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How the Perception of Beauty Influences Eating Disorders
With everything changing in this society, the aspect of beauty especially when it comes to women has kept changing, sometimes desperately to the extent of individuals adopting extreme behaviors in the pursuit of the ideal 'beauty'. Instances where different kinds of media communicate the significance of physical beauty in the contemporary world and the means of achieving such traits are widespread. The attachment of food and modes of consumption of these same foods and the positive effects they produce as regards an enhanced attraction, as the society propagates goes without saying. The problem of eating disorders has increased in the contemporary world thanks to the spread of notions like these, as this paper reports. The focus of this report is to explore the influence of the idea of beauty to eating disorders with specific reference to anorexia. The discussion opens…
Is there a link/relationship between pathological dieting and eating disorders in young adolescents? (no American quotes or stats as I'm in Australia)
Eating disorders and pathological dieting: An overview
According to the Australian Psychological Society (2011) it is estimated five percent of all women and girls are suffering from anorexia nervosa, and two to three per cent have bulimia nervosa and other eating disorders. Males also suffer from eating disorders, affecting an estimated ten percent of the total national eating disordered population. This translates into 0.5% and 0.5-1% of the Australian population as a whole who are identified as 'eating disordered' (Eating disorders, 2011, Women's Health).
Physicians and psychologists have reported a notable increase in the past decades in eating disordered patients in Australia. In 2004-05, 14% of all hospitalisations for mental and behavioural disorders in women aged 12-24 were due to eating disorders and in 2003, according…
Clark, Jill. (2007). National dieting craze blamed for rise in eating disorders.
The Age. Retrieved June 27, 2011 at http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/dieting-craze-blamed-for-rise-in-eating-disorders/2007/04/29/1177787971251.html
Eating Disorders. (2011). Australian Psychological Society. Retrieved June 27, 2011 at https://www.psychology.org.au/community/eating_disorders/
Eating Disorders. (2011). Women's Health. Retrieved June 27, 2011 at http://www.womhealth.org.au/studentfactsheets/eatingdisorders.htm
Eating disorder, according to the National Association of Anorexia and Associated Disorders (ANAD) is "an unhealthy relationship with food and weight that interferes with many areas of a person's life" (ANAD). The topic of eating disorders has gained significance over the past owing to the ongoing healthy eating campaign. This text presents the causes, symptoms, and prevalence statistics of four common eating disorders among the American populace.
Anorexia Nervosa is a complex eating disorder characterized by an obsession about the food one eats, and the weight they maintain. ANAD identifies anorexia as a leading cause of death, and the third-largest cause of long-term illness among women aged between 15 and 24. omen make up over 80% of those with the condition, which is more prevalent among teenagers and young adults between ages 15 and 24.
Anorexic persons have an intense fear of gaining weight, often preferring to maintain…
ANAD. "General Information." National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders, 2014. Web. 21 September 2014 http://www.anad.org/get-information/about-eating-disorders/general-information/
Helpguide. "Anorexia Nervosa: Signs, Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment." Helpguide.org, 2014. Web. 20 September 2014 http://www.helpguide.org/mental/anorexia_signs_symptoms_causes_treatment.htm
Helpguide. "Eating Disorder Treatment and Recovery: Tips and Strategies for Overcoming Anorexia and Bulimia." Helpguide.org, 2014. Web. 20 September 2014 http://www.helpguide.org/mental/eating_disorder_treatment.htm
Marcason, Wendy. "Orthorexia: An Obsession with Eating Pure." Eat Right Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2014. Web. 21 September 2014 http://www.eatright.org/Public/content.aspx?id=6442471029
Understanding the reason for eating disorders and why they can occur is important in order to intervene in the lives of sufferers. The first step in identifying the problem is to understand more about the different types of eating disorders and some of the symptoms.
Bulimia nervosa is a term used to describe an eating disorder. The person suffering from Bulimia Nervosa often overeats and then afterwards purges the food eaten. The disease is considered a psychological traumatic disorder due to the reasons for indulging in such behavior. The induced vomiting of food is under the attempt to control ones weight and the amount of food eaten. Some of the characteristics of Bulimia Nervosa are fasting, using laxatives or water pills to cause the body to release water in order to reduce weight gain. Each of these type of methods are an attempt to control weight in addition…
Marsh R, Steinglass JE, Gerber AJ, Graziano O'Leary K, Wang Z, Murphy D, Walsh BT, Peterson BS. Deficient activity in the neural systems that mediate self-regulatory control in bulimia nervosa. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2009; 66(1):51 -- 63.
Le Grange D, Crosby RD, Rathouz PJ, Leventhal BL. A randomized controlled comparison of family-based treatment and supportive psychotherapy for adolescent bulimia nervosa. Archives of General Psychiatry. 2007; 64(9):1049 -- 1056.
LeGrange, D., Lock, J., and Loeb, K. 'Academy for Eating Disorders Position Paper:
The Role of the Family in Eating Disorders'. 2009.
5. I believe someone with disordered eating would be more likely to want to talk about eating disorders. In many cases, those who eat disorderly have no idea they themselves are on the brink of the different side of eating orders, and so don't associate any personal grief to the topic. Yet, people with eating disorders are more likely to be embarrassed or shameful of their enactment of such voluntary eating disorders which might have gotten out of hand.
6. This is a very delicate issue, and must therefore be brought up slowly in the event that you believe someone to be affected by eating disorders. I would first casually bring it up just to get a reaction in order to collect a better understanding of how the issue should be approached. After it had been brought up in casual conversation with no personal allegations, I would take the person…
Stoppler, Melissa Conrad. "Anorexia Nervosa." Medicinenet.com. 2008. Retrieved November 14, 2008 at http://www.medicinenet.com/anorexia_nervosa/article.htm .
(Hall, C.C. 1995).
This fact is proven by studies of Asian women outside the United States. For instance, studies in Korea and China point out that a high rate of eating disorder cases are being recorded in these countries as a direct result of economic change and the influence of Western culture. (Park, E. 2000) in Japan as many as 1 in 500 women have shown signs of an eating disorder.
3.2. Marginalization and Stereotypes
The fact that Asian-American constitutes a marginal population group within the Unities States also place psychological and cultural strain on their
Marginalization... 11 sense of identity. This is worsened by the fact that in some instances prejudice and discrimination can create feelings of low self-esteem and lead to symptoms of eating disorders. "... It has been suggested that the pressures of discrimination, trying to blend into Western society, and certain stereotypes compound the problem for…
Smolak, Linda, Michael P. Levine, and Ruth Striegel-Moore, eds. (1996). The Developmental Psychopathology of Eating Disorders Implications for Research, Prevention, and Treatment. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Story, M., French, S.A., Resnick, M., & Blum, R.W. (1995). Ethnic/racial differences in dieting behaviors and body image perceptions in adolescents. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 18(2), 173-179.
Vaughan, Kimberley K., and Gregory T. Fouts. (2003) Changes in Television and Magazine Exposure and Eating Disorder Symptomatology. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 49.7-8: 313+.
just because they require concentration to your weight and shape. efuse wearing clothes that are painful or that you don't like. Make a promise to work out for the joy of feeling your body move and grow stronger, not to cleanse fat from your body or to recompense for calories eaten.
Help children welcome and oppose the ways in which television, magazines, and other media disfigure the true diversity of human body types and mean that a slim body means power, excitement, popularity, or perfection. Teach boys and girls about many forms of prejudice, including weightism, and help them know their task of avoiding them. Do whatever you can to encourage the self-worth and self-confidence of all of your children in academic, sporty, and social activities. Give boys and girls the same prospects and support. Be cautious not to give advice that females are less significant than males, that is…
About Eating Disorder? Retrieved from https://www.sjmcmd.org/eatingdisorders/eating_eatingdisorder.cfmAccessed on 28 June 2005
Anorexia Nervosa. Retrieved at http://www.mirror-mirror.org/anorexia.htm . Accessed on 28 June 2005
Bulimia Nervosa. Retrieved at http://www.mirror-mirror.org/bulimia.htm . Accessed on 28 June 2005
Definitions of eating disorder on the Web. Retrieved at http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&oi=defmore&q=define:eating+disorder . Accessed on 28 June 2005
First, which factors are most likely to influence the development of an eating disorder? What types of social environments are most conducive to healthy vs. unhealthy behavioral patterns? Social demographic issues including race, class, and gender may be taken into account to determine whether eating disorders are related to social norms. Pressure to conform to social norms about beauty and body image may also be related to how an eating disorder develops. Does the media have a direct, provable relationship to the development of distorted body image, unrealistic weight goals, or the acceptance of poor eating habits.
Social psychologists might also ask why are girls more likely than boys to develop eating disorders. What factors cause boys to develop eating disorders and how are they different from those that cause girls to develop the same behavioral problems? Second, researchers may want to investigate single social psychological variables including pressure to…
Kalat, J.W. (2004). Introduction to Psychology. Thompson/Wadsworth.
