Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Chicago School of Thought, Anomie and Strain Theories
Criminology: Chicago School, Anomie and Strain Theories
The Chicago School of criminology is a name for a conglomeration of different criminological theories that stress how the environment shapes crime-related behaviors. Chicago School theories are often said to be based on an 'ecological' models of crime. For example, theorist obert Park held "all cities would contain identifiable clusters, which he called natural areas, where the cluster had taken on a life or organic unity by itself," including ethnic and class-based enclaves (Criminological theory: A text/reader, 384). Park specifically commented upon trends in which saw commercial businesses invading traditionally residential areas of Chicago, causing the residents to care less about the quality of their neighborhoods, show less solicitousness to their fellow human beings, and thus precipitate more crime (Criminological theory: A text/reader, 385). Ernest W. Burgess later expanded upon the theory, dividing cities into…
Criminological theory: A text/reader. Sage. Retrieved from:
Robert Agnew's general strain theory. (2014). FSU. Retrieved from:
Bronfenbrenner Ecological Model
Comment by Sabina:
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological System Theory is about a child's development within the context of relationships in the child's life. Bronfenbrenner's theory is based on different complex layers of the child's environment, with each different layer impacting and affecting the development of the child. In this model of child development the microsystem and mesosystem are both important influential factors in the development of the child. The microsystem and mesosystem impacts the development of the layers in the developing child. Bronfenbrenner's theory also accounts for the individual's biological makeup. The Bronfenbrenner's Ecological System Model basically explains how nurture influences nature to create the individual. This theory is about the complex layers in the child that were created by both biological factors and environmental factors. The breakdown of any of these layers will cause a rippling effect in the development of the child.
The environment in which is…
Baker, M (2001) Cultural variations in families. In Families. Labour and Love. Family diversity in a changing world. (pp 26 -- " 49). Crows Nest, NSW: Allen and Unwin.
Centre on the Developing Child (2008). The Timing and Quality of Early Learning Experiences Combine to Shape Brain Architecture. Available at http://developingchild.harvard.edu/library/reports_and_working_papers/working_papers/wp5/
Darling, N. (2007). Ecological Systems Theory: The Person in the Center of the Circles. Research in Human Development. 4 (3-4), 203-217.
Gerhardt, S. (2004). Original Sin. In Why love matters. How affection shapes a baby's brain. (167-191). Hove: Bruner Routledge.
Bioecological model differs from others in that it charts and describes the development of the human and the group over the spectrum of the life course, through successive generations both past and present.
The model consists of four principal components and the prime dynamic, interactive element that guides them. The four processes are:
the forms of interaction between organism and environment, usually called 'proximal processes that due to interaction between organism and environment effect human development
Persons -- the individual who is effected by the processes (proximal process)
the environment (socio-geo-historical etc.) in which the proximal processes occur and impact
Time -- the period in which the proximal processes occur.
Characteristics of the person can shape the proximal process and there are three key typologies that are actually predominant. These are:
Dispositions -- these set the processes in motion in a particular direction and sustain their trajectory
Adamsons, K., O'Brien, M., & Pasley, K. (2007). An ecological approach to father involvement in biological and stepfather families. Fathering, 5, 129 -- 147.
Bronfenbrenner, U. & Morris, PA (2006). The bioecological model of human development, Handbook of Child Psychology, 1, 793-828
Hetherington, D. & Parke, G. (1999) Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint, 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill
McAlister AL, Perry CL, & Parcel GS. (2008) How Individuals, Environments, and Health Behaviors Interact: Social Cognitive Theory. In: Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice 4th Edition. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Self-esteem and self-efficacy are issues that are of primary importance. These are affected by a number of environmental factors, including immediate family, but also the environment in which a person moves, as well as the wider social environment.
Contextualism was promoted in 1942 by S.C. Pepper, and was previously known as "pragmatism." This term was often used in the work of Charles S. Peirce, William James, Henri
ergson, John Dewey, and George Herbert Mead (Morris, 1997). In psychological development, contextualism suggests the influence of a broad number of categories, beginning with the immediate family, and broadening to the peer group, society, and global environment. ehavior is therefore to be seen in the context not only of immediate family and peer influence, but also in the context of broader society.
According to Morris (1997), Pepper's use of the term "contextualism" first occurred during 1932, where he referred to John Dewey's…
Blunden, Andy. (2001, February). "The Vygotsky School." Spirit, Money and Modernity Seminar. http://home.mira.net/~andy/seminars/chat.htm
Blunden, Andy (1997). "Vygotsky and the Dialectical Method."
Domitrovich, Celene E. (2001, April). "Parenting practices and child social adjustment: Multiple pathways of influence" In Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. Wayne State University Press
Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
This interpretation would therefore tend to suggest a view of the art that shows cultural and social disparities between classes and social groups in the society.
In the final analysis what is clear that Mithen's approach holds a great deal of potential for an understanding of past cultures and societies from an archeological perspective. This interpretive stance is valuable in that it takes into account a wide ranging and inclusive understanding of the concept of ecology. Mithen's view is both logical and consistent with contemporary approaches in other disciplines in its emphasis on holistic and integrative views and interpretations of reality. Another benefit of this stance is that it brings to bear a host of different disciplines and perspectives that can help to unravel the mysteries encapsulated in the artifacts of the past.
However, while holistic thinking and integration are useful conceptual tools for research one should not…
Hodder, I., & Hutson, S., 2003, Reading the Past: Current Approaches to Interpretation in Archaeology (3rd ed.), Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Faris, J., 1983, 'From Form to Content in the Structural Study of Aesthetic Systems', in D. Washburn (ed.), Structure and Cognition in Art, Cambridge University Press, London.
Flannery, K. V, and Marcus, J., 1976, 'Formative Oaxaca and the Zapotec Cosmos',
American Scientist, volume 64, pp.374-83.
Social Ecology Model
Social ecology requires that people see that nature and society are intertwined by progress into one environment that is made up of two differences. The first difference being biotic nature and the second being human nature. Human nature and biotic nature split an evolutionary prospective for better prejudice and elasticity. Nature is the manner in which people are flexible, extremely intellectual primates that occupy the natural world. In other words, individuals generate an atmosphere that is most appropriate for their manner of survival. In this case, human nature is no different from the atmosphere that each animal, contingent upon its aptitudes, generates as well as acclimates to, the biophysical conditions or eco community in which it lives. On this extremely basic level, people are, in fact, doing nothing that varies from the endurance actions of nonhumans (Bookchin, 2001).
The SEM is made up of several levels wrapped…
Bookchin, Murray. (2001). What Is Social Ecology? Retrieved December 11, 2010, from Web site: http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/Anarchist_Archives/bookchin/socecol.html
Innovative Pediatric Nursing Role: Public Health Nurses in Child Welfare: Theoretical Framework for Health Case Management Role. (2006). Retrieved December 11, 2010, from: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/543725_4
Social Ecological Model. (n.d.). Retrieved December 11, 2010, from Web site: http://www.cdph.ca.gov/programs/cpns/Documents/Network-Appendix6SocialEcologicalModel.pdf
Health Belief Model and Health Education
Public/population health standards place the conventional medical individual care model within several determinants of health. Currently, various public health models exist and are available for a huge range of purposes such as the Health Belief Model. These various health models exist to provide an improved understanding of the dynamics relating to the health and wellbeing of populations. In addition, there are social determinants of health (SDOH), which basically refer to the political, social and economic factors that impact the health of individuals and populations. The social determinants of health also refer to the ecological model and place significant emphasis on healthcare institutions and organizations established by humans to organize or structure social processes relating to individuals and populations’ health including health education. This paper examines how the Health Belief Model can be used to address the issue of health education.
The Issue of Health…
Walking on grass while it rains, looking at the blue sky and hearing the bird chirp, and letting cool breeze touch the skin are amongst some of the most refreshing moments which one would loathe. The refreshment and serenity arising from such moments rather define environment as a miraculous beauty. Despite the ease and satisfaction associated with nature, ecological problems go hand in hand with the reality of the surrounding. Ecological issues are environmental issues such as overpopulation, climatic changes, land degradation, pollution and many more. These problems do not only destroy the splendor of nature, but they adversely affect life. As a matter of fact, these ecological issues are a result of human activity which leaves a drastic impact on the environment.
