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Effects of Human Behavior on Ecosystem
Humans often have the ability to remake an ecosystem entirely, disturbing every aspect of it to the extent that the ecosystem can be changed so much that it is destroyed. This paper examines one ecosystem that has been significantly damaged by human behavior and then projects what future human behavior might bring to this environment.
The ecosystem that I will examine is that of the Owens Valley in central California. This area has been the subject of a number of studies about environmental change (and harm) as well as decades of political rancor. This last is an essential part of the discussion about the fate of many ecosystems, and one that is too often ignored when assessing environmental change. In the case of the Owens Valley, the political climate of California must be considered a key element of the environment.
The abiotic feature…
Erie, S.P. (2006). Beyond Chinatown: The Metropolitan Water District, Growth, and the Environment in Southern California. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.
Prather, M. (Winter 2008). Owens Lake is coming back to wildlife. Rainshadow Newsletter (Owens Valley Committee) 4(2).
Reisner, M. (1993). Cadillac Desert. New York: Penguin USA.
Ecosystem Structure, Function and Change
Lake Tahoe is located in Sierra Nevada and is a freshwater lake over 1600 feet deep and one of the largest lakes in America. The lake is at the heart of a comprehensive ecosystem and home to a range of native species and contains a rich aquatic life. For example, the lake is home to redside dace, suckers and chub. "The ecosystem of the Lake Tahoe Basin has been dramatically altered since European settlers began to settle around the lake in the middle of the last century. Human disturbances, including introduced species, fire suppression, past overgrazing and logging, urbanization, roads, intensive recreational use, and air pollution, have affected not only the clarity of the lake, but the forest's ability to maintain the function, diversity, and resiliency of its components" (Tahoecam.com). Deforestation at the end of the 19th century, along with other issues such as drought,…
ENS. (2010, August 17). Lake Tahoe Summit Gets It: Healthy Ecosystem Equals Healthy
Economy. Retrieved June 5, 2012, from Ens-newswire.com: http://www.ens-
Fimrite, P. (2011, August 17). Lake Tahoe: Smallmouth Bass Threatens Native Fish. Retrieved June 5, 2012, from sfgate.com: http://www.sfgate.com/cgi -
Perception and how it relates to the Ecosystem
Upper Saline atershed (Surf Your atershed, N.d.)
Our local watershed is such an essential part of our everyday living. However, most people take their water for granted and assume that some else is taking care of that problem. Yet, this is not always the case. Many watersheds throughout the United States are at risk for different types of contamination. In our local watershed, mercury and phosphorus are something of a concern.
The purpose of this experiment was to see what the local population thought about their water. Survey questions were designed to measure their perceptions of the local water quality and other relevant factors.
A total of fifty surveys were mailed out but only seventeen were returned representing a response rate of just over a third of the entire population surveyed. The provided method of survey participation was through random…
Surf Your Watershed. (N.d.). Upper Saline Watershed -- 08040203. Retrieved from EPA: http://cfpub.epa.gov/surf/huc.cfm?huc_code=08040203
ecosystem" is used frequently in the popular media, and yet most people do not have a clear, working definition of an ecosystem. An ecosystem simply refers to all of the organisms and their physical environment that exist within a certain, specific area. This includes all plants, animals, and their environment, which can include water, dirt, rocks, and the air that surrounds them. For example, all of the organisms that live in a New England tide pool, plus their physical environment would make up an ecosystem. In addition, a deciduous forest and a salt pond marsh are also ecosystems.
A biosphere is an aggregate of many ecosystems rather than a single ecosystem. The biosphere is made up of the entire portion of the earth that supports life. It encompasses many communities and ecosystems.
In the simplest terms, the biosphere is the surface of the earth, and all the organisms contained within.…
Campbell, N.A. Biology, 3rd ed. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc., Redwood City, California, 1993.
Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest
Major structural and functional dynamics of the ecosystem
The area that is currently known as Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest was originally farmland. The Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest today is dotted with cemeteries and abandoned homesteads, remnants of how it was used in the past. However, in the 1930s, soil erosion was rife and the land had been largely overtaken by indigenous pine trees. The federal government purchased the land, as part of an effort to rehabilitate it (Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest, 2013, Virginia Department of Forestry). The federal government returned the land back to the Commonwealth of Virginia in 1954. The forest now spans 19,808 acres (Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest, 2013, Virginia Department of Forestry). It is a popular site for horseback riding, camping, hiking, and other leisure activities as well as a preserve for various types of trees.
Human effects on the biogeochemical cycles in that ecosystem
Over-farming had a…
Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest. (2013). Virginia Department of Forestry. Retrieved:
Matter cycles and pollution. (2012). Lenntech. Retrieved:
ecosystem, which is a biological environment made up of various organisms, whether living or not, physical constituents which life forms interact with, for example, soil, water, and sunlight. Environmental homeostasis is achieved with the presence of various insects and critters in the ecosystem. This paper will delve into the role wasps' play as biological pest control, nesting habits, and various methods to control the population.
A majority of wasps are parasitic or known as parasitoids, so they prey on insects that would otherwise destroy and eat crops, which makes them advantageous in agriculture. Parasites like wasps lay one or more eggs on the host's exterior or interior body. Wasps are able to conduct such an act by feeding on the pest during their larval stage thus enhancing biological control, which was what Tylianakis (2010) noted in his study that researched biodiversity and biological control services. In another study led by…
Bianchi, F., & Wackers, F. (2008). Effects of flower attractiveness and nectar availability in field margins on biological control by parasitoids. Biological Control, 46(3), 400-408.
Grantham, R., & Wright, R. (2004, November 19). Paper Wasps, Yellowjackets, and Other Stinging Wasps. OSU-Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service. Retrieved April 25, 2011, from http://www.osuextra.com
Philips, C., Baird, D., Iline, I., McNeill, M., Proffitt, J., Goldson, S., et al. (2008). East meets west: adaptive evolution of an insect introduced for biological control . Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 948-956.
