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Economic development is a key element of growth and sustainability of a country, as well as of equity, prosperity and well-being of its population. Recently the world has witnessed rapid economic growth of two Southeast Asian countries: China and Vietnam. oth of the countries faced major challenges for the growth of their economy, they survived these challenges well and proved themselves to be the success stories of development. Vietnam continues to follow the footsteps of China, which is already one of the strongest economies of the world. Vietnam is working to transit from low-income countries to middle income ones whereas China is trying to work its way from being a middle-income country to a high-income country. Comparing these two countries with one ahead of the other in economic prosperity especially with regards of industrialization will give clarity in understanding what it takes to become developed form being an under-developed country…
Chenery, Hollis B. "Industrialization and Growth The Experience of Large Countries." World Bank staff working papers 539 (1982).Web. 10 Apr. 2012.
CIA. "The World Factbook." 2012. Web. 6 Apr. 2012.
Communist Party of Vietnam Online Newspaper. "Vietnam's development goals, 2011 -- 2020." 2010. 2012. Web. 6 Apr. 2012
Murphy, Kevin M., Shleifer, Andrei., and Vishny. Robert. "Industrialization and the Big Push." The Journal of Political Economy 97 (1989): 1003-1026. The University of Chicago Press. Web. 6 Apr. 2012.
Economic Impacts of Tekopora - Theory
The Tekopora program was launched in 2005 to provide cash payments, as a means of help low income Paraguayans escape poverty. Basic economic analysis suggests the following outcome expectations are reasonable, in the areas of per capita income, consumption, poverty reduction and school attendance. It should be expected that per capita income and consumption would both increase. The reason for this is simple. As a cash transfer, Tekopora is just putting money into the hands of the recipients, which inherently increases their ability to spend. That alone should see an increase in per capita consumption.
Flowing from that, Tekopora should also result in an increase in overall per capita income in the country. However, that effect should be much lower. The reasons is simple -- Tekopora is not a big program. The program initially served 4500 households, with payments ranging between $18-36…
IndexMundi. (2014). Percentage of people below the national poverty line. IndexMundi. Retrieved November 23, 2014 from http://www.indexmundi.com/paraguay/percentage-of-population-below-national-poverty-line.html
Library of Congress. (2005). Country profile: Paraguay. Federal Research Division. Retrieved November 23, 2014 from http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Paraguay.pdf
Ribas, R., Hirata, G. & Soares, F. (2008). Debating targeting methods for cash transfers: A multidimensional index vs. An income proxy for Paraguay's Tekopora programme. International Poverty Centre. Retrieved November 23, 2014 from http://www.ipc-undp.org/pub/IPCEvaluationNote2.pdf
Soares, F., Ribas, R. & Hirata, G. (2008). Achievements and shortfalls of conditional cash transfers: Impact evaluation of Paraguay's Tekopora program. International Initiative for Impact Education Retrieved November 23, 2014 from http://www.3ieimpact.org/evidence/impact-evaluations/details/520/
The author presents a poorly defended opinion in The Economist article "The Case for Globalization." The article boldly posits that "international economic integration is...the best of many possible futures for the world economy." According to the author, globalization is the only feasible panacea for poverty and political disenfranchisement. To dismantle world trade would entail "unparalleled catastrophe for the planet's most desperate people." However compelling these statements may be, they are not backed up by any quantifiable data. Ironically, the author accuses anti-capitalists and protestors of globalization to "explain the facts," without doing so him or herself.
Globalization could not be the "best of many possible futures." Global politics are already at the mercy of corporate control; one need only look at the example of Central America to see how the United States in particular. The consequences of globalization can be witnessed in the mass disenfranchisement, political instability, and…
This dependence on the rainfall to multiply makes malaria to have a particular cycle of the infections in these tropic regions. The dry and the wet seasons usually alternate, hence the malaria outbreaks usually follow the rainy seasons.
It is also worth noting that the intensity of the malaria transmission is tied on the type of mosquito vector that is in a given region. It is true that the anopheles mosquito is responsible for transmission of malaria, but it has been noted that those mosquitoes from the sub-Saharan region prefer taking their blood meal from humans as opposed to cattle or other animals, hence this leads to a more serious infection pattern than those that draw blood meal from animals.
Therefore, the temperature that is conducive for malaria, the high number of mosquitoes and the particular vector that is prevalent in a region all referred to as Malaria Ecology (ME)…
Capital stock in Vietnam has increased manifold in the past decade, and has fuelled the country's strong economic growth.
Vietnam does not have extensive natural resources. Most of the country is heavily farmed. The country is self-sufficient in oil, gas and hydroelectricity however, which is a benefit. Crude oil is a major export commodity. Much of the other export commodities are farm-based (coffee, tea, rubber, rice).
Vietnam's technology and innovation is nascent. Telecommunications infrastructure is improving. Cell phone and Internet usage is rapidly growing. However, the country is a follower in terms of technological innovation. The education system does not support strong innovation. Development in other areas, such as pharmaceutical or manufacturing, is slow.
Vietnam's government can take several steps to address the deficiencies among the four wheels. They can improve technology and innovation in a couple of ways. One is to invest more in infrastructure. Another is to invest…
CIA World Factbook: Vietnam (2009). Retrieved April 11, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/vm.html
No author. (2008). Economic Indicators. VVG. Retrieved April 11, 2009 from http://www.vvg-vietnam.com/economics_cvr.htm#Foreign%20Capital%20Investment
The work entitled: "Rights based approach the Millennium Development Goals: The UNDP and Hurist Experience" states that the commitment of the UNDP is characterized by "the promotion and application of the human rights based approach to development dates from the issues in 1998 of its policy of integrating human rights with human development." (2003) it is believed that this policy option will "derive additional strength from the system wide application by UN agencies of the 'common misunderstanding on a human rights-based approach to development cooperation." This work goes on to say that: "The goal of human development is to create an enabling environment in which people's capacities can be enhanced and their range of choices expanded. Human rights approaches add the element of duties and obligations as well as the ability to claim rights." (CED, 2006) These goals are very important due to their methodology which is an…
Definition of Economic Development (2003) Economic Developers Association. Alberta. Online available at: http://www.edaalberta.com/about_us/definitionofecondevelop.htm .
Community Economic Development (2006) Center for Community Enterprise Online available at; http://www.cedworks.com/CEDdefinition.html.
Economic Development: Defined (2006) Wikipedia Free Encyclopedia Online available at www.wickepedia.com.
Economic development of Eastern and Western Europe over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries obviously differed, but not to the extent that historians or economists have frequently imagined. Put simply, the economic histories of Eastern and Western Europe are frequently viewed according to either region's differing political organizations, with the capitalist West opposed to the Communist East, but in reality, the period of time defined by the rise of the Iron Curtain represents less of a competition between two ideologically opposed economic systems and more of a bubble in time, where the economic development of either region briefly parted ways before rushing back together at the end of the Cold War. The same kind of oligarchical capitalism that has tended to define Western Europe reins in Eastern Europe, and the differences are matters of style, rather than substance. By comparing and contrasting the economic development in Eastern and…
A. Teichova, H. Matis & J. Patek (Eds.). (2000). Economic Change and the National Question in Twentieth-Century Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cambridge University. (1989). The cambridge economic history of europe: The industrial economies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cameron, R. (1993). A concise economic history of the world: From paleolithic times to the present. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Melich, J.S. (2000). The relationship between the political and the economic in the transformations in eastern europe: Continuity and discontinuity and the problem of models. East European Quarterly, 34(2), 131-157.
All these situations impact the overall morale of the staff members, and as such their levels of performance and commitment to the employers. The scenarios are more dramatic for the people who are actually downsized, but the negative impacts are also observed at the level of the remaining staff members, who are presented with fewer opportunities for personal and professional development. The International Labor Office argues that in times of crisis, employers invest less in the training of the staff members, once again limiting their development, as well as the overall development of the firm.
