aware of its psychotropic properties and growing marijuana for any reason was banned. This ban also coincided with the introduction of products that were superior to those made of hemp. The drug usage properties of marijuana had been known for centuries and it had been used in religious ceremonies and as an additive to medicines, but it could also be used in quantities that made the user completely incapacitated…

Works Cited

Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB). "Tax and Fee Rates." U.S. Department of Treasury, 2012. Web.

Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "No Rational Basis: The Pragmatic Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Virginia Journal of Social Policy & the Law 17.1 (2009): 43-82. Print.

Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "Liberty Lost: The Moral Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Indiana Law Journal 85.1 (2010): 279-299. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 Oct. 2012.

Chilea, Dragos. "A Brief Overview of Drug Control Policy in the United States and It's Current Challenges." Judicial Current 14.3 (2011): 13-22. Print.

Supreme Court of U S Has
Words: 1974 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25155642
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From the study of treatment for mothers on crack, 50 experts in drug dependency as well as 150 addicted women identify components which they believe are important in the treatment of women effectively. Some of the features that they had identified that are always not present within the current programs are: comprehensive health care such as family planning, prenatal as well as prevention of HIV; service for children such as play therapy, day care, parental training and developmental monitoring of a child; an advocacy role such as contact with protective services of a child as well as welfare; and appropriate staffing such as non-confrontational, female staffing as well as cultural and racial sensitive.

As evident in the finding of the study, there is preference within experts and women for a program that combines medical, drug treatment and therapeutic services for the child and the mother, job training and education, long-term…

Reference

MacGi-egor, (1989). Cocaine and prenatal Outcome. Obstetrics and Gyllecology.

Murphy. S.. & Rosenbaum. M., (1999). Pregnant women on drugs: Combating Stereotype.. New York: Guilford Press, 1999.

Reuter, (1994). Setting Priorities: Budget and Program Choices for Drug Control. Reprint h-om Toward a Rational Drug Policy. The University of' Chicago Legal Forum,1994, pp. 14S 173.

Weisdorf, T. Parran. TV., Graham, A. & Snyder, C., (1999). Comparison of pregnancy-specific Interventions to a Traditional treatment Program for Cocaine-addicted Pregnant Women. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment,1999, pp 16(1), 39-45.

Gambino Drug Family Their Entire Drig Business
Words: 1738 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63848743
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Gambino Drug Family." Their entire drig business was based in New York City. This paper will mirror the Gambino's nationwide and international structure and operating techniques relating to the drug business. Likewise a contrast of the Gambino's from their past to present function in prohibition, drug nexus, political corruption, and various other criminal activities will be analyzed. Gradually, the Gambino household had different business interests that made them much more noteworthy in the Italian Mafia. The paper will also assess various law enforcement tools, which can be used to against this drug family.

National and international structure and operating approaches related to the drug business

The Gambino's drug business structure and operating approaches come from really sturdy links with the Sicilian Drug trade (Critchley, 2008). Till 1914, there were no genuine laws or borders against the drug market in the U.S. (Critchley, 2008). The Boylan anti-drug Law, enacted by the…

References

Bruno, A. (n.d). The Gambino Family. Retrieved May 18, 2013 from  http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/gangsters_outlaws/family_epics/gambino/1.html 

Buscaglia, E. (2003). Controlling Organized Crime and Corruption in the Public Sector. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from  http://www.unodc.org/pdf/crime/forum/forum3_Art1.pdf 

Critchley, D. (2008). The Origin of Organized Crime in America: the New York City Mafia, 1891-1931. London: Rutledge.

Find Law. (2011). Racketeering/RICO. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from  http://criminal.findlaw.com /crimes/a-z/racketeering_rico.html

Juvenile Drug Abusers
Words: 2362 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56135135
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e. school, religious activities, sports, family involvement)." ("Juvenile detention," 2005, p. 11-12). These negative affects of increased usage not only directly affect juvenile drug abusers with increased occurrence of detention, but also make less effective rehabilitation programs needed for these young offenders.

Prevention Programs:

Over the last two decades, there have been a plethora of clinical trial research that have identified effective adolescent substance use prevention programs.

Sadly, funding for drug use prevention services has decreased over recent years, partly due to the increased need for drug user treatment for young people. As an example, in 2002, Congress reduced funding for community drug prevention studies at the U.S. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), by $50 million, in order to increase drug user treatment studies at the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. With reduced funding, it is of even greater importance that prevention programs are as effective as possible. Kumpfer,…

References

Bilchik, S. (1997). From the administrator. Retrieved September 21, 2007, at  http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/167251.pdf .

Juvenile detention as a disposition. (2005). Journal of Juvenile Justice Services, 20(2). Retrieved September 21, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Kumpfer, K., Alvarado, R., & Whiteside, H. (Jul 2003). Family-based interventions for substance use and misuse prevention. Substance Use & Misuse, 38(11-13). Retrieved September 21, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Lexcen, F. & Redding, R. (2000). Substance abuse and dependence in juvenile offenders. Retrieved September 21, 2007, at  http://www.ilppp.virginia.edu/Juvenile_Forensic_Fact_Sheets/SubAbuse.html .

Relationships Between Alcohol Drugs and Domestic Violence
Words: 2539 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52776600
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Alcohol, Drugs, And Domestic Violence

Family violence - or male aggression against women in a relationship setting - also known as domestic violence (DV) is most certainly a devastating social and moral problem in our society; but it is also a serious police problem, and an expensive health problem. In fact, the annual health care cost associated with the manifestations of DV is estimated to run as high as $857 million in the United States (odiguez, et al., 2001). But moreover, DV takes a toll on American families that is much greater than any dollar amount could ever reflect - and, in addition, DV is a social blemish on the face of America that seems to be getting worse, not better. The "causes" of violence in the family - why men act aggressively against their wives and girlfriends and even their children - are varied and complicated; but in too…

References

Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly (2003). Alcohol use may increase the likelihood of domestic violence. 15 p7.

Brain, Paul F. (1986). Alcohol and Aggression. London: Croom Helm.

Brookoff, Daniel, M.D., Ph.D. (1997). Drugs, Alcohol, and Domestic Violence

In Memphis: Research in Progress Seminar Series. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.