Rondon, S., Clough, G., & Corp, M. (n.d.). How to identify, scout, and control insect pests in vegetable crops. ScholarsArchive at Oregon State University. Retrieved April 25, 2011, from http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/handle/1957/19902
The concept of a "business ecosystem" sprung from the idea and eventual development of a business environment that is dependent on entities and organizations outside of the business' structure and systems. It is also inevitably linked with Internet and computer technologies (ICT), as information sharing is the core from which the business and its network of organizations/entities collaborate and work together (Iansiti and Levien, 2004, p. 3). From the same authors Iansiti and Levien (2004), an explanation of the process of linkages among organizations define the nature of a business ecosystem: "…the destiny of many organizations is linked together, and interaction between firms has become an increasingly critical and complex phenomenon, sharing elements of both cooperation and competition through a rich network of interrelated products, services, and technologies" (p. 4). Thus, a business ecosystem defines and illustrates how a business thrives and manages to be competitive in the…
Iansiti, M. And R. Levien. (2004). "Framing operating and technology strategy in a business ecosystem." Proceedings of eBusiness Research Forum.
____. (2004). "Strategy as Ecology." Harvard Business Review.
Peltoniemi, M. And E. Vuori. (2004). "Business ecosystem as the new approach to complex adaptive business environments." Harvard Business School (Working Paper).
However even if they are readily available with time the reserves will be depleted and this will pose as a challenge not only to the forest ecosystem but also the energy demands. On the other hand the use of renewable source of energy is beneficial since they are environmental friendly. The renewable energy sources also have some risks such as the use of hydro projects can affect forest ecosystems if their impacts are not mitigated.
3) Species extinction
In the forest ecosystems plants and animals are increasingly extinct in the present times. This can be attributed to both natural and man-made reasons. The major cause of this extinction is the destruction of the forest ecosystem for instance through clearing of forest land for cultivation, urbanization or harvest wood. This will lead to shrinking of habitats for both animals and plants in the ecosystem (Hogan, 2010), The existence of biodiversity is…
Hogan, M.C. (2010).Causes of extinction. Retrieved March 18, 2013 from http://www.eoearth.org/article/Causes_of_extinction?topic=58074
Callahan, R.(2011). Pros & Cons of Nonrenewable Energy Sources.Retrieved march 18,2013 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/204578-pros-cons-of-nonrenewable-energy-sources/
Oganizational Ecosystem Case Study:
Business ecosystem is a stategic planning famewok though which an oganization's stakeholdes wok though coopeation and competition to enhance poducts' sales. The main stakeholdes included in this famewok ae supplies, distibutos, and customes. In some cases, business ecosystem is consideed as a netwok of intelinked fims that includes supplies and distibutos who wok togethe towads supplying o hamonizing the main components of value poposition. The value popositions ae mainly centeed on poviding benefits fo customes though the poducts and/o sevices.
The development of an oganizational system that is centeed on a coe poduct usually enhances the value of the poduct to the use, which in tun contibutes to inceased use of the poduct. Notably, business ecosystems contibute to the emegence of stong enty baies fo new competitos since they can only enhance o duplicate the existing coe poduct in the maket. Moeove, the new…
references, which are incorporated in the production processes. Third, an ecosystem provides the basis through which core products are developed in ways that they increase value to the user and increase the scope of usage.
However, the disadvantages functioning in an ecosystem with regards to innovation and creativity include the fact that an organization's production processes are sometimes limited to the existing core products. In essence, a firm is sometimes forced to consider developing its products to either duplicate or enhance the existing core products. This implies that all product development initiatives of an organization are based on existing core products instead of creativity and innovation. Secondly, an ecosystem makes it difficult for an organization to improve value propositions for users of its products. This is primarily because some users determine the value of their products in comparison with the value of core products.
My local ecosystem can be characterized as high desert. The environment is thus characterized by both aridity and altitude. There is a relatively low amount of rainfall, and a lot of sunshine. The temperature swings between night and day are substantial, as much as 30-40 degrees. As a result, the flora consists of desert plants like chamiso, pinon trees, juniper and ample sage. Urban areas may have trees planted, but they are relatively sparse except around water sources. The local fauna include coyotes, rabbits, small birds, and the occasional bird of prey. The mountains are at present covered in a thin layer of snow, but the ground at lower elevations is bare. Because the snowfall sticks on the mountains there are more trees there, until the elevation gets too high and the trees begin to thin out. Right now, the arroyos are bare but in spring they can…
endangered coral reef ecosystem. Coral reefs, when they are healthy, are one of the most diverse ecosystems on the planet. They contain so much life and interaction many scientists call them the "rainforests of the seas." Yet these reefs are endangered around the world, and their ecosystems are changing because of pollution, mismanagement of the natural resources, and the influence of man on the fragile environments of the coral reefs.
Coral reefs are found in most tropical zones around Earth. They can only survive in certain conditions, for example, they must have an annual water temperature of at least 74 degrees Fahrenheit, and they typically do best in shallow water, where sunlight can reach and photosynthesize the plants (Ekman 4-6). The sun is the major source of energy for these ecosystems, it provides energy for plankton, plants, and algae to survive, and these are all necessary foods for the many…
Agardy, Tundi. "America's Coral Reefs: Awash with Problems; Government Must Acknowledge the Magnitude of the Crisis and Fully Engage the Scientific and Conservation Communities in Efforts to Solve It." Issues in Science and Technology Wntr 2004: 35+.
Chepesiuk, Ron. "Stressed Reefs May Get Relief." Environmental Health Perspectives 108.9 (2000).
Ekman, Sven. Zoogeography of the Sea. Trans. Palmer, Elizabeth. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1953.