A second relevant source in the search for an answer to the posed question is represented by Andy Kilmister's the economic crisis and its effects. Unlike the previous source which draws on the economic crises in Mexico (1994-1995) and Indonesia (1997-1998), Kilmister focuses on the economic crisis commenced in 2008 in the United States. At…
Kilmister, a., the economic crisis and its effects, International Viewpoint, 2008, http://www.internationalviewpoint.org/spip.php?article1581 last accessed on April 7, 2011
Miller, C., the human development impact of economic crises, United Nations Development Programme, 2005, http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2005/papers/hdr2005_miller_calum_19.pdf last accessed on April 7, 2011
Palley, T.I., America's exhausted paradigm: macroeconomic causes of the financial crisis and great recession, 2009
Reinhart, C.M., Rogoff, K.S., Is the 2007 U.S. sub-prime mortgage crisis so different? An international historic comparison, 2008
Indeed, no room was allowed for alternative viewpoints regarding the situation. The crisis then occurred during July of 1997, when the Thai baht was floated. It is rather interesting that the very same players predicting continual prosperity, have moved to the exact opposite of their previous opinions, now profiting from the collapse and gloomy predictions for the future of the Asian economy.
The role of the World Bank was thus significant in the failure to predict that NIC crisis during the late 1990's. Its opinions were held in such high regard that little could be done to sway it. As seen above, however, the Bank was also caught up in the cycle of illusion perpetuated during the time by the various elements mentioned above. Respected economists, journalists and other influential entities served to sway the Bank's opinions and to make almost impossible any contradictions to the contrary (aker, 1996: 5).…
Saker, Neil. (1996). "Guest Viewpoint: Thailand Update: Market Pessimism is Overblown," BOI Investment Review2, Dec. 31.
Economic Development and Trade
In an era of increased globalization and advancements in technology, it has become increasingly important for all of the nations of the world to keep bringing improvements in their economic infrastructure and to expand their businesses on the global scale. It has been observed that without a reasonable level of economic development any country cannot gain a competitive position in the world market. This is the dilemma faced by most of the developed nations of the world.
In this paper we will examine as to how economic development of any country promotes the trade and business and how free trade and liberalization in trade policies, on behalf of the governments, help the businesses to flourish and effectively compete in the world market. We have covered the issues related to the economic development of the developing nations and has discussed the aspects that have caused hindrance in…
See N.S. Siddharthan & B.L. Pandit: Deregulations, Entry and Industrial Performance: The Impact of Recent Indian Policy Changes: Indian Economic Review
See Bardhan: The Political Economy of Development in India, New Delhi: OUP i. See Robertson, Peter E: Economic Growth and the Return to Capital in Developing Economies: Oxford Economic Papers: October 1999
Patnaik, P: The context and consequences of economic liberalization in India: Journal of international trade and development: July 1997.
The article concludes by describing the investments in Dutchess County and says that "no comprehensive assessment of the total costs of AED" (12). This includes the statement that "many different agencies and organizations have contributed resources of staff time and funding" (12). It is suggested that the AED efforts should have been more controlled. The fact that the input of different agencies is quite vague suggests that there is not enough control over the process. ithout having a clear knowledge of the inputs, it is not possible to determine the return on investment. The achievements of AED are also stated in vague terms, with no quantified results given. This makes it impossible to decide whether AED has been an economic success.
3) Assume you are a citizen in another county in New York State. hat would be your questions, criticisms, and concerns?
As a citizen in another county, I would…
Graf, a., Green, J., Robb, M.M., & Smith, R.D. Case Studies in Agricultural Economic & Community Development: Dutchess County, New York. Retrieved May 15, 2005. Web site: http://www.cardi.cornell.edu/document/PDF/aed/AED2001-3.pdf
Economic Development and Pollution
Globally, economic development is taking place at an unprecedented rate, as undeveloped and underdeveloped nations, often with the aid of more advanced countries, are industrializing and urbanizing. hile this development means prosperity and general advancement for the population of the growing nation, it also contributes substantially to an already severe level of global pollution and damage to the environment. ("Transport and Sustainable Development in the ECE Region")
In undeveloped countries, pollution is generally encountered as unsafe water, usually due to stagnation in extreme heat and drought conditions. Insofar as it may be caused or worsened by human interference, generally this effect is limited to human or livestock feces being introduced to the standing or ground water.
Once industrial development takes place, the process of pollution affects air, ground and water. Plants and factories produce suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and lead. (Edgmand…
Arey, Janet. 2000. "Urban air - causes and consequences of urban air pollution." Excerpt from Environmental Medicine available online. Retrieved January 18, 2003 at http://www.envimed.com/emb03.shtml
Edgmand, Michael; Moowaw, Ronald; Olson, Kent, editors. Economics and Contemporary Issues. New York: Dryden Press, 1996.
Health Impacts of Water Pollution." [Online]. Retrieved January 18, 2003 at http://edugreen.teri.res.in/explore/water/health.htm
Tackling root causes," Chapter Five: Outlook and Recommendations, GEO-2000, Global Environment Outlook. [Online]. Retrieved January 18, 2003 at http://www.grida.no/geo2000/english/0242.htm
Myrtle Beach is a seaside resort community. It is a destination city and provides tourism services year-round. It has grown exponentially in recent years and is among the top growing cities in the country. It is in need of economic diversification, infrastructure updating and expansion, and job development.
It has benefitted from state tax-friendly codes but conservative politics could be an issue in enhancing the city’s profile and attempt to appeal to diverse populations. It has benefited from federal policies like FEMA and FHA, which provide emergency response and affordable housing funds.
A strategy to address its economic development needs include: 1) keeping taxes low, 2) offering tax-based incentives to attract business, 3) addressing zoning issues to separate commercial and industrial facilities in the downtown area, 4) applying FHA funds to provide affordable housing for residents in blighted areas, fixing up the blight, and attracting more investment, 5)…
City of Myrtle Beach Comprehensive Plan. (2011). Retrieved from
Gigante, S. (2013). Taxes: The most and least friendly states for retirees. Retrieved
MBREDC. (2017). Critical Importance. Retrieved from
Myrtle Beach Housing and Community Development Consolidated Plan: Part 3. (2005).
Retrieved from http://www.cityofmyrtlebeach.com/PDF%20Forms/Myrtle%20Beach%20Consolidated%20Plan%203.pdf
Economic, Developmental and Humanitarian Priorities in Yemen
Yemen is a country that has experienced a period of prevalent destabilization, particularly since September 2014. The recent civil war has had tremendous negative impacts on the wider Yemeni population since it has undermined the effective operations of the country’s governance systems and functions. The violence from the recent widespread destabilization has generated devastating effects on Yemeni’s developmental progress, economic growth, social integration, and generated a major humanitarian situation. The international community has been on high alert as the situation in Yemen continues to worsen. As a result, rebuilding or developing Yemen has become a major priority, especially in the context of humanitarian, economic, and developmental aspects.
One of the key areas in developing Yemen is security given that the recent crisis has contributed to poor security conditions and vicious fighting that result in a severe humanitarian problem. As of 2017, one of…
Statfor Worldview. (2017, June 24). Yemen: Houthis Claim an Extension of Their Missile Threat. Retrieved September 12, 2017, from https://worldview.stratfor.com/article/yemen-houthis-claim-extension-their-missile-threat
The World Bank. (2017, June 2). Republic of Yemen: Restoring and Expanding Energy Access. Retrieved September 12, 2017, from http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/655811496412539032/pdf/P158449-Output-Yemen-Power-Sector-Reengagement-Note.pdf
United Nations. (2017, August 19). Briefing by the Special Envoy of the Secretary-General to Yemen. Retrieved September 12, 2017, from https://osesgy.unmissions.org/briefing-special-envoy-secretary-general-yemen
Economic Development in Honduras: A Banana ar Legacy
An Analysis of Economic Development in Honduras from 1820 to Present
In many Latin American countries such as Honduras, the historical emphasis that has been placed on agriculture as a money industry for export purposes has resulted in the term, "banana republic" (Nash & Jeffrey 1994). Following their independence, most Latin American countries continued to depend on the export of raw materials for their revenue, rather than investing in an economic infrastructure that would provide value-added services, which only further contributed to this pattern of dependence on foreign states. This is largely what has taken place in the Republic of Honduras as well, and the country continues to suffer from sporadic and inequitable foreign investment, much of which has illegally diverted into private hands rather than infrastructure development. This paper provides an overview of the Republic of Honduras, an assessment of the…
Bates, Stephen. (January 8, 1999). Good friends slip on a banana skin. New Statesman,
Befus, David R., Debbie L. Mescon, Timothy S. Mescon and George S. Vozikis. (1988).