Finally, McDermott et.al also provided us with valuable clue in early detection and possibility of avoiding worsening of the condition. y identifying a positive relation between laxative use and severity of disorder the study serves as a warning, indicating treatment measures for such children who abuse laxatives. These researchers have clearly stressed the importance of early detection and treatment to minimize the chances of a full blown disorder. Medicos, nursing professionals, school counselors and most importantly parents must be attentive and detect behavioral abnormalities, negative eating behaviors and other such clues at an early stage and administer appropriate medical intervention and counseling support. Parents in particular play a major role in helping the child develop a positive self-image which is the best way to avoid these dangerous psychiatric conditions.
Walsh, . Timothy, "Longitudinal Relationships etween Childhood, Adolescent, and Adult Eating Disorders.(Statistical Data Included), Journal of the American Academy of…
Walsh, B. Timothy, "Longitudinal Relationships Between Childhood, Adolescent, and Adult Eating Disorders.(Statistical Data Included), Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 12/1/2001
Andrew J. Winzelberg et.al, "Effectiveness of an Internet-Based Program for Reducing Risk Factors for Eating Disorders,"
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology,
April 2000 Vol. 68, No. 2, 346- 350
These conditions include maternal anemia, maternal diabetes, and maternal high blood pressure during pregnancy, which increase the risk of anorexia in the child. After-birth complications in the newborn infant such as heart problems, low response to stimuli, early difficulties in eating, and below-normal birth weight have also been found to increase the risk of anorexia and bulimia (Ibid.)
Genetic easons Some experts consider genetics to be the root cause of most cases of eating disorders and anorexia has been found to be "eight times more common in people who have relatives with the disorder" (Ibid., para on Genetic Factors). Certain specific chromosomes (e.g., regions chromosome 10) have been identified that may be associated with bulimia and anorexia. In addition, genetic factors may be responsible for certain behavioral patterns such as anxiety and obsession or traits such as minimum body mass index that are precursors to development of eating disorders.
Anorexia Nervosa." (2008). National Eating Disorders Association. Retrieved on December 6, 2008 at http://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/p.asp?WebPage_ID=286&Profile_ID=41142
Binge Eating Disorder." (2008). Mayo Clinic.com. Retrieved on December 6, 2008 at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/binge-eating-disorder/DS00608/DSECTION=tests-and-diagnosis
Bulimia Nervosa" (2008). National Eating Disorders Association. Retrieved on December 6, 2008 at http://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/p.asp?WebPage_ID=286&Profile_ID=41141
Causes of Eating Disorders." (2006). University of Maryland: Medical Center. Retrieved on December 6, 2008 at http://www.umm.edu/patiented/articles/what_causes_eating_disorders_000049_3.htm
This includes self-vomiting and/or the misuse of laxatives, diet pills, diuretics (water pills) excessive exercise or fasting." (2000) the American Psychiatric Association states of individuals with ulimia Nervosa, that while they may "...may frequently diet and vigorously exercise, individuals with bulimia nervosa can be slightly underweight, normal weight, overweight or even obese." (2005) the individual with this condition will consume an unbelievably high volume of food and do so by eating it quickly and with no enjoyment of eating being experienced. Upon having consumed this great amount of food, the individual with bulimia nervosa will experience guilty and a feeling of being out of control. At this point, the individual with bulimia nervosa will make themselves vomit. This cycle may repeat many times a week or during the month. Generally, the family of these individuals does not know that their loved one is affected by this disorder. The following symptoms…
Eating Disorders (2000) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Office on Women's Health. February 2000.
What is an Eating Disorder? (2005) Let's Talk Facts about Eating Disorders. American Psychiatric Association. 2005.
Grohol, John M. (2006) Anorexia Nervosa. Psych Central. 7 Sep 2006. Online available at http://psychcentral.com/disorders/sx2.htm
Farley, Dixie (1992) on the Teen Scene: Eating Disorders Require Medical Attention. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA consumer magazine. March 1992. Online available at http://www.fda.gov/fdac/reprints/eatdis.html
Eating Disorders Among Teenage Girls
Eating disorders have become an epidemic among teenage girls. Fueled in large part by the media's promotion of thinness as a physical ideal for young women, the eating disorder problem has escalated over the past few decades. Girls are beginning to diet in elementary school and may be binging, purging, or starving before they are ten years old. Because eating disorders reflect complex psychological issues, there is no clear cause or solution to the problem. However, there are clear connections between eating disorders and media influence. Eating disorders tend to be the symptom of larger psychological distress, and they are often accompanied by severe depression, self-mutilation (as in "cutting" practices), and other addictions. hile many teenage girls eventually recover from their eating disorders to live a healthy lifestyle, many either continue their disordered eating habits. Some, up to 15%, will die. hile eating disorders affect…
Atkins, Lucy. "Cyberspace: a Teenage Waistland." The Sydney Morning Herald 31 Jul 2002. http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2002/07/30/1027926889644.html
Callahan, Jean. "Cosmo's Update on Eating Disorders." Cosmopolitan 1 May 1996: 230-4.
Costin, Carolyn. Your Dieting Daughter: Is She Dying for Attention? New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1997.
Eating Disorders Definitions." National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders. 2002 http://www.anad.org/definition.htm
Anorexia nervosa: American society seems to have an obsession with thinness, particularly for women. Over the last two decades, the United States has seen two eating disorders become more and more common: anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. In both disorders, the person takes extreme measures to lose weight. The young women who develop these conditions tend to tend toward perfectionism and be high achievers who try to meet all demands placed on them.
The clinical picture: the person, usually a girl, has a distorted sense of her own self-image and an exaggerated fear of becoming overweight. It often starts with a more moderate diet, but gradually they start rejecting more and more food until they are eating very little and become emaciated, but believe that they look fat. As they eat less and less, they may talk and think about food a lot, carefully planning their miniscule meals.…
The argument regarding the medical and ethical treatment of anorexia nervosa patients has been highly debated throughout the medical and philosophical circles. On the one side, there is the belief that doctors can only go so far before forced treatment and involuntary hospitalizations should be unethical. On the other hand, doctors have taken their oaths to do everything they possibly can to save a patient's life, even to the point of expertly deciding the fate of the patient, regardless of the patient's contrary decisions. The general argument -- pointed out by the likes of James L. Werth (2003) and Heather Draper (2002) -- lies in the premise that one inflicted with anorexia nervosa is incapable of thinking competently. This incompetency thus allows medical experts the ultimate decision of involuntarily hospitalizing the patient and/or subjecting the patient to a forced treatment for the disorder. Doctors alike have taken their…
Draper, Heather. (2002). Anorexia nervosa and respecting a refusal of life-prolonging therapy: a limited justification. Bioethics, 14(2), 261-278.
Werth, James L. Jr., et. al. (2003). When does the "duty to protect" apply with a client who has anorexia nervosa?. The Counseling Psychologist, 31(3).
Systems Theory Model integration
Article by Lisa & Owen (2008).
Inputs: values: research eating disorder continuum by measuring self-esteem, perfectionism, and eating disorder behavior; offer validation evidence on the measure of eating disorder behavior, and QEDD. Resources include the EDI-2 subscale score, Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, contingency tables and Kappa values, QEDD, 261 students, questionnaires, literature, and survey results.
Throughput includes measurement of using tests, counterbalance results of surveys, critical analysis of literature, multivariate analysis, discussion, and interpretation.
Outcomes include statistical figures, descriptive texts, and percentages of sample population with eating disorder. Increase in eating disorder on a continuum is due to decreased self-esteem, increased perfectionism, and increased scores on the seventh subscale.
Article by Green et al. (2009).
Input includes a comprehensive analysis of the link between psychological and unipolar depression and comorbid ED behavior. Identify etiological correlations, and compare relevant contributors of correlates. Identify key psychological factors…
Eating Disorders and Mass Media
The media by way of advertisements and through models and film stars in these advertisements and shows on television and magazines present the picture of 'ideal body', which have a negative effect on the youth of today. In comparison to men, advertisements have a great effect on women. Nowadays even though men also give importance to their personal appearances like that of women, the advertisements greatly are targeted on women. This is because women are always trying to improve their appearance by losing weight, and looking out for new makeup, hair products and other cosmetics. The media both creates and perpetuates an ideal body, which is thin which 99 per cent of women will and can never attain. The media has the image of an ideal woman as being having a thin figure and this image has a great influence on the youth. The media…
Posavac, H., Posavac, S. And Posavac, E., Exposure to media images of female attractiveness and concern with body weight among young women. Sex Roles, 38 (3/4) 187-201, 1998
Chang, Maria L. Walking A Thin Line: Celebrities, Mass Media and Eating Disorders, Science World, Dec 14, 1998
Aguinaldo, T.A. The effect of media on women's body image. California Polytechnic State University. 1993.
