Eating Disorders Essays Examples

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Eating Disorder Anomalous Eating Habits Involving Too

Words: 1386 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50949992

Eating Disorder

Anomalous eating habits involving too less or too much dietary intake that may lead to physical or mental harm to an individual is known as Eating Disorders.

Classification of Eating Disorders

According to Walsh and Sysko (2009) Eating Disorders are most commonly classified into three categories

Anorexia nervosa (AN)

Bulimia nervosa (BN)

Atypical eating disorder or Eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS)

Anorexia Nervosa is a medical condition associated with exceptionally low food intake, less bodyweight and an apprehension of increase in the body weight in the affected person. The affected person usually exhibit transition from severe limitation to the binge eating behavior.

Bulimia Nervosa is a medical condition in which the effected individual binges on food and his repeated episodes of eating become out of his control. Hence, this disease is associated with obesity in the affected person. (Marcus and Wildes, 2009) Later on, the individual try to counteract this behavior by utilizing different methods like vomiting or taking laxatives in order to avoid weight gain. But, the reverse practice (a move from binge eating into eating limitation) is less common.

Atypical eating disorder or EDNOS includes modifications of above mentioned disorders, but with sub-threshold indicators. This…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Calero-Elvira A, Krug I, Davis K, Lopez C, Fernandez-Aranda F, Treasure J. (2009) Meta-analysis on drugs in people with eating disorders. 17: 243-59.

Eddy KT, Dorer DJ, Franko DL, Tahilani K, Thompson-Brenner H, Herzog DB. (2008) Diagnostic crossover in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: implications for DSM-V. American Journal of Psychiatry; 165: 245-50.
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Eating Disorder and Gender

Words: 5075 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8532186

Eating Disorders and Gender

There are medical conditions which more commonly occur in one gender over another. These conditions can be either mental or physical. Very often, they are both mental and physical conditions. Certain medical situations are extremely severe and can potentially result in serious harm to the body or perhaps even death. There are certain conditions which being with a mental impression, a false belief that has been ingrained within the mind which then manifests itself in the body of the individual. One of the most common and most disturbing types of condition is known as an eating disorder. By this term, it is meant that the patient suffers a mental conditioning which makes them either unwilling or unable to eat in a healthy manner resulting in either over or under eating and malnutrition. Eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia are the result of psychological issues on the part of the individual afflicted. They appear far more often in females than in males as a direct response to the psychology of the majority of society which imposes itself on the women of the world. What had once been considered a problem which only faced white women, the…… [Read More]

Bates, Daniel. "Globalization of Fat Stigma: Western Ideas of Beauty and Body Size Catching

on in Developing Nations." Daily Mail. 2011. Print.
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Eating Disorder Is Characterized by Abnormal Eating

Words: 3326 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38191377

Eating disorder is characterized by abnormal eating habits involving excessive or insufficient intake of food which is detrimental to the individual's physical and mental well-being. There are two common types of eating disorders although there are other types of eating disorders. The first is bulimia nervosa which is excessive eating coupled with frequent vomiting. The second type is anorexia nervosa which is immoderate restriction of food which leads to irrational weight gaining. The other types of eating disorders include eating disorders not otherwise specified which are essentially where a person has anorexic and bulimic behaviors, binge eating disorder which is compulsive overeating without any kind of compensatory behavior, and pica which is craving for certain non-food items such as glue, plaster, paper. It is estimated that roughly 10-15% of cases of eating disorders occur in males and statistics show that women are at a higher risk of developing eating disorders than men Walsh & Devlin, 1998.

This high risk is associated with the high degree of westernization which promotes binge eating. It is estimated that eating disorders occur in roughly a quarter of Americans the American population with interactions that occur between homeostatic, motivation, and self-regulatory control processes primarily leading…… [Read More]

Doll, H.A., Petersen, S.E., & Stewart-Brown, S.L. (2005). Eating Disorders and Emotional and Physical Well-Being: Associations between Student Self-Reports of Eating Disorders and Quality of Life as Measured by the SF-36. Quality of Life Research, 14(3), 705-717. doi: 10.2307/4038820

Kime, N. (2008). Children's Eating Behaviours: The Importance of the Family Setting. Area, 40(3), 315-322. doi: 10.2307/40346135
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Eating Disorder Group Sessions Group Session 1

Words: 1598 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22532584

Eating Disorder Group Sessions

Group Session 1 Obesity:

Hello, My name is Nancy and I am a counselor and a registered dietitian and I specialize in working with people who are seeking help for eating disorders. First when we talk about why people eat and why they do or do not gain weight we must talk about the balance between activity and calorie intake. In general when you eat more calories than your body needs to maintain your body and expend energy in movement the calories not needed for maintenance will be used by the body to build more tissue. Though weight does level off after time any temporary increase in calories over time will create a higher weight and the only way to lose this weight is to increase the amount of energy you use while decreasing the number of calories you eat, and this must be maintained even after weight goals have been achieved. "Therefore, additional weight loss can only be achieved by a more severe diet or a more arduous physical activity routine. Most individuals do the opposite: after having achieved some weight loss, they resume their original diet and exercise habits. Consequently, weight gain recurs rapidly."…… [Read More]

Abraham, S., Boyd, C., Lal, M., Luscombe, G., & Taylor, A. (2009). Time since menarche, weight gain and body image awareness among adolescent girls: onset of eating disorders?. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 30(2), 89-94. doi:10.1080/01674820902950553

Eating can cause low blood pressure. (2010). Harvard Heart Letter, 20(11), 2. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
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Eating Disorder Is an Issue

Words: 933 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12820447

The youngsters and children who suffer from Anorexia Nervosa in early age suffer from low body development, lack of growth of good mental health and particularly with the low growth of sex hormones that make them weaker sexually. You can see many people who have poor body structure and lack of bone density due to their improper nutrition so these children usually have weak bones and there is fear that they may face with bone fracture in their life.

While besides physical body disturbance and weakness it put effect on the brain of human being and person who is diagnose with Anorexia Nervosa have weak structure of their brain and have physiological impact on those people including poor personality, shattered body image.

There are many ways that can be used to cure this disease but first of all you need to find out that you are also suffering from this disease. You can identify this disease from pondering different things including weight of your body. If you think that day by day your body weight is decreasing then this is time to think what main cause for reducing weight is. This is a life threatening disease so you need to…… [Read More]

Cohen, Juliet. "Identifying Anorexia Nervosa Symptoms." EzineArticles 13 September 2007. 01 October 2007

Birmingham CL, Goldner EM, Bakan R. Controlled trial of zinc supplementation in anorexia nervosa. Int J. Eating Disord. 1994;15:251-255.
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Obesity Versus Eating Disorder

Words: 937 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33681009

Eating Disorders

According to Himmel (2009), "We could save a lot of pain, suffering and money by incorporating obesity into the range of illnesses now classified as eating disorders, and focusing on prevention" Obesity related issues are frequently classified separately from eating disorders, but there is more overlap than many people believe. When a person diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia, the traditionally recognized eating disorders, enter treatment with a professional counselor or psychologist, a Twelve Step program called Overeaters Anonymous is sometimes recommended. The Twelve Step program Overeaters Anonymous was not started to help people with anorexia and bulimia, and yet it has come to serve these populations as well, suggesting that what Himmel (2009) says is correct. Eating disorders encompass a range of disordered eating behaviors. Individual differences ensure that there are no two people who practice an eating disorder for the same reasons. By the same token, obesity can be caused by similar underlying psychological variables as anorexia and bulimia. Eating disorders and obesity do share some features in common when there is an underlying psychological dysfunction. However, there are cases in which obesity is not caused by a psychological dysfunction. In those cases, obesity can be distinguished…… [Read More]

Day, J., Ternouth, A. & Collier, D.A. (2009). Eating disorders and obesity: Two sides of the same coin? Epidemiological Psychiatry 18(2): 96-100.

Himmel, S. (2009). You must be hungry. Psychology Today. 18 Sept, 2009. Retrieved online:
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Effectiveness of Peer-Led Eating Disorder Groups

Words: 902 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90454345


Program Evaluation Design

Eating Disorder Program

The university hospital in our city has developed a strong program focused on a spectrum of eating disorders. Disorders addressed include anorexia, bulimia nervosa, compulsive eating, obesity, and a variety of non-traditional eating disorders. Our hospital approaches these issues on many levels, and our staff includes highly trained psychiatrists and psychologists, as well as skilled nutritionists to develop personalized eating plans tailored to each patient. Gastroenterologists, endocrinologists, and other specialists are also part of our team, since the severity of eating disorders can lead to serious and life-threatening conditions.

We also recognize the value of peer support and have incorporated two peer-led groups that focus on eating disorders education as well as prevention. The groups have been meeting weekly for nearly six months. The meetings for each group are structured in the same way, and the length of each meeting is 90 minutes. The larger group contains 13 members; the second group contains 7. All group members are female and they range in age from 13 to 18. All have significant eating disorders that have disrupted their normal lives, affected family members, and in some cases threatened their health. Before being admitted to…… [Read More]

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Binge Eating Disorder

Words: 501 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46830496

Binge Eating Disorder (BED)

This research concentrates on the role of body weight or shape on self-evaluation on individuals. A healthy individual will use their self-evaluation correctly to manage their weight. However, some individuals over evaluate their weight or body shape on their self-image and this is referred to as simply "overvaluation' (Grilo, 2013). Overvaluation of body shape or weight is a common characteristic among most eating disorders. However, there has been some debate about whether or not this characteristic is present in the binge eating disorder (BED).