One of the most fascinating features of the Orono and other bogs is the way they are formed over the course of thousands of years. As with many bogs, the Orono was initially created by a melted glacier. The sea encroached upon the glacial waters, creating a "layer of silt and clay" at the bottom ("Bog FAQs"). Gradually the climate grew wetter and wetter, and the area became waterlogged ("Bog FAQs"). The flood plain enabled the growth of wetland plants. hen those plants died, their remains would become compressed in the water, which when built up turned into peat. Peat is basically comprised of undecomposed plants. The thicker the peat, the slower the rate of decomposition for the plants within it. Peat is too thick for air or oxygen to penetrate, slowing decomposition and preventing the growth of new vegetation. According to the Orono Bog eb site, "thousands of generations…
"Bog FAQs." Orono Bog Walk. Retrieved May 2, 2010 from http://www.oronobogwalk.org/faqs.htm
EPA. Aquatic Biodiversity: Types of wetlands. 2009. Retrieved May 2, 2010 from http://www.epa.gov /bioiweb1/aquatic/types.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Threats to Ecosystem: Cause and Solution
There are various threats to the marine ecosystem. Three of the most common are:
(a) Pollution from point and nonpoint sources; (b) Overexploitation of marine stocks that can deplete marine animals; and (c) Global climactic and oceanographic events that contribute to sea level rise, coastal erosion, storm, and intensified sea temperature
Pollution, as threat to the marine system, stems from point and non-point sources. A major source is plastic where plastic impacts the marine system by as much as 90-95% in some areas. Some areas of the ocean are completed y saturated by plastic (forming into piles called 'gyres'), and often mistaken for food by marine animals such as turtles, small feeders, and sea birds. A large percent of them have plastic in their guts causing their digestive systems to be blocked with the stuff and for them to starve. Plastic also acts…
CSIRO. Climate change effects on marine ecosystems report www.csiro.au/resources/ps2yd.html
Save Our Seas Foundation: Pollution saveourseas.com/threats/pollution
The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA) www.fao.org/sof/sofia/index_en.htm
The last remaining pieces of what used to be the American wilderness are slowly but surely being erased from the country's landscape. In the very few remaining natural and unaltered locations, many wild animals live which have been hunted to near-extinction in other parts of the country. In the not so long ago time, in the time before settlement from American pioneers, the entire nation was a vast wilderness. However, as the population increased in the United States and the American men moved further west, more of the natural wilderness was cut down and turned first into small villages and then larger cosmopolitan cities. In destroying these areas, humanity has only harmed itself. Many valuable resources like the creation of oxygen and the production of clean water occurs in wilderness locations (Farquhar 1965,-page 239). Natural locations like the Grand Canyon or the Sierra Nevada Mountains have been designated…
"Community Ecology." (2011). Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation.
Farquhar, Francis Peloubet. (1965). History of the Sierra Nevada. University of California:
Carbon cycles through the ecosystem between the atmosphere, organisms (such as producers, herbivores, and carnivores) and decomposers. This natural cycle maintains a somewhat constant level of carbon in the atmosphere. The burning of fossil fuels releases carbon into the cycle that has been trapped inside the earth. How does this affect the cycle and what problems can this cause?
The two main processes of the carbon cycle are photosynthesis and metabolism. Plants and animals consume and express carbon dioxide in relatively equal measure. Human beings affect this fragile process by releasing fossil fuels into the atmosphere which produces surplus carbon. Those who support the concept of global warming argue that these surplus carbons, along with other greenhouse gases, are increasing the temperature of the planet (Kasting 1998).
Carbon naturally is in balance between released and stored materials. As carbon is released by the burning of fossil fuels, the locations for…
"Cell Division: Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction." (2010).
Escobedo, Yadeeh (2005). "Mitosis and Meiosis."
Salmon River Ecosystem
Earthworms are the most tolerant and crawfish are the least tolerant of pollutions and reduced dissolved oxygen.
The loss of riparian areas from livestock grazing reduces the capacity of the river to clean itself. The addition of nitrogen from fertilizers causes acidization of the water. In addition to the polluted waterways, nitrogen contributes to smog and greenhouse gases, which are bad for human health and the economy. Costs are attributed to air pollution health and medical issues and cleanup efforts.
Deforestation can invite invasive plants into the ecosystem, reduce air quality around the rivers and streams, and increase the runoff, which further pollutes the water systems and decreases the level of dissolved oxygen in the water. The species that live in the aquatic ecosystems change as a result of the degraded water quality.
Ecosystems have the capacity to renew themselves and are able to overcome some pollution…
Fen in a Forest Ecosystem
The ecosystem that is of interest in this particular case is the fen in a forest. These are two ecosystems of different categories and yet coexist with the fen being an aquatic ecosystem and the forest being a terrestrial ecosystem. This combination of ecosystems gives a rich place that can effectively support the endangered species and species that are considered vulnerable and rare to be found in many ecosystems.
A fen is described as a wetland system that has permanent water sources mainly from the ground that keeps the wetland always with water though at times the levels may drop slightly. The substrate to the fen is always alkaline to slightly acidic soil. The ground water and the water that is directed to the fen from the slopes caries with it a lot of nutrients to the fen hence this ecosystem can support many types…
Forest Facts, (2007). Facts on Forests and Forestry. Retrieved April 14, 2015 from http://www.forestfacts.org/l_2/forests_1.htm
Irish Peatland Conservation Council, (2015). Fens. Retrieved April 14, 2015 from http://www.ipcc.ie/a-to-z-peatlands/fens/
World Wildlife Fund, (2015). Species: Monarch Butterfly. Retrieved April 14, 2015 from https://www.worldwildlife.org/species/monarch-butterfly
The extinction of birds will have a devastating effect on other species, largely through the destruction of plants upon which they feed. The loss of scavengers could harm human populations by reducing the chance of disease spread. The loss of scavengers also has the effect of reducing soil nutrients that promote new plant growth.
e discovered that a loss of fish is connected to a loss of fish eating birds. This brings up the question of whether the loss of marine fish is responsible, at least in part, for the loss of fish eating birds. Demonstrating causality between the loss of one species and its effects is difficult. This is largely due to the researcher's inability to isolate the variables the cause the extinction.