Kilbourne, J. Still killing us softly: Advertising and obsession with thinness. New York: Guilford Press. 1994.
Eating Disorder/Electrolyte Imbalances Case Study
What data from the histories are relevant and has clinical significance to the nurse?
Relevant data from present problem: Self-injurious behavior (SIB), increasing weakness, lightheadedness and the likelihood of syncopal episode.
Clinical significance: The data would help identify personal/biological factors causing the patient’s condition.
Relevant data from social history: Sexual abuse by her stepfather, living with a single mom, and sexual behaviors.
Clinical significance: It would help identify social/family factors contributing to the condition.
What is the relationship of your patient’s past medical history (PMH) and current meds? What medications treat which conditions?
Self-injurious behavior (SIB)
Sexually abused as a child
Citalopram 20 mg PO daily
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI)
Reduction of depressive and eating disorder symptoms and protection against recurrence.
One disease process often influences the development of other illnesses. Based…
In “Risk factors for binge eating and purging eating disorders: Differences Based on Age of Onset,” Allen, Byrne, Oddy, et al (2014) use a logical regression method to determine relationships between various psychological and environmental variables and age of onset of eating disorders. The authors explain the importance of the study in clarifying and detecting risk factors, with clear implications for clinical practice. According to the authors, this study fills a gap in the literature not just in that it is a single cohort design but also one that uses a psychiatric control group. The main variables include parent perceptions of their child’s weight, and also actual body weight in middle childhood. The authors present two hypotheses: first, that among female cohorts, late-onset binge-and-purge eating disorders like bulimia would be positively correlated with parental disapproval of child weight in middle childhood. Second, the authors hypothesize that early adolescents’ concerns…
Allen, K.L., Byrne, S.M., Oddy, W.H., et al (2014). Risk factors for binge eating and purging eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord 2014; 47:802–812
Many patients enroll in programs that resemble other addiction treatment programs, where they attended closed meetings and treatment for a month or so to help get rid of their eating disorder. Twin Mary-Kate Olson attended this type of treatment program for her anorexia.
All of these eating disorders are treatable, and many young women, who they seem to most affect, grow out of them as they grow older. Many do not, however. ABC News recently reported on the growing number of middle-aged women suffering from eating disorders. They report, "Experts say between 1 million and 3 million middle-aged women in this country have anorexia or bulimia. One out of every 10 eating disorder patients is over 40" (ABC News, 2005). Thus, it seems like the problem is getting bigger, rather than smaller, even though even more Americans suffer from obesity than ever before in our history.
One of the reasons…
Author not Available. (2005). Anorexia also strikes middle-aged women. Retrieved from the ABC Nightly News Web site: http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/Health/story?id=1215550& ; page=1-26 Oct. 2005.
Editors. (2002). Eating disorders information index. Retrieved from the National Eating Disorders Association Web site: http://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/p.asp?WebPage_ID=294 26 Oct. 2005.
Lee, S. (2001). Chapter 3 Fat phobia in anorexia nervosa: Whose obsession is it? In Eating disorders and cultures in transition / Edited by Mervat Nasser, Melanie A. Katzman, and Richard A. Gordon., Nasser, M., Katzman, M.A., & Gordon, R.A. (Eds.) (pp. 40-54). New York: Taylor & Francis.
Smolak, Linda, Michael P. Levine, and Ruth Striegel-Moore, eds. (1996). The developmental psychopathology of eating disorders: Implications for research, prevention, and treatment. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
hear about persons who suffer from diseases such as HIV / AIDS, cancer. However, what we barely hear about is eating disorders yet it is a disease that affects several people each and every year. In the past quarter century, eating disorders have come to be a serious matter. Several individuals have been diagnosed with eating disorders. Age wise, more teenagers compared to the other age brackets suffer from eating disorders. The pervasiveness of disordered eating has come to be a very grave issue and is assessed to be much greater. One of the primary reasons why eating disorders are a rising cause of concern is their direct link to increased depression in the disordered eater. Statistics indicate that eating disorders which consist of illnesses such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder as well as eating disorders which are uncharacteristic are projected to take place in about five to…
Hesse-Biber, S., Marino, M., & Watts-Roy, D. (1999). A Longitudinal Study of Eating Disorders among College Women: Factors That Influence Recovery. Gender and Society, Vol. 13.
Jaret, P. (2015). Eating Disorders and Depression. WebMD. Retrieved 27 August 2015 from: http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/eating-disorders/features/eating-disorders
Karpowicz, E., Skarsater, I. And Nevonen, L. (2009). Self-esteem in patients treated for anorexia nervosa. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing 18, 318-325.
King, S., Turner, D. (2000). Caring for adolescent females with anorexia nervosa: Registered nurses' perspective. Journal of Advanced Nursing 32(1) 139-147.
Health and healthy living require a balance of many ideas and behaviors, that need to be taken into consideration in order to realize the totality of the situation. One of the more pressing issues in today's world deals with the ability of the younger generations to practice good and healthy eating habits. While this may appear easy at first glance, the many circumstances that may contribute to such a problem can create a situation where more research is required.
The use of diet aids within college populations is a serious issue within the health care arena. The purpose of this essay is to explore the many intricate details that correlate with the use of diet aids amongst college students and how this practice may become harmful and provide unintended circumstances. This essay will first define key terms and gather the necessary literature to help guide the discussion. Next, this essay…
Agliata, D., & Tantleff-Dunn, S. (2004). The impact of media exposure on males' body image. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(1), 7-22.
Groesz, L.M., Levine, M.P., & Murnen, S.K. (2002). The effect of experimental presentation of thin media images on body satisfaction: A meta-analytic review. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 31(1), 1-16.
Thompson, J.K., & Stice, E. (2001). Thin-ideal internalization: Mounting evidence for a new risk factor for body-image disturbance and eating pathology. Current directions in psychological science, 10(5), 181-183.
" The Eating Disorder Inventory or the Eating Disorder Inventory for Children surveys were completed. Findings in this study report that the results "indicate that...before puberty there appear to be virtually no significant relationships between mothers' and daughters' eating attitudes and behaviors." (Sanftner, 1993) However, as the girls progressed through puberty "some relationships begin to emerge between mothers' weight preoccupation, dieting, and bulimic behaviors and their daughters' dieting and drive for thinness." (Sanftner, 1993) F
Following puberty, the daughters were found to be "somewhat more likely to exhibit interpersonal distrust and interoceptive awareness." (Sanftner, 1993) It is reported that "at first glance these results may seem to support the contention that mothers are an important determinant of eating-related problems in their daughters and that they should be indeed targeted in treatment. However, careful interpretation of these data suggests otherwise." (Sanftner, 1993) It is reported that it appears from the data…
Agras, Stewart; Hammer, Lawrence, and McNicholas, Fiona (1997) A Prospective Study of the Influence of Eating-Disordered Mothers on Their children. Stanford University 1999. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Benninghoven, Dieter; Tetsch, Nina, Kunzendorf, Sebastian, and Jantschek, Gunter (2007) Body Image in Patients with Eating Disorders and Their Mothers and the Role of Family functioning. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 48. 2006.
Brain Theory of Eating Disorders (2005) BBC News. 5 Jan 2005. Online available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/4144755.stm
Fassino, Secondo, Amianto, Federico, Giovanni, Abbate-Data (2009) The Dynamic relationship of parental personality traits with the personality and psychopathology traits of anorectic and bulimic daughters. Comprehensive Psychiatry 50.
What is even more disturbing is the images of beauty we see of television that are given wide acceptance and are presented as world's idea of a beautiful woman are getting thinner consistently. For example, beauty pageant participants are always thin with not even a single one of them overweight or slightly 'chubby'. Miss America contestants have consistently adhered to media's false image of beauty as they continue to get thinner each year. The body mass index (BMI) of Miss America finalists and winners has continued to decrease since 1922 and has now reached a range which for most real women falls in the category of 'undernourished'. (Devlin & Zhu, 2001). Models in fashion magazines and TV commercials are 25% thinner than an average woman in America. (Wood, 2001). More females than males have problems of body dissatisfaction as 66% of U.S. women complained of dissatisfaction with their bodies (Devlin…
Stice, E., & Shaw, H.E. (1994). Adverse effects of the media portrayed thin-ideal on women and linkages to bulimic symptomatology. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 13, 288-308
Stice, E., Shaw, H.E., Schupak-Neuberg, E. Stein, R.I. (1994). Relation of Media Exposure to Eating Disorder Symptomatology- an Examination of Mediating Mechanisms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 4, 836-840.
Stormer, S., & Thompson, J.K. (1995, November). A psycho-educational program for the improvement of body dissatisfaction. Paper presented at the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, San Diego, CA.
Wiseman, C.V., Gray, J.J., Mosimann, J.E., & Ahrens, a.H. (1992). Cultural expectations of thinness in women: An update. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 11, 85-89.