Legalization of Drugs of Abuse
Words: 2744 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61703736
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That compared with 19% for alcohol and a secondary drug; 12% for alcohol alone; 3% for smoked cocaine; 2.4% for methamphetamines; and 2.3% for heroin (Abrams).

It is estimated that by 2010 there will be 35 million teens in America (Levinson). This is a significant demographic to be concerned about. There would also be an increased chance of illicit drugs falling into the hands of children, just like cigarettes and alcohol now that are prohibited from being sold to kids. A greater availability, in general, would increase the likelihood of children being able to obtain them (Messerli).

Harm reduction is one of the primary benefits of legalizing illicit drugs; however, opponents feel that this theory is fatally flawed. Although the suffering of drug users should be reduced, their destructive habits shouldn't be tolerated. "Harm eduction advocates forget the thousands of impressionable teenagers for whom the law is a reminder that…

References

Abrams, J. "Report: Teen Use of Pot Will Jump with Legalization - Move to Harder Drugs Follows, Group Says." Seattle Times 13 Jul, 1999: A5. ProQuest. ProQuest. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006  http://proquest.umi.com .

An Unethical Reason for Legalizing Drugs." Business Week (3678) 24 Apr. 2000: 6. Academic OneFile. Thomson Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006  http://find.galegroup.com .

Burden, K. "What's the Fuss About Legalizing Drugs? Many People Advocating a "Harm Reduction" Approach to Illegal Drugs are Well-Meaning but Misguided." Presbyterian Record 70(10) Nov. 1996: 10-11. Academic OneFile. Thomson Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006

Legalization of Drugs Ever Since
Words: 1093 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24575799
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He argues that 15 million Americans used drugs over and over again last year, but very few harms were actually produced. To punish all 15 million users for the few harms is unfair, but again he does say that. He also argues that racial inequalities make the system unfair. Minorities are no more likely to use drugs, but they are far more likely to be arrested, tried, and convicted, and minority communities are devastated because of this selective enforcement. He finally takes a stand and admits Americans should be outraged by this.

The author effectively refutes arguments that drug use would soar if it were decriminalized. The price of drugs would not go down, he claims, even if it became legal to sell them. Taxes would take care of that. Lawsuits would be allowed against producers for harmful effects. To remain in business, drug producers would have to pay the…

Works Cited

Goldberg, Raymond (Ed.), Taking Sides: Clashing Views in Drugs and Society, 7th edition.

New York: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin.

Husak, Douglas. "Drug Legalization," Criminal Justice Ethics, (Winter/Spring, 2003), 21-29.

Legalization of Drugs Laws Against
Words: 1556 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98421142
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Drug treatment represents only part of the equation to combat drug-related crime. Alternatives to the war on drugs such as legalization, decriminalization and harm reduction may initially sound like they are more compassionate approaches to the drug problem, but the reality is that they won't work as shown by the Netherlands's experience with decriminalization of drugs. The truth is that the war on drugs has accomplished a great deal more than these alternatives ever could and that Americans are a lot better off because of it. For all the reasons presented in this paper, the legalization of drugs is a really bad idea.

ibliography

10 main pros and cons on medical marijuana. ProCon.org. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.org/pop/conflicts.htm

Cromie, W.J. (1998, March 19). War on drugs a failure, Americans say." Harvard University Gazette Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/1998/03.19/WaronDrugsaFail.html

Drug use trends (2002, October) Office…

Bibliography

10 main pros and cons on medical marijuana. ProCon.org. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site:  http://www.medicalmarijuanaprocon.org/pop/conflicts.htm 

Cromie, W.J. (1998, March 19). War on drugs a failure, Americans say." Harvard University Gazette Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site: http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/1998/03.19/WaronDrugsaFail.html

Drug use trends (2002, October) Office of National Drug Control Policy. The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site:  http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/factsht/druguse/ 

Effectiveness of the war on drugs (2002). Drug Policy Alliance. Retrieved August 8, 2006 from Web site:  http://www.drugpolicy.org/library/factsheets/effectivenes/index.cfm

Punitive Drug Prohibition
Words: 2323 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71282780
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Alcohol Prohibition from 1920 to 1933 did not work. There are many parallels from this failed effort and the current laws prohibiting drugs in the United States. Alcohol prohibition was undertaken to reduce crime and corruption, solve social problems, reduce the tax burden created by prisons and poorhouses, and improve the health of Americans. According to research, alcohol consumption of alcohol fell at the beginning of Prohibition, but then it subsequently increased. "Alcohol became more dangerous to consume; crime increased and became "organized"; the court and prison systems were stretched to the breaking point; and corruption of public officials was rampant." Instead of measurable gains in productivity or reduced absenteeism, Prohibition removed a significant source of tax revenue and greatly increased government spending. It led many drinkers to switch to more dangerous substances such as opium, marijuana, patent medicines and cocaine that they would have been unlikely to encounter in…

Bibliography

Harm Reduction in the U.S.: A Movement for Change." Canadian HIV / AIDS Policy & Law Newsletter. Vol 3 No 4 & Vol 4 No 1, Winter 1997/98. Canadian HIV / AIDS Legal Network, 11 May 2004. http://www.aidslaw.ca/Maincontent/otherdocs/Newsletter/Winter9798/20GREIGE.html

McDougall, Steven. "The War on Drugs." 03 June 2001. 10 May 2004.  http://world.std.com/~swmcd/steven/rants/war.html 

Overview of drug use in the United States. Retrieved May 10, 2004 from Web site:  http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0880105.html 

Nadelmann, Ethan, Cohen, Peter, Drucker, Ernest, Locher, Ueli, Stimson, Gerry, and Wodak, Alex. "The Harm Reduction Approach to Drug Control: International Progress." Apr. 1994. Lycaeum Drug Archives. 11 May 2004. http://paranoia.lycaeum.org/war.on.drugs/debate/harm-reduction.html

Criminal Justice Agency Administration Drug
Words: 1991 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 39529548
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" (U.S. Department of Justice, 2007; 22)

The U.S. Department of Justice report also states that upon evaluation of the management of the DEA of "selected practices governing its SIU Program...revealed significant deficiencies including: (1) poor recordkeeping; (2) inadequate control over SIU equipment; (3) inadequate practices for supply salary supplement payment to unit members; (4) excessive span of control ratios for management of the units; (5) insufficient evidence of training; and (7) failure to perform exit briefing of outgoing SIU members. (2007) Stated to be crucial in the DEA success or failure in investigative activity internationally are relationships with: (1) other DEA offices (foreign and domestic); (2) other U.S. law enforcement agencies abroad; and (3) foreign government and their law enforcement components charge with combating illicit drug trafficking." (U.S. Department of Justice, 2007; 26) the following chart shows the sources of international training funds for the DEA in 2005.