Much of the research on the causes and effects of extinction focuses on the extinction of one particular species or another. It often fails to consider…
Courchamp, F., Angulo, E., Rivalan, P., Hall, R., Signoret, L., Bull, L., and Meinard, T.
Rarity Value and Species Extinction: The Anthropogenic Allee Effect." PLOS
Biology Journal. p. 1. http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pbio.0040415 . Accessed June 15, 2007.
Drake, J. "Density-Dependent Demographic Variation Determines Extinction Rate of Experimental Populations." PLOS Biology Journal. p. 1.. http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0030222 . Accessed June 15, 2007.
Gwynedd Wildlife Preserve: estoring an Altered Ecosystem to Its Original Glory
Structural and Functional Dynamics
The Gwynedd Wildlife Preserve in Pennsylvania is a portion of land that has seen considerable changes over the years due to major structural and functional dynamics that occurred within this ecosystem. The preserve itself is a 234-acre portion of land consisting of meadows, woodlands and wetlands that border the ever-growing suburbs of Blue Bell and North Wales, Pennsylvania (Schuylkill, 2012, p.1). The area's lushness and welcoming appeal led to years of agriculture and development within the area and its immediate surroundings, leading farmers, business owners, and residents alike to flock to the area in and around where the preserve now lies. An area which functioned as a vast landscape for the growth of plan and animal life was now in danger of being picked dry by new human residents. With this influx of people and…
Natural Lands Trust. 2012. "Gywnedd Wildlife Preserve." Web. Retrieved from:
http://www.natlands.org/preserves-to-visit/list-of-preserves/gwynedd-wildlife-preserve / [Accessed on 23 April 2012].
Visit Philly Organization. 2012. "Gwynedd Wildlife Preserve." Philadelphia and the Countryside. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.visitphilly.com/outdoor-activities/philadelphia/gwynedd-wildlife-preserve / [Accessed on 23 April 2012].
Schuylkill River National and State Heritage Area Organization. 2012. "Gwynedd
Provider Paradox, Universities in the Information Ecosystem," author Siva Vaidhyanathan criticizes the growing trend of commercialism seen in many American universities today. Schools like Columbia University are "marketing" themselves, similar to the way private companies market their brand names. Columbia, for example, has lent its name to a consortium of institutions that offer a form of boutique learning via the Internet. For a fee of $500 per course, a learner may download a copy of copyrighted material for his or her own personal use. MIT, on the other hand, is providing web access to its courses.
For Vaidhyanathan, these practices contribute to the changing views and goals of education. By selling access to their courses and marketing their name, education itself becomes a product. The information they provide becomes a commodity. The university is now akin to a store, selling knowledge and information the way a hardware store sells hammers…
Global Warming Effects on the Ecosystem
What is global warming?
What is an ecosystem?
The effects of global warming on the ecosystem
The natural world and its eco systems are being drastically changed today. The original setting and workings of these phenomenons is being affected by a variety of elements in the world and these changes are noticeably visible around us in different ways. The way in which these eco systems function and operate in is being brought into question and their characteristics and contents are changing as a result too. Some of these changes can be traced back to the phenomenon of global warming that is gradually showing its implications on different aspects of human life such as rising temperatures, changing habitats, rising water level, changing living patterns of species, spreading diseases, extinction. (J.T. Price, 2005).
As temperatures rise and go towards extremes, a lot of the changes in…
Allen, C. (2009). Thresholds of Climate Change in Ecosystems . Washington D.C. .
(2008). Ecological Impacts of Climate Change. Washington D.C.
(2004). Impacts of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. United Kingdom.
J.T. Price, R.L. (2005). Ecosystems, their Properties, Goods, and Services. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability . Washington: University of Cambridge Press.
Conversion of energy within the ecosystem
Within the ecosystem, there are laws of thermodynamics that guide the circulation and conversion of the energy in the ecosystem. There are basically two laws that govern this cycle of energy. It is worth knowing that Thermodynamics is the study of energy.
First law of thermodynamics; this law states that energy cannot be created nor destroyed but can be transformed from one form to another with an aim to accomplish some work. It also indicates that the total amount of energy in the universe basically remains the same and constant, the only thing that happens is that it changes from one form to another. It further indicates that energy is always conserved since it cannot be created or destroyed. This happens in the farm where we eat fruits and meat fro the animals that we slaughter and then we conserve this energy in…
Alternate Energy Sources, (2010). What's The Advantage Of Renewable Energy? Retrieved
April 18, 2012 from http://www.alternate-energy-sources.com/advantage-of-renewable-energy.html
Alternative Energy Secret, (2012). Fossil Fuels: Their Advantages and Disadvantages.
Retrieved April 18, 2012 from http://www.alternativeenergysecret.com/fossil-fuels.html
One of the key components of post-Earth survival for humans is transforming another planet or celestial body to be fit for human habitation through supporting human life. The transformation of another planet is commonly referred to as terraforming, which is a term that refers to human colonization of space. Terraforming the planet is associated with some advantages in addition to the potential to support human life/habitation such as contain biosphere and space station. Therefore, terraforming planets or celestial bodies is an attractive proposition since it entails developing a new Earth-like home for humanity. Despite the recognition of terraforming planets or celestial bodies to support human life and habitation, there are questions on which planets or celestial bodies should be transformed or left alone. The feasibility of terraforming planets or celestial bodies has remained a major issue in the scientific field. This paper seeks to determine whether planets or celestial…
Fujiwara, Kei, and Nobuhide Doi. “Biochemical Preparation of Cell Extract for Cell-Free Protein Synthesis without Physical Disruption.” PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0154614. Accessed 22 Sep. 2017.
Gurnett, Donald A. “The Search for Life in the Solar System.” Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, American Clinical and Climatological Association, 2009, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2744519/. Accessed 22 Sept. 2017.