Abnormal Psychology: Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS)
Critical Thinking Paper Expert Paper
Significance of the Topic
Although anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder have gotten more media attention, Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) is actually the most prevalent eating disorder in the general population. The estimated prevalence is 4.78% in adolescents and 4.64% in adults, according to one research study (LeGrange, et al., 2012). Although individuals with this disorder may not have the dangerously low or high body weight or frequency of purging behavior of the better-known eating disorders, the eating behaviors of sufferers still cause significant distress.
Connection to Abnormal Psychology
The existence of far more diversity within the category of eating disorders than recently thought, including the inclusion of binge eating disorder as a medically classified mental illness, versus solely being viewed as a failure of willpower, highlights the degree to which research on…
Dahlgren, C. L., Hage, T. W., Wonderlich, J. A., & Stedal, K. (2019). General and eating
disorder specific flexibility: Development and validation of the Eating Disorder Flexibility Index (EDFLIX) Questionnaire. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 663. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454114/
Le Grange, D., Swanson, S. A., Crow, S. J., & Merikangas, K. R. (2012). Eating disorder not
otherwise specified presentation in the US population. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 45(5), 711–718. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4408273/
A sociological perspective places food and eating into a broader context, taking into account historical, cultural, political, and economic variables. Although there are some crossovers between the sociology of food and the anthropology of food, the sociological perspective is unique. In particular, sociology remains concerned with issues like race, class, gender, and power in societies. The sociology of food in part demonstrates how food and eating can reflect existing social stratifications and hierarchies or create new hierarchies or caste systems. Food, from the way it is produced and distributed, to the way it is priced, processed, packaged, and served, involves a series of structural and functional relationships not just between individuals but organizations and institutions. The relationships between individuals in a family or community can be impacted through different roles regarding food, as when the hunting, gathering, preparation, and serving of food is a gender segregated activity. Moreover, the sociology…
Ball, E.L. (2013). Sustained by Eating, Consumed by Eating. SUNY Press.
Beardsworth, A. & Keil, T. (1997). Sociology on the Menu. Routledge: Taylor & Francis.
Erlich, E. (1997). Miriam’s Kitchen. New York: Penguin.
National Eating Disorders Association (2016). Research on males and eating disorders. Retrieved online: https://www.nationaleatingdisorders.org/research-males-and-eating-disorders
The High Capacity Model of Resilience and Well-being (H-CAP) illuminates the factors that promote psychological resilience: Hope, Commitment, Accountability, and Passion. An in-depth review of the H-CAP quality of passion reveals poignant lessons therapists can apply when working with clients. In particular, the quality of passion can be played out within the realm of narrative therapy. The theory behind narrative therapy involves the ubiquitous use of metaphor and meaning-making through personal life stories, and how people interpret the experiences and events that comprise their lives. Through self-awareness and self-analysis, the client can overcome obstacles and triumph over adversity via the application of H-CAP principles like passion. Passion and narrative therapy can be woven into a Biblical approach to psychotherapy, with clear clinical implications for a diverse clientele.
Review of Factor
Passion is one of the four main factors that comprise the H-CAP model of psychological resilience. The other three…
Barclay, T.H. & Barclay, R.D. (2017). Development and validation of the High Capacity Model of Resilience and Well-being Scale 21. Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Science 5(1): 1-16.
Dallos, R. & Vetere, A. (2014). Systemic therapy and attachment narratives: Attachment Narrative Therapy. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 19(4): 494-502.
Flaskas, C. (2018). Narrative, myth-making, and the unconscious. In Flaskas, C. (Ed.). Systems and Psychoanalysis. London: Routledge.
Fletcher, D. & Sarkar, M. (2012). A grounded theory of psychological resilience in Olympic champions. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 13(5): 669-678.
Goncalves, M.M., Ribeiro, A.P., Silva, J.R., et al. (2015). Narrative innovations predict symptom improvement. Psychotherapy Research 26(4): 425-435.
Pugh, M. (2015). A narrative review of schemas and schema therapy outcomes in the eating disorders. Clinical Psychology Review 39(2015): 30-41.
Sarkar, M. & Fletcher, D. (2014). Ordinary magic, extraordinary performance: Psychological resilience and thriving in high achievers. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology 3(1): 46-60.
Eating Disorders and Gender
There are medical conditions which more commonly occur in one gender over another. These conditions can be either mental or physical. Very often, they are both mental and physical conditions. Certain medical situations are extremely severe and can potentially result in serious harm to the body or perhaps even death. There are certain conditions which being with a mental impression, a false belief that has been ingrained within the mind which then manifests itself in the body of the individual. One of the most common and most disturbing types of condition is known as an eating disorder. By this term, it is meant that the patient suffers a mental conditioning which makes them either unwilling or unable to eat in a healthy manner resulting in either over or under eating and malnutrition. Eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia are the result of psychological issues on…
Bates, Daniel. "Globalization of Fat Stigma: Western Ideas of Beauty and Body Size Catching
on in Developing Nations." Daily Mail. 2011. Print.
Battiste, Nikki & Lauren Effron."EDNOS: Deadliest Eating Disorder Is Quietly the Most
Common." ABC News. ABC News Network, 14 Nov. 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. .
Eating disorder is characterized by abnormal eating habits involving excessive or insufficient intake of food which is detrimental to the individual's physical and mental well-being. There are two common types of eating disorders although there are other types of eating disorders. The first is bulimia nervosa which is excessive eating coupled with frequent vomiting. The second type is anorexia nervosa which is immoderate restriction of food which leads to irrational weight gaining. The other types of eating disorders include eating disorders not otherwise specified which are essentially where a person has anorexic and bulimic behaviors, binge eating disorder which is compulsive overeating without any kind of compensatory behavior, and pica which is craving for certain non-food items such as glue, plaster, paper. It is estimated that roughly 10-15% of cases of eating disorders occur in males and statistics show that women are at a higher risk of developing eating disorders…
Doll, H.A., Petersen, S.E., & Stewart-Brown, S.L. (2005). Eating Disorders and Emotional and Physical Well-Being: Associations between Student Self-Reports of Eating Disorders and Quality of Life as Measured by the SF-36. Quality of Life Research, 14(3), 705-717. doi: 10.2307/4038820
Kime, N. (2008). Children's Eating Behaviours: The Importance of the Family Setting. Area, 40(3), 315-322. doi: 10.2307/40346135
Krauth, C., Buser, K., & Vogel, H. (2002). How High Are the Costs of Eating Disorders - Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - for German Society? The European Journal of Health Economics, 3(4), 244-250. doi: 10.2307/3570016
Martin, A.R., Nieto, J.M.M., Jimenez, M.A.R., Ruiz, J.P.N., Vazquez, M.C.D., Fernandez, Y.C., . . . Fernandez, C.C. (1999). Unhealthy Eating Behaviour in Adolescents. European Journal of Epidemiology, 15(7), 643-648. doi: 10.2307/3582136
Eating Disorder Group Sessions
Group Session 1 Obesity:
Hello, My name is Nancy and I am a counselor and a registered dietitian and I specialize in working with people who are seeking help for eating disorders. First when we talk about why people eat and why they do or do not gain weight we must talk about the balance between activity and calorie intake. In general when you eat more calories than your body needs to maintain your body and expend energy in movement the calories not needed for maintenance will be used by the body to build more tissue. Though weight does level off after time any temporary increase in calories over time will create a higher weight and the only way to lose this weight is to increase the amount of energy you use while decreasing the number of calories you eat, and this must be maintained even…
Abraham, S., Boyd, C., Lal, M., Luscombe, G., & Taylor, A. (2009). Time since menarche, weight gain and body image awareness among adolescent girls: onset of eating disorders?. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 30(2), 89-94. doi:10.1080/01674820902950553
Eating can cause low blood pressure. (2010). Harvard Heart Letter, 20(11), 2. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
James, K. (2010). Living beauty. Thethruth about food additction. Better Nutrition, 72(10), 44. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Katan, M.J. & Ludwig,, D.S.(2010) JAMA.;303(1):65-66. doi: 10.1001/jama.2009.1912
The youngsters and children who suffer from Anorexia Nervosa in early age suffer from low body development, lack of growth of good mental health and particularly with the low growth of sex hormones that make them weaker sexually. You can see many people who have poor body structure and lack of bone density due to their improper nutrition so these children usually have weak bones and there is fear that they may face with bone fracture in their life.
While besides physical body disturbance and weakness it put effect on the brain of human being and person who is diagnose with Anorexia Nervosa have weak structure of their brain and have physiological impact on those people including poor personality, shattered body image.
There are many ways that can be used to cure this disease but first of all you need to find out that you are also suffering from this…
Cohen, Juliet. "Identifying Anorexia Nervosa Symptoms." EzineArticles 13 September 2007. 01 October 2007 http://ezinearticles.com/?Identifying-Anorexia-Nervosa-Symptoms&id=730487 .