Sources…

Bibliography

DEA Mission Statement (2008) U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Online available at  http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/agency/mission.htm 

Agency Budget Summaries: Drug Enforcement Administration (1999) Policy Office of National Drug Control Policy. Online available at  http://www.ncjrs.gov/ondcppubs/publications/policy/budget98/agency-09f.html 

The Drug Enforcement Administration's International Operations (2007) U.S. Department of Justice Office of the Inspector General Audit Division Audit Report 07-19 February 2007.

Drug Enforcement Administration (2006) U.S. Department of Justice. Online available at  http://www.usdoj.gov/jmd/mps/manual/dea.htm

Domestic Violence & Drugs Use With Latina Parents
Words: 1297 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64950481
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CPS Intervention

The author of this report has been asked to offer a summary and analysis of a CPS-oriented intervention with an at-risk child. The intervention will be described from beginning to end. It will be summarized how there was a prevention or resolution to problems that were discovered. There will be an analysis of how there was negotiating and advocacy on behalf of the client. There will be a listing of at least three practice skills (micro and/or macro) that were used as part of the intervention. There will be a general critique of the intervention's progress and performance, what could have been done to generate a better outcome, whether the intervention was empowering and whether it was discriminatory or oppressive.

Analysis

The story in question is about a woman named Alice. Despite what her name might imply, lice is actually a Latino. She is under the scrutiny of…

References

Edwards, B., & Addae, R. (2015). Ethical decision-making models in resolving ethical dilemmas in rural practice: Implications for social work practice and education. Journal of Social Work Values & Ethics, 12(1), 88-92.

Lipsky, S., & Caetano, R. (2009). Epidemiology of Substance Abuse Among

Latinos. Journal Of Ethnicity In Substance Abuse, 8(3), 242-260.

doi:10.1080/15332640903110435

Minor's Constitutional Rights Courts Have Recognized Some
Words: 1211 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88266668
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Minor's Constitutional Rights

courts have recognized some Constitutional rights for students attending public schools that school officials need to be aware of. Even though, school officials have been given the right to control student conduct on school grounds, school officials can cross the line when it comes to student rights. The Supreme Court case Safford Unified School District #1 v. Redding (2009) is a prime example of school officials crossing the line concerning violation of a student's Constitutional rights when the Arizona middle school had strip searched 13-year-old Savana Redding under suspicion she was hiding ibuprophen pills in her underwear (arnes 2009).

The fact was another student had been found with prescription strength ibuprophen and told the Assistant Principal she received it from Redding. After being pulled into the office by the Assistant Principal, Redding had consented to a search of her backpack and outer clothing. When the search found…

Bibliography

Barnes, P. 2009. Supreme Court Rules Strip Search Violated 13-Year-old Girl's Rights. June 26. Accessed Apr 26, 2013.  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/06/25/AR2009062501690.html .

Bravin, J. 2009. Court Faults Strip-Search of Student. June 26. Accessed Apr 26, 2013.  http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124593034315253301.html .

Liptak, A. 2009. Strip Search of Girl Tests Limits of School Policy. Mar 23. Accessed Apr 26, 2013.  http://www.nytimes.com /2009/03/24/us/24savana.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.

Criminal Justice Supreme Court Decisions
Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 15715238
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The plaintiffs were disabled Tennesseans who could not access the upper floors in state courthouses. They sued in Federal Court, arguing that since Tennessee was disallowing them public services for the reason that their disabilities, it was infringing Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Tennessee argued that the Eleventh Amendment banned the suit, and filed a motion to dismiss the case. It relied chiefly on Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama v. Garrett (2001), in which the Supreme Court held that Congress had, in endorsing certain provisions of the ADA, unconstitutionally repealed the supreme immunity of the States by letting people sue the States for discrimination on the foundation of disability. Garrett had held that Congress had not met the congruent-and-proportional test, in that it had not collected enough proof of discrimination on the basis of disability to give good reason for the repeal of…

References

GONZALES V. OREGON (04-623) 546 U.S. 243 (2006) 368 F.3d 1118. Retrieved March 26,

2011, from Web site:  http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/04-623.ZS.html 

TENNESSEE V. LANE (02-1667) 541 U.S. 509 (2004) 315 F.3d 680. Retrieved March 26,

2011, from Web site:  http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/02-1667.ZS.html

Patient Access to Experimental Drugs Experimental Drugs
Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10313424
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Patient Access to Experimental Drugs

Experimental drugs are being used in treating cancer and other life-threatening diseases in the hopes that effective cures and treatments can be identified. There are however, ethical questions relating to the use of experimental drugs and this work seeks to answer the question that asks whether patients should have access to experimental drugs and to answer why or why they should not have this access.

Experimental Drugs

Experimental drugs have carved inroads to treating cancer patients and most recently; this has been reported in the form of a drug that serves to "neutralize two mechanisms cancers need to survive." (Coghlan, 2012) The new drug is Cabozantinib. This drug is reported by one individual interviewed in this study to have been used by a family member who died while taking the drug for non-small cell carcinoma in the form of lung cancer. When asked the question…

Bibliography

Beauchamp, TL and Childress, JF (2001) Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford University Press. 15 Feb 2001. Retrieved from:  http://books.google.com/books?id=_14H7MOw1o4C&source=gbs_navlinks_s 

Coghlan, A.K (2012) New Cancer Drug Sabotages Tumor's Escape Route. 24 Feb 2012. New Scientist. Retrieved from:  http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn21516-new-cancer-drug-sabotages-tumours-escape-route.html 

Beauchamp, TL and Childress, JF (2001) Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford University Press. 15 Feb 2001. Retrieved from:

Nklenske Courts the Dual Court
Words: 1432 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65433844
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More people are currently incarcerated than at any other time.