Peters, T. “Ten Ethical Issues in Exploring Our Solar Ghetto.” Journal of Astrobiology & Outreach, vol. 4, no. 1, pp.1-8, 18 Mar. 2016, https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/ten-ethical-issues-in-exploring-our-solar-ghetto-2332-2519-1000149.pdf
Schwartz, James S.J. “On the Moral Permissibility of Terraforming.” Ethics & the Environment, vol. 18, no. 2, 2013. Accessed 28 Oct. 2017.
Todd, Paul W. “Planetary Biology and Terraforming.” Gravitational and Space Biology, vol. 19, no.2, pp. 79-83, August 2016, http://gravitationalandspacebiology.org/index.php/journal/article/view/11. Accessed 28 Oct. 2017.
Warmflash, David. “Forget Mars. Here\\'s Where We Should Build Our First Off-World Colonies.” The Crux, 8 Sept. 2014, blogs.discovermagazine.com/crux/2014/09/08/where-build-off-world-colonies/#.WcgEOMiGPIU. Accessed 22 Sept. 2017.
Wilkinson, David. “Searching for Another Earth: The Recent History of the Discovery of Exoplanets.” Zygon, vol. 51, no. 2, pp.414-430. June 2016. Accessed 28 Oct. 2017.
Ecosystems are changed by both biotic and abiotic factors. Biotic factors are all living things or their materials that directly or indirectly affect an organism in its environment. Biotic factors include organisms, their presence or parts, their interaction with the ecosystem, or their wastes. Additionally, parasitism, disease, and predation are considered biotic factors. Abiotic factors are factors of a non-living physical and chemical nature that affect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce. These factors include light intensity, temperature, soil or rock type, pH levels, available water supplies, gasses, and pollutant levels (Bush, 2002).
Both types of factors change the equilibrium, but in different ways. For example, any change in temperature, an abiotic factor, may not only affect the ecosystem in general, but also affect the biotic factors in the ecosystem, such as aiding in the production of a given species. This species may then become overabundant, which can…
Resources. Web site: http://www.*****/studyguides/subjects/biology-edited/contents.asp.
Nevertheless, it is a conceptual change from government-sponsored conservation efforts of the past, which might have focused specifically in the same region on the manatee population, and thus played a pure game of numbers. To regard the Florida manatee instead as part of a larger ecosystem that must be monitored in numerous different ways requires a change in approach which is not always easy for a government agency to implement.
2. The chief conservation implication of introduced invasive species is that the invasive species is often very difficult to eradicate without serious disruption to the host ecosystem. An excellent example of an invasive species is presented by the zebra mussel, a small freshwater species of shellfish originally native to the freshwater lakes of southern ussia. The introduction of zebra mussels into the freshwater habitats of North America has allowed them to spread at astonishingly fast rates: the zebra mussel reproduces…
Barnes, C. et al. (2006). "The Ecosystem Goal Team of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: Exploring an Ecosystem Approach to Management." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved online at: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/sars/improvement/pdfs/eam_lit_review.pdf
CBC News. "Manitoba to Blast Zebra Mussels in Unique Experiment." May 11, 2014. Retrieved online at: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/manitoba-to-blast-zebra-mussels-in-unique-experiment-1.2639258
In this exercise, I examine a public park, specifically one corner of the Crotona Park Nature Center measuring 50 feet by 50 feet, with an aim of making a number of observations within the selected area. In so doing, I will be seeking to describe what is growing in the said area. More specifically, I will not only identify the trees present, but also identify the ground cover of the identified area.
Method and Materials
To identify a location for this experiment, I made use of Google Earth to scan my neighborhood and soon found an appropriate area, i.e. a nearby public park. I then zoomed-in to a certain spot, made a screenshot of the same, and chose the following day as the day of actual visit. The tools I carried on my way to the park included a camera, a retractable steel tape, a clipboard and several blank sheets…
Monetizing Environmental Goods and Services
Monetizing ecosystem services is not essential for ecological sustainability. Thus, all goods and services provided by nature should not be commoditized and given an economic value or price so that they can be traded properly and accounted for in economic decisions to bolster their conservation. Monetization is only effective in the realm of presenting penalties for ecosystem violations, though even then it presents as a flawed system. The monetization of natural resources and ecosystems marks a violation of our integrity and collective human spirit.
Nature and all organic processes already have an inherent value that makes them valuable. It's up to society to realize that value, and to treat these attributes as precious through their time and attention. All attempts to monetize or to ascribe a financial value either artificially or through government support generally manifest as unsustainable. For example, the government often tries to…
Ackerman, F., & Gallagher, K. (2000, October). Getting the Prices Wrong. Retrieved from Global Development: [HIDDEN]
Kinzig, A. (2011, November). Paying for Ecosystem Services -- Promise and Peril. Retrieved from Sciencemag.org: [HIDDEN]
Spash, C. (2008). How Much is that Ecosystem in the Window? Retrieved from Environmental Values: [HIDDEN]
Stavins, R. (2009, April). What Explains the Recent Popularity of Market-Based Envrionmental Solutions? Retrieved from [HIDDEN]
Forests have long been exploited. They are harvested for their timber, or cleared for agricultural land, both activities being entirely destructive to the ecosystem. The fen exists typically within the forest, and is not usually subject to exploitation until the forest itself is, because the forest acts as a natural barrier for the fen. The destruction of forests for timber is arguably the lesser of the two forms of exploitation, at least in countries with active silviculture programs, as the forests will have the potential to regenerate. However the destruction of forest ecosystems is associated with several negative outcomes. The biodiversity of the forest system is reduced, and this effect is stronger the more forest is cleared. Destruction for agriculture is permanent, which means that the loss of biodiversity is permanent. Endemic and endangered species are rendered extinct, or their numbers reduced (Chediack, 2008).
Fenland is often exploited…
Breward, N. (2003). Heavy-metal contaminated soils associated with drained fenland in Lancashire, England, UK, revealed by BGS Soil Geochemical Survey. Applied Geochemistry. Vol. 18 (11) 1663-1670.