While considering the different environmental issues, it is important to shed light on urbanization which is a major ecological issue. Urbanization is…
Jiang, L. (2008). Population, Urbanization, and the Environment: Growing Cities Stress Their Natural Surrounding, but They Can Also Help Protect Them. World Watch. Vol. 21, No. 5
According to Fitzpatrick & Keegan (2010), "This use of historical ecology to study "the complex, historical interactions between human populations and the ecosystems they have inhabited" (Kirch 1997a, p.2; see also Crumley (ed.) 1994), has been applied in other parts of the world to observe anthropogenic changes through time. Archaeologists, influenced by a wide array of scientific fields, have taken a keen interest in understanding how humans adapted, influenced, modified, and impacted their environment. This is a difficult endeavor, however, because "environments change and the magnitude of change are never constant" (O'Brien 2001, pp. 29-30). (Fitzpatrick, Keegan, pg. 30, 2007)
Fitzpatrick & Keegan point to the uses of historical ecology to investigate the interrelationships between humans and the biosphere. The importance of noting environmental changes as separate from human involvement may be erroneous. Environmental changes are hinted by proponents of historical ecology to have been initiated by humans through their…
Anderson, a. 2009, Epilogue: Changing Archaeological Perspectives upon Historical Ecology in the Pacific Islands1, University Press of Hawaii.
Balee W. (1998), Historical Ecology: Premises and Postulates -- Chapter 1.
Bird DW., Richardson JL., Veth PM., Barham AJ. (2002) Explaining Shellfish Variability in Middens on the Meriam Islands, Torres Strait, Australia. Journal of Archaeological Science, 29, 457-469
Erlandson, Rick (2010) Archaeology Meets Marine Ecology: The Antiquity of Maritime Cultures and Human Impacts on Marine Fisheries and Ecosystems.
Ecological Consciousness on the ate of Purchase of Green Products: An Experimental Analysis of German Stores
Purposes and inquiries of this research paper
The main aims of this research paper are:
(i) To study how much the green buying activity of customers is affected by previous awareness of environmental problems and ability to identify environmental friendly commodities.
(ii) To ascertain whether customers would rather buy environmentally friendly commodities and would pay more for them if required.
In order to accomplish these aims, this study assesses the various reasons why customers buy environmentally friendly merchandise from retail outlets and correlates these reasons with their personal way of life as well as the general way of life in the German community. After thorough research, the following theories were established from supplied information sources:
H1. The customers' environmental consciousness greatly influences their buying objectives;
etail outlet goods are not just displayed instead they…
Ahmad A, &Thyagaraj K. S, (2015), Consumer's Intention to Purchase Green Brands: the Roles of Environmental Concern, Environmental Knowledge and Self Expressive Benefits. Curr World Environ., 10(3). doi :10.12944/CWE.10.3.18
Ar IM, (2012), The Impact of Green Product Innovation on Firm Performance and Competitive Capability: The Moderating Role of Managerial Environmental Concern. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 62, 854-864.
Blaxter L, Hughes C, & Tight M, (2006), How to research. (3rded.). England: Open University Press
Braga Junior SS, da Silva D, Gabriel ML & de Oliveira Braga WR, (2015), The Relationship between Environmental Concern and Declared Retail Purchase of Green Products, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 170, 99 -- 108
For the past several decades, nursing theory has evolved with considerable considerations towards transcultural care. The concept of culture was derived from anthropology and the concept of care was derived from nursing. When one understands the derivative of nursing knowledge and the basis for cultural sensitivity, one may tailor and provide the best nursing care for diverse groups. Each group may have specific needs that may help or hinder healthcare delivery. Hence, if one fully understands the meanings, patterns, and processes, one can explain and predict health and well-being. Although many nursing theories exist, a closer evaluation will be given to Cultural Care Diversity & Universality and Purnell Model for Cultural Competence.
Cultural Competence & Influence
Cultural competence is deemed as essential component in providing healthcare today. Healthcare professionals in healthcare organizations are addressing multicultural diversity and ethnic disparities in health (Wilson, 2004). To better serve…
Kim-Godwin, Y.S., Clarke, P.N. And Barton, L. (2001), A model for the delivery of culturally competent community care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35: 918 -- 925. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2648.2001.01929.x
Maier-Lorentz, M. (2008). Transcultural nursing: its importance in nursing practice. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 15(1), 37-43.
Nelson, J. (2006). Madeleine Leininger's Culture Care Theory: The Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. International Journal For Human Caring, 10(4), 50.
SNJourney. (2007). Purnell's model of cultural competence. Retrieved from http://www.snjourney.com/ClinicalInfo/Select%20Topics/Transcultural/PurnellModel2.pdf
Thomas Malthus Model
Thomas Malthus authored the Malthusian growth model or the exponential growth model, one of the earliest and significant theories on population growth. This model is based on a mathematical proposition that population increased by a fixed proportion over any given period of time in the absence of constraints. Therefore, if the population increased from 1000 to 1200 over a certain number of years, then a population of 10,000 will increase to 12,000 during the same period. In other words, population grows at a constant rate every year. He described that the population will check itself and will not grow beyond the subsistence level and the birth rate will be fairly equal to the death rate. This is because when population increased beyond a certain level, the resources required to provide food will not increase and therefore, this will result in famine and starvation that will…
Cyrus Chu, C.Y; Tai, Ching. "Ecosystem resilience, specialized adaptation and population decline: A modern Malthusian theory." Journal of Population Economics. May 2001: 7.
Morton, John; Shaw, Jane; Stroup, Richard. "Overpopulation: Where Malthus Went Wrong?" Social Education. October 1997: 342-46.
particularly using multicriteria analysis model of land use planning and land use management and how it affects the future of land management. It has 10 sources in APA format.
Issues pertaining to land use management, and land use planning are as varied in nature as their challenging existence. Taking diversity as one challenge, it is noticed that ascertaining the various goals, values and techniques of the land user have remained a crucial task. The intention of this paper is to detail some methodologies on selected issues of land use management and land use planning, and present relevant literature review that give credence to these methodologies.
The determination of how our land is or will be used is coined as land use planning and land management. Seeking to create a vision for use and management of lands and the natural resources, the land and resource management plans requires the involvement of…
Toit, D.C. du.[July 2001]. Wise Land Use, White Paper On Spatial Planning And Land Use Management Ministry Of Agriculture And Land Affairs, available at: http://www.polity.org.za/html/govdocs/white_papers/landdev.html?rebookmark=1
Author not available, . United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development, Chaper 10, Agenda 21, available at: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/land.htm
Author not available, . United Nations Economic and Social Council, Commission on Sustainable Development http://ods-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N01/312/96/PDF/N0131296.pdf-OpenElement
O'Callaghan, M. . Global Vision, Sustainable City, available at: www.global-vision.org/city/intro.html
The global ecological crisis is the largest challenge which humanity has ever had to face (Gare, 2017). Besides, abusing the natural resources, our present method of consumption and production of goods, all modeled on economic production and not based on bio-capability, is jeopardizing the living conditions of humans, yet simultaneously changing the social foundations of human beings. International threats and dangers evolved when the social fabric of the ecological and social system exceeds and supersedes its environmental counterpart. Global environmental or ecological threats and dangers are not just social-psycho constructs created for promoting a new method of social regulation on the people. They are the result of an economic development model wherein environmental deficiencies are being shared by everyone, while the financial benefits would be helpful to some and it shall change our planet for a considerable period. The most probable global cataclysmic threats and dangers seem to emerge from human actions,…
eutral Landscape Models
The neutral landscape model is part of the study of landscape level patterns and processes. These patterns and processes are said to have suffered from lack of statistical design and replication.
The reason for this is because it is difficult to conduct experiments on such a large scale. According to the study referenced here, both the spatial extent as well as the inherent heterogeneity of landscape mosaics makes it a challenge to actually find comparison landscapes that can broaden the lack of such research.
The study also states that neutral landscape models (LMs) represent null hypotheses at the landscape scale. LMs are actually defined as a "special class of models" and are stated to be useful in a "discipline where replication and manipulation are logistically problematic."
The objective of utilizing LMs is in order to provide some sort of a benchmark, and to utilize…
Neutral Landscape Models (2011). Landscape Ecology. Retrieved from .
Neutral Landscape Models (2011). Landscape Ecology. Retrieved from .
Neutral Landscape Models (2011). Landscape Ecology. Retrieved from .
Health of Indigenous Australian Using Ecological and Holistic Health Paradigm
Patterns of health and illness
Impact of Broader Environments
Health is a basic component of human life that comprises of multiple facets. The description of health has witnessed dramatic change during past few years, as it has become a holistic phenomenon. Previously, it was considered that a healthy person is the one who does not suffer from any ailment or illness. However in recent times, the physical, psychological and communal aspects of human life have been amalgamated to give a broader perspective to human health which is identical to the concept of indigenous communities (Hjelm, 2010).