In fact, prisons are so over crowded that it is now common practice for judges to simply use deferred sentences and probation as a means of sentencing. Further, the costs of housing so many criminals is one that many states simply cannot afford. As a result, much of the prison industry is being outsourced to private corporations.

The net effect of the incarceration boom is two fold. First, there's the lack of meaningful punishment, or justice, due to the fact that there is not enough room in the jails and not enough money in the budgets to build more space. The result: criminals are given less severe sentences and, in many cases, remain a threat to the public. Further, there is no deterrence factor when one knows that the worse they will get for a relatively small crime is a…

Bibliography

Bohm, Robert M., Keith N. Haley. Introduction to Criminal Justice. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.

Origins of the Federal Judiciary. Maeva Marcus (editor). New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Turrow, Scott. Ultimate Punishment: A Lawyer's Reflection on Dealing with the Death Penalty. New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 2004.

United States Constitution: First Amendment. www.findlaw.com,2007.

Generic vs Name Brand Drugs
Words: 2572 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 35104972
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309).

The abbreviated approval process authorized by Hatch-Waxman lets generic drug manufacturers use the same clinical data that the original manufacturer used to obtain FDA approval, thereby avoiding these expenses. In this regard, Greene emphasizes that, "Whereas the pioneer drug manufacturer must incur great expense and undergo rigorous scrutiny when it files an new drug application (NDA) to secure FDA approval, a generic manufacturer may file an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) in which it may take advantage of the NDA holder's time and expense" (2005, p. 310).

The impact of the Hatch-Waxman Act on generic drug availability has been enormous. For instance, in 1984, generic drug prescriptions represented less than 20% of all prescription drugs marketed in the United States; however, due in large part to the Hatch-Waxman Act, by 1996, the market share for generic drugs had increased to 43% and by 2006, as many as 63% of…

References

Abramson, R.G., Harrington, C.A., Missmar, R., Li, S.P. & Mendelson, D.N. (2004). Generic

drug cost containment in Medicaid: Lessons from five state MAC programs. Health Care

Financing Review, 25(3), 25-26.

Buehler, G. (2002, September-October). Generic drugs: What you need to know. FDA

Prescription Drugs and the Health
Words: 1724 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73682728
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The FDA also, amongst others, has recommended that clinical trials used to support advertising claims be approved by the FDA and to institute stiff fines against those found gaily of deceptive tactics. (Turning Medicine Into Snake Oil...) There is little doubt from the research that pharmaceutical companies have to be made more accountable for their products and advertising promises.

eferences

Borden Anne. Vioxx Stroke isk could last for Years. 2007. etrieved June 1, 2007 at http://www.lawyersandsettlements.com/articles/00888/vioxx-stroke-risk.html

Deceptive Prescription Drug Marketing Tactics 'Common and Dangerous'. 2006.

etrieved June 1,2007, at http://www.uspirg.org/newsroom/health-care/health-care-news/deceptive-prescription-drug-marketing-tactics-common-and-dangerous

Introduction to the Health Care Industry: Health Expenditures and Services in the U.S. etrieved June 1, 2007, at http://www.plunkettresearch.com/HealthCare/HealthCareTrends/tabid/294/Default.aspx

O'Connor K. x for prescription drugs. etrieved June 1, 2007, at http://www.oconnorhealthanalyst.com/pgs/rx.html

Oxycontin Manufacturer Agrees to Plead Guilty and Pay Fine of $600,000,000.

etrieved June 1, 2007, at http://tyler.injuryboard.com/defective-products/oxycontin-manufacturer-agrees-to-plead-guilty-and-pay-fine-of-600000000.php?googleid=8636

Prescription Meds Changing Health Care. etrieved June 1, 2007, from Spending http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=60788…

References

Borden Anne. Vioxx Stroke Risk could last for Years. 2007. Retrieved June 1, 2007 at  http://www.lawyersandsettlements.com/articles/00888/vioxx-stroke-risk.html 

Deceptive Prescription Drug Marketing Tactics 'Common and Dangerous'. 2006.

Retrieved June 1,2007, at  http://www.uspirg.org/newsroom/health-care/health-care-news/deceptive-prescription-drug-marketing-tactics-common-and-dangerous 

Introduction to the Health Care Industry: Health Expenditures and Services in the U.S. Retrieved June 1, 2007, at http://www.plunkettresearch.com/HealthCare/HealthCareTrends/tabid/294/Default.aspx

Role of the FDA with prescription drugs
Words: 3287 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65642176
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Pharmacy Ethics

The author of this report has been asked to review the legal and ethical considerations in play given the test case scenario surrounding Pharmacare and Compcare. As is quickly apparent while reading the case study, the company engaged in a long and extensive list of ethical and/or legal violations as a means to maximize profit and minimize the legal and other red tape that seems to bother them even though it is there for a very good reason. The ethical issues involved will be touched upon and analyzed. There will also be an exploration and analysis of direct-to-consumer marketing of drugs, whether John is the "investor" of AD23, the arguments about John being a whistleblower and the associated protections he would have if he is and examples of intellectual property theft that have occurred in the last two years or so. While bad things do incidentally happen and…

Business Ethics in Drug Companies
Words: 3262 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35873031
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Office Memo

Sub: comment on John's claim as a whistle blower against PharmaCAE and the ethical and legal implications of the case

As a member of Dewey, Chetum, and Howe you asked me to find out suitable ethical and legal implications that John's case could bring for the firm and for John himself. Detailed in the report are the issues regarding:

The Ethical issues relating to marketing and advertising, intellectual property, and regulation of product safety in relation to PharmaCAE

Business ethics can be defined as the art, system, method and the discipline that is applied to along with ethical principles to solve complex business issues and dilemmas. It defines the actions that are taken that tries to reach a balance between the organization achieving its business and economic obligations and social obligations (Moon, 2001).