Chediack, S. (2008). The effect of forest exploitation on structure, diversity, and floristic composition of palmito-dominated Atlantic forests at Misiones, Argentina. Rev. Bio. Trop. Vol 56 (2) 721-738.
Fredeen, A. (2007) . Climate change and the mountain pine beetle. University of Northern British Columbia. Retrieved April 27, 2015 from http://www.unbc.ca/releases/2007/climate-change-and-mountain-pine-beetle
Sasaki, N. & Putz, F. (2009). Critical need for new definitions of forest and forest degradation in global climate change agreements. Conservation Letters. Vol. 2009, 1-7.
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Modern day examples of human modification of an ecosystem
Module 01 Question 01: Preservation of the existing ecosystems
Various measures have been put in order to modify and contain the natural state of the ecosystem. Preservation is one of the approaches that have been used to foster equitable management of the ecosystem. Through preservation, it has become evident that the ecosystem has taken a different understanding from the avenue of human perception. For instance, rules and regulations that help to protect the ecosystem have changed the entire perception of the ecosystem globally. Initially before the establishment of preservation approaches, the ecosystem was getting devastated gradually. Nonetheless, modification has come with the introduction of laws and regulations that work towards protection and preservation of the available avenues in the market.
Through the rules and regulations created, the ecosystem has achieved a new state of protection in…
Callan, S., & Thomas, J.M. (2010). Environmental economics & management: Theory, policy, and applications. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Corwin, J. (2009). 100 heartbeats: The race to save earth's most endangered species. New York, NY: Rodale.
FAO/IRRI Workshop on Judicious and Efficient Use of Insecticides on Rice, International
Rice Research Institute. & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Technology and Global Ecosystem
An Analysis of the Implications of Technology and the Global Ecosystem
The 21st century promises to usher in innovations in technology that cannot yet be imagined, and the advancements to date have provided many in the world with unprecedented standards of living. Improved methods of transportation and communication, combined with more leisure time than ever in which to spend it has resulted in many people developing a keen appreciation for technology and what it promises for mankind; an unfortunate concomitant of these innovations in many parts of the world, though, has been an intensive assault on the globe's ecosystem in an effort to bring emerging nations into line with the productivity being experienced in the developed nations of the world. As a result, a debate over whether or not technology threatens the integrity of the global ecosystem has emerged in recent years, and pundits warn that…
Anton, Philip S., James Schneider and Richard Silberglitt. The Global Technology Revolution:
Bio/Nano/Materials Trends and Their Synergies with Information Technology by 2015.
Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2001.
Bjornerud, Marcia. (1997). "Gaia: Gender and Scientific Representations of the Earth." NWSA
The fact is that numerous rooted macrophyte structures are not full of naturally strong and healthy particles and sediments and nutrients. It is because of the restriction or absence of these particles, sediments and nutrients that the study of these systems has not been as extensive and thorough as the concentration on the terrestrial structures when understanding the fate, sources and sinks of Co2 levels in the ecosystems and the plants structures (e.g., Drake and Leadley 1991). Researchers assert that "rooted macrophyte systems can be sources of CO2, Chapter 4 and other gases through microbial processing of organic matter in the sediments and direct emission from leaves" (Delaune et al. 1990).
Table 1. Total net primary production (NPP) from world systems (Modified from Valiela, 1984)
% of Total
% of Total
gC m-2 y-1
Abel K.M. (1984) Inorganic Carbon Source for Photosynthesis in the Seagrass Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb.) Aschers. Plant Physiology 76, 776-781.
Adam, P. 1990. Saltmarsh ecology. Cambridge Univ. Press. Cambridge. 461p.
Agren, G., R.E. McMurtrie, W.J. Parton, J. Pastor and H.H. Shugart. 1991. State-of-the-art of models of production-decomposition linkages in conifer and grassland ecosystems. Ecological Applications. 1:118-138.
Anderson, J.M. 1991. The effects of climate change on decomposition processes in grassland and coniferous forests. Ecological Applications 1:326-347.
Crocodiles are appreciated for their self preservation capacity and for their apex predator position. However, hundreds of people are killed every year as a result of their encounter with the beasts. In order to control the problem, people resorted to having crocodiles removed from human-inhabited areas. In spite of the fact that the situation ameliorated as a result of crocodiles being removed, people are still easy victims for stealthy crocodiles. (Lynne, Kelly.)
The Australian government is determined to put an end to crocodile attacks. Considering the fact that tens of thousands of crocodiles are found on the continent, people believe that it is virtually unavoidable for others to fall victims to crocodiles. (Lynne, Kelly.)
hile it is generally believed that only carnivores can be apex predators, omnivores can also be true killers. Brown bears, for example, have no natural enemy within the ecosystems that they reside in, and,…
1. Lynne, Kelly. Crocodile: evolution's greatest survivor. Allen & Unwin, 2006.
2. Prugh, R. Laura, and Stoner, J. Chantal, and Epps, W. Clinton, and Bean, T. William, and Ripple, J. William, and Laliberte, S. Andrea, and Brashares, S. Justin. "The Rise of the Mesopredator." Bioscience Vol. 59, No. 9.
3. Whyte Macdonald, David Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio. The biology and conservation of wild canids. Oxford University Press, 2004.
4. "Wolf Management Strategies." Wisconsin Departament of Natural Resources. 25 Nov. 2009
etlands are the main link between the land and the water, and as such are vitally important to the ecology. etlands have been misunderstood and abused throughout the history of the United States -- and elsewhere in the world -- and that has led to enormous environmental losses. This paper explores all pertinent information with regard to wetlands.
hat are etlands?
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines wetlands as those "…transition zones where the flow of water, the cycling of nutrients," along with the sun's energy, all meet in order to create "…a unique ecosystem characterized by hydrology, soils, and vegetation" (EPA). The four categories of wetlands are swamps, bogs, fens and marshes. The EPA describes marshes as wetlands that are "…dominated by soft-stemmed vegetation"; swamps are quite different, as they are composed of "mostly woody plants."