BED is defined by recurrent binge eating (eating unusually large quantities of food in a discrete period accompanied by feelings of loss of control), binge-eating episodes are associated with at least 3 of 5 behavioral indicators (e.g., eating much more rapidly than usual), marked distress about the binge eating, and the absence of inappropriate weight-compensatory behaviors that are characteristic of bulimia nervosa (BN) (Grilo, 2013). The frequency of binge eating episodes is defined as binge eating once or more per week for at least a period of three months and also requires some kind of "marked distress" in the individual before it can be officially diagnosed.

Other eating disorders such as bulimia…… [Read More]

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Binge Eating Disorder

Words: 487 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46509683

Binge Eating Disorder

The most prevalent eating disorder in adults has been identified to be the binge eating disorder (BED) (Iacovino, 2012). This disorder can be characterized when an individual eats an unusually large amount of food which is characterized by a loss of self-control. There is also an absence of other accompanying behaviors such as self-induced vomiting or exercise and these individuals can gain a significant amount of excess weight. It has been estimated that the disorder affects 3.5% of women and 2.0% of men in the U.S. And is equally present in different racial and ethnic groups (Iacovino, 2012).

There are wide arrays of different health consequences for individuals that suffer from BED. The health impacts all are derived from obesity related conditions such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease as well as self-image and social problems that can also occur. The lives of people who suffer from BED can be seriously impaired and treatment of this condition is a priority for many researchers. The study examined review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological treatments for BED in the hopes of informing current clinical practice as well as providing a basis for future research (Iacovino, 2012).

The…… [Read More]

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Disorders and How it Affects Older Adults

Words: 4151 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95482944

Disorders in Older People

Alzheimer's and Eating Disorders and how they affect Older Adults

Alzheimer's and Eating Disorders and how they affect Older Adults

Disorders in Older People

Alzheimer's-Type Dementia

Eating Disorders

Disorders in Older People

In considering the general health of the population, the larger elderly population does not necessarily imply that most of them live or are ill from severe disabilities. Age related disorders would occur to different people early or late in their lives. People are living longer and healthier, with the elderly population achieving this in the higher age range of 5-10 years population cohort. However, there are key exceptions in the perspective of disorders and mental disorders in the older population. These are indicated by disorders like dementia, Alzheimer's and a wider spectrum of the disease and related disorders. Understanding the problem of mental disorders in older people is currently an area of interest. In this study, a thorough review of literature is carried out to elicit data on two disorders affecting the elderly population.

The interest is on understanding Delirium, Dementia, Amnesic and other Cognition Disorders and eating disorders, categories from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Orders (DSM-IV-TR) in older people. The…… [Read More]

Abbilello, G and Rosenfeld, P (2013) Research on Cognitive Impairment in Community and Home Settings. Research Briefs. Home Healthcare Nurse.

Alzheimer disease; new clues as to why some older people may be losing their memory. (2012). Nursing Home & Elder Business Week,, 130. Retrieved from .
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Disordered Eating in College Students

Words: 5808 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39021106

Relationships provide the key experience that connects children's personal and social worlds. It is within the dynamic interplay between these two worlds that minds form and personalities grow, behavior evolves and social competence begins." (1999) Howe relates that it is being acknowledged increasingly that "...psychologically, the individual cannot be understood independently of his or her social and cultural context. The infant dos not enter the world as a priori discrete psychological being. Rather, the self and personality form as the developing mind engages with the world in which it finds itself." (Howe, 1999) Therefore, Howe relates that there is: " 'hard boundary' between the mental condition of individuals and the social environments in which they find themselves. The interaction between individuals and their experiences creates personalities. This is the domain of the psychosocial." (Howe, 1999) the work of Howe additionally states that attachment behavior "...brings infants into close proximity to their main carers. It is within these relationships that children learn about themselves, other people and social life in general. Young children interact with their parents and other family members, and in so doing, develop an understanding of both themselves and other people." (1999) Children learn, within these relationships, appropriate…… [Read More]

Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44, 709-716.