Birmingham CL, Goldner EM, Bakan R. Controlled trial of zinc supplementation in anorexia nervosa. Int J. Eating Disord. 1994;15:251-255.
Thomsen, S.R., Weber, M.M., & Brown, L.B. (2002). The relationship between reading beauty and fashion magazines and the use of pathogenic dieting methods among adolescent females. Adolescence, 37, 1-19
Crisp AH, Lacey JH, Crutchfield M. Clomipramine and 'drive' in people with anorexia nervosa: an inpatient study. Br J. Psychiatry. 1987;150:355-358
While no one knows what the future will bring, based upon what the background / significance uncovered, it is clear that a large portion of the population sample will more than likely suffer from some type of eating disorder. This will help to achieve the various aims / objectives of project, which are to assist these people, in realizing that they do have a problem and to seek out effective treatment options. This could be a real challenge, in identifying the problem as one issue, while encouraging someone to seek out help is another matter. As these people, must be able to realize that they have a medical condition and want to be able rectify the situation. The only way that this can occur, is for someone to admit that they are suffering from an eating disorder.
Women and Eating Disorders. (2007). Now Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.nowfoundation.org/issues/health/whp/whp_fact2.html…
Women and Eating Disorders. (2007). Now Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.nowfoundation.org/issues/health/whp/whp_fact2.html
Alexander, L. (2010). Nutrition, Exercise and Weight Management. New Dimensions in Women's Health. (pg. 256). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Costin, C. (2007). Considering Ethnicity. The Eating Disorder Sourcebook. (pp. 35 -- 37). Los Angeles, CA: Lowell House.
Greenberg, J. (2006). Issue Related to Body Image. Physical Fitness and Wellness. (pg. 229). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Eating disorders are the number one cause of mortality among mental disorders. A significant portion of women in America suffer from eating disorders. This paper describes these disorders and identifies common, practical and theoretical approaches to eating disorders that are used by counselors, therapists and care givers to help women overcome their struggles. It discusses some of the causes of these disorders. Finally, it identifies the how the Christian perspective and faith-based interventions can be used to help women obtain a better, healthier, more positive, and more realistic image of womanhood to help them deal with the social and peer pressures, the unhealthy emotions, and the mental afflictions that can cause them to develop eating disorders. This paper concludes with the affirmation that the Christian perspective on healing can be an effective approach to helping women who suffer from eating disorders.
a. Key facts and statistics…
According to Himmel (2009), "We could save a lot of pain, suffering and money by incorporating obesity into the range of illnesses now classified as eating disorders, and focusing on prevention" Obesity related issues are frequently classified separately from eating disorders, but there is more overlap than many people believe. When a person diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia, the traditionally recognized eating disorders, enter treatment with a professional counselor or psychologist, a Twelve Step program called Overeaters Anonymous is sometimes recommended. The Twelve Step program Overeaters Anonymous was not started to help people with anorexia and bulimia, and yet it has come to serve these populations as well, suggesting that what Himmel (2009) says is correct. Eating disorders encompass a range of disordered eating behaviors. Individual differences ensure that there are no two people who practice an eating disorder for the same reasons. By the same token, obesity…
Day, J., Ternouth, A. & Collier, D.A. (2009). Eating disorders and obesity: Two sides of the same coin? Epidemiological Psychiatry 18(2): 96-100.
Himmel, S. (2009). You must be hungry. Psychology Today. 18 Sept, 2009. Retrieved online: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/you-must-be-hungry/200909/is-obesity-eating-disorder
Eating Disorder and Depression
Annotated Bibliography: What is the Association between Depression and Eating Disorders?
Costa, J., Maroco, J., Gouveia, J., & Ferreira, C. (2016). Shame, self-criticism, perfectionistic self-presentation and depression in eating disorders. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological herapy, 16(3), 315-328.
his article focuses on the connection between external shame and depression in individuals with eating disorders and the moderating role of self-criticism and perfectionistic self-presentation. Following a cross-sectional survey of 121 women with eating disorder, it was found that shame and perfectionistic self-presentation interact to cause self-criticism, which in turn results in depression. he implication thereto is that, when an individual internalises an ideal self, they gain a standard that as per their comparison with the actual self, results in negative feelings and self-evaluations; the individual perceives their real self as flawed or inferior. Consequently, the individual resorts to perfectionist self-representation so as to create to a…
This article focuses on the relationship between dietary intake, eating disorder signs, and depressive symptoms in adolescents. The relationship was tested using a population-based cohort of 429 female adolescents. It was found that adolescents diagnosed with an eating disorder had a substantially lower consumption of fat, starch, fatty acid, as well as vitamins A and E. compared to their counterparts without an eating disorder. Further, for participants with an eating disorder, fatty acid intake was found to be significantly and negatively correlated with eating disorder and depressive signs. A major strength of the study is the large sample used, which reinforces the representativeness of the findings. In addition, the study compared specific dietary ingredients' intake and depressive symptoms in subjects with and without an eating disorder. Major weaknesses of the study include use of self-report data and exclusion of male subjects. Even so, the study further demonstrates the impact of eating disorder on psychological wellbeing. In the event an eating disorder is discovered, proper monitoring and management should be undertaken, specifically focusing on nutritional deficiencies and depressive symptoms.
Bachle, C., Lange, K., Stahl-Pehe, A., Castillo, K., Scheuing, N., Holl, R., Giani, G., & Rosenbauer, J. (2015). Symptoms of eating disorders and depression in emerging adults with early-onset, long duration type 1 diabetes and their association with metabolic control. PLoS ONE, 10(6), e0131027.
This study sought to analyse the incidence of and relationship between eating disorder symptoms and depression in patients with early-onset type 1 diabetes. 211 subjects aged 18 to 21 years (male and female) participated in the study. Results of the study indicate that the presence of an eating disorder was positively associated with severe symptoms of depression; the outcome revealed that women are the most affected segment. Reliance on population-based data is a major strength of the study. The inclusion of male and female subjects also adds to the strengths of the study as this enabled comparison across genders. Nonetheless, the study is limited by its cross-sectional design, which hinders causality inferences. From a practice perspective, it is imperative for patients with type 1 diabetes to be assessed for depression. In most cases, attention is paid to glucose levels, dietary intake, physical activity, and diabetes-related morbidities. Adding mental health screening can improve health outcomes in type 1 diabetes patients.
Depression and Eating Disorders
The eating disorder category in the DSM-IV includes Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and the Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified categories. Peck and Lightsey (2008) note that while the DSM classification symptom is currently the most used system, there has been some debate in the about how to classify people with eating disordered behavior. A viable alternative to the discrete categories used in the DSM is notion of viewing eating disorders along a continuum from having no such behaviors to the severe eating disordered behaviors. In an effort to combine the two methods the self-report Questionnaire for Eating Disorders Diagnosis (QEDD) was developed. The QEDD distinguishes nonsymptomatic individuals (no symptoms) to symptomatic individuals (those that have some symptoms, but do not qualify for a diagnosis to anyone qualifying for an eating disorder diagnosis). Previous research has provided support for this conceptualization by comparing the QEDD with scores…
Hudson, J.I., Hiripi, E., Pope, H.G., Jr., & Kessler, R.C. (2007). The prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 348 -- 358.
Some doctors believe that genetic factors are the core cause of a lot of eating disorders. esearchers have found specific chromosomes that may be associated with bulimia and anorexia, specifically regions on chromosome 10 that have been linked to bulimia as well as obesity. There has been evidence that has shown that there is an association with genetic factors being responsible for serotonin, the brain chemical involved with both well-being and appetite. esearchers have also determined that certain proteins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are thought to influence a person's vulnerability to developing an eating disorder (Eating disorders -- Causes, 2010).
The advance of food in Western countries has become extremely problematic. The food that is produced in the U.S. every year is enough to supply 3,800 calories to everyone on a daily basis. This is far more than is needed for good nutrition. Obesity is a worldwide epidemic,…
Eating Disorders. (n.d.). Retrieved June 19, 2010, from National Mental Health Information
Center Web site: http://mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/publications/allpubs/ken98-
Eating Disorders. (2009). Retrieved June 19, 2010, from National Institute of Mental Health
ascertaining the link between depression and eating disorders, with particular focus on young adults and teens. Not much information is available on the subject of eating disorder (ED)-diagnosed persons' nutritional status and food consumption. The objectives of this study were:
To explain eating disorder-diagnosed teens' nutritional intake and To study the relationship of depression with ED among teens without as well as with ED.