International Investment of Expatriate Entrepreneurs: The Case of Honduras. Journal of Small Business Management, 26(3):40.
traditional, neoclassical school of economic modeling prescribes a "recipe for economic growth." Economic growth is a process of moving resources from low growth, agricultural areas to higher growth, industrial areas. The neoclassical school also does not see anything slowing the progress of moving from low growth to high growth areas. The neoclassical model in the form of Harrod-Domar model assumes that an increase in savings and investment will lead to economic development. Even though productivity is improved employment does not increase and income does not improve so correspondingly demand for products does not occur. Government intervention has hampered economic development by funneling resources into the wrong types of industries. Instead of taking advantage of industries where a country has a relative advantage, resources have gone to industries that the government wants to develop. One area where the removal of restrictions is essential is in the area of international trade. Increasing…
Kenya: A Case Study in Reform
From its rough beginnings, Kenya has instituted a series of economic reforms in an attempt to raise the condition of the Kenyan people. They are an attempt to bring the Kenyan people out of a state of poverty and repression to one of stability and security about their ability to sustain themselves. Each reform has been better than the last, but they are still far from solving these issues in their country. This paper will cite the reasons for this as being a need for the people to regain the feeling of nationalism echoed in the early years of independence.
Prior to1800 Kenya consisted of groups of small tribal governments. Kenya is grouped into more than 70 ethnic groups, Some of the ethnic tribes are large e.g. The Agikuyu who form a majority of the population within their homeland in the central…
Africa Guide. World of Information Sessional Paper No. 2 of 1997 on Industrial Transformation
Amoako, Dr. K.Y. Claiming the 21st Century: Africa's Agenda (Speech). Executive
Secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa at the National
Summit on Africa, (Washington D.C., 17 February 2000)
In fact, Brierly and Costello bring into the argument the three variables commonly associated with industry growth -- labor, Capital, and Technology. Brierly and Costello used time series regression to test each of these variables in order to determine which made the largest impact on state economic growth, while holding the caveat that states should be careful when considering these variables as they do not have much control over them. Brierly and Costello's results suggested that increasing labor had larger impacts on state economic development than increases in the other two variables. This conclusion is correct only for the short-term, however. In fact, Brierly and Costello's reasoning for their findings that neither increases in labor or technology result in economic growth for states because their investments are typically more "long-term" (Brierly and Costello).
Instead of simply relying on capital, however, ichard C. Feiock argues that non-traditional methods can be beneficial…
1. Trogen, Paul. Which Economic Development Policies Work? Determinants of State Per Capita Income.
2. Feiock, Richard. Development Policy Competition and Positive Sum Growth: Incentive Competition and it's Alternatives.
3. Bronson, Allen and Robert Costelb. Accounting for State Economic Performance: A Time Series Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Limits of State Economic Policy.
4. Wilson, James: An Institutionalist Take on State Activism in Economic Development: A Theoretical System.
New companies have the advantage of taking more risks and investing more in the research and development process, being interested in addressing less developed industries.
It is difficult for large cities like New York to attract such companies. The main reason for this situation is represented by the high costs of doing business in these areas. Even so, the city can counteract this problem by providing strong productivity opportunities that are determined by high human capital and relative wages.
The most important economic sector of New York is represented by the financial services sector, including finance, insurance, and real estate business sectors. The importance of this sector is reflected in its influence on jobs evolution and of the city's earnings. Therefore, the authorities have recognized the potential of this source of jobs and of earnings, and their interest in this sector must be translated in a series of incentive intended…
1. Redlich, W. (2010). Economic Development Questions. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from http://wredlich.com/ny/2010/09/economic-development-questions/ .
2. Orr, J. & Topa, G. (2006). Challenges Facing the New York Metropolitan Area Economy. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=886519&http://www.google.ro/search?q=new+york+economic+challenges&btnG=C%C4%83uta%C5%A3i&hl=ro&source=hp&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai= .
3. Parrott, J. (2010). New York City: Economic and Budget Challenges. Fiscal Policy Institute. Retrieved December 7, 2010 from http://www.fiscalpolicy.org/FPI_Presentation_NYC_BudgetEconomicChallenges_20100520.pdf .
Soure Kodakanhi et al. (2006) iting Shreyer (1999), Table, page 19
Further reported by Kodakanhi et. al, is the fat that one of the Afrian ountries, and there are many, that faes poverty and inequality disaster is the ountry of Ghana. Advanes in tehnology in Ghana are stated to be "meager sine its independene in 1957." (2006) the eonomi development model based on it for developing ountries takes into aount the major onerns to it advent into these ountries whih are those of the: (1) Inability to invest in the it field due to poor finanial infrastruture; and (2) inadequate human power with the knowledge of it." (Ibid) the eonomi model, whih has been proposed, is one that has larger foreign investment and government poliies in support of it development as well as an awareness on the…
cited in Raji, Ayoade and Usoro, 2006) the roles that government play in the facilitation of appropriate use of ICT include: (1) approval of policies for the major sectors of the industry [National Telecommunications Policy, National Information
Economic Development Agency
Economic development constitutes one of the most important aspects and without it life would become unbearable to all individuals living in the society. This process however does not happen in a vacuum and the involvement of various stakeholders, say the communities and policy makers is mandatory (O'Sullivan & Sheffrin, 2003). The roles of the State Economic Development Agency (SEDA) in promoting positive economic development is one, whose relevance cannot, to any extent, be disputed. In achieving their mission of promoting economic development, throughout the entire state, the need for appropriate data was evident (Nafziger, 1993). It is indeed true that the agency ought to have had access to the data considering the significant role they intended to play using the same information. The unfortunate thing however is the reality that laws, that restrict access of information, though intended for good, has served to curtail the progress of…
Meingast, M et al. (2006). Security and Privacy Issues in HealthCare Information Technology, proceeds of the 28th IEEE EMBS Annual International Conference, New York
Nafziger, W .(2006). Economic Development New York, NY: Cambridge University Press,
O'Sullivan, A. And Sheffrin, S (2003). Economics: Principles in action, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall
o determine which views are most accurate we will examine the short and long terms effects that immigration are having on the U.S. economy.
Since the 19th century, the United States has been one of the places where immigrants will go to, seeking out economic prosperity and a new life. As time went by, an increasing number of immigrants would begin coming to the country for a host of reasons. In some cases, these people were immigrating lawfully, while others were entering the nation illegally. his is in response to the demand for their services and the economic benefits that they provide to communities. At the same time, each person has the ability to experience some form of economic upward mobility. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than a study that was conducted by the National Venture Capital Association. Where, they found that…
Then, when you combine this with the fact that many are breaking the law, this only adds to the underlying amounts of anger. To determine which views are most accurate we will examine the short and long terms effects that immigration are having on the U.S. economy.
Since the 19th century, the United States has been one of the places where immigrants will go to, seeking out economic prosperity and a new life. As time went by, an increasing number of immigrants would begin coming to the country for a host of reasons. In some cases, these people were immigrating lawfully, while others were entering the nation illegally. This is in response to the demand for their services and the economic benefits that they provide to communities. At the same time, each person has the ability to experience some form of economic upward mobility. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than a study that was conducted by the National Venture Capital Association. Where, they found that 25% of all venture capital backed projects were established by immigrants. In the technology sector, this number is as high as 40%. This is significant, because it shows the total contributions that immigrants are making to the economy over the long-term. With a number of the top technology companies having organizers who were born outside of the U.S. To include: Google, Yahoo and EBay. (Hausen, 2010) What this shows, is the total contribution of immigrants to the economy is considerable. As they are playing a part, in helping redefine the way everyone lives their daily lives. To fully understand this role requires examining how economic development has been influenced by immigration. This will take place by conducting
More importantly, the puritans had considered essential for the future of economic success the access to education and therefore established elementary schools throughout the state (Wright, 1947). Therefore, the degree of literacy was greater than in other parts of the country because there was a comprehensive access to education.
By comparison, the South was different in this area. The southern society had a particular system of private tutoring which allowed children to have access to education. However, for ordinary people, this was not an option and they most often appealed to the assistance of the minister. Still, the quality of education received in this way was limited and in many situations the young generation remained illiterate. It can be said therefore that the poor level of education was in part due to the lack of financial support and in part to the economic practices existing in the South which did…
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
McAllister, J. "Colonial America, 1607-1776." The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 42, No. 2. (May, 1989), pp. 245-259.
Weinberg, Meyer. A Short History of American Capitalism. Gloucester: New History Press, 2002.