Numerous organizations are working extensively for providing adequate health care to the world population since many decades. However, it is appalling to notice that discrimination on social, economic and…
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2012, Australia's health 2012, AIHW, Australia.
Biddle, N & Yap, M 2010, Demographic and Socioeconomic Outcomes Across the Indigenous Australian Lifecourse: Evidence from the 2006 Census, ANU E. Press, Australia.
Caltabiano, ML & Ricciardelli, L 2012, Applied Topics in Health Psychology, John Wiley & Sons, Great Britain.
Carson, B, Dunbar, T & Chenhall, RD 2007, Social Determinants of Indigenous Health, Allen & Unwin, Singapore.
(1958: 191) (Scott, 2003, p.50) Simon states that a hierarchy of goals is established in which each level is "...considered as an end relative to the levels below it and as a means relative to the levels above it. Through the hierarchical structure of ends, behavior attains integration and consistency, for each member of a set of behavior alternatives is then weighted in terms of a comprehensive scale of values -- the "ultimate" ends. (Simon, 1997: 74) "In addition to simplifying decisions for participants in all these ways, organizations also support participants in the decisions they are expected to make.
WEER'S THEORY of UREAUCRACY
DESCRIPTION of THEORY
Scott (2003) notes that it was observed by Collins (1986) that there is nothing "...known in the field of organizations, perhaps in all sociology, than Weber's model of bureaucracy. It also happens that there is no more complete misunderstanding of a major sociological…
Scott, W. Richard (2003) Organizations; Rational, Natural and Open Systems. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Bioecological Systems Framework Model: Evaluation
Bronfenbrenner's Bioecological Systems Framework model views a child's development as taking place within the different environmental layers of his or her environment. The child's biology is the primary or core layer of the environment and interacts with the immediate family/community environment, and the greater social world. The biology is the foundational aspect of the model, given the extent to which biology can impact an individual's entire existence. For example, someone with an inherited genetic disorder such as Huntington's disease, cystic fibrosis, or Downs Syndrome will have a profoundly different life than a child without such an illness. A lack of access to healthy food and water, immunizations, or exposure to harmful substances within the womb or during development can also impact human biology and limit the individual's healthy physical and mental development. A child who does not have healthy food may develop a weight problem,…
Paquette, Dede & John Ryan. (2001). Bioecological Systems Framework Model.
Retrieved April 3, 2011 at http://pt3.nl.edu/paquetteryanwebquest.pdf
Ibsen / Public Health
Write about the Public Health ethical issues involved in the play
An Enemy of the People is a play in five acts, which depicts a public health crisis in a small Norwegian town. The protagonist is Dr. Stockmann -- he is a physician in this town, and his brother Peter Stockmann is the mayor. As the first act begins, we hear the mayor talking with the newspaper editor Hovstad about the new "baths" which are nearly complete and which promise to attract a large tourist trade to the town. Meanwhile we learn that Dr. Stockmann has suspected these baths of being polluted -- he receives a letter with the results of laboratory analysis, confirming his suspicion. We also learn that Stockmann's own motivation here may come from a lingering resentment -- he reminds the mayor and the others that he himself had proposed a different drainage…
Becker, M.H.,Radius, S.M., & Rosenstock, I.M. (1978). Compliance with a medical regimen for asthma: a test of the health belief model, Public Health Reports, 93, 268-77.
Conner, M. & Norman, P. (1996). Predicting Health Behavior. Search and Practice with Social Cognition Models. Open University Press: Ballmore: Buckingham.
Glanz, K., Rimer, B.K. & Lewis, F.M. (2002). Health Behavior and Health Education. Theory, Research and Practice. San Fransisco: Wiley & Sons.
Glanz, K., Marcus Lewis, F. & Rimer, B.K. (1997). Theory at a Glance: A Guide for Health Promotion Practice. National Institute of Health.
Socio-Ecological Model for stress among youth
The article looks at the relationship between neighborhood socio-economic disadvantages and the perceived stress during the middle and late adolescence stages among African-American youth. The total number that was used was 665, with 51% being female and a median age of 15.9 years at the baseline (Brenner A. & Zimmerman M., 2013).
Health problems related to stress
Chronic life stressors
High effort coping
The above Socio-Ecological Model (SEM) that displays the relationship between the intra-individual factors, he individual factors and the environmental factors that affect the stress levels of African-American youth gives a depiction of the factors that can affect the lives of individuals and subject them to stresses. But it also gives the other intervening factors…
Brenner A. & Zimmerman M., (2013). Neighborhood Context and Perceptions of Stress Over Time: An Ecological Model of Neighborhood Stressors and Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Resources. Society of Community Research and Action.
Shelter Service Utilization of Domestic Violence Victims.
Shelters have proven to be useful for women who have been domestically abused and for their children in numerous capacities. Yet it has been found that only approximately one out of four women use them. The question then is why some women choose to use them and others not even though, by not using them, they will be harmed further. The ecological model (or systems theory) is used for understanding this conundrum.
Systems theory posits that people operate within a system of interacting spheres that affect one another. These spheres operate on the individual, family, and societal level. These spheres also have their boundaries which impact how open or closed they are as well as influencing the mode of the individual's behavior.
An open system means that individuals have extended contact to people (and organizations) in the outside world through the resources within…
In G. Landsberg, M. Rock, & L. Berg (Eds.), Serving mentally ill offenders and their victims: Challenges and opportunities for social workers and other mental health professionals. New York, NY: Springer.
Carroll K.M. (1997). Enhancing retention in clinical trials of psychosocial treatments: Practical strategies. In L. Onken, J. Blaine, & J. Boren, (Eds.), Beyond the therapeutic alliance: Keeping the drug-dependent individual in treatment. [NIDA Research Monograph Series #165, 4-24]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Chou C.P., et al. (1998). Interaction effects of client and treatment program characteristics on retention: An exploratory analysis using hierarchical linear models. Substance Use & Misuse, 33(11), 2281-2301.
Goldkamp, J.S., White, M.D., & Robinson, J.B. (2001). Do drug courts work? Getting inside the drug court blackbox. Journal of Drug Issues, 31(1), 27-72.
Snyder, H., Finnegan, ., Stahl, A., & Poole, R. (1999). Easy access to juvenile court statistics: 1988-1997 [data presentation and analysis package]. Pittsburgh,…
The Developmental Pathways Model (2005) Health Services Technology Assessment Text HSTAT Online available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=hstat5.section.18578
Deborah Prothrow-Stith, M.D., Deadly Consequences "An Endangered Species -- Young Men of Color Living in Poverty" Chapter 5,-page 64-79 (1991).
African-American Males and the Correlation Between Substance Abuse
Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…
Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.
Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Tamino.com. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.tamimi.com/lawupdate/2001-01/intprop.htm
Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.
3. Structuring and enforcement process to respond to offenders, crime crews and/or gangs that includes various sanctions, i.e., pulling levers, to stop them from continuing their violent behavior.
4. Offering social services and specific resources to offenders to help them change their lives: Those who are open to the process are assisted in completing their education, finding employment, and providing for their basic human needs.
5. Communicating with the offenders to make them aware that they are under scrutiny: To emphasize the consequences of continued live of crime, offenders are told what has happened to other groups who have committed certain violent crimes such as shootings, and that the same enforcement awaits them should they engage in unlawful actions (Kennedy, 155-159).
One means fro communicating this information is through a call-in or notification meeting in which offenders and persons who love them are invited to a meeting with law enforcement…
Braga, A.A., Pierce, G.L., McDevitt, J., Bond, B.J, & Cronin, S. The strategic prevention of gun violence among gang-involved offenders. Justice Quarterly, 2008, 25(1), 132-162.
Goldstein, H. Improved policing: A problem-oriented approach. Crime and Delinquency, 1979, 25, 236-258.
Goldstein, H. Problem-oriented policing. 1990. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Kennedy, D.M. Old wine in new bottles: Policing and the lessons of pulling levers. In D.Weisburd & A.A.Braga (Eds), Polic innovation: Contrasting perspectives, 2006. (pp. 155-159). Cambridge University Press.
While there are clearly circumstances where the civil society sector is at odds with the state, there are at least as many where the relationship is one of interdependence and mutual support…. The state has thus emerged in the modern era not as a displacer of nonprofit activity but as perhaps the major philanthropist… (Salamon & Anheier 1997, p. 63-64).