One of the ethics that is applicable in this case is related to the advertisement…

References

Accessdata.fda.gov,. (2015). CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21. Retrieved 6 June 2015, from  http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=201.56 

Accessdata.fda.gov,. (2015). CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21. Retrieved 6 June 2015, from

Determining Whether to Use Drug Evidence
Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39634018
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Motion to Suppress Drug Evidence in a Case

During a regular traffic police check, a criminal defendant was stopped by law enforcement personnel after he was observed speeding. A computer check indicated that the criminal defendant had an outstanding misdemeanor warrant for his arrest. While being arrested, a marijuana joint fell from his pocket and prompted the police officer to search his car. The law enforcement officer found additional illegal drugs following the search on the defendant's car. The warrant information regarding the outstanding misdemeanor was eventually found to be incorrect in the computer system and subsequently dismissed. The criminal defendant has now filed a motion to suppress the drug evidence.

As a state court judge, the determination on this motion to suppress the drug evidence requires an analysis of the case facts and legal provisions relating to the issue. When the police stop a criminal defendant for an illegal…

References

"State v. Bradshaw." (n.d.). Find Law -- for Legal Professionals. Retrieved September 15, 2015, from  http://caselaw.findlaw.com/mo-court-of-appeals/1353431.html 

"What Does the Fourth Amendment Mean?" (n.d.). United States Courts. Retrieved from Administrative Office of the United States Courts website:  http://www.uscourts.gov/about-federal-courts/educational-resources/about-educational-outreach/activity-resources/what-does-0

Confidentiality Breaches & Informed Consent when Testing New Drugs
Words: 2871 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65570024
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Confidentiality Breaches in Clinical Practice

The confidentiality and privacy of patients are considered as one of the fundamental freedoms that they should enjoy and are safeguarded under Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPPA). It is also a precept of the American Medical Association’s Code of Ethics and the Hippocratic Oath. The breach of confidentiality is unethical and illegal.
Medical professionals are under the obligation of protecting the patient’s confidentiality. Confidentiality and privacy prohibit medical providers from unlawful disclosure of the patient’s information. Some of the inappropriate disclosures include discussing a patient’s case in the elevators or corridors, giving out extra copies of handouts from conferences while they contain identifiable patients’ details and any other possible leakage of information to unauthorized individuals (Beltran-Aroca et al. 52). In clinical practice, the patients’ confidentiality can be breached due to indiscretion, carelessness, and sometimes malice. Medical practitioners are obligated legally and…

Heard in the U S Supreme Court --
Words: 758 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97971815
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heard in the U.S. Supreme Court -- ashington v. Harper -- will be the focus of the first part of this paper. The second part reviews prison conditions in Texas.

ashington v. Harper -- Part One

This was a case resulting from the unstable mental condition of alter Harper, who has been incarcerated in the ashington state prison system since a robbery conviction in 1976. Harper has been administered antipsychotic drugs for years because of his psychiatric condition; when he does not take his medication his condition worsens, and he becomes violent, according to Justia.com, the U.S. Supreme Court Center for public information. On occasion Harper has become violently out of control in prison and as a result has been transferred to the Special Offender Center (SOC).

hile at the SOC (a facility for inmates with "serious mental illness") Harper was required to take the drugs "against his will." He…

Works Cited

Fernandez, Manny. (2012). Two Lawsuits Challenge the Lack of Air-conditioning in Texas

Prisons. The New York Times. Retrieved February 22, 2013, from  http://www.nytimes.com .

Michaels, Martin. (2012). Poorly Maintained Facilities, Scorching Heat Lead to Deaths in Texas Prisons. Mint Press. Retrieved February 22, 2013, from  http://www.mintpress.net .

Turner, Allan. (2012). Behind Bars, Braille's dots fulfill prison inmates, aid the blind. The Houston Chronicle. Retrieved February 22, 2013, from  http://www.houstonchronicle.com .

Gender Bias in the U S Court System
Words: 2961 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84999901
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Gender Bias in the U.S. Court System

Statistics regarding male and female criminality

Types of cases involving women and men

Sentencing guidelines for judges imposed to diminish disparities

Feminists say women should get less jail time

Number of women vs. men arrested

omen committing misdemeanors get little or no jail time

Death penalty cases

10% of murder cases are perpetrated by women

Leniency of juries on women defendants

Easier for women to be treated leniently by juries

Sex crimes involving men and women adults vs. teens and children

omen are always given less punishment than men in this area

Reaction of judges towards female defendants

Male judges

Female judges

Body

a. Chivalry Theory of women perpetrators

Body

Focal Concerns theory of women perpetrators

Conclusion

In both the Constitution and Declarations of Independence, two of the most important documents in American history, it is promised by the very foundations of the…

Works Cited:

Brockway, J. (2011). Gender bias and the death penalty. Death Penalty Focus. Retrieved from  http://www.deathpenalty.org/article.php?id=568 

Crew, K. (1991). Sex differences in criminal sentencing: chivalry or patriarchy? Justice

Quarterly. (8:1). 59-83.

Doerner, J. (2012). Explaining the gender gap in sentencing outcomes: an investigation of differential treatment in U.S. federal courts. Bowling Green State University.

How Same-Sex Marriage Decision of Supreme Court Has Impacted Lives
Words: 3969 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 91530495
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United States Supreme Court ruling on same sex marriage. The paper also examines how that decision impacted management policy decisions in terms of public safety administration. An examination of the ruling's overall impact on public policy is also given. eactions on the ruling are given in the end.

Background knowledge on same sex marriage

For the majority of Americans, the matter of same sex marriage may have first come to their knowledge when it burst into the political limelight in late 2003. At this time, Massachusetts' highest court ruled that the state had no authority or grounds on which to deny lesbian and gay couples the right to marriage. In the next few months after the ruling in the state same sex marriage ceremonies were conducted in many counties and cities across the United States (U.S.) including mass weddings in the city of San Francisco. This brought a lot of…

References

Archibald, C. (2014). Is Full Marriage Equality for Same-Sex Couples Next? The Immediate and Future Impact of the Supreme Court's Decisions in United States v. Windsor. Valparaiso University Law Review, 48(3), 695-713. Retrieved, from  http://scholar.valpo.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2341&context=vu 

Brewer, P., & Wilcox, C. (2005). Same-Sex Marriage and Civil Unions. Public Opinion Quarterly, 69(4), 599-616. Retrieved, from  http://poq.oxfordjournals.org/content/69/4/599 

Bruggeman, K. (2015, June 26). NationalJournal.com. Watch These Two GOP Presidential Candidates After the Supreme Court's Gay Marriage Decision - NationalJournal.com. Retrieved August 22, 2015, from  http://www.nationaljournal.com/2016-elections/supreme-court-gay-marriage-republican-presidential-jindal-kasich-20150625 

Flores, A. (2015). Examining Variation in Surveying Attitudes on Same-Sex Marriage: A Meta-Analysis. Public Opinion Quarterly, 79(2), 580-593. Retrieved, from  http://poq.oxfordjournals.org/content/79/2/580.abstract

Mental Health Court Study the
Words: 2549 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 1040849
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Nonetheless, people who received some level of ACRP intervention had a lower rate of criminal recidivism than people who received no intervention at all.