Wright, Louis B. The Atlantic Frontier: Colonial American Civilization, 1607-1763. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1947.
(Ward; Mohapatra; Mitchell, 2008)
The Great Lakes also contain large amounts of 'polychlorinated dibenzo-furans - PCDFs' and 'polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins -PCDDs' which are a result of the chlorine bleaching process of paper and pulp mills. In a nation wide study conducted for a period of 4 years on samples of fish and shellfish from various freshwater and marine water bodies in Canada, it was found that the fish from the Great Lakes were among the most contaminated samples. (Steinhart; Doyle; Food esearch Institute, Cochrane, 1995) the paper and pulp industry has also grown with the growth of the economy. However, contaminant discharge from this industry still continues despite the various environmental measures taken by the paper and pulp industry of Canada. This industry has also caused disturbance to the huge boreal landscape of Canada. Approximately 50% of Canada's fresh water is located in these boreal forests. Developmental activities have affected these…
Agioutantis, Zacharias. (2007) "Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Development..." SDIMI.
Burton, Philip Joseph; National Research Council Canada; Adamowicz, WL. (2005)
Towards sustainable management of the boreal forest" NRC Research Press.
Carter-Whitney, Maureen; Duncan, Justin. et. al. (2008) "Balancing
Kenyan reform policy Successful?
The need for reform in Kenya has been clearly demonstrated. But the question remains, has this reform been successful? The slogan of "Harambe" fueled the passions of the Kenyan people and drove them to strive as one nation to lift themselves up from poverty and oppression. It has been ten years since the last reform and it is now time to look back and see what has been accomplished.
To measure the success of the reforms we will consider several economic indicators both before the reform and after to see how they have changed. Then these factors will be considered as a whole to develop a better outlook on the entire picture. e will consider education, the performance of the industrial sector, the trade and tourism sector, the finance sector, rate of inflation, employment and wages, the agricultural sector, construction, social services and some comments on…
Adams, Martin. LAND REFORM: NEW SEEDS ON OLD GROUND? Overseas Development Institute. Number 6, October 1995.
African Perspective. Kenya at the Crossroads. Fourth Issue - Winter 2000/2001. http://www.sis.gov.eg/public/africanmag/issue04/html/enafr12.htm
Appleton, Simon, Arne Bigsten and Damiano Kulundu Manda Educational expansion and Economic decline: returns to education in Kenya,1978-1995.
Bureau for Africa U.S. Agency for International Development KEN YA Country Profile U.S.
International Trade Theory and Export Promotion
The two graphs represent the production outputs of two countries. The first graph represents a developed country, which specializes in the production of machines, which is capital intensive.
The second graph represents a developing country which specializes in textiles, which is labor intensive. The factor endowments model of international trade is based on the concept that each country has a certain specialty that they are skilled at producing and that there are not enough resources or skills in every country to produce everything that is needed. Each country specializes what it is good at producing and trades for goods that it cannot product itself.
In perfect trade equilibrium, the production and consumption of both items would be increased. When the value of exports and the value of imports for both countries are equal, then both countries are at maximum consumption of both goods. In…
Private Sector Investment and Economic Development
Investment and economic development
The ole of Private Sector investment in Economic Development
In the past few decades there has been overwhelming support for growth and development rooted in private investments and market-oriented strategies. A move from public sector driven growth has come as result of the need to reduce the widening gap in the balance of payment account, increasing public debt, rising inflation rate, growing foreign debt fundamentally falling living standards. There has been a shift from the need for large public corporations undertaking productive activities in an economy owing to the realized inefficiency in resource allocation. Corruption and misappropriation of public funds is observable owing to the lacking need to optimally reap benefit from the investment. Unlike in the public sector, private sector investment guarantees optimal productive activities, efficient allocation of productive resource, technological advancements to reduce cost and increase productivity (Dao,…
DAO, M.Q. 2008. The Impact of Investment Climate Indicators on Gross Capital Formation in Developing Countries. The Journal of Developing Areas, 42, 155-163.
GROSSMAN, G.M. & HELPMAN, E. 1994. Endogenous innovation in the theory of growth. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 8, 23-44.
HARRISON JR., W., HORNGREN, C.T. & WILLIAM, C.T. 2012. Financial accounting 9th edition., U.S.A., Prentice Hall
JORGENSON, D. 1971. Econometric Studies of Investment Behavior: A Survey. Journal of Economic Literature, 9, 1111.
Poverty & Economic Development
The link between poverty and economic development
The financial services sector and poverty alleviation
Trade and Investment
Trade and investment
In this paper, we explore the importance of the poverty and economic development dimensions such as infrastructure, private sector development, entrepreneurship, trade and investment and human capital. This is done while keeping in mind the ethical and governance issues like accountability and fairness and their influence on economic development. The content is discussed within the context of a financial services institution operating within African countries. In this paper, we also discuss the steps that the board and senior management of a company can take to address these issues, and describe which steps you would regard as the most effective.
The link between poverty and economic development has often been a subject of several discussions and studies (oemer & Gugerty,1997;Hull,2009; Loayza &…
Coxhead, I. And P. Warr (1995), "Does Technical Progress in Agriculture Alleviate Poverty? A Philippine Case Study," Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 39(1):25-54.
Ford, R. And P.Poret (1991), 'Infrastructure and private sector productivity', OECD Economics Department working papers No 91
Hull, K (2009).Understanding the Relationship between Economic Growth, Employment and Poverty Reduction* .OECD.
Yahie, AM (2000). Poverty Reduction in sub-Saharan Africa:
Shareholder Capitalism as a Model for Economic Development
The idea that shareholder capitalism may serve as a powerful type of economic progression model has been made practical with the growth of credit along with a large marginal tax that delivers a security net for Americans, but additionally has its own limits.
Shareholder capitalism, and also the American structure of corporate governance which can serve as its main-operating-system, continues to be held out like a replica of economic growth and development for up and coming markets within the last era. This document reveals the roots of the model inside the U.S. And argues that this model has already established, in the best scenario, mixed success beyond the U.S. borders. Furthermore, the after-effects in the two financial bubbles in the early Twenty-first century shows that shareholder capitalism might not function as publicized even inside the U.S. During the economic crisis, sensible policymakers…
Armijo, L.E. (1999), 'Introduction and Overview', in L.E. Armijo (ed.), Financial Globalization and Democracy in Emerging Markets, pp. 10 -- 14. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Bekaert, G., C.R. Harvey and C. Lundblad (2005), 'Does Financial Liberalization Spur Growth?', Journal of Financial Economics, 77: 3 -- 55.
Berle, A.A. And G.C. Means (1932), The Modern Corporation and Private Property, Modern Reprint, 1991 edition. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Brandeis, Louis (1914), Other Peoples' Money: and How the Bankers Use It. New York: Frederick A. Stokes.
Korea's Economic Development
Korea's economy has been focused on developing the chaebol and export markets, as well as on the growth of existing industries. The country's economic strength thus lies in its export-dependent businesses. The particular strength of these strategies lies in the extreme concentration of its industries. The chaebol system allows economic focus on a few already prosperous business factions, and this concentration leads to the prosperity known by the country as a result. Indeed, the superchaebol in the four top positions account for 40 to 45% of Gross National Product in South Korea, which is higher than even Japan, from which the system was adopted.
The chaebol system is however very dependent on government approval, since there is no central financial institution for each chaebol. Furthermore Korea's banks had been nationalized until the mid-1970s, which resulted in a prohibition from owning large shares in these banks. The…
Canadian economic system is a free market system. Most economic development in Canada follows the free market module.
The required paper is to find two articles about two different developments that are alternative to the status quo of the free market. Co-op would be an example of such development. Involving workers in decision making would be another example.
Kennedy, E (2012) Will the Government Co-operate With Canada's Co-ops? Huff Post
Kennedy (2012) explains what a co-op is and describes its benefit to the Canadian government whilst concluding that co-ops are currently undergoing economic difficulties. The article is topical in that the week marked a convention of Co-op leaders from across Canada who was marking the United Nations International Year of Co-operatives, under the theme of "Co-operative Enterprises Build a Better World."