Calprig is an independent statewide student organization that works on issues such as environmental protection, consumer protection, hunger and homelessness. In essence, members of Calprig desire to build a better society through a plethora of volunteer activities. The group also provides students with the opportunity to practice their effective citizenship both on and off campus. This semester, the organization focused primarily on six campaigns: The Ocean and Plastic Ban is a short-term goal to ban plastic bags in Los Angeles California; Big Agriculture, although not a lot planned for…
Addams, Jane. Democracy and social ethics. United States, 1889.
Chung, L., & P. Gibbons. Corporate entrepreneurship: the roles of ideology and social capital. Group and Organization Management 22 (1997): 10-30.
Coleman, James. Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94 (1988): 95-120.
-. Foundations of social theory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations, showing how social pressures and sociological variables can impact psychological phenomenon such as identity, motivation, personality, or behavior. A quintessential topic in the field of social psychology is bullying. Bullying can be studied from a public health perspective, showing how the external variables such as how a school is designed and the leadership and organizational culture of the school affects risk factors implicated in bullying behaviors or victimization patterns. Alternatively, bullying can be examined from a purely psychological perspective to reveal the factors implicated in aggressive physical or verbal behaviors or alternatively, to study victim characteristics or why some bystanders refuse to step in when they observe bullying behaviors. This latter issue links in with the social psychology approach. The social psychology of bullying examines factors like why some people perpetrate bullying behaviors due to their upbringing, their sense…
Specific recommendations for family therapists who employ parent training techniques are offered.
Summary and Conclusion
While Rogers does not completely define precisely the 'human' it is easily understood to be that of all aspects of the individual therefore, the environmental/ecological interaction theory, while not perfect is a good basis for the provision of healthcare to families by the nursing professional. Every aspect of the lives of a family illustrated through the interactions between the individuals and the community, neighborhood, place of employment, daycare institutions or school, laws, safety precautions, travel, mode of travel, mode of living, housing environment and indeed all elements expressed by the Macro, Micro, Meso, and Exo Levels effect the individuals. The individuals affect the environment and the elements contained therein as well through either actions or even inactions. These two facts clearly demonstrate the validity of the theory and the theoretical framework base described in this…
Sandelowski M. Troubling distinctions: a semiotics of the nursing; as cited by Joan Engebretson in Document entitled Hands-on: The Persistent Metaphor in Nursing, Holistic Nursing Practice Vol.16 No.4 07-01-2002 ISSN 09979311.
The Ecological Theory (nd) Online available at www.unt.edu/cpe/module1/blk1.htm
The Theoretical Matrix for a Rogerian Nursing Practice" by E.A.M.Barrett 2000, Theoria: Journal of Nursing Theory, 9 (4) p.3-7. Copyright 2000 by the Swedish Society for Nursing Theories in Practice, Research, and Education. Reprinted with permission. http://medweb.uwcm.ac.uk/martha/theory.htm
Meyers, S.A. An Ecological Approach to Enhancing Parenting Skills in Family Therapy "http: Kluwer Academic Publishers. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/coft/1998/
The coelation between coopeative initiation and eceptive tendencies, howeve, is much weake" (p. 32).
The oveiding theme that emeges fom all of the foegoing analytical models is the fact that although intenational conflicts and be effectively modeled and deconstucted in ode to gain a bette undestanding of the pecipitating factos and how they play out in eal-wold settings, they do not necessaily povide the insights needed to develop esolutions to these conflicts no do they povide peemptive altenatives that could stop the conflict fom stating in the fist place. Indeed, epidemiologists use compaable techniques to undestanding how disease pocesses evolve and spead thoughout a human population, but diffeent techniques ae equied to develop coesponding cues and teatments fo thei diseases. Similaly, the analysis of intenational conflicts that is needed to help decision-makes identify viable solutions will equie an additional and supplemental type of analytical methodology.
Given the potential fo death…
references. New York: United Nations University Press.
Bercovitch, J. (1999). Resolving international conflicts: The theory and practice of mediation.
Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Kenneth B. (1962). Conflict and defense. New York: Harper and Row.
Goertz, G. & Diehl, P.F. (1992). Territorial changes and international conflict. New York:
Parts of the theory are individual but coherent. The microsystem is the smallest layer in the sense that it is closest to the child and contains all the structures of which the child has regular contact. It includes the relationships and structures that the child uses to define their surroundings (family, school, and neighborhood). The interactions in this layer are primary modifiers, but are continually impacted by other layers. The mesosystem is the rather amorphous way that Microsystems morph and interact with another -- connections between events and organizations. The exosystem is the larger social system in which the child does not directly interact but has a profound effect on the Microsystems (positive and negative effects, etc.). The macrosystem, or the outermost layer in the child's environment consists of laws, customs, values, and norms -- all of which the child is expected to assimilate prior to becoming part of that…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development. Harvard University
Chinn, C. And a. Samarapungavan. (2001). "Distinguishing Between Understanding
And Belief." Theory into Practice. 40 (4): 235-42.
In J. Smith (Ed.), Understanding families into the new millennium: A decade in review (p. 357-381). Minneapolis, MN: National Council on Family Relations.
Ferree, M. (1984). The view from below: Women's employment and gender equality in working-class families. In .. Hess, & M.. Sussman (Eds), Women and the family: Two decades of change (p. 57-75). New York: Haworth Press.
Fung, J. (2010). Factors associated with parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems in Chinese immigrant families. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 3993), 314-327.
Hewlett, S., & West, C. (1998). The war against parents: What we can do for America's beleaguered moms and dads. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Hwang, K., Chang, S., Chen, S., Chen, C., & Yang, K. (2001). Chinese relationism and depression. Unpublished manuscript.
Lai, E., & Fang, S. (2001). Sex role attitude and housework participation among men and women in Taiwan. Paper presented at the…
Beutell, N. & Wittig-Berman, U. (2008). Work-family conflict and work-family synergy for generation X baby boomers, and matures: Generational differences, predictors, and satisfaction outcomes. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23(5), 507-523.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). Contexts of child rearing: Problems and prospects. American Psychologist, 34(10), 844-850.
Carlson, J. (2009). Family therapy techniques: integrating and tailoring treatment. Florence, KY: Brunner-Routledge.
Chen, F. & Li, T. (2007). Marital enqing: an examination of its relationship to spousal
Education - Theory
Addressing etention Issues in Community CollegesUsing Transition and Ecological/Environment Theory
Many community colleges face serious retention issues that affect student performance, persistence, and learning. The rationale employed in identifying alternative assessments involves overriding standardized test validities and predictive reliability issues. However, there are concerns regarding the derived holistic understanding among student outcomes. The goal of providing college educators through alternative supplemental approaches facilitate standardized testing of various evaluative measures as introduced. The issues of student self-assessment and social and value-added assessments, evaluations, and personal growth portfolios within community colleges had increased. The design suggests an institution of the writing and implementation of parallel outcomes in the studies are linked to different fundamental questions serving as subjects of confirm relevance to campus dynamics and student success.
The levels involved in making the students leave or stay are informative points on student engagement. This includes social and academic connection…
Braxton, J.M., & Doyle, W.R. (2013). Rethinking College Student Retention. New York: John Wiley & Sons,
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1994). Ecological Models of Human Development. International Encyclopedia of Education, vol. 3, 2nd ed., 131-214.
Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., & Guido-DiBrito, F. (2010). Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.
Forney, E., & DiBrito, G. (1998).Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice. pp. 111-114.