System Flow

The study found that the case flow through the ACRP was a little slow. The amount of time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing averaged 74 days. While there are no hard and fast rules governing how long this process should take, the study found that that "the ACRP is performing rather well on the front-end of the admissions process (up to the initial opt-in stage) but that more could be done to work on the back end (time between the Initial Opt-In Hearing and the Formal Opt-In Hearing)."

Status Hearings

The study found that the incentives and sanctions used by ACRP judges to promote compliance at status hearings, though standardized, were not tailored to correspond to participant progress.

Also,…

Bibliography

Outcomes from the Last Frontier: An Evaluation of the Anchorage Mental Health Court (Alaska Mental Health Trust Authority, Ferguson-Hornby-Zeller, 2008).

Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses: The Essential Elements of a Mental Health Court (Thompson, Osher, Tomasini-Joshi, 2008).

Mental Health Courts: Decriminalizing the Mentally Ill. (Irwin Law, Schneider-Hyman-Bloom, 2007).

Mental Health Courts. (Wiley Encyclopedia of Forensic Science, Schneider, 2009).

Michigan vs Tyler the Supreme Court Decided
Words: 1312 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33188754
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Michigan vs. Tyler, the Supreme Court decided that "fire fighters, and/or police and arson investigators, may seize arson evidence at a fire without warrant or consent, on the basis of exigent circumstances and/or plain view"

This may only occur during the extinguishing operations or immediately after, otherwise a warrant or the owner's consent is necessary. This came as a response to an accusation of "conspiracy to burn real property," where the prosecutors had collected and used evidence of numerous days after the firefighting operations. The Supreme Court ruled in favor of the defendant, as evidence was collected without warrant in the subsequent days.

I think the process used by a gas chromatograph (heating, etc.) is not appropriate for separating sand granules and the gas chromatograph cannot identify sand grains as a substance. In my opinion, something like filtration should have been used to separate sand from the rest of the…

Bibliography

1. Ramsland, Katherine. Trace Evidence. On the Internet at http://www.crimelibrary.com/criminal_mind/forensics/trace/1.html?sect=21

2. Pierce, Dwain A. Focus on Forensics: Latent Shoeprint Analysis. On the Internet at  http://www.totse.com/en/law/justice_for_all/latshoe.html 

3. Expert Law. On the Internet at  http://www.expertlaw.com/library/pubarticles/Criminal/Drunk_Blood_Alcohol.html#Q16 

4. http://www.health.org/nongovpubs/bac-chart/

Community-Based Corrections Description A Court-Ordered Sanction That
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Community-Based Corrections

Description: A court-ordered sanction that puts the offender back into the community but under the supervision of a probation officer. Probation can be assigned to follow jail time (provided good behavior while incarcerated), and it may include having the offender pay a fine, do restitution, and perform community service activities as well (www.pwcgov.org)

Advantages: a) Instead of serving time in prison or a county jail the offender gets an opportunity to return to the community albeit under stringent requirements; b) it is basically like a second chance for the offender, and if he or she takes advantage of the opportunity and follows the rules, it can be a blessing for the offender and a savings of money for the correctional system

Disadvantages: a) This is not technically a "disadvantage" but if the terms of the probation are not met (for example, if the person on probation fails to…

Works Cited

Findlaw. (2010). Restitution. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from  http://criminal.findlaw.com .

Prince William County, Virginia. (2010). What is Probation? Retrieved February 18, 2013, from  http://www.pwcgov.org .

U.S. Department of Education. (2011). Community-Based Correctional Education. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from  http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ovae/pi/cclo/index.html .

U.S. Department of Justice. (2011). Electronic Monitoring Reduces Recidivism. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from  http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov .

Mccourt Is in Session Again Court Is
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McCourt" Is in Session Again

Court is just another day in the life of the McDonald's Corporation as they have spent a good portion of their time in court since 1990. The purpose of this paper is to explore the "McLibel" case in its' different aspects as well as examining the "Super-Size-Me" issue made controversial by the movie entitled just that, "Super-Size-Me. Further, to examine the issues that Australia is presently handling in the educational system in relation to the McDonald's Corporation. Finally to compare and contrast all of these cases or in their various attributes either the same or different.

According to a report from AC Newsnet Online,

one-thirds of Australians are either overweight or obese. The plan for a ban on advertising of junk food during children television hours is expected from the Government as a strategic effort in reducing childhood obesity. According to the report at least…

Bibliography Continued:

"Super Size Me: Eating McDonald's, Making Millions" (2004) CNN News Report [Online] available at: http://cnn.entertainment.printthis .clickability.com/pt/cpt? action=cpt& title=CNN.com+-+Eating+McDonald%27s%2C+making+millions+-+Jun+9%2C+2004& expire=06%2F23%2F2004& urlID=10707525& fb=Y& url=http

%3A%2F%2Fwww.cnn.com%2F2004%2FSHOWBIZ%2FMovies%2F06%2F09%

Ffilm.spurlock.reut%2F& partnerID=2010

Tober, Bruce (2004) "McDonalds Breaks Agreement in McLibel Suit" Albion Monitor [Online] available online at: http://www.monitor.net/monitor/9-2-95/McLibel.html

America Has Been Involved in a War
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America has been involved in a war on drugs. Part of the reason for this, is because of the negative social impacts that they have on society. As public officials, want to limit those substances that are considered to be addictive or dangerous. This has led to increased efforts to enact and enforce laws, with the federal government spending $1 trillion in 40 years. ("After 40 Years," 2010)

However, the problem is that during the process of achieving these goals, the criminal justice system is becoming overwhelmed with the large numbers of dealers and addicts. In most situations, the courts will often try to plea bargain the majority of these cases to deal with the backlog. At which point, the system will become full of another round of dealers and users. Once this begins to occur, it means that this repeating cycle will lead to overcrowding in many prisons and…

Bibliography

After 40 Years. (2010). Fox News. Retrieved from:  http://www.foxnews.com/world/2010/05/13/ap-impact-years-trillion-war-drugs-failed-meet-goals/ 

Huddleston, C. (2008). Painting the Current Picture. Washington DC: National Drug Council Institute.