Recent months also saw the Canadian government trying to promote the concept of co-ops by appointing MP Mauril…
The local and regional councils that administer the Porirua City metropolitan area have different, but interrelated responsibilities that must be taken into account in formulating effective economic developmental initiatives as described in Table 1 below.
espective esponsibilities and Areas of Interest for egional and Local Councils in New Zealand
Description of esponsibilities and Areas of Interest
esponsible for the integrated management of natural and physical resources, management of natural resources such as water and soil.
esponsible for carrying out multiple functions that enable them, among other things, to promote development projects with the private sector; also responsible for land-use planning, subdivision, service delivery, etc.; however, local councils are not involved in educational, health and welfare matters and these remain in the domain of national government.
Source: Gouldson & oberts, p. 54
Therefore, local councils would be best suited for establishing priorities for…
Blair, J.P. & Carroll. (2009). Local economic development: Analysis, practices, and globalization. New York: Sage Publishing.
-. Social capital in local economic development. In Theories of local economic development:
linking theory to practice, J.E. Rowe (ed.) (2009), Auckland: Ashgate Publishing.
Colbert, E. (1997). The Pacific Islands: Paths to the present. Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Local Economic Development Initiatives
THE IMPACT OF LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
The Concept of Sustainable ural Communities in Local Areas
The Concept of ural Development in Local Areas
The Concept of Endogenous Development Initiatives in Local areas
Transformation is key when it comes to local economic development initiatives. Ever since World War II economies in so many different rural areas have been faced with the rising harsh economic circumstances that have been threatening people's everyday existence. A lot of the situations that they are going through have a lot to do with depopulation resulting for the most part from low growth in job opportunities, out-migration, an aging population, underemployment rate, high unemployment and low family income, lack of socio-economic infrastructure ( shopping centers, health centers, schools, power and electric supply water supply,). esearch show that the rural economy in both developed and developing nations countries has also gone through a big…
Andolina, R. (2012). THE VALUES OF WATER: Development cultures and indigenous cultures in highland ecuador. Latin American Research Review, 21(12), 3-26,231,235.
Blignaut, J. & . (2011). The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives. Water S.A., 34(12), 123-145.
Cole, M.A. (2009). imits to growth, sustainable development and environmental kuznets curves: An examination of the environmental impact of economic development. . Sustainable Development, 12(4), 23-67.
Gordon, T.M. (2009). Bargaining in the shadow of the ballot box: Causes and consequences of local voter initiatives. Public Choice, 23(14), 45-56.
South Sudan gained independence from Sudan in 2011, but has been embroiled in civil conflict ever since. This instability has hampered the ability of the country to lay the groundwork for developing its economy. The evidence shows that there is a pathway to economic development, even for the least-developed country, and this paper will elaborate on what those steps might be.
South Sudan is a landlocked country of 12.5 million people that split off from the Sudan in 2011. South Sudan is a multiethnic society, with different tribal groups living in the basin of the White Nile, which flows from Lake Victoria until it meets with the Blue Nile. The split of Sudan came after years of civil war. The north of Sudan was Muslim, the south Christian, and that is largely the fault line along which the border between Sudan and South Sudan is presently split. The country is…
Geography on Political, Cultural, and Economic Development of Early Civilization in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley
The focus of this study is the effect of geography on the political, cultural, and economic development of early civilization in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley. The characteristic that Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley all have in common is that they were all river valleys. Therefore, the geography of these locations was very much alike and likewise their culture, political landscape, and economic development were all very much the same.
Statement of Thesis
The civilization of Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley were highly affected by the geography of these regions, which resulted in rapid expansion, and growth of these civilizations and which affected the cultural, political, and economic environment of these areas of the world.
Mesopotamia & Egypt
What is known as the Urban revolution occurred in Mesopotamia and Egypt…
Ancient Civilizations to 300 BC Introduction: The Invention and Diffusion of Civilization (2006) The University of North Carolina at Pembroke. Retrieved from: http://www.uncp.edu/home/rwb/lecture_ancient_civ.htm
Guisepi, R.A. (nd) The Indus Valley and the Genesis of South Asian Civilization. Retrieved from: http://history-world.org/indus_valley.htm
Citizens in the region's poorest countries, Paraguay and Honduras, make just above $4,000 per year, while those in the wealthiest countries, Chile and Mexico, make almost $15,000. The institutional legacy in the region is one clouded by inequality and corruption. In its brief on the region, the World Bank emphasizes the role of institutional development to alleviate poverty among vulnerable groups, a result in part of the lasting legacy of inequality due to colonial influences.
Asia. This region ranges widely from very poor nations such as Nepal (GDPpc of $1,100) to very wealthy nations like ingapore ($51,600). Because colonial dominance of this region was carried out by a relatively few European settlers, it was ultimately incomplete, leaving many of the region's own institutions intact or enhanced. The World Bank's comments on how governments across the region are reacting to the recent economic turndown are in line with an expectation that…
Sources of Economic Growth in China, 1952-1998. Issues in Political Economy, Vol 17.
World Bank. (2009). Regional Briefs. www.WorldBank.org. December 13, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/ .
Relation Between IPRI and GDP Per Capita by Region
Source: International Property Rights Index, 2009. (http://internationalpropertyrightsindex.org/UserFiles/File/ex4_9relationbtwniprigdpbyreg.pdf).
Globalization in the economic sense - economic, social and technological process that advocates a constant interdependence at a global level, supporting trade liberalization.
International Monetary Fund (IMF) - an international financial organization that monitors the global financial flows and that offers financial assistance to Third World countries.
African Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC) - cultural festival that promotes and sustains the revival of the lack cultural values and civilization.
1945 - the end of the Second World War and the beginning of the contemporary period. It is also equivalent with the start of the decolonization period, with Indonesia one of the first countries to make this step.
Poverty - lack of the material capacity to finance the basic needs of an individual or a society.
A unfreedom" ref. Sen - according to Sen, these would include, besides lack of political freedom or freedom of the press, forms of unfreedom…
1. Andrew Apter. The Pan-African Nation: Oil and the Spectacle of Culture in Nigeria.
University of Chicago Press (2005)
Only the Introduction and Chapter 1)
2. Frederick Cooper and Randall Packard, eds. International Development and the Social Sciences: Essays on the History and Politics of Knowledge. UC Press (1997)
Moreover, the clusters are large enough to work with government to further mutual economic goals. The industry clusters that have been targeted by TREO are aerospace/defense, analytical instruments, medical devices, bio-industry, environmental technology, R&D, it, business services, financial services and logistics.
4) the importance of workforce development and education in developing a high tech economy is that a stronger workforce helps to attract new firms. High tech firms prefer to locate in places to which they do not need to attract their entire workforce. To address education and development needs, TREO is seeking to provide pathways to allow existing workers to develop their skills; retaining more of Tucson's higher education graduates; pushing more of the technology developed at the University of Arizona into the global marketplace; cultivating a thriving environment, culture and infrastructure for new entrepreneurial ventures; and encouraging foreign direct investment.
5) a vibrant downtown is the center for…
No author. (n.d.) "Securing our future now: An economic blueprint for the Tucson region" TREO. Retrieved December 3, 2008 at http://www.treoaz.org/TREO/media/docs/Executive%20Summary%20FNL.pdf
Waits, Mary Jo. (2000) "The added value to the industry cluster approach to economic analysis, strategy development, and service delivery" Economic Development Quarterly. Vol. 14, No. 1, pp.35-50.
Cooperatives in social and economic development in Africa
Social Economic Development
The ole of the Cooperatives in social and economic development in Africa: the case of Botswana
The ole of the Cooperatives in social and economic development in Africa: the case of Botswana
There are a number of political and socioeconomic advantages in relation to the co-operative movements in Botswana. The cooperation has been believed to be important for the people of Botswana. The cooperation as thought about by the governments can be used in order to empower the people of Botswana by providing them a variety of business opportunities and entrepreneur skills. The establishment of cooperatives was started by the African government immediately after independence. These cooperatives were established in order to make sure that the interests of the African government. These interests are highlighted in Cooperative Societies Law in accordance to which organization and promoting cooperatives is an…
Allen, T. (2000). The Right to Property in Commonwealth Constitutions Volume 11 of Cambridge Studies in International and Comparative Law. Cambridge University Press.
Denbow, R.J., and Thebe, C.P. (2006). Culture And Customs of Botswana, Culture and Customs of Africa. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Firestone, M., and Karlin, A. (2010). Botswana & Namibia, Lonely Planet Botswana and Namibia, Multi-Country Guide Series, Lonely Planet. Edition 2. Lonely Planet.