" (ean, 2006) ean notes that a "dramatic decline in the influence of father involvement has been shown to be correlated with fathers' maintaining a residence other than that of their children." (2006)
According to the work entitled: "Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency" developmental pathways of adolescent delinquency has been examined by researcher "through both longitudinal research and meta-analyses." (Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency, nd) Resulting from these empirical investigations are "numerous insights...key indicators and predictors of behavior of those youths who engage and those who persist in delinquent behavior." (Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency, nd) According to this work there have been a number of studies which had made identification of characteristic patterns of parent-child relationships that are strongly associated with juvenile delinquency." (Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency, nd) the work of Juby and Farrington (2001); Patterson and Stouthamer-Loeber (1984); and Steinberg (1987) state that "evidence clearly demonstrates the…
Allen, Sarah; and Daly, Kerry (2007) the Effects of Father Involvement: An Updated Research Summary of the Evidence Inventory. FIRA-CURA Centre for Families, Work & Well-Being University of Guelph, Ontario Canada. Online available at http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:9pJUiihSv0YJ:fira.ca/cms/documen ts/29/Effects_of_Father_Involvement.pdf+CORRELATION+BETW EEN+the+ABSENCE+of+PATERNAL+INVOLVEMENT+and+SEXUAL+RISK+TAKING+BEHAVIOR+in+ADOLESCENT+FEMALES&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=26&gl=us
Bean, Matthew (2006) Understanding Father's Roles: An Evidence-Based Practice Guide for Family Therapists. Kansas State University 2006. Online available at http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:R_K1C-afXJ8J:krex.k-state.edu/dspace/bitstream/2097/314/1/MatthewBean2007.pdf+CORRELATION+BETWEEN+the+ABSENCE+of+PATERNAL+INVOLVEMENT+and+SEXUAL+RISK+TAKING+BEHAVIOR+in+ADOLESCENT+FEMALES&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=37&gl=us
Brooks, Constance M. (2007) Environmental Risk Factors and Risky Sexual Behavior Outcomes: Attitudes as a Mediating Factor. Online available at http://edt.missouri.edu/Winter2007/Dissertation/BrooksC-051107-D6584/research.pdf
Duncan, G.J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.) (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Brooks, Constance M. (2007) Environmental Risk Factors and Risky Sexual Behavior Outcomes: Attitudes as a Mediating Factor. Online available at http://edt.missouri.edu/Winter2007/Dissertation/BrooksC-051107-D6584/research.pdf
In terms of overall reliability, the article is also strong. The information used from previous researchers is well documented, and well referenced. The authors are clearly identifiable, the article was published in a well-known peer reviewed journal, and the author is a member of several upstanding organizations. The data collected for the study is current, as are the references relied upon throughout the article.
While all three articles touched on the same topic, that of the relationship between crime and alcohol outlet density, only the Gorman article controls for other variables highly likely to influence the same criminal behaviors within any community. Further, his use of the hierarchical Bayesian model for statistical comparison further ensures reliable, accurate, and credible results. Thus, from a scholarly standpoint, the Gorman article is the most credible.
Appendix a in evaluating any piece of research material, there are several areas of importance to examine in…
Gruenewald, P.J., Freisthler, B.T., Remer, L., LaScala, E.A., a. & Treno, a. (2006). Ecological models of alcohol outlets and violent assaults: Crime potentials and geospatial analysis. Addiction, 101(5): 666-677.
Freisthler, B., Needell, B., & Gruenewald, P.J. (2005). Is the physical availability of alcohol and illicit drugs related to neighborhood rates of child maltreatment? Child Abuse & Neglect, 29(9): 1049-1060.
Gorman, D., Zhu, L., & Horel, S. (2005). Drug "hot spots," alcohol availability and violence. Drug and Alcohol Review, 24(6): 507-513.
The apparent garbage crisis of overflowing landfills would help develop urban landscapes for the future city.
Establish an overlay district of employment to encourage high-income employment in strategic locations
I would like to see the city where health systems are integrated and sharing one regional headquarter.
The leaders must facilitate development programs that generate high-income jobs.
I must address my quest for an economically vital and people-friendly future city. The apparent garbage crisis of overflowing landfills would help develop urban landscapes for the future city. There are various ways in which trash could be transformed into treasure. Based on my understanding of the Clearwater's challenges and opportunities, coupled with the current economic conditions, I believe the below strategies will translate Clearwater into a new city of my desire.
Establish an overlay district of employment to encourage high-income employment in strategic locations: the future city will be a…
The government has rather low environmental expectations. In fact, the consultant found that they are about as lenient as the Mexican restrictions, though the Philippines presents no public relations nightmare as protestors are not rallying against health concerns, as they were in Mexico.
Although the conditions in the Philippines may seem even more ready for outsourcing then the conditions in Mexico, the ethical costs of operating the company in the country are once again too high. Like the situation in Mexico, workers in the Philippines may work for lower wages than workers in the United States, but owners are not being provided with the same level of skill that they would be if continuing to operate the factory in the United States. Because the factory workers would consist mainly of underfed adults and impoverished children, the company would be lucky if workers managed to produce sufficient amounts of products throughout…
Esselaar, Jeanne. (2002). The Debate over Outsourcing in South Africa: Evidence from a case study. Proceedings from Development Policy Research Unit Conference '02. Muldersdrift, Johannesburg.
Casale, Frank J. (2006). The Outsourcing Institute: Mexico Trends & Opportunities.
Retrieved June 1, 2008, from, http://www.outsourcing.com/mexico_trends/mexico.html
Roberts, Russell (2000). The Choice. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Notwithstanding these similarities in the marketing function, there are some important differences that must also be considered. For example, even enormous countries in geographic and population terms that have relatively homogeneous populations may require more straightforward domestic marketing techniques and small city-states will require more elaborate international marketing techniques. For example, as ao (2000) points out, "Given its strong tourism base and an open economy, Singapore has modern international retailing and other marketing institutions, making this country a truly global or international city, while India represents primarily a traditional, domestic marketing environment with considerable isolation from international markets" (p. 188).
According to Hills (1994), the ecological model shown in Figure 1 below indicates that there is no single, successful ongoing or steady-state strategy for small companies involved in international marketing initiatives. This author emphasizes that, "Standardization vs. local differentiation is the single most important issue in ongoing international…
Alon, Ilan. (2004). "International Market Selection for a Small Enterprise: A Case Study in International Entrepreneurship." SAM Advanced Management Journal, 69(1), 25.
Andersen, Otto. (1993). "On the Internationalization Process of Firms: A Critical Analysis." Journal of International Business Studies, 24(2), 209.
Andrews, Tim G., Nartnalin Chompusri and Bryan J. Baldwin Obe. (2003). The Changing Face of Multinationals in Southeast Asia. New York: Routledge.
Beckman, Theodore N. And William R. Davidson. (1967). Marketing. New York: Ronald Press Co.
Program Attendance Policy Proposal and Analysis
As we are nearing the end of the third school year of the P.A.S.S. program it is beneficial to evaluate the standards and practices which have been set forth through the past three years and determine the efficacy of them. In accordance with the Pennsylvania Standards for Elementary and secondary education school principals (January 2001), data driven assessment of the policies is due. The need for implementation of best practices, be they new or accepted older models is especially great given the proven success of the P.A.S.S. program which has resulted in the proposal for expansion of enrolment and services to meet a greater demand within the local district.
The establishment of best practices for the future is the goal of the current assessment. Since its inception the P.A.S.S. program has used a program completion option strategy with at-risk students attending classes at Howell…
ERIC Raising School Attendance. Education Digest, Feb2002, 67.6, pgs.54-57.
ERIC Urban Policies and Programs To Reduce Truancy. ERIC/CUE Digest 129.
ERIC Jay DeKalb Student Truancy. ERIC/CUE Digest 125.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management and Linn-Benton Education Service
Obesity in Los Angeles County
The United States, while being one of the most technologically developed countries in the world, is not a healthy nation. Typically, when we think of disease pandemics we think of things like Swine Flu, Ebola, Lyme disease, etc. However, in the 21st century, we have a new pandemic that affects our children, adults, and eventually the whole population. Because of a more sedentary lifestyle, a proclivity for fast food, a high-fat diet, and hundreds of sugary drinks, obesity is now statistically so rampant that it is having a serious effect on American's health. Almost every researcher, whether medical or academic, as well as the public health sector, agree that there are statistical links between what we ingest and the consequences to our overall health profile. Certainly, all we need to is walk down any grocery store aisle, open up most magazines and newspapers, or watch…
About Health People. (2012, December 17). Retrieved from HealthyPeople.gov: http://healthypeople.gov/2020/about/default.aspx
Executive Order on Physical Fitness. (2010, June 22). Retrieved from The President's Council on Physical Fitness: http://www.fitness.gov/about/order/index.html
Overweight and Obesity, (2008) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Retrieved
from: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa / obesity / economic_consequences.htm
Foster Care and Adoptions
The Bronfenbrenner ecological model proposes that "individual human development occurs within interconnected and embedded ecological systems." (McWhirter, et al., Chapter 1). These are the macrosystem of societal norms, the exosystem of public policy, the microsystems such as family and schools, and the individual characteristics. Defects in one or more of these systems can put a child at risk.
An example of a child at risk is Doughboy, Ice Cube's character in Boyz in the Hood. A teenage black male in an impoverished area of Los Angeles, Doughboy faces a number of risk factors. His environment is characterized by poverty, but also by social norms and gender roles. The social norm in the area is that many young males join gangs, and he is specifically at risk because of the emphasis on aggression as part of one's self-worth among males in that area. Such cultural values among…
Child Welfare Policy.org (2013). State child welfare policy database. Child Welfare.org. Retrieved April 21, 2016 from http://www.childwelfarepolicy.org/tools/assets/files/Florida_Child-Maltreatment-Factsheet_2013.pdf
McWhirter, J., McWhirter, B., McWhirter, E. & McWhirter, R. (2013) At risk youth. Cengage Learning.