A number of data sources were employed for individual papers examined for this research. This examination facilitates the drawing of a few key inferences. ED's high stability and its major link to obesity and declining psychological health among adults highlight the necessity of timely problem identification and treatment in childhood and teenage. Depressed youngsters must be especially observed to detect restrictive ED development. Further, adult females depicting a lifetime ED diagnosis showed double the likelihood to report migraines as compared to unrelated members of this very…
Allen, K., Mori, T., Beilin, L., Byrne, S., Hickling, S., & Oddy, W. (2012). Dietary intake in population-based adolescents: support for a relationship between eating disorder symptoms, low fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 459 - 469.
Christina, B., Lange, K., Stahl-Pehe, A., Castillo, K., Scheuing, N., Holl, R., . . . Rosenbaeur, J. (2015). Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Depression in Emerging Adults with Early - Onset, Long-Duration Type 1 Diabetes and Their Association with Metabolic Control. PLoS ONE.
Costa, J., Maroco, J., Pinto Gouveia, J., & Ferreira, C. (2016). Shame, Self-Criticism, Perfectionistic Self-Presentation and Depression in Eating Disorders. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 315 - 328.
Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., Dempfle, A., Konrad, K., Klasen, F., & Ravens-Sieberer, U. (2015). Eating disorder symptoms do not just disappear: the implications of adolescent eating-disordered behaviour for body weight and mental health in young adulthood. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 675 - 684.
The third group served as a comparison group. They were not put on a diet at all, they simply received information on healthy eating. All women received the same advice to increase physical activity, especially walking.
The women were followed for 40 weeks, with an additional follow-up visit at 65 weeks. The researchers took weekly measures in a variety of areas. These included body weight, episodes of binge eating, depression levels and difficulty sticking with the diet.
The different data from the groups were collected and measured statistically to see if there were any differences in the areas looked at in the study, in particular, if women on a low-calorie diet were more likely to develop a binge eating disorder.
The original belief of the researchers as they went into this study was that the women in the two diet conditions would be more likely than the non-dieting women to…
Wadden, T., et al. (2004, September). "Dieting and the development of eating disorders in obese women: results of a randomized, controlled trial." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80(3). pp. 560-568.
Program Evaluation Design
Eating Disorder Program
The university hospital in our city has developed a strong program focused on a spectrum of eating disorders. Disorders addressed include anorexia, bulimia nervosa, compulsive eating, obesity, and a variety of non-traditional eating disorders. Our hospital approaches these issues on many levels, and our staff includes highly trained psychiatrists and psychologists, as well as skilled nutritionists to develop personalized eating plans tailored to each patient. Gastroenterologists, endocrinologists, and other specialists are also part of our team, since the severity of eating disorders can lead to serious and life-threatening conditions.
We also recognize the value of peer support and have incorporated two peer-led groups that focus on eating disorders education as well as prevention. The groups have been meeting weekly for nearly six months. The meetings for each group are structured in the same way, and the length of each meeting is 90 minutes.…
She took her cafeteria tray to a table in the corner, so she could sit by herself. Although she was in two of my classes, I had never made eye contact with the girl. I thought it might be a good idea to break the ice, so I brought my homemade lunch over to her table and sat down, introducing myself.
She flashed a timid smile and told me her name: Sarah. However, she didn't seem like much of a conversationalist. She quickly became absorbed in her lunch, which consisted of two Little Debbie cakes that came neatly wrapped in a clear plastic bubble. There was nothing else on her tray but a carton of milk, which she didn't seem interested in at all for the moment. With her dainty fingers, Sarah eased open the plastic wrapper exactly on the seam, taking care not to damage the twin white…
These suppositions allow the researcher to view the world from a certain perspective while ignoring other perspectives. The researcher in this study assumes that his subjects are logical human beings who have a rationale point-of-view. Their thinking is valid and reasonable and their approach is more or less along the lines of scientific thinking. In addition, we assume that commonsense thinking and scientific thinking are more or less identical in nature. With these assumptions in mind, we take a post-positivism philosophical foundation; as in line with Trochim (2000) post-positivism is the outright denial of positivism (which argues that the laws of the nature are perfunctory and therefore deductive reasoning can be the only suitable approach to comprehend nature) and presupposes that day-to-day human and scientific reasoning are more or less the same and in order to understand reality, researchers have to use not only deductive but also inductive reasoning (Trochim,…
Bailer UF, Frank GK, Henry SE et al. (2005). Altered brain serotonin 5-HT1A receptor binding after recovery from anorexia nervosa measured by positron emission tomography. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 1032-1041.
Bloks H, Hoek HW, Callewaert I et al. (2004). Stability of personality traits in patients who received intensive treatment for a severe eating disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192, 129-138.
Bulik CM, Klump KL, Thornton L. et al. (2004). Alcohol use disorder comorbidity in eating disorders: a multicenter study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65, 1000-1006.
Byrne, B. (2000) Relationships between Anxiety, Fear Self-Esteem, and Coping Strategies in Adolescence. Adolescence. 35. 137.
Media on Eating Disorders with a Concentration of 16- to 24-year-Olds
Agency Name: ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders
Location: The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders is located high in the ock Mountains just 15 miles from Colorado Springs, Colorado. It is located on an old camp ground that is housed inside an old student union building. The facility was once part of Colorado University and now used as treatment center for teens and young adults. Led by nine of the top full-time, board-certified psychiatrists plus other professionals that will specialize in treating eating disorders, The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders will consist of a highly skilled treatment team that will works to address each patient nutritionally and psychosomatically, as well as to manage other medical issues common to eating disorders. The ocky Mountain Treatment Foundation for Eating Disorders provides the best contact to some…
Derenne, J.L., & Beresin, E.V. (2006). Body image, media, and eating disorders. Academic Psychiatry, 30(3), 257-61.
Harrison, K., & Cantor, J. (2011). The relationship between media consumption and eating disorders. Journal of Communication, 47(1), 40-67.
Jane, D.M., Hunter, G.C., & Lozzi, B.M. (2009). Do Cuban American women suffer from eating disorders? Effects of media exposure and acculturation. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 21(2), 212-218.
Levine, M.P., & Murnen, S.K. (2009). "EVERYBODY KNOWS THAT MASS MEDIA ARE/ARE NOT [pick one] A CAUSE OF EATING DISORDERS": A CRITICAL REVIEW OF EVIDENCE FOR A CAUSAL LINK BETWEEN MEDIA, NEGATIVE BODY IMAGE, AND DISORDERED EATING IN FEMALES. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 28(1), 9-42.
Additionally, the methodology employed by this study was certainly non-partisan and balanced. Still, there were a few limitations that could very well affect the efficaciousness of this study and its overall implications. Specifically the participants that comprised those with anorexia actually had two different types of anorexia, which could have "resulted in a loss of power and replications"(Harrison et al., 2010, 1894) -- particularly since this study was relatively small (with only 50 women involved with anorexia). Also, the fact that women in the study all chose to participate in it could very well have produced a form of sampling bias that could have affected the results.
In terms of possible points of generalization pertaining to this particular study, it is noteworthy that all of the participants are from the same city, London. Therefore, the results of this study certainly appear to be applicable to this city, as well as…
Harrison, a., Sullivan, S., Tchanturia, K., Treasure, J. (2010). "Emotional functioning in eating disorders: attentional bias, emotion recognition and emotion regulation." Psychological Medicine. 40, 1887-1897.
particular research explored the links amidst eating jumble symptomatology, careful eating, self-sympathy, and body mass record. The participants were simply college students with normal body mass record of 23.02 pounds and normal age of 19 to 23 years. The participants completed measures of self-sympathy, scattered eating, careful eating and provided self-reported weight and height. Higher self-empathy predicted dietary issues symptomatology and lower body mass file. Moreover, higher self-empathy also predicted higher careful eating and spelt out a striking 11% of variation in careful eating. These findings have implications for the improvement as well as testing of self-sympathy careful eating (SC-ME), training courses on school grounds, which are positioned towards improving self-perception, minimizing thoughtless eating, preventing weight gain, and reducing dietary problem symptomatology.
Question 2: What is the purpose of this study? In your own words!
Careful eating and self-empathy have recently garnered consideration in the study of weight administration. Studies…
Reference of the Journal Article
Taylor, M., Diass, S., & Krietsch, K., (2015). Associations Among Self-Compassion, Mindful Eating, Eating Disorder Symptomatology, and Body Mass Index in College Students. Translational Issues in Psychological Science. Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 229-238.
These results are important, however, in understanding if and how media images may be related to eating disorders in women. Polivy and Herman (2004) ask the commonsense question: "Why do women and girls continue to buy fashion magazines featuring thin models that make them feel anxious, depressed, and generally miserable about their bodies?" Some women find them to be a relaxing way to spend time. This shows that it is much too simple-minded for people to say that media images make women feel bad about themselves. Wouldn't it be smart to consider that maybe these small populations of women who do develop eating disorders are already dissatisfied and the media images may reinforce their inherent paranoia about their bodies? Or, perhaps it is people who are critical of every aspect of media who feel like they need to criticize the media because they themselves are made to feel insecure about…
Groesz, L.M., Levine, M.P., & Murnen, S.K. (2002). The effect of experimental presentation of thin media images on body satisfaction: A meta-analytic review.