The National Association of Drug Court Professionals Drug Court Standards Committee. (1997). Defining Drug Courts: Ten Key Components. U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Ngo, F. (2006). An Evaluation of Drug Courts. University of South Florida. Retrieved from: http://www.sarasota.usf.edu/Academics/CAS/Capstone/2009-2010/Criminology/Albritton%20-%20An%20Evaluation%20of%20Drug%20Courts.pdf

Narcoterrorism and the Future
Words: 18088 Length: 70 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 91167730
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Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…

References

Delaware fact sheet. (2014). Friends of Narconon, International. Retrieved from http://www.friendsof narconon.org/drug_distribution_in_the_united_states/delaware_drug_facts/delaware_fact

sheet/.

Drug threats in Wilmington. (2014). Drug Enforcement Edu.org. Retrieved from http://www.

drugenforcementedu.org/delaware/wilmington/.

Driving While Impaired The Writer
Words: 2277 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41502866
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One recent study examined victim impact statements and their ability to reduce repeat offenses of drunk driving (ojek, 1999).

The study looked at those who had been arrested and convicted of drunk driving in which an accident occurred. It examined those who had been rearrested after being in attendance for a victim impact statement program and compared them to those who had been rearrested but had never been exposed to a victim impact statement program.

The study concluded that those who had been exposed to a victim impact statement with regard to their offense had a lower rearrest rate than those who had not heard victim impact statements.

The study examined the results of those who did not receive victim impact statements and found that legal punishment was often the only consequence of driving while under the influence (ojek, 1999).

By contrast, VIPs address the emotional component of the DUI…

References

BADOVINAC, K. (1994)The effects of victim impact panels on attitudes and intentions regarding impaired driving. J. Alcohol Drug Educ. 39 (3): 113-118, 1994.

BRAITHWAITE,(1989) J. Crime, Shame and Reintegration, New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1989.

FORS, S. AND ROJEK, D. (1997) DUI offenders' reactions to a required victim impact panel intervention, Athens, GA: University of Georgia, 1997, unpublished report.

Mejeur, Jeanne (2003) Still driving drunk: strict drunk driving laws don't do much good unless they are vigorously enforced. From: State Legislatures

Crime in the Beginning the Main Focus
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Crime

In the beginning the main focus of the drug addiction theory was on the habituated pleasure reinforcement as well as the potential of the drug for the reward. Drug affects the dopamine receptors that are present in the brain and the individual is flooded with the desirable emotions by using dopamine, these desirable emotions are considered to be the reward for using the substance (Pinel, 2009). When the relationship of dopamine to the reward was recognized it was thought to be the major cause of addiction but when further researches were carried out, they showed that there were some other factors involved in the addiction as well.

When initially the psychotropic substance like cocaine or amphetamine is used, some changes take place in the brain and these changes then influence a cycle of addiction. Although different drugs have different probability of addiction but the individual characteristics like cognition, mental…

References

Alberta Health Services -- Addiction and Mental Health. (2009). Challenging assumptions: The association between substance use and criminal behaviour. Edmonton, AB: Author.

Gottfredson, D.C., Kearley, B.W. And Bushway, S.D. (2008). Substance Use, Drug Treatment, and Crime: An Examination of Intra-Individual Variation in a Drug Court Population. Journal of Drug Issues 0022-0426/08/02 601-630.

GSS Codebook. (2010). General Social Survey 2010 Cross-Section and Panel Combined. Accessed from:  http://www.thearda.com/Archive/Files/Codebooks/GSS10PAN_CB.asp 

Idaho State Police. (2010). The Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Crime in Idaho: Estimating the Need for Treatment Alternatives. Idaho State Police, Statistical Analysis Center.

Government - Federal Policy National
Words: 1427 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 15886792
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Finally, this sub-component also recognizes the growing problem associated with diversion of prescription drugs into the illicit black market. The policy provides funding for methods to redress that issue by improved tracking of prescriptions for controlled substances, including the practice of "doctor shopping" sometimes used to obtain legal prescriptions for controlled substances with the intention of distributing them illegally for profit (USONDCP, 2004).

III. Disrupting the Market: Attacking the Economic asis of the Drug Trade: The third major component of the President's drug policy incorporates law enforcement and prosecution in a manner designed to address the economic basis of the drug trade. Specifically, the policy authorizes both increased funding as well as tactical reorganization of various elements of the criminal justice system with respect to the illegal drug trade. In that regard, the policy emphasizes a priority targeting initiative designed to identify and prosecute specific criminal organizations and enterprises involved…

Bibliography

Farwell, S. Man Who Sells Tips on How to Avoid Arrest Is Running for Congress; the Dallas Morning News (Mar. 3/08)

Macionis, J. (2003) Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

USONDCP (2004) the President's National Drug Control Strategy. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at  http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs04/index.html

Marijuana Use
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Medical Marijuana Use and the National Drug Policy

It is clear that the marijuana plant covers numerous elements that may prove prized when it comes to treating a variety of symptoms illnesses or, leading numerous individuals to argue that it should be made legally obtainable for medical determinations. The states of Colorado and Washington in the United Sates have legalized marijuana for fun use. However, there is a quantity of other states which have legalized basic marijuana for "medical" utilization. esearch shows that even more states are passing laws that permitting individuals to start practicing medical marijuana. Therefore, if an individual lives in a state where medical marijuana is permitted and their physician trusts that it would benefit, they will get what is called a "marijuana card." With that said, this paper will discuss medical marijuana use and the national drug policy.