As for bogs, they are freshwater wetlands that were formed by glacier-made lakes;…
Environmental Protection Agency. (2008). Wetlands Overview: What is a Wetland? Retrieved
July 23, 2012, from http://www.epa.gov .
Moreno-Mateos, David, Power, Mary E., Comin, Francisco A., and Yockteng, Roxana. (2012).
Structural and Functional Loss in Restored Wetland Ecosystems. PloS Biology, 10(1), 1-8.
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Preservation of the existing ecosystems
Accumulating evidence suggest that sustainable agriculture should be promoted. The growth and development of agriculture will still be the driving force of the loss of ecosystems in the 21st century. In specified areas, the growth and development of agriculture poses a danger to ecosystems, establishment, evaluation, and technological diffusion. This could see the rise of the food production sustainably per unit area with the absence of trade-offs relating to excessive water consumption or nutrients and pesticides use, would lessen pressure significantly to ecosystems. For many cases, the required technologies are in place, and they could be implemented in a wider variety, but the nation is facing financial constraints and lacking intuitional capabilities to use and gain the stated technologies. In areas where technology is predominant of the landscape, maintenance of ecosystems within the landscape is a very significant constitute of…
Hayden, J. (2009). Introduction to health behavior theory. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
O'Donnell, M.P. (2008). Health promotion in the workplace. Albany: Delmar Thomson Learning
Scutchfield, F.D., & Keck, C.W. (2009). Principles of public health practice. Clifton Park: Thomson/Delmar Learning
Stephens, C. (2008). Health promotion: A psychosocial approach. Maidenhead: Open University Press
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
Among the animals found in these relatively lush riparian zones are elk, deer, bear, sheep, and mountain lions. In addition, smaller animals that live and feed along this biologically vital corridor may include birds (like the ring-necked pheasant, grouse, geese, falcons, great blue herons, hummingbirds and warblers), small mammals (such as longtail weasel and striped skunk), reptiles (garter snake and the western painted turtle), and amphibians (red-legged frog and the Pacific giant salamander). The flora and fauna often include many threatened, endangered, or sensitive species, among which could be the bald eagle, peregrine falcon, and kit fox (The Columbia iver Basin watershed and its ecosystems 2005).
The plant life along the river can also has an effect on the health of the species living in the river by maintaining the health of the river by influencing the amount and kind of sediment in the river. The vegetation along the side…
Columbia River (2005). Center for Columbia River History. Retrieved September 10, 2005 at http://www.ccrh.org/river/history.htm.
The Columbia River Basin watershed and its ecosystems (2005). Foundation for Water and Energy Education. Retrieved September 9, 2005 at http://www.fwee.org/crb.html .
How a hydroelectric project can affect a river (2005). Foundation for Water and Energy Education. Retrieved September 9, 2005 at http://www.fwee.org/hpar.html .
Human history in the Tetons (2001). Grand Teton History, retrieved September 10, 2005 at http://www.americanparknetwork.com/parkinfo/gt/history/ .
Preservation and Conservation
Conservation, Preservation & Natural Regulation
Te purpose of tis paper is to define te difference between "conservation" and "preservation" and to researc "natural regulation" and define tat as well and to examine te results of "natural regulation" in terms of animal population, forest fires and any oter results wic may be discovered due to "natural regulation."
Te 'conservationist movement' was born in te decade of te 1960's and grew strong in te 1970's. Tere was a smaller movement of preservationists tat was bot ally and enemy to te conservationists in teir pursuits. Te survival is eac plant and animal in te ecosystem, or teir demise as a species if by te process of natural selection is only accomplised troug maintaining biodiversity in te ecological system of te eart. Biodiversity as been described as te "structural and functional variety of life forms at genetic, species, population,…
Covering of the Tree Tops
This paper to be used for reference purposes only
Fewer predators (i.e. fish) without simultaneous declines in reproduction would mean an increase in the number of insects in the area of acidification. This can increase the number of pests in the area, affecting crops. It could also lead to an increase in disease carrying insects, such as mosquitoes, leading to higher disease rates among other animals, including humans. This could affect populations of these other animals, affecting populations of other species that prey on or are preyed upon by these species, and so on.
Ecosystems are incredibly complex things; the interconnections between the disparate elements are so intertwined and so complex that it is almost -- perhaps completely -- impossible to know the effects of changing or removing a single element. Even more complex and unknowable are the indirect effects on portions of an ecosystem from other sources. The acidification of the Hubbard Brook is almost certainly a result…
Interdependency of Species in the Food Web
The concept of the food web is useful when one wants to understand the interdependency of species that live in a particular biome, and, further, how events in one biome can cause ripple effects that impact life in other biomes. This demonstrates the interdependency of all life, not just life in a particular biome. In order to understand this, it is important to understand what one means by the concept of a food web. Previously, people envisioned a food chain, with species being characterized as food or the one doing the eating. This helped people understand the relationship between different organisms and how some organisms formed an intermediate link between other organisms.
However, the idea of a food chain is actually overly simplistic. At different stages in their life cycles and at different opportunities, various species serve as both predator and prey, an…
Mekong River Delta
The Management of the Mekong River has long been an issue of great debate and inquiry. The body of water is essential to the livelihoods of millions of people and must be managed accordingly. The purpose of this discussion is to illustrate human-ecosystem conflicts. The research will analyze the nature of the conflict, the impacts on the natural ecosystem involved (you need to include raw scientific data that show human impacts), a description of the stakeholders involved, the options for dealing with the conflict (is this a good example of a sustainable solution to the conflict, the option selected and an evaluation of whether this is working including an update for the older case studies.