International Journal of Eating Disorders, 31, 1-16.
Polivy, J. & Herman, P.C. (2004). Sociocultural idealization of thin female body shapes:
an introduction to the special issue on body image and eating disorders. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 23(1), 1-6.
Relationships provide the key experience that connects children's personal and social worlds. It is within the dynamic interplay between these two worlds that minds form and personalities grow, behavior evolves and social competence begins." (1999) Howe relates that it is being acknowledged increasingly that "...psychologically, the individual cannot be understood independently of his or her social and cultural context. The infant dos not enter the world as a priori discrete psychological being. Rather, the self and personality form as the developing mind engages with the world in which it finds itself." (Howe, 1999) Therefore, Howe relates that there is: "...no 'hard boundary' between the mental condition of individuals and the social environments in which they find themselves. The interaction between individuals and their experiences creates personalities. This is the domain of the psychosocial." (Howe, 1999) the work of Howe additionally states that attachment behavior "...brings infants into close proximity to…
Ainsworth, M.D.S. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44, 709-716.
Allen, Jon G. (2001) a Model for Brief Assessment of Attachment and Its Application to Women in Inpatient Treatment for Trauma Related Psychiatric Disorders Journal of Personality Assessment 2001 Vol. 76. Abstract Online available at http://www.leaonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/S15327752JPA7603_05?cookieSet=1&journalCode=jpa
Armsden, G.C., & Greenberg, M.T. (1987). The inventory of parent and peer attachment: Individual differences and their relationship to psychological well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 427-454.
Barrocas, Andrea L. (2006) Adolescent Attachment to Parents and Peers. The Emory Center for Myth and Ritual in American Life. Working Paper No. 50 Online available at http://www.marial.emory.edu/pdfs/barrocas%20thesisfinal.doc
Alcoholism researchers developed this model. The model presumes that a consumer is in one phase of change at any given time. This model entails Maintenance, action, maintenance, preparation or pre-contemplation (Patrick 189). The concept is that consumers have to shift from one stage to the next. The stages prepare them to move to the next ones sequentially. This suggests that if consumers hurry through or if they skip stages they are likely to experience setbacks. In addition, different stages apply different strategies. For instance, a person who is addicted to smoking and is at the pre-contemplation stage: this means that the person is not even thinking of quitting the habit. Probably, such a person is always not ready to consider making a list of alternatives (Lucas 920).
This model has been successful in areas such as drug abuse, smoking, and alcohol. However, the model has been applied in changing health…
Biederman, J et al. Are girls with ADHD at risk for eating disorders? Results from a controlled, five-year prospective study. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2007 Aug;28(4):302-7.
Busko, Marlene. Girls With ADHD Are at Increased Risk for Eating Disorders and Depression.
Nov 08, 2007. Medscape News Today. Web.
"…people with NES tend to be more depressed than obese people without NES, and the mood of those with NES tends to worsen during the evening, something not seen in other obese people"(Logue, 2004, p. 185).
Among the many studies that provide insight into the background and origins of this syndrome, one of the most enlightening was Obesity by Stunkard, in Fairburn and Brownell (2002). This provides an in-depth analysis of night eating syndrome as well as a concise overview of the background of this condition. Stunkard also refers to a detailed overview of this condition.
Studies using the above criteria estimate that the prevalence of the night eating syndrome in the general population is approximately 1.5% and that prevalence increases with increasing weight, from about 10% of persons enrolling in obesity clinics to as high as 25% of patients undergoing surgical treatment for obesity…it occurs among about 5% of…
Allison K. et al. ( 2005) Neuroendocrine Profiles Associated with Energy Intake, Sleep, and Stress in the Night Eating Syndrome . The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 90(11), pp. 6214-6217.
Amanda Ursell's: Feel Good. (2001, January 7). Sunday Mirror (London, England), p. 16. Retrieved April 23, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007796657
Arieti, S. & Brodie, H.K. (Eds.). (1981). Advances and New Directions. New York: Basic Books. Retrieved April 23, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101519121
Aronoff N., Geliebter a., and Zammit G. ( 2001) Gender and body mass index as related to the night-eating syndrome in obese outpatients. J Am Diet Assoc.101(1), pp.102-4.
Autism is a developmental disorder, as can be seen in the fact that Peter was first diagnosed when he failed to develop speech at the rate of a normal child. Autism is also a spectrum disorder, meaning that individuals will manifest the condition in different ways and different aspects of normal speech, movement, and social interactions may be inhibited depending on the child and the condition's severity. There is no 'cure' for autism or universally-accepted treatment for the disorder although behavioral interventions such as ABA "encourages positive behaviors and discourages negative behaviors in order to improve a variety of skills" through methods such as "Discrete Trial Training (DTT) DTT is a style of teaching that uses a series of trials to teach each step of a desired behavior or response. Lessons are broken down into their simplest parts and positive reinforcement is used to reward correct answers and behaviors." (Treatment,…
Additional treatments for ADHD. (2013). Psych Central. Retrieved from:
Depression. (2013). NIMH. Retrieved from:
The authors state, "underlying mechanism through which exposure to childhood abuse is associated with increased risk of panic cannot be determined based on these data alone" (p. 888). They offer several possible explanations. Exposure to abuse as a child may result in an extreme and realistic fear of threat to survival. This may be how panic disorder starts. Later, it may persist, or recur spontaneously, even without abusive conditions. In the face of a real life threat, panic is not pathological, but in childhood panic may make the child more vulnerable to panic later. Exposure to abuse may lead to biochemical changes that increase the risk of a disorder. Because the study was based on interviews with 18 to 21-year-olds, who were asked to recall past experiences, the findings could be contaminated by recall bias in which young people with mental instability might be more likely to report abuse in…
Bandelow, B., Sojka, F. et al. (2006). Panic disorder during pregnancy and postpartum period. European Psychiatry, 21, 495-500.
Biederman, J., Petty, C., Faraone, S.V. et al. (2006). Effects of parental anxiety disorders in children at high risk for panic disorder: A controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 94, 191-197.
Goodwin, R.D., Fergusson, D.M. And Horwood, L.J. (2004). Childhood abuse and familial violence and the risk of panic attacks and panic disorder in young adulthood. Psychological Medicine, 35, 881-890.
Warren, S.L., Racu, C., Gregg, V. And Simmens, S.J. (2006). Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight. Anxiety Disorders, 20, 342-352.
This paper will provide an overview of bipolar disorder, as currently described in the most recent edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). It will explain how the symptoms of the disorder may manifest themselves, different treatment options, and evolving research in the field. Bipolar disorder remains a complex mental disease that can often mispresent in its features to clinicians, depending on the type and stage of the mood cycle the patient is in, so a clearer understanding by psychiatric clinicians, sufferers, and family members is needed.
Bipolar Disorder: An Overview
Bipolar disorder was once more commonly known as manic depression. It is classified as a mood disorder, under the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). A variety of types exist of the disorder, but its predominant feature is rapid shifts of mood. The most common forms of the disorder, bipolar I…
Antisocial ehavior in Females with Comorbid Diagnoses of ADHD
Detention centers and residential treatment facilities are replete with male and female youth that have been in and out of the juvenile justice system for many years. Although the majority of the populations in these facilities are male, the number of female juvenile offenders is continually increasing. Many of the children in these facilities have a history of behavioral difficulties that may or may not have been diagnosed during much of their childhood.
Antisocial behaviors are acts that violate social rules and the basic rights of others. They include conduct intended to injure people or damage property, illegal behavior, and defiance of generally accepted rules and authority, such as truancy from school. "These antisocial behaviors exist along a severity continuum (Clark, et al., 2002). When childhood antisocial behaviors exceed certain defined thresholds -- the diagnostic criteria specified in the Diagnostic and…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Disgnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington DC APA.
Clark, Duncan. Vanyukov, Michael. Cornelius, Jack. (November, 2002). Childhood Antisocial Behavior and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorders. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: 66, 136-138.
Crawford, Nicole. (February, 2003). ADHD: a women's issue. Monitor on Psychology, APA: Volume 34, No. 2, p. 28.
Hinshaw, S.P. (2003). Preadolescent girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: I. Background characteristics, comorbidity, cognitive and social functioning, and parenting practices. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.
17% of men and 13% of women have experienced more than three traumatic events in their lives, and the onset of PTSD is generally based on the degree and the extent of the trauma, and the duration, and the type. For example, when there is a rape, then there is a 49% chance that the women will experience PTSD, and when there is a physical assault, it would be 31.9%. For sexual assault, the percentage would be 23.7 and when the person has been in an accident, and then the percentage would be 16.8%. (What is PTSD?)