In order to understand the mental health challenges imposed on children growing up in poverty, psychologists propose two different, yet complimentary theoretical frameworks. The first is a Structural Model, emphasizing the structural differences inherent in dense populations. Structural theorists attempt to link structural data with children's mental health and well-being. The other theoretical model typically used to describe urbanization is the Ecological Model. This model highlights how a variety of systems interact to influence children.
The two authors of this article describe possible intervention strategies to improve the influence of urbanization on the mental health and well-being of children. Most of these interventions attempt to include community and family support. Benefits of this type of intervention include the increased availability of support for the children. These support groups can work together, as well as independently, in order to keep children motivated to succeed. Many children in urbanization are unmotivated and…
Child Abuse Bibliography
I am researching child abuse, and more specifically asking the question of what motivates abusers. For many people child abuse seems to us quite literally unthinkable: the sexual abuse of children seems impossible to anyone who is not a paedophile, and the physical abuse of a child by an adult seems contrary to human nature. I would like to know if the medical and social sciences have done any research into the motivations of abusers, to help provide an answer to something that so many people find impossible to understand.
Barth, Richard and Blythe, Betty J. "The Contribution of tress to Child Abuse." The ocial ervice Review 57.3 (1983): 477-489. Print.
The authors note that it is almost universal to agree that stress contributes in some way to child abuse, no-one has done sufficient research into the precise connection. They do basic research on issues relating to…
Surveying parents at risk of child abuse, the authors discover that factors which increase the propensity to abuse (which they describe in terms of loss of control over their ability not to do so) are isolation and also lack of feedback about the quality of their parenting. However, the authors find that personality traits of at-risk parents are more useful in predicting abuse than situational factors. Authors warn that potential child abusers are "an immensely heterogeneous population" and "as a group they cannot all be characterized in terms of psychiatric disorder or personality type."
6. Milner, Joel S. And Murphy, William D. "Assessment of Child Physical and Sexual Abuse Offenders." Family Relations 44.4 (1995): 478- 488. Print.
Authors look at different methods currently in place for evaluation of child physical and sexual abuse offenders within the justice system. They offer a critique of current methods, and otherwise assess the use of "interviews, observations, general personality measure, and offender-specific measures" which are required for various purposes including "screening, report confirmation, treatment planning, treatment evaluation, and recidivism prediction." They note that there is a scarcity of data, though, on the effectiveness of these various methods, or the appropriateness of specific methods for specific circumstances.
The infant mortality rate is of 8.97 deaths per 1,000 live births. This rate places Kuwait on the 160th position on the chart of the CIA. The adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS is of 0.1 per cent.
In terms of economy, Kuwait is a relatively open, small and wealthy economy. It relies extensively on oil exports -- petroleum exports for instance account for 95 per cent of the total export revenues as well as for 95 per cent of the federal income. The Kuwaiti representatives have recently set the goal of increasing the oil production per day. Currently, Kuwait is facing the pressures of the internationalized economic crisis -- which however, due to recent economic surpluses in Kuwait, affects the economy to a lower extent.
Simultaneously with the increase in oil production, the Kuwaiti authorities are also focusing on diversifying the economic activities in the sense of supporting…
Agency, Kuwait News. "Blair's "Kuwait Vision." 15 March 2010. Zawya.com. .
Al-Ansari, H. And S. AL-Enezi. "Health Sciences Libraries in Kuwait." Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 89.3 (2001): 287-93.
Al-Awadhi, Olusi, Al-Saeid, Moussa, et.al. "Incidence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Adult Kuwaitis." Annals of Saudi Medicine 25.6 (2005): 459=62.
Al-Baho, A. "Resident's Guide to the Curriculum for Training in Family Medicine." December 2008. Kuwait Institute for Medical Specialization. .
The following analysis focuses on the article titled "Preparation for Teacher-Parent Partnerships: A Practical Experience with a Family" by Hedges H. & Gibbs. According to the authors, there is the need for both stakeholders to collaborate, maximize the children's learning, and enhance early childhood education. The paper shows that despite these efforts, there are few ways that train the teachers of how to develop professional relationships with the parents. It continues to report on the use of field experience in family homes that occurred in the first year of a teacher educational program. While seeking to achieve the objective, it explores a case study of two student-teachers. The step is necessary because it shows the potential of the technique to this teacher's preparation. After the assessment, the students and teachers were seen to suffer from the realities that families create on a daily basis.
Hedges and Gibbs have…
Hedges H. & Gibbs C. A (2005). Practical Experience with a Family Preparation for Teacher-Parent Partnerships. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 26:115-126
Hiatt-Michael, D. B. (2010). Promising Practices to Support Family Involvement in Schools. New York: IAP
Hornby G. (2011). Parental Involvement in Childhood Education: Building Effective School-Family Partnerships. Springer Science & Business Media
Amato, P.R. (2005). The impact of family formation change on the cognitive, social, and emotional well-being of the next generation. arriage and Child Wellbeing, 15(2), 75-96. The author addressed two questions related to child development in single-parent households: (1) cognitive, social, and emotional consequences, and (2) etiology of outcome differences. This review of the research literature was up-to-date 2005. Overall, the author concluded that children of single-parent households will do more poorly throughout their life, but only modestly so. Protective variables included remarriage and cohabitation, in that order. The author pays careful attention to inconsistent and mixed findings within and between studies, thereby rendering the review credible.
Shook, S.E., Jones, D.J., Forehand, R., Dorsey, S., & Brody, G. (2010). The mother-coparent relationship and youth adjustment: A study of African-American single-mother families. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(3), 243-51. This study examined the impact of coparent relationship quality on child development outcomes…
McMahon, T.J., & Luthar, S.S. (2007). Defining characteristics and potential consequences of caretaking burden among children living in urban poverty. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(2), 267-81. This study examined the impact of caretaker burden imposed on children between the ages of 8 and 17, living in inner-city households with mothers abusing drugs or suffering from psychiatric problems. Doing household chores, caring for siblings, and/or caring for mother were significant predictors of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and social competence. The authors mentioned continued controversy about how to measure caretaker burden in children, which could represent a significant limitation of this study.
Sagrestano, L.M., Paikoff, R.L., Holmbeck, G.N., & Fendrich, M. (2003). A longitudinal examination of familial risk factors for depression among inner-city African-American adolescents. Journal of Family Psychology, 17(1), 108-20. This longitudinal study followed children of inner-city, African-American single-parent household to better understand how family factors influenced the incidence of depression and anxiety among children and parents. Increased family conflict and reduced parental monitoring were both significant predictors of child depression, while increased positive parenting was protective. Interestingly, parental depression was increased by peer interactions with the child and decreased by positive parenting. The data was based on self-reports from child and mother and revealed significant differences in perceptions, which the authors attributed in part to the immaturity of the child.
Florsheim, P., Tolan, P., & Gorman-Smith, D. (1998). Family relationships, parenting practices, the availability of male family members, and the behavior of inner-city boys in single-mother and two-parent families. Child Development, 69(5), 1437-47. African-American and Latino families, with boys between 10- and 15-years of age and living in inner-city Chicago neighborhoods, were recruited to participate in a study examining possible predictors of externalizing behaviors. Externalizing behaviors by the boys in the study were reduced significantly by feelings of family cohesion, structure, discipline, affiliation, and the presence of a positive male influence. Although child self-reports were the source for much of this data, the externalizing data was based on child, parent, and teacher reports.
Marine Biology & Drones
Drones are being used with increasing frequency in the study of marine life, including for population counts, and behavioral studies. The news media has offered up dramatic images of studies underway, for example of orca populations off the coast of British Columbia, but there are many studies around the world that are using drones. The advantage of drones is that they can fly above marine environments, providing an overhead view of those environments. This can be valuable in terms of counting animal populations for example, because with drones animals typically do not change their behaviors (Schiffman, 2014). Drones have become a popular tool for field biologists in part because drone technology is improving and the cost of these devices is falling (Schiffman, 2014).
In some fields, such as the observation of marine life in Antarctic sea ice, it has been noted that the normal observation is…
Gremillet, D., Puech, W., Garcon, V., Boulinier, T. & Maho, Y. (2012). Robots in ecology: Welcome to the machine. Open Journal of Ecology. Vol. 2 (2) 49-57.