Gujadhur, T. (2000). Organisations and Their Approaches in Community-Based Natural Resources Management in Botswana, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe, Issue 1 of CBNRM Support Program occasional paper. IUCN.
A United Nations convention on the subject in 1993 would predict some
of the patterns of globalization, noting that the contradictory
relationship between certain health indicator. The convention "drew on
growing concern about the acceleration of population growth in developing
countries (that resulted from rapid decline in mortality while fertility
remained high), occurring at a time when these countries were also
beginning efforts to raise living standards." (POPIN, 2) To this extent,
there is a need to control or slow population growth to allow national
resources, environmental regulations and infrastructural stability to catch
up to population needs.
Easterlin, R.A. (1967). Effects of Population Growth on the Economic
Development of Developing Countries, 369(1), 98.
United Nations Population Information Network (POPIN). (1993). Statement
on Population Growth and Economic Development. United Nations Population
Fund. Online at http://www.un.org/popin/unfpa/pubs/econmeet/sect7.html
Easterlin, R.A. (1967). Effects of Population Growth on the Economic
Development of Developing Countries, 369(1), 98.
United Nations Population Information Network (POPIN). (1993). Statement
on Population Growth and Economic Development. United Nations Population
Fund. Online at http://www.un.org/popin/unfpa/pubs/econmeet/sect7.html
Incentives and Economic Development
When attracting new businesses to our community, or encouraging the start-up or expansion of businesses that are already here, the eacon Council promotes the many advantages of doing business in Miami-Dade County. Those advantages include a number of business incentive programs and a favorable tax structure that have encouraged many domestic and international companies to relocate or expand their operations here.
MW, Mercedes-enz and Federal Express are just a few big companies that have been lured to various states by hundreds of millions of dollars in business incentive packages, bringing promises of new jobs and economic development to these states.
In 1992, MW decided to build in South Carolina after the state offered the company $130 million in business incentives (McIntosh, et al., 1999). Mercedes-enz's decision to build its first United States factory in Alabama was strongly influenced by the state's offer of more than $300…
Industry breaks blasted in report. The Advocate, May 26, 2002.
Maryland Department of Business and Economic (MDBE), 2002.
McIntosh, Betty, Prompt, Tammy, Farre, Reagan. Negotiating Incentives: The Art of Persuasion. Business Facilities magazine, March 1999. P. 26-27.
Morradian, Don, South Atlantic Metros Pile on Jobs. South Atlantic Report Review, 2000.
causes of different economic development among different immigration groups in the United States will be documented on a description of the economic level of each community and some of its characteristics, as well as on the different policies that the U.S. government may have applied in their cases and on the social and human capital they have brought along.
The Cubans represent a case apart, mainly due to the legal stimuli that they received from the White House administration for their immigration. Indeed, as many sources were keen to mention, the Cuban immigrates were privileged, in the sense that, unlike many other populations, they were not required to prove their position as political immigrates, but their status was predefined as such, because of Fidel Castro's Communist regime in Cuba. This meant that they were automatically considered refugees and received the privileges that went with this position.
Additionally, starting from 1966,…
1. Stepick, Alex. Immigrants, Race and Power in Miami: Reconfiguring Relations. November 2003. On the Internet at http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu:7001/Events/fall2003/11-20-03-stepick/
2. Dominicans Are City's Fastest Growing, Poorest Group, Says Study. Columbia University Record -- March 10, 1995 -- Vol. 20, No. 20. On the Internet at http://www.columbia.edu/cu/record/archives/vol20/vol20_iss20/record2020.22.html
3. Robson, Barbara. Cubans. Their History and Culture. Refugee Fact Sheet Series No. 12. 1996. Prepared by the Center for Applied Linguistics Refugee Service Center. On the Internet at http://www.culturalorientation.net/cubans/index.htm
Robson, Barbara. Cubans. Their History and Culture. Refugee Fact Sheet Series No. 12. 1996. Prepared by the Center for Applied Linguistics Refugee Service Center. On the Internet at http://www.culturalorientation.net/cubans/index.htm
global in nature. Economies, businesses and even individuals are now becoming more interconnected. What once were isolated events in a foreign country now have a rippling effect throughout the world. The recent financial crisis of 2008, indicates how countries are now becoming more dependent on each. Holland is no different in this regard. As a burgeoning economy, Holland boasts strong catalysts for future economic growth.
A strong incentive for investment in the Netherlands is its market economy. As a member of the EU the Netherlands has an average tariff rate of 1%. This bodes well for Holland as goods and services can freely and easily matriculate through the region. With low tariffs industries with comparable advantages will be better able to import or export their goods. The top two main exports from Holland are very price sensitive as it relates to international competition. Table 1 below presents the top four…
1. Hart, Jonathan (2008). Empires and Colonies. Polity. pp. 201 -- . ISBN 978-0-7456-2614-7.
2. Lambert, Audrey M. The Making of the Dutch Landscape: An Historical Geography of the Netherlands (1985); focus on the history of land reclamation
3. Meijer, Henk. Compact geography of the Netherlands (1985)
4. Riley, R. C., and G. J. Ashworth. Benelux: An Economic Geography of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg (1975)
The economic policy tools that were employed just after the war subsequently underwent some changes. From 1947 to 1950 direct controls on wages and distribution were eliminated followed by removal of trade controls in 1958. However, the government continued to maintain its hold over prices and credit distribution which made it different from many of its neighboring states in the postwar period. The French Ministry of Finance exerted greater control over the economy than the Bank of France. This led to a greater predilection to resort to devaluation when external equilibrium resulted due to the state failure to control incomes. In France, the period between 1945 and 1975 was known as the "thirty glorious years" because of the phenomenal economic performance. During this period, the average growth rate of GDP was around 6.8% which was quite remarkable considering that Britain's average GDP growth rate was 2.4% and Germany's…
Bathelt, Harald; Wiseman, Clare; Zakrzewski, Guido. Unit 1: Post-war development and structure of the German economy.
Buchanan, Tom. Europe's troubled peace, 1945-2000.
DeLong, J. Bradford. Grasping reality with both hands: A Fair, Balanced, Reality-Based,
The need for the preservation of these resources is because of the fact that it is finite or limited. Abused utilization of these resources will deplete it and will eventually endanger the future inhabitants of the earth, leaving them nothing for the production of their own needs. Without the resources, there will be nothing to work on in the first place. Achievement of economic stability is the first step in order to achieve the other social goals. Since there are resources, there can be economic efficiency whereby goods can be produced at a lowest possible cost because of the availability of resources. Economic freedom or the right of a man to engage in voluntary economic activities, economic equity or justice particularly in terms of taxation and welfare economics, and economic security or security in employment can be settled between the government and the people in order to achieve them. All…
That is, international financial organizations, such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund and which controlled by core states, decide that, in order to grant financial aid to undeveloped countries, these states should comply with some rules that are, in the end, in the detriment of their own economy. For example, Africa pays more to the IMF and World Bank, than it collects in credit from them, and this leads to low living standards, poor education and health systems and undeveloped infrastructure.
Besides financial institutions, transnational corporations have a saying in the economic development of a country. Although one might be tempted to say that a corporation, by creating a branch in an undeveloped country gives that economy a boom, it is actually all about personal gain.
Working in a corporation might be considered the best thing that could happen to a person, on a professional scale. You…
Chomsky, Noam. "DRCNet Interview: Noam Chomsky." Drug War Chronicle Aug.2002. Drug Reform Coordination Network. Washington DC. 2.08.2002. http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle-old/223/noamchomsky.shtml .
Korten, David C. "When Corporations Rule the World." USA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers; 2 edition, 2001
Kozol, Jonathan. "The Shame of the Nation. The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America." New York: Crown Publishers, 2005
Wallerstein, Immanuel. "The Modern World-System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century." New York: Academic Press, 1976
Looking at the economy from a macroeconomic viewpoint means looking at a more broad approach to individual economic factors, weighing those factors, and making a determination as to whether the economy is stable and improving for the populace. Sustainable growth is one of the goals of economic development, and while there are peaks and valleys, the overall level and growth filters down to many factors. A booming economy, for instance, will create money and produce goods and services while affecting GDP, unemployment, inflation, interest rates, and prices. Policy can change these factors, increase or decrease confidence and spending, and the movement of money. However, in the 21st century, economic health is tied not only to countries, but to global issues of import and export, health of other economies, and the combination of factors that has become even more complex (Alesenai, 2003).