Other traumatic events may be a child's life threatening illness, or a natural disaster, or a witness or a victim of a shooting or a stabbing, and so on. (What is PTSD?) These people may also experience of several kinds of physical symptoms related to their traumatic experience, and some of them are:…
Gore, Allen. T; Richards, Georgeianna. (27 April, 2005) "Post Traumatic Stress
Disorder" Retrieved at http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic1900.htm . Accessed 6 November, 2005
Managing Traumatic Stress" American Psychological Association. Retrieved at http://www.apa.org/practice/traumaticstress.html. Accessed 6 November, 2005
What is Post Traumatic Stress Disorder?" A National Center for PTSD Fact Sheet.
Mr. Grape's death left an indelible mark on his widow. Mama, who Gilbert claims was once "the prettiest girl in these parts," has become morbidly obese. Mrs. Grape won't leave the house and although she clearly loves her children, she has been debilitated since her husband's death. Her compulsive eating habits reflect her desire to stuff her pain deep inside, to smother her anger and fear with food. In fact, Mrs. Grape's overeating is mirrored in the way she treats Arnie: twice in the movie she bear hugs him, squeezing as if she could smother him. When Arnie is taken into police custody, she leaves the house for the first time in eight years. Her willingness to leave the house proves her love for her son and also enables her to experience an emotional catharsis, during which she screams in anger, "I want my son!"
Becky is the catalyst of…
This may consist of arising and seating in chairs securely. Following the progressive characteristics of this illness, all people gradually lose their capability simply to move and will need to advance and use a wheelchair.
Burbank, P.M. (2006). Vulnerable older adults: Health care needs and interventions. New York, NY: Springer Pub.
Donaldson, I.M., & Marsden, C.D. (2011). Marsden's book of movement disorders. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
Egerton, T., Williams, D. & Iansek, . (2009). Comparison of gait in progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease and healthy older adults. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Fabio, ., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2006). Gaze-shift strategies during functional activity in progressive supranuclear palsy. eceived: 20 July 2006 / Accepted: 26 September 2006 / Published online: 8 November 2006. Springer-Verlag 2006.
Fabio, ., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2008). Gaze Control and Foot Kinematics During Stair Climbing: Characteristics Leading to Fall isk in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.…
Burbank, P.M. (2006). Vulnerable older adults: Health care needs and interventions. New York, NY: Springer Pub.
Donaldson, I.M., & Marsden, C.D. (2011). Marsden's book of movement disorders. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
Egerton, T., Williams, D. & Iansek, R. (2009). Comparison of gait in progressive supranuclear palsy, Parkinson's disease and healthy older adults. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Fabio, R., Zampieri, C., Tuite, P. (2006). Gaze-shift strategies during functional activity in progressive supranuclear palsy. Received: 20 July 2006 / Accepted: 26 September 2006 / Published online: 8 November 2006. Springer-Verlag 2006.
Anatomy [...] gall bladder disorders, with background information for the first page, and then homeopathic treatments on the second page. Must be alternative treatments to surgery, drugs etc. (ex, diet)
The gall bladder is a small, pear-shaped organ nestled beneath the liver. It stores treats the bile from the liver, and then dumps the bile into the intestines. Gall bladders can suffer several disorders, such as gallstones, gall bladder sludge, infection and inflammation, and even cancer. Some symptoms of gall bladder disorders include nausea or vomiting, pain in the upper abdomen or between the shoulders, abdominal bloating, continued intolerance of fatty foods, and gas and/or indigestion (Comforth). Patients may also notice a fever, or slight jaundice (yellow skin or whites of the eyes) (Bartel). Gallstones are the most common form of gall bladder disorder, and usually are the cause of at least 80% of gall bladder disorders. Usually, there are…
Bartel, Kent R. "Gall Bladder Symptoms." New Hope Health Clinic. 2003. 3 Dec. 2004.
Editors. Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia. 3rd ed. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand, 1958.
Comforth, Tracee. "Symptoms of Gallbladder Disease." About.com. 2004. 3 Dec. 2004.
On a basic level, patients can make attempts to restructure their diet and general lifestyle choices to promote a more positive, health body in general. If this approach does not work, there are many sorts of antibiotics, painkillers, laxatives or anti-diarrhea pills that one can take to negate the effects of noxious symptoms. Corrective surgery is also an option, although it does not always work.
Some of the treatments for inflammatory bowel disease can work for irritable bowel syndrome, such as the taking of antibiotics, anti-diarrhea medicine, and fiber supplements. Additionally, corrective measures to one's diet and lifestyle to attempt to procure a stress free environment may work as well. Treatments specific to this condition, however, include antidepressants and counseling to assist with stress. Additionally, medications such as lubiprostone and alosetron also pertain strictly to this condition, and not to inflammatory bowel disease.
PATIENT FACTO: AGE
Age certainly has a…
Pace, F., Molteni, P., Bollani, S., Sarzi-Puttini, P., Stockbrugger, R., Porro, Bianchi, Drossman, D.A. (2003). "Inflammatory bowel disease vs. irritable bowel syndrome: a hospital-based, case-control study of disease impact on quality of life.." BMC Gastroenterol. 38 (10): 1031-1038.
Porter, C.K., Brooks, D.C., Pimentel, M., Akinseye, a., Riddle, M.S. (2012). "Risk of inflammatory bowel disease following a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome." BMC Gastroenterol. 12: 55. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3444908/
My final recommendation was that the parents and Adam's teachers should work as a team to help Adam manage his condition. In other words, the parents should communicate with the teachers to determine if the interventions have been effective. I would then talk to the parents themselves every two months to make further recommendations as necessary.
While drug interventions for ADHD, especially in children, have been increasingly controversial because of their possible side-effects, their main advantage is the speed and efficacy with which they work. Those who have benefited reported that the effects were almost immediately visible, on the same day the drug was used.
On the other hand, drug therapies for any mental disorder have been imperfect and frequently plagued by side-effects and non-compliance. Continuous research is therefore necessary to improve not only drug therapies and identify potential harmful effects in the long-term, but also to find possible…
ADHD Information Library (2008). ADHD Treatment Options: many Good Choices. Newideas.Net. Retrieved from: http://newideas.net/adhd/treatment
Martin, B. (2011). Treatment for Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD). PsychCentral. Retrieved from: http://psychcentral.com/lib/2007/treatment-for-attention-deficit-disorder-adhd/
Personal Health Lifestyles, Inc. (2001). Attention Deficit Disorder: Facts, Prevention and Treatment Strategies. Retrieved from: http://www.healingwithnutrition.com/adisease/add-adhd/add-adhd.html#A1
Many people hate to go to the doctor's office -- especially when they know that they will be receiving an injection. However, I, along with millions of people the world over, consider ourselves very lucky to do just that, each and every month of our lives. You see, for people like me with a disorder known as "pernicious anemia," the doctor and her needle are the important link between a healthy life and a life of absolute misery. This is because, unlike classic anemia, the common form of the blood disorder that usually results in little more than fatigue, pernicious anemia can result in catastrophic changes in the body, chief among them severe neurological impairment that, in its severe form, can result in absolute madness. For those of us who suffer from this disease caused by an inherited deficiency, or caused from some disruption or disorder in the…
Intelihealth. "Pernicious Anemia." Web site. 2004. Retrieved from Web site on April 10, 2004 www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/WSIHW000/9339/20862.html
Medline Plus. "Pernicious Anemia." Medline Plus Medical Enclyclopedia. 2003 Retrieved from Web site on April 10, 2004 http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000569.htm
Healthcare Plan for the Management of Genitourinary Disorders
Objective of this paper is to carry out a care plan for the patient, aged 60 years, who is suffering from genitourinary disorder. The study carries out the case evaluation and identifies the symptoms of the patient complication. The study also provides a comprehensive healthcare plan used for the treatment of the patients.
Case Study Evaluation
HPI (History of Present Illness).
Evaluation of the case study reveals that the patient is a Hispanic male, aged 60 years of age and complains of a decline of urinary flow. While the patient has experienced the symptom for more than two years, however, the symptom has increased significantly for the past two weeks. Although, the patient has not been diagnosed in the past, however, he faces difficulties in achieving a free flow of urine that interferes in his daily activities. The gradual worsening of the…
Benedetti, F. (2008). Placebo Effects: Understanding the Mechanisms in Health and Disease. Oxford Scholarship Online.
Bluie, T. Campbell, D.B. Fuchs, G.J. et al. (2010). Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Individuals With ASDs: A Consensus Report. Pediatrics. 125( 1): S1-S18;
Finnegan-John, J. & Thomas, V.J. (2013). The Psychosocial Experience of Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease and Its Impact on Quality of Life: Findings from a Needs Assessment to Shape a Service. Journal of Renal Care. 40(1): 74-81.
Jaarsma. T. (2005). Inter-professional team approach to Patients with Heart Failure. Heart. 91(6): 832-838.