Kelly, N., Murase, H., Kitakado, T., Kock, K., Williams, R., Herr, H. & Walloe, L. (2012). Appraisal of methods and data used to estimate abundance of Antarctic minke whales within sea ice covered areas of the Southern Ocean. CSIRO/Australian Marine Mammal Centre. Retrieved November 1, 2015 from http://www.marinemammals.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/135615/SC-64-IA10.pdf
Schiffman, R. (2014). Drones flying high as new tool for field biologists. Nature. Vol. 344 (6183) 459
Vas, E., Lescroel, A., Duriez, O., Boguszewski, G. & Gremillet, D. (2015). Approaching birds with drones: First experiments and ethical guidelines. Biology Letters. Vol. 11, 1-4.
Another case study, this one by Cole (2011) examines the cultural and community impacts of tourism, both sustainable and unsustainable, on specific cultures in Indonesia. Cole concludes as well that in order to help keep the cultural and community influences and positive attitudes intact, it is important to consider the local community as a major stakeholder in the sustainability of a tourist destination. Cole states in her article, "ourism has the potential to empower communities and the sustainable tourism agenda needs to focus on how to bring this about. As the case study illustrates, understanding tourists and tourism processes is the first stage to empowering the local community to make informed and appropriate decisions about their tourism development. Considerable investments are required in communication and trust building between the actors in tourism. his paper examines how action research, focus groups and the creation of a tourism forum can be concrete,…
These are the questions which are very difficult to answer, but in order to have a maintained tourism system they plays an important role.
Moreover, the use of term "itself" is confusing for a sustainable tourism. Alternative tourism, 'soft' tourism, ecotourism, and 'green' tourism are the types of tourism which can be used with sustainable tourism which is a high class branch of tourism. The story behind tourism in 1919, about 664 million tourists were present, and those who were known as mass tourism were approximately 80%. Development of sustainable tourism is affected by the differences in between mass tourism and sustainable tourism (Berno and Bricker, 2001).
If one can make a difference between 'good' tourism (best known as the alternative forms of tourism) and 'bad' tourism (particularly mass tourism) then sustainable tourism can appear as disruptive force in the society (Swarbrooke, 1999). To confuse ecotourism with sustainable tourism can give a bad result because all sustainable tourism does not take place at natural area and not all types of ecotourism are sustainable. According to Wall (1997), as the mass tourists might not prefer to visit threatened remote areas, their demand may be lesser than that of
Toulmin Model Argument About the Environment
God has obviously put the human beings in a status of having full responsibility over the establishment. In bible in the section called Genesis 2:15 mentions "And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made."(2) It is understood that everyone produced are a part of God's contribution to the earth (3) and that all of those that are individuals living on this planet are responsible to take care of it. In Deuteronomy it says "A land that the Lord your God cares for. The eyes of the Lord your God are always upon it, from the beginning of the year to the end of the year." This verse clearly explains that God commands us to take charge over the formation in a way that endures,…
Guth, J.L. (2005). Faith and the environment: religious beliefs and attitudes on environmental policy. American Journal of Political Science, 19, 364-382.
Hitchcock, D. (2005). Good reasoning on the toulmin model. Argumentation, 21(6), 45-46.
Merritt, J. (2010). Green Like God: Unlocking the Divine Plan for Our Planet. New York.
Voss, J.F. (2005). Toulmin's model and the solving of ill-structured problems. Argumentation,, 9(2), 21-23.
Teachers can go a long way towards mitigating interpersonal conflicts in early childhood education. Indeed, it is vitally important that they do so. Creating an environment of learning rather than judgment is of extreme importance in the classroom. An educator with various cultures in his or her class for example can ask students to give a presentation of their specific culture. After each presentation, there can be a question and answer session, during which children are allowed to learn about the various cultures in the classroom.
It should also be recognized that the four basic systems of interaction also interact with each other and that they can be used in concomitance to create for each child a learning environment that is suitable for the specific child. In this, the group work dynamic is important, where the microsystem is complimented not only by the macrosystem, but also by the mesosystem and…
Ahuja, Yukti. Bronfenbrenner Ecological Theory. http://www.mymontessoriacademy.com/newsletters/websitebronfenbrennerecologicaltheory.pdf
Hutchins, T. & Sims, M (1999) Introduction in Programme Planning for Infants and Toddlers. Australia, Prentice Hall. http://www.surestart.gov.uk/_doc/P0000286.rtf
Sime, Claire (2006, Jan 26). Ecological Approaches: Learning Theories and Models. http://www.exc-el.org.uk/content/index.php/main/teaching_and_learning/everything_you_wanted_to_know_about_teaching_and_learning_but_were_afraid_to_ask/learning_theories_and_models/ecological_approaches
Measure Value Vice Versa." - Joseph Stiglitz. Having started module question:" What purpose business? "You finish assignment links question individual level. IMPOTANT*** PLEASE ONLY USE THE EADINGS / TEXT / MATEIAL FOM THE ATTACHED FILE COUSE EADINGS AND TEXT.
The Importance of Values on Decision Making
The following pages focus on providing an analysis of the application of ethical in several types of activity. The Introduction presents the points-of-view used in this paper. The following section focuses on using several models in answering the questions addressed by the Christensen article. The Ethical Decision Making Guide section is intended to discuss the ethical guide that I find useful in my situation. The Ethical Guide Application section provides some examples of different situations where this ethical guide was successfully applied. The Key Concepts section discusses some of the concepts that I became aware of during this course. The Conclusions section presents some…
1. Consequentialism (2011). Stanford University. Retrieved August 24, 2011 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consequentialism/ .
2. Christensen, C. (2010). How Will You Measure your Life? Harvard Business Review. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
3. Trevino, L. et al. (2004). Managing to Be Ethical: Debunking Five Business Ethics Myths. Academy of Management. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
4. Porter, M. & Kramer, M. (2011). Creating Shared Value. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
nursing theory practice setting.
Provide an overview of the theory
Myra Estrin Levine is known as the most important Nursing theorist for developing "The Conservation Model." Levine got a diploma in 1944 and obtained her B.S in 1949 and finished M.S.N in 1962 from Wayne State College. She acted as a specialist to healthcare facilities and colleges of nursing. Furthermore, she offered a teaching format for the medical or surgical sector of nursing and developed "The 4 Conservation Fundamentals." "She clearly connected wellness to the procedure of conservation design and viewed wellness as one of its necessary elements" (Levine, 1991).
The 3 significant ideas of the Conservation Model are 1) wholeness, 2) adaption, and 3) conservation. "Whole, wellness, hale all are sourced from the Anglo-Saxon word hal" (Levine, 1973, p. 11). Myra Levine formulated her take of wholeness as an open system, which meant checking out the components of the…
Alligood, Martha Raile (2010). Nursing theory: Utilization and application. Toronto: Mosby Elsevier.
Chinn, P.L., & Kramer, M.K. (2011). Integrated knowledge development in nursing (8th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.
Current Nursing (2010). Levine's four conservation principles. Retrieved from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Levin_four_conservation_principles.html .
Levine, M.E. (1973). Introduction to Clinical Nursing (2nd Ed.). Philadelphia F.A. Davis.
Moreover, it is unclear whether Jim has attempted to reestablish any meaningful contact with his children; rather, his entire focus has been on becoming a better person. While there is certainly nothing wrong with that goal in and of itself (it is, after all, a universal human quality), he appears to have pursued this goal to the total exclusion of making any substantive reparations to his family. Finally, it is interesting that Jim somehow feels compelled to tell others -- including potential employers -- about his criminal past and his current status in treatment, as if this ongoing commitment to all-out honesty somehow absolves him from a deceptive and duplicitous history, or at least helps to explain it (which it does if one is interested). According to Jim, "Entering into society again was very difficult. I had lost my business, my friends and was now divorced. After leaving jail, I…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bryant, J.K. (2009, June). School counselors and child abuse reporting. Professional School
Counseling, 12(5), 130-132.
Bryant, J. & Milsom, a. (2005, October). Child abuse reporting by school counselors.
The issue of perception in various fields, including philosophy and psychology has been debated with vigor over the last fifty years. In fact, a large amount of experimental work has been completed regarding questions such as the object of perception, the relationship between perception and though, and the nature of perception representational.
In general it is believed that perception occurs without apparent effort. What is seen is imposed upon the brain and perception is the natural consequence. Theorists have however argued that this is not the case. There are a number of factors involved in the perception process. These factors influence the way that objects are perceived. It has for example been argued that perception is a process of information transmission and elaboration. The cognitivist paradigm holds that a flow of information in the mind, similar to computer software, influences the way that objects are perceived.
Davidoff, J.B. (1975). Differences in Visual Perception. London: Crosby Lockwood Staples.