When it comes to national policy, twenty-three states…

References

Drug Policy: Marijuana. (2014, December 23). Retrieved from National Association of Drug Court Professionals: http://www.nadcp.org/drugpolicy

Marijuana Resource Center: State Laws Related to Marijuana. (2013, January 12). Retrieved from State of the Union:  http://www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp/state-laws-related-to-marijuana 

Marijuana, M. (2015, Janurary 18). Have Medical Marijuana Laws Contributed to Greater General Marijuana Use by Adults? Retrieved from  http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/view.answers.php?questionID=000242 

State Medical Marijuana Laws. (2014, Janurary 17). Retrieved from National Conference of State Legislatures:  http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/state-medical-marijuana-laws.aspx

Against Increasing Funding for Prison-Based
Words: 1945 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71638724
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The cost for processing a drug court case through the court system is only a fraction of the cost for processing criminal drug cases through the court system. Furthermore, the cost of drug court and other drug treatment for drug offenders is only a fraction of the cost for imprisonment of these individuals. Drug offenders finishing alterative drug court or other treatment programs have been found less likely to have repeated charges and convictions of drug offenses and to have longer abstinences from use of drugs. Finally, in terms of costs to society that cannot be measured in monetary terms, the alternative sentencing of drug offenders to drug courts and other treatment programs will end the breakdown of society that has been witnessed due to imposition of prison sentences on drug offenders. The research conducted in order to prepare for the debate and in order to complete the research within…

Bibliography

The Federal Prison Population: A Statistical Analysis (2004) the Sentencing Project. Online available at http://www.sentencingproject.org/Admin/Documents/publications/inc_federalprisonpop.pdf

Clay, Rebecca (2006) Incarceration vs. Treatment: Drug Courts Help Substance Abusing Offenders. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration News March/April Vol. 14. No.2. Online available at  http://www.samhsa.gov/samhsa_news/VolumeXIV_2/index.htm 

Shaffer, Deborah; Bechtel, Kristin; and Latessa, Edward J. (2005) Evaluation of Ohio's Drug Courts: A Cost Benefit Analysis. Center for Criminal Justice Research Dec 2005. Online available at  http://www.uc.edu/criminaljustice/ProjectReports/Ohio_Drug_Courts_Cost_Benefit_Analysis_2005.pdf 

Drug Court Benefits (nd) Online NCDI.org available at  http://www.ndci.org/courtfacts_benefits.html

African-American Males and the Correlation
Words: 1771 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45144934
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In G. Landsberg, M. Rock, & L. Berg (Eds.), Serving mentally ill offenders and their victims: Challenges and opportunities for social workers and other mental health professionals. New York, NY: Springer.

Carroll K.M. (1997). Enhancing retention in clinical trials of psychosocial treatments: Practical strategies. In L. Onken, J. Blaine, & J. Boren, (Eds.), Beyond the therapeutic alliance: Keeping the drug-dependent individual in treatment. [NIDA Research Monograph Series #165, 4-24]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Chou C.P., et al. (1998). Interaction effects of client and treatment program characteristics on retention: An exploratory analysis using hierarchical linear models. Substance Use & Misuse, 33(11), 2281-2301.

Goldkamp, J.S., White, M.D., & Robinson, J.B. (2001). Do drug courts work? Getting inside the drug court blackbox. Journal of Drug Issues, 31(1), 27-72.

Snyder, H., Finnegan, ., Stahl, A., & Poole, R. (1999). Easy access to juvenile court statistics: 1988-1997 [data presentation and analysis package]. Pittsburgh,…

The Developmental Pathways Model (2005) Health Services Technology Assessment Text HSTAT Online available at  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=hstat5.section.18578 

Deborah Prothrow-Stith, M.D., Deadly Consequences "An Endangered Species -- Young Men of Color Living in Poverty" Chapter 5,-page 64-79 (1991).

African-American Males and the Correlation Between Substance Abuse

Nation Is One With Finite
Words: 3640 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 55689337
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However, with this mandatory sentence comes seemingly excessive punishments for being afflicted with a real disease. hese types of solutions to the drug problem in the United States fail entirely to grasp drug problems as a real medical issue and therefore throw out medical treatment over punitive punishment, (Nadelmann 2007). Not to mention many of these programs go only so far, failing to provide the support and structure many drug addicts need in order to get themselves clean. Much research has shown that more intensive inpatient programs prove more successful than less regulation programs (McKay et al. 1997). herefore, ineffective drug treatment programs within prison walls are failing to truly encapsulate the addict as a means of supporting their efforts to get clean.

One other major solution that is currently being used in many states is the enactment of a drug court to handle specific drug cases. his court can…

This piece shows both favoritism and opposition for mandatory minimum jail sentencing for drug offenders, however does so not from the viewpoint of looking at addiction as a disease, but rather as a limitation on judicial discretion. While many are supportive of minimum sentencing requirements based on the idea that it is the most powerful weapon against the current war on drugs, others believe it to be restricting when looking at individual cases. Overall, many believe that it should be up to the individual judge and the individual case circumstance which determines the nature of punitive punishment in U.S. courts.

Washington Post. (1994). Low-level drug offenders fill one-fifth of prison space. Washington Post. February 5, 1994.

Astounding numbers of drug offenders fill our nation's prisons. This article uses statistics from the 1990s, an era of a crack epidemic, to show exactly how filled the prison system is with low-level and nonviolent addicts who essentially need medical treatment and not prison time.

Substance Abuse Treatment in Community
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Substance Abuse Treatment in Community Corrections

A one of the newest developments in research literature that has gained much trend and acceptance in the recent past is the idea which postulates that substance abuse treatment is more effective when competent issues such as culture and gender-specific considerations are taken into account. VanderWaal et. al (2001), for instance, argues that consideration of ethnicity and culture is vital for the treatment of young addicts or offenders. Juvenile drug courts are also considering the cultural and ethnic backgrounds of the young offenders for the effective rehabilitation and treatments (Drug Court Clearinghouse, 1997)

As a matter of tradition, gender-based issues were never considered in the juvenile justice system, and female juveniles were meant to fit into the programs that were meant for the delinquent boy-child. This was revised after some research indicated that the girls were more difficult to work with than the delinquent…