Allen, Jon G. (2001) a Model for Brief Assessment of Attachment and Its Application to Women in Inpatient Treatment for Trauma Related Psychiatric Disorders Journal of Personality Assessment 2001 Vol. 76. Abstract Online available at
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Overeating Poor Eating Behavior

Words: 2589 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47278974

Alcoholism researchers developed this model. The model presumes that a consumer is in one phase of change at any given time. This model entails Maintenance, action, maintenance, preparation or pre-contemplation (Patrick 189). The concept is that consumers have to shift from one stage to the next. The stages prepare them to move to the next ones sequentially. This suggests that if consumers hurry through or if they skip stages they are likely to experience setbacks. In addition, different stages apply different strategies. For instance, a person who is addicted to smoking and is at the pre-contemplation stage: this means that the person is not even thinking of quitting the habit. Probably, such a person is always not ready to consider making a list of alternatives (Lucas 920).

This model has been successful in areas such as drug abuse, smoking, and alcohol. However, the model has been applied in changing health behaviors such as dieting and exercising. Health experts and clinicians have successfully used this model in counseling patients. However, this model cannot be used with health experts alone and anyone can try this model. Any consumer who is motivated to change his or her eating behavior needs to assess the…… [Read More]

Biederman, J et al. Are girls with ADHD at risk for eating disorders? Results from a controlled, five-year prospective study. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2007 Aug;28(4):302-7.

Busko, Marlene. Girls With ADHD Are at Increased Risk for Eating Disorders and Depression.
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Night Eating Explore the Individuals

Words: 7427 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41952902

"…people with NES tend to be more depressed than obese people without NES, and the mood of those with NES tends to worsen during the evening, something not seen in other obese people"(Logue, 2004, p. 185).

Among the many studies that provide insight into the background and origins of this syndrome, one of the most enlightening was Obesity by Stunkard, in Fairburn and Brownell (2002). This provides an in-depth analysis of night eating syndrome as well as a concise overview of the background of this condition. Stunkard also refers to a detailed overview of this condition.

Studies using the above criteria estimate that the prevalence of the night eating syndrome in the general population is approximately 1.5% and that prevalence increases with increasing weight, from about 10% of persons enrolling in obesity clinics to as high as 25% of patients undergoing surgical treatment for obesity…it occurs among about 5% of those presenting for the treatment of insomnia (although other sleep-related eating disturbances are also seen in which patients are either partially or totally unconscious). (Fairburn & Brownell, 2002, p. 183)

Of particular interest to the topic of this proposal are the behavioral characteristics of those who suffer from this syndrome.…… [Read More]

Allison K. et al. ( 2005) Neuroendocrine Profiles Associated with Energy Intake, Sleep, and Stress in the Night Eating Syndrome . The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 90(11), pp. 6214-6217.

Amanda Ursell's: Feel Good. (2001, January 7). Sunday Mirror (London, England), p. 16. Retrieved April 23, 2010, from Questia database:
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Assorts of Disorder Terms and Diagnose

Words: 969 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54392348

Autism is a developmental disorder, as can be seen in the fact that Peter was first diagnosed when he failed to develop speech at the rate of a normal child. Autism is also a spectrum disorder, meaning that individuals will manifest the condition in different ways and different aspects of normal speech, movement, and social interactions may be inhibited depending on the child and the condition's severity. There is no 'cure' for autism or universally-accepted treatment for the disorder although behavioral interventions such as ABA "encourages positive behaviors and discourages negative behaviors in order to improve a variety of skills" through methods such as "Discrete Trial Training (DTT) DTT is a style of teaching that uses a series of trials to teach each step of a desired behavior or response. Lessons are broken down into their simplest parts and positive reinforcement is used to reward correct answers and behaviors." (Treatment, 2013, Autism: CDC). Although some parents use nutritional interventions such as a gluten-free diet, the science on this does not suggest that it produces improvements.

Case Study -- Major Depression -- Single Episode

Although the use of psychotropic drugs such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is somewhat controversial in…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Additional treatments for ADHD. (2013). Psych Central. Retrieved from:
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Is

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80932247

While there are approximately 5 million people suffering from the illness at any one time in America, women are twice as likely to develop PTSD as compared to men. In relation to children and teens, more than 40% has endured at least a single traumatic incident contributing the development of the disorder. However, PTSD has occurred in nearly 15% of girls as compared to the 6% of boys.