Gibson, J.J. (1979). The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Hamlyn, D.W. (1957). The Psychology of Perception. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Kennedy, J.M. & C.D. Green (2003). "Inference and Pattern in Perception Theory." http://citd.scar.utoronto.ca/Psychology/PSYB51/INFERENC.B51.html
Global warming has become an issue of major global concern. This research explores the complexities of the issues surrounding global warming and the development of models to help curb the human contributions to its continuation. This research focuses on the UAE and its initiatives to develop sustainable cities in the future.
Evolution of Cities
environmental change and Global warming
Field Work and Case Studies
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) covers an area of approximately 777 sq. km and has a population of over 5 1/2 million residents according to 2009 statistics (Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. 2009). The country has the six largest oil reserves in the world and is one of the most developed economies in the Middle East. It has one of the most developed infrastructures in the Middle East as well. Global warming has become a key issue in developed nations that…
Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (PDF). Expat numbers rise rapidly as UAE population touches 6m. 2009 revision. uaeinteract.com. [Accessed October 5, 2011] Available from World Wide Web: http://uaeinteract.com/docs/Expat_numbers_rise_rapidly_as_UAE_population_touches_6m/37883.htm.
Ellis, C. History of Cities and City Planning. [Accessed October 5, 2011] Available from World Wide Web: http://www.art.net/~hopkins/Don/simcity/manual/history.html
Environment and Ecology. 2011. UNESCO World Heritage. XIth World Congress of the OWHC -- Sintra 2011 Climate Change. [Accessed October 5, 2011] Available from World Wide Web: http://www.environment-ecology.com/unesco-world-heritage.html
Ewing, R., Bartholomew, K., & WInkel, S. et al. "Growing Coooler: evidence of urban development and climate change. Urban Land Insititute. [Accessed October 5, 2011] Available from World Wide Web: http://www.smartgrowth.umd.edu/pdf/GrowingCooler-Ch1Overview.pdf
Corporate Social esponsibility and Environmental Ethics
Abstract/Introduction -- No one can argue that the international business community is becoming more and more complex as a result of globalism. In turn, this complexity is driven by an increasing understanding of sustainability, going "green," and bringing ethical and moral philosophy into the business community. British Telecom, for instance, noted in 2007 that it had reduced its carbon footprint by 60% since 1996, setting itself a target of 80% reductions by 2016 (Hawser, 2007). Francois Barrault, CEO, BT Global Services, said that by supporting sustainability his company hoped not only to reduce its carbon footprint but also to attract younger people who prefer to work for environmentally and socially responsible companies. He didn't always think that way, though. Barrault said that when he first met former U.S. vice president and environmental activist Al Gore, who showed him pictures of icecaps melting, he thought…
Career Services. The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved from:
Corporate Social Responsibility in the Global Supply Chain.. APEC
Human Resources Development Working Group. Retrieved from: http://hrd.apec.org/index.php/Corporate_Social_Responsibility_in_the_Global_Supply_Chain.
The Delta is also a habitat for many species of fish, birds, mammals, and plants, and it supports agricultural and recreational activities while also being the focal point for water distribution throughout the State.
The development of the Delta as it exists today started in late 1850 when the Swamp and Overflow Land Act transferred ownership of all swamp and overflow land, including Delta marshes, from the federal government to the State of California. In 1861, the State Legislature created the Board of Swamp and Overflowed Land Commissioners to manage reclamation projects, and in 1866, the authority of the Board was transferred to county boards of supervisors. The Delta now covers 738,000 acres interlaced with hundreds of miles of waterways, with much of the land below sea level, relying on more than 1,000 miles of levees for protection against flooding. 20
White sturgeon is one of the most spectacular native…
1. Northridge, S.P. An updated world review of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 251, Suppl. 1. Rome,
FAO. 1991. 58p.
2. DeMaster, Douglas P., Fowler, Charles W., Perry, Simona L. And Richlen,
Michael F. Predation and Competition: The Impact of Fisheries on Marine-Mammal
e., combination classes o multi-gade and single gade classes). Futhe, opeationalizing the tems context and composition would have geatly aided the eade in intepeting the study's esults.
Study Pupose. Buns and Mason (2002) did follow best fit eseach pactice potocol by stating the pupose of the study as that being to study student achievement with espect to the effects of class composition. Howeve, this eviewe would have like to see moe infomation of exactly what is meant by multi-gade composition and single gade composition. In othe wods, should such factos as gende, ethnicity, socio-economic level, family size, ESL possibilities, and eading ability have been consideed? Without such infomation it is difficult to assign a value to the study's content knowledge wothiness.
Liteatue Review. The pimay pupose of any eview of liteatue is to give suppot to the study being conducted. Such suppot comes in the fom of infoming the eade…
references on one was 2000 or above. Further, there was a significant lack of supportive reference material with respect to the concept of achievement.
Research Question. With respect to best fit research protocol Burns and Mason (2002) adequately stated their research questions
Ecological urbanism is, as Mostafavi describes it, a "sense of sensibilities' that specifically influence urban design and development in a way that will more effectively address the growing number and diversity of urban community needs.
Ecological urbanism is thus a conscious architectural and design trend that addresses the issues exposed more spontaneously by practices classified as everyday urbanism.
Le Parc de la Villette
The Parc de la Villette in Paris, France was designed by Bernard Tschumi and constructed in the 1980s and early 1990s, and can in many ways be seen as an early example of the trends of ecological urbanism and even everyday urbanism to various degrees.
Located at the edge of the city on land that was formerly occupied by slaughterhouses and other industrial structures, the park was part of a very deliberately designed urban renewal project meant to provide public space that was culturally relevant and accessible…
Galinsky. (2006). "Le Parc de la Villette." http://www.galinsky.com/buildings/villette/
Galinsky. (2006). "Le Parc de la Villette."
LED Bulb - Marketing Plan
Marketing Situation Analysis
Implementation, Controls, and Evaluation
LED technology has made many breakthroughs in recent years. The most notable of which is its level of cost effectiveness. However, the initial investment required to implement LED light bulbs still exceeds the alternative market choices. Yet the total cost of ownership offers consumers sizable gains. The market segment that this marketing plan is catered to is composed of industrial firms who purchase items in quantity as well as consider such items as the total cost of ownership. It is reasonable to suspect that this segment will be the most receptive to LED technology.
Rationale for Research
LED lighting solutions were chosen because this technology represents the future of lighting. The LED bulbs offer better quality of lighting, have a much longer lifecycle, and require is significantly reduced amount of…
Angelie, A., 2010. Will LED Light Bulbs Best Your CFLs and Incandescents?. [Online]
Available at: http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/environment/will-led-light-bulbs-best-cfls-and-incandescents [Accessed 8 August 2011].
CO2 Now, 2011. Earth's CO2 Home Page. [Online]
Available at: http://co2now.org / [Accessed 8 August 2011].
individuals with the ability to understand their connection to the world around them is the fundamental characteristic of an effective environmental education. To do this successfully requires two important things: individuals that are inspired by and actively involved in the physical world around them; and institutions of learning that provide curricula delineating the individual's link to these natural systems and societies at large.
The current environmental educational system in America, for the most part, illustrates a mis-educative experience. The system is mis-educative because most learning still takes place inside a classroom. Students are not encouraged to explore their relationship with the outside world either by literally going outside or through their studies. There is little or no formal attempt to encourage students to make the connection between what they learn in mathematics, science, economics or business to other subjects or the outside world. Any learning is thus, compartmented. It is…
Hardin, Garrett. "The Tragedy of the Commons." Science 162 (1968):1243-1248
Orr, David. Ecological Literacy: Education and the Transition to a Postmodern World. New York: State University of New York Press, 1992.
- -- . The Last Refuge: Patriotism, Politics and the Environment in an Age of Terror.
Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 2005.
Progress: Community Sharing vs. Individualistic Consumption
In an unsustainable society, priority is placed upon economic growth at all costs, regardless of how this may affect variables such as climate change, a condition which will hurt all of humanity in the long run. Our current worldview or paradigm prioritizes all societies moving to an urban model of development which emphasizes consumption. Even modern agriculture has been influenced by this profit-oriented focus and does not focus upon preserving land and minimizing waste instead. Thus to foster sustainability, as noted by Wessels, the concept of progress as something that is linear and equally beneficial to all societies must change. We now conceive of progress as increasing consumption and increasing GDP but this is not a sustainable model for the future, particularly if all developing societies also adopt this worldview that 'more stuff' is better.
Rather, newer, greener, and more sustainable measures must be…