In the U.S. economy, most scholars see…
Credit Ratings: How Fitch, Moody's and S&P Rate. (2012). The U.K. Guardian. Retrieved from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2010/apr/30/credit-ratings-country-fitch-moodys-standard
Economy at a Glance -- The United States. (2013). U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved from: http://www.bls.gov/eag/eag.us.htm
Jobless Claims Fall More than Expected. (February 14, 2013). The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/15/business/economy/jobless-claims-in-us-fall-more-than-expected.html?ref=economy&_r=0
National Economic Trends. (January 30, 2013). The Federal Reserve (St. Louis). Retrieved from: http://research.stlouisfed.org/publications/net/page24.pdf
The nation will enforce law and order to protect its public property, regulate monetary frameworks and correct market failures. The government will be responsible for protecting private life of its citizens and property (Grant & Vidler, 2000).
Market and Competition Forces: the country's economy should be designed in such a way that it will promote competition. This is because competition means a fair deal in obtaining results. The government should increase sellers and buyers in the market because this would promote competition thus increasing the quality and efficiency. With competition, the country will be able to control and manage different functions of its economy (Grant & Vidler, 2000). Demand and supply are the prime market forces determining the production of a country produces and the suitable ways to do so.
Market equilibrium, price and output, are determined by market forces. Therefore, I would recommend that any least developed nation to…
Bahl, Roy, W. (2008). Land taxes vs. property taxes in developing countries. Cambridge,
MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.
Grant, S. & Vidler, C. (2000). Economics in Context. New York: Heinemann.
Hyman, D.N. (2011). Public finance: A contemporary application of theory to policy (10th ed.).
Inevitably, the level of economic development has a direct contact with the marketing strategy of a company. Basically a company's marketing strategy is a mixture of three things which are distribution, promotion and pricing.
Companies usually make its marketing strategies according to the level of economic development in both the multinational and global context. For a developed country, the organizations have an idea that promotion and pricing strategies will be crucial for them merely to accelerate the level of their earnings. There can be a marginal difference between the standardized form of marketing and local method of marketing. Standardized form of marketing compel the organizations to facilitate the consumers in the same way as they wanted while the domestic marketing makes their own rules of entertaining the consumers, this is the main thing why the standardized form is more productive than the domestic form. Standardized form of marketing includes tailoring…
Economic Development, retrieved from < http://www.edrgroup.com/library/economic-development / >, Accessed on [7th April, 2011]
John, E (1999), Economic Development, John Wiley & Sons Professional Publications
Michael, P & Stephen, S (2009), Economic Development, McGraw Hill Publications
What is Economic Development, retrieved from http://www.valleycountyeconomicdevelopment.com/pages/what_is_econ.htm, Accessed on [7th April, 2011]
The downward spiral of deflation, the collapse of countless banks and other financial institutions, and the unprecedented levels of unemployment all demanded that something be done.
The programs that constituted President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal were not entirely unknown in the pre-Depression world. Various European countries already possessed social welfare schemes to some extent, but in the United States this was largely new thinking. The changes wrought by the New Deal reflected as much the uniqueness of conditions during the Great Depression as they did the undercurrent of new attitudes and ideas that had gradually been taking hold among America's intellectuals.
FDR's planners acted in the context of changing values, an evolving set of institutions, shifting political and economic circumstances, and the ebb and flow of planning opportunities to create a distinctly national, American form of planning.... They were part of a wide-ranging national debate over how to create…
DUMMY CITATION #1 G.M., Blaauw, G.A., and Brooks, Jr., F.P. "Architecture of the IBM System/360," IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 44, No. 1/2, IBM, January/March 2000 [Reprint of IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1964.]
DUMMY CITATION #2 Anderson, Philip, and Michael L. Tushman. "Technological Discontinuities and Dominant Designs: A Cyclical Model of Technological Change." Administrative Science Quarterly 35.4 (1990): 604fl.
Gibbons, Jim. "Gibbons Tells Congressional Committee to Abolish Arbitrary FAA Retirement Age: Nevadan Calls Current Federal Rule, 'Blatant Age Discrimination.'" Press Release, (United States Congress, Washington D.C., 12 March, 2003).
Wilkening, Robin. "The Age 60 Rule: Age Discrimination in Civil Aviation." (No Date). URL: http://aeromedical.org/Articles/age60.html.
Ergo, the role of the EU seems to be that of implementing protectionist policies. These would be developed onto three simultaneous directions.
A first set of policies would revolve around the creation of a new market architecture at the EU level. This would strengthen the EU's position in the face of future challenges by:
ensuring a sustained and strong support from central banks allowing banks to rapidly implement the rescue plans, and allowing the Union to rapidly implement decisive methods that would prevent the expansion of the crisis to other countries (Commission of the European Communities, 2008).
A second set of strategies revolves around the necessity to really analyze the impacts the crisis has had upon the real economy and find ways in which to improve the real economy. These policies would combine short-term solutions to issues in need of rapid response as well as long-term projects. The short-term solutions…
Budowsky, B., January 22, 2008, the Economic Crisis, the Hill
Kilmister, a., December 2008, the Economic Crisis and Its Effects, World Economy, No. 407
Miller, J., Jackson, B., Who Cause the Economic Crisis? The Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania
http://www.factcheck.org/elections-2008/who_caused_the_economic_crisis.html , last accessed on January 7, 2009
It is thought that the pace of the recovery will be slowed by people's desire to rebuild wealth, still-tight credit conditions facing some borrowers, and, despite some tentative signs of stabilization, continued weakness in labor markets. With considerable resource slack continuing to suppress cost pressures and with longer-term inflation expectations stable, it is thought that inflation subdued for some time (Monetary Policy eport to the Congress, 2010).
The Federal eserve has continued to support the functioning of financial markets and promote recovery in economic activity doing a wide array of things. The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) has maintained a target range of 0 to 1/4% for the federal funds rate throughout the second half of 2009 and early 2010. They have also continued to purchase Treasury securities, agency mortgage-backed securities (MBS), and agency debt in order to provide support to mortgage and housing markets and to improve overall conditions…
The Federal Reserve Board Its Purposes and Functions. (2005). Retrieved June 25, 2010, from Federal Reserve Web site: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pf/pf.htm
Monetary Policy Report to the Congress. (2010). Retreived June 25, 2010, from Federal Reserve
Web site: http://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/mpr_default.htm
The process would take centuries, but by Elizabethan times it had surely begun. Serfdom had all but disappeared from England, and money rents and wages had largely replaced other forms of compensation and exchange. The new importance of trade contributed to a profound change in attitudes, one that was beginning to re-shape society itself. In 1579, Thomas Churchyard defined as nobles, "Merchauntes that sail forrain countreys," a statement that underscores the importance of generating wealth.
Though not legally noble, these individuals were already beginning to emerge as substantial players in English society.
Economic Expansion: The Manor as Productive Estate
The vast expansion of trade and commerce in Early Modern England found its fullest expression in the thirst for new outlets for national enterprise. England's growing collection of colonies represented an attempt to compete economically on a world stage. Rivalry with other European powers encouraged the discovery and settlement of the…
Borsay, Peter, ed. The Eighteenth-Century Town: A Reader in English Urban History, 1688-1820. London: Longman, 1990.
Grubler, Arnulf. "Time for a Change: On the Patterns of Diffusion of Innovation." Daedalus 125.3 (1996): 19+.
Hudson, John. Land, Law, and Lordship in Anglo-Norman England. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997.
Jones, E.L. "Chapter 4 Urban Improvement and the English Economy in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries." The Eighteenth-Century Town: A Reader in English Urban History, 1688-1820. Ed. Peter Borsay. London: Longman, 1990. 116-154.
S. exports, but only reduced them, to increase imports from Mexico, to stimulate the opening of manufacturing plants in Mexico and to lead to the loss of jobs for the American population
Ultimately then, the free market is a beneficial theoretical model, but its practical implementation has only proven profitable for the corporations in the highly developed western economies.