Causative Factors of the Disorder:

As previously discussed, the main cause of post traumatic stress disorder is exposure to a life-threatening, hugely unsafe, and frightening traumatic experience. These experiences are likely to contribute to the development of the disorder if the victim feels a constant sense of danger and painful experiences (Smith & Segal, 2012). As a result of this constant feeling of painful and frightening experience, the individual remains relatively unable to overcome the incident or feel normal again. Some of the most common traumatic events that can contribute to the disorder include natural disasters, sudden death of a loved one, childhood neglect, rape, kidnapping, car or plane crashes, assault, natural disasters, and sexual or physical abuse. While the main cause of PTSD revolves around traumatic events, there are other risk…… [Read More]

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Clinical Disorder Clinical Psychology and

Words: 3626 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49707748

This leaves many veterans prone to the condition known as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). This may be characterized as "an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened. Traumatic events that may trigger PTSD include violent personal assaults, natural or human-caused disasters, accidents, or military combat." (NIMH, 1) in the particular case of this discussion, military combat is a cause of PTSD that can have devastating long-term outcomes. Indeed, "studies estimate that as many as 500,000 troops serving in Iraq and Afghanistan will suffer from some form of psychological injury, with PTSD being the most common." (Eliscu, 58) the outcomes of this condition will run a wide range of symptoms that impact the ability of individuals to cope with the pressures of everyday life, to relate to those who have not experienced the traumas of war, and heightened propensities toward violence, toward crime, toward alcoholism, toward substance abuse and toward depression. Such is to say that the real and tangible outcomes of this condition suggest a detectable sociological problem potentially afflicting in some degree an entire class of Americans.

Dissociative Disorders:

The discussion above on PTSD…… [Read More]

Blanco, C.; Laje, G.; Olfson, Marcus, S.C. & Pincus, H.A. (2002). Trends in the treatment of bipolar disorder by outpatient psychiatrists. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(6), 1005-1011.

Craddock, N.; O'Donovan, M.C. & Owen, M.J. (2005). The genetics of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: dissecting psychosis. Journal of Medical Genetics, 42, 193-204.
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Borderline Personality Disorder Definitions and

Words: 12483 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99227756


The overall diagnostic and symptomatic patterns described by these points indicate that BPD is a serious disorder and is "...classified as a major personality disorder involving dramatic, emotional, or erratic behavior; intense, unstable moods and relationships; chronic anger; and substance abuse." (Boucher, 1999, p. 33)

There are a number of criteria which, in line with DSM-IV, are used to identify and characterize this disorder. The first of these criteria refers to "...unstable and intense interpersonal relationships, with marked shifts in attitudes toward others (from idealization to devaluation or from clinging dependency to isolation and avoidance), and prominent patterns of manipulation of others.."(Boucher, 1999, p. 33)

Perception also plays an important role in the identification and understanding of the BDP patient. This refers particularly to social perception. Benjamin and Wonderlich (1994) recognized that BDP patients showed differences in social perception when compared to bipolar and unipolar subjects. In relation to this they found that "...BPDs view relationships with their mothers, hospital staff, and other patients with more hostility than mood disordered patients. BPDs see themselves as attacked by other patients and as part of hostile and noncohesive families. "(Boucher, 1999, p. 33)

Another aspect that identifies the BDP sufferer is…… [Read More]

Akhtar, Salman, M.D. (1992). Broken Structures: Severe Personality Disorders and Their Treatment. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson Inc.

Akhtar, Salman, M.D. (1995). Quest For Answers A Primer of Understanding and Treating Severe Personality Disorders. Northvale, New Jersey: Jason Aronson Inc.
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Binge Eating Animal Models of Addiction Do

Words: 3066 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31876046

Binge Eating

Animal models of addiction do not generalize well to substance dependence in humans as there are different criteria involved. For example, in animals "addiction" has been traditionally defined by a caged laboratory animal's tendency to press a lever for a reinforcing substance, whereas in humans the criteria for dependence (the clinical term for addiction) include a number of behavioral criteria and consequences that could never exist in laboratory animals (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). These criteria include: tolerance, withdrawal, taking more of a substance than originally intended, a history of unsuccessful attempts to quit, inordinate amounts of time spent in using and seeking the substance, a reduction in activities (occupational, social, or education) due to use, continued usage despite adverse consequences (APA, 2000). Interestingly, only three of these criteria need to be met in a year, so one need not demonstrate significant physical signs such as tolerance and withdrawal in order to be diagnosed with an addiction, whereas in animal models of addiction the animals are often forced to become physically addicted while being maintained on some addictive drug like cocaine.

Deroche-Gamonet, Belin, and Piazza (2004) added some clarity to this dilemma by having rats self-administer cocaine until…… [Read More]

Adam, T.C. & Epel, E.S. (2007). Stress, eating and the reward system. Physiology and Behavior, 91, 449-458.

Alexander, B.K. (2008). The globalization of addiction: A study in the poverty of the spirit. New York: Oxford University Press.