3. Are impediments to economic and financial reconstruction worse in a particular region of the developing world?
The tumultuous world history has impregnated its effects upon all players. And these effects are multiple and depend on various other features. On the other hand, they can be used to explain the contemporaneous stages of economic development presented by each state. While some countries enjoy the benefits of high levels of economic growth and development, others still strive to make do. And the differences are not only obvious among the groups of developed,…
Collier, P., the Market for Civil War, Foreign Policy, 2003
Huntington, S.P., the Clash of Civilizations, Foreign Affairs, 1993
Llosa, M.V., the Culture of Liberty, Globalization at Work, 2001
Ottaway, M.S., Schwedler, J., Telhami, S., Ibrahim, S.E., Democracy: Rising Tide or Mirage? Middle East Policy, Vol. XII, No. 2, 2005
Shift from Central Planning to Market Economy
The Turkish economy is in what might be termed semi-precarious health. It could certainly be worse, but also certainly be better. Since its birth as a nation-state into its current shape in 1923 in the wake of World War I, Turkey has operated a mixed economy, in which both state and private enterprise have contributed to economic development. (Indeed, it is arguable that all country's in the world today have a mixed economy; the United States may be a bastion for private enterprise but many workers also benefit from government money, such as the money awarded by the federal government to private companies in the form of defense industry contracts.) Since the end of World War II, the economy has been transformed from a predominantly agricultural one to one in which industry and services are the most productive and rapidly expanding sectors even…
Abramowitz, M. (ed.) (2001). Turkey's transformation and American policy. New York: Century Foundation.
Hershlag, Z.Y. (1998). The contemporary Turkish economy. New York: Routledge Kegan & Paul.
Howe, M. (2001). The Kurdish conflict in Turkey: Obstacles and chances for peace and democracy. London: Palgrave. http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov http://www.imf.org http://www.immigration-usa.com/wfb/turkey_economy.html http://www.rt66.com/~korteng/tudemog.htm
Ibrahim, F. (ed.) (2000). Turkey today: A nation divided over Islam's revival.
Economics - Country Analysis
Country Overview and Current Events (News)
Ethiopia, traditionally known as Abyssinia, is a landlocked Sub-Saharan country located at the Horn of Africa in East Africa, bordering Somalia, Kenya, Eritrea, Djibouti, Sudan, and the newly-created South Sudan. It covers approximately 1,126,829km2 of land; about the size of the state of Texas, and was, until the split of Sudan, the second-largest country in Africa. Being landlocked, Ethiopia largely relies on the port of Djibouti, to which it is connected by both rail and road. Economic elements such as this, together with the country's history, population, geography and economic performance have been explored in the subsequent sections of this text.
Population: the U.S. Census Bureau, in June 2013, estimated Ethiopia's population to be 93,877,025; a figure that makes the country the second-most populous in Africa, after Nigeria (orld Bank, Index Mundi). Ethiopia's population has been on a steady increase…
AFDB. "Inflation Dynamics in Selected East African Countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda." AFDB Brief, 2012. Web. 18 March 2014 http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/07022012Inflatin%20East%20Africa%20-%20ENG%20-%20Internal.pdf
This article analyses the trend in Ethiopia's inflation rates vis-a-vis those of other countries in the Sub-Saharan region and was a valuable source of regional statistics, which formed the main basis for comparison.
Broussar, Nzinga, and Tekleselassie Tsegay. "Youth Unemployment: Ethiopia; Country Study." International Growth Center, 2012. Web. 18 March 2014 http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Publications/07022012Inflation%20East%20Africa%20-%20ENG%20-%20Internal.pdf
This article analyzes the trend in Ethiopia's employment patterns. It reinforced my arguments that unemployment is more prevalent in urban Ethiopia, and that the country's informal sector contributes more to GDP than the formal sector.
Unfortunately, there really are no immediate solutions that would reduce the technology division between first world and third world nations: unless of course there was a complete reengineering of the social segregation of the haves and have not's. In an economic sense, for the Third World, food and water should probably come first in their specific hierarchy of needs. "Progress in raising real incomes and alleviating poverty has been disappointingly slow in many developing countries, and the relative gap between the richest and poorest countries has continued to widen. In Africa, the level of real per capita income today is lower than it was 30 years ago. In developing countries in the Middle East and the Western Hemisphere, real incomes have risen, but at a slower pace than in industrial countries." (IMF, 2000)
Aspray, William, and Martin Campbell. A History of the Information Machine. New York: Basic Books, 1996…
Aspray, William, and Martin Campbell. A History of the Information Machine. New York: Basic Books, 1996
Afemann, Uwe. (n.d.). Internet for the Third World - Chance or threat? Retrieved April 17, 2005, at http://www.uni-muenster.de/EthnologieHeute/eh1/afe.htm#Beginn
Brown, Seymore (1996). International Relations in a Changing Global System: Toward a Theory of the World Polity. New York: Westwood.
DeGregori, Thomas R. (2001). The Environment, Our Natural Resources and Modern Technology. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
The number of educational institutions remained the same and child labor has also stagnated. Entrepreneurs were still allowed to employ children, which they did moreover when they paid them lower wages.
Just like with the Meiji Era, the British Industrial evolution opened new horizons and generated numerous development possibilities for the country and its population. The most important contributions were felt in the technological sector and materialized in a wide series of advancements. "It was not only gadgets, however, but innovations of various kinds -- in agriculture, transport, manufacture, trade, and finance -- that surged up with a suddenness for which it is difficult to find a parallel at any other time or place. The quickened pace of development is attested by the catalogue of new patents, the lengthening list of Acts of enclosure, the expanding figures of output and exports, and the course of prices, which, after remaining roughly…
Ashton, T.S., the Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830, Oxford University Press, 1997
Buer, M.C., Health, Wealth and Population in the Early Days of the Industrial Revolution, Routledge, 1926
Hunter, J., Institutional Change in Meiji Japan: Image and Reality, Routledge, 2005
Kinzley, W.D., Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World, 1852-1912, the Historian, Volume 66, 2004
One can therefore expect that Israel will benefit from an increase in knowledge-based industry that will continue to power employment and GDP growth.
Investment is a triple indicator: relative attractiveness of the country, the type of investment being attracted, and political stability or instability. In comparison to the U.S., all countries save Saudi Arabia are attracting more investment. One would expect that the U.S., as a relatively mature first-world economy, would be at a relatively lower level. The surprise in this analysis exists in both extremes: Saudi Arabia on the low side, and Qatar, Kuwait and Dubai on the high side. Israel's relatively low investment can be explained by the type of knowledge-intensive industrial development it is experiencing now.
Qatar and Kuwait are experiencing resource-extraction investment at record levels. The primary driver is natural gas expansion. Unlike oil, natural gas must be processed extensively by capital-intensive facilities before it…
CIA. (2007). World Fact Book. Retrieved August 3, 2007, from CIA: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/print/is.html
Collins, G. (2007, July 1). LNG Observer. Retrieved August 1, 2007, from China making bid to lead LNG carrier building: http://www.ogj.com/articles/save_screen.cfm?ARTICLE_ID=297535
Economist. (2007, July 26). Vigorous but Vulnerable. Retrieved August 3, 2007, from Economist: www.economist.com
Ford, N. (2006). Oil Producers Spend Windfall Wisely: There Has Long Been Global Fascination with How and Where the Arab Oil Producing Nations Spend Their Cash. Neil Ford Reports That the Trends of 2006 Are Very Different to Those of 30 Years Ago. The Middle East, 36.
For the period of the late 1960s and early 1970s, West Germany strived to assist the dollar. The United States and many other nations pushed West Germany to reassess so as to make up for the dollar excess. (Germany in the World Economy)
At last, after escalating waves of conjectures, the retton Woods system had a collapse in August 1971. All through the post-retton Woods period, the deutsche mark stayed under pressure. In order to relieve strain within Europe, West Germany and other European states assented to peg their currencies to a special system of comparatively narrow exchange rate bands officially named the 'European narrow-margins agreement' but unofficially identified as the 'snake'. The United States and West Germany performed main roles in attempting to organize a new global monetary system. but, in spite of its willingness to make small exchange-rate alterations for the benefit of new currency arrangements, West Germany…
Little German Reform Would Go a Long Way" (Dec 1, 2003) Business Week. Issue: 3860; pg. 22. Retrieved from home.uchicago.edu/~gbecker / Businessweek/BW/2003/12_01_2003.pdf Accessed on 24 November, 2004
Economic Survey - Germany 2004: Main issues and policy challenges"
Retrieved at http://www.oecd.org/document/17/0,2340,en_2649_201185_33633425_1_1_1_1,00.html . Accessed on 24 November, 2004
Economy of Germany" Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_GermanyAccessed on 25 November, 2004