The Mekong River
The Mekong River is a perfect example of human-ecosystem conflict. According to a report entitled "People and ecosystems: The fraying web of life" the Mekong River is the 12th…
Baird I.G. Mark S. Flaherty1 and Ian G. Baird2. Mekong River Fish Conservation Zones in Southern Laos: Assessing Effectiveness Using Local Ecological Knowledge. Environmental Management. Volume 36, Number 3 / September, 2005
Friederich, H. 2000. The biodiversity of the wetlands in the Lower Mekong Basin. Paper submitted to the World Commission on Dams, Presented at the Commission's East/Southeast Asia Regional Consultation, Hanoi, Vietnam. 26-27 February
Hoa, Le Thi Viet, Nguyen Huu Nhan, Eric Wolanski, Tran Thanh Congb, Haruyama Shigeko. The combined impact on the flooding in Vietnam's Mekong River delta of local man-made structures, sea level rise, and dams upstream in the river catchment
Kummu M., Varis, O. (2007) Sediment-related impacts due to upstream reservoir trapping, the Lower Mekong River. Geomorphology 85 (2007) 275-293
Stated examples include: "cessation of mining or farming or causes of erosion, restricting livestock from riparian areas, removing toxic materials from soil or sediments, and eradicating invasive exotic species; (4) restoration of processes/disturbance cycles and this involves restoration of important ecological processes including natural flooding or fire regimes so that natural integrity is restored; (5) rehabilitation of substrates which may be any type of activity focused on repairing soil texture or chemistry that has been altered or the restoration of hydrological regimes or the quality of water; (6) vegetation restoration which may include direct revegetation of a site and generally with species that are native to the local conditions of the environment. This involves collection of seeds or cuttings from various sources in the local region; (7) Maintenance and monitoring the restoration site across time is required to ensure that objectives are being met. Observation assists in knowing when something…
Ecological Restoration Option (2014) Humboldt State University. Retrieved from: http://humboldt.edu/environment/programs/environmental-science/ecological-restoration-option
The Croton Waterworks (2014) Retrieved from: http://crotonaqueduct.wordpress.com/field-notes/individual-structures/jacqueline-kennedy-onassis-reservoir/
Vaughn, K.J., Porensky, L.M., Wilkerson, M.L., Balachowski, J., Peffer, E., Riginos, C. & Young, T.P. (2010) Restoration Ecology. Nature Education Knowledge 3(10):66. Retrieved from: http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/restoration-ecology-13339059
Biodiversity is a term which refers to the amount and degree of diversity found within living biology. Biodiversity is likely best measured as the sum total of the number of existent creatures, systems, and variety of creatures found within the world at large (National Geographic, 2016). In order to best understand the significance of this statement, it is necessary to codify biodiversity into three different varieties. There are ecosystems, species, and genes which comprise all of the variety found within the notion of biodiversity (National Wildlife Federation, 2016). Therefore, all that is needed to determine biodiversity is to simply add the number of each ecosystem, species, and gene variation found.
The importance and benefits of biodiversity
Biodiversity is important because of the way that different living systems found within it interact with one another. Oftentimes there is a degree of dependence between those systems. It is worth noting…
aquatic system • Describe climate affects selected ecosystem. • Explain, based laws thermodynamics, energy flows selected ecosystem. • Examine matter transported selected ecosystem due biogeochemical cycles, carbon, hydrologic, nitrogen, phosphorus.
Aquatic ecosystems are mainly responsible for assisting energy transfers across the planet and for making it possible for all life on earth to exist. Depending on the area where it is located and on the substances that it contains, a body of water can have more or less living beings in it. Climate has a strong impact on water and on the organisms that directly depend on it. Climate change has had a severe effect on bodies of water all around the planet and this is obvious especially when considering melting glaciers and the energy that they release.
Thermohaline circulation is one of the most important circulation systems present on the planet and it is largely in charge…
Franks, Felix, "Water: A Matrix of Life," (Royal Society of Chemistry, 19.07.2000)
Juuti, Petri, "Environmental History of Water: Global Views on Community Water Supply and Sanitation," (IWA Publishing, 30.01.2007)
Wabash Watershed and Global Warming
Global warming is the gradual increase in the average temperatures of Earth caused by an increase in Greenhouse Gases (GHG) in Earth's atmosphere. An unprecedented increase in GHG has induced the warming up of Earth. Since global warming impacts entire biosphere and ecosystems, watersheds are also distorted through warming of climate. The paper defines watersheds, their role in ecosystem, and explanation of changes that have taken place in Wabash watershed. Wabash watershed is composed of smaller watersheds such as Upper Wabash Watershed, Lower Wabash, Little Wabash Watershed, Middle Wabash-Busseron, and Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion Watershed. Human agency has caused the global warming to increase over a period of last two decades, though its signs are obvious much before that. Increases in average lower temperatures, precipitation, and stream runoff are some evident outcomes of global warming. Wildlife, water resources, agriculture, and human health will have an adverse…
EPA. (2013). Midwest Impacts & Adaptation. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved form: http://www.epa.gov /climatechange/impacts-adaptation/midwest.html
Goudie, A.S. (2005). The human impact on the natural environment: past, present, and future. Wiley-Blackwell.
Gregersen, H., Ffolliott, P., & Brookes, K. (2008). Integrated watershed management: Connecting people to their land and water. CABI.
IPCC. (2013). Climate Change 2007: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch19s19-3-6.html
law help protect the environment and what steps can citizens take to ensure that the law accomplishes this goal?
Protection of the environment is important for our health, but humans affect the system through various means such as through polluting water and atmosphere with toxic gasses, with oil, with car fuels, and with debris that is plunked into the waters as well as depleting the fisheries and filling the air with smog and the earth with pollution.
It is for this reason that legislation is put into effect to curb our destruction and to teach us how to look after the environment in better ways. The state employs its own regulations, but it needs a synthesis of both state, business and citizen involvement to safeguard the environment, and motivation from both business and citizen is not always forthcoming. The following essay discusses policies that have been implemented to help protect…
Amos, W. (2011) Development of Canadian Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Drilling: Lessons from the Gulf of Mexico RECIEL 20 (1)
British Columbia v. Canadian Forest Products Ltd.,  2 S.C.R. 74, 2004 SCC 38
Bruce, JP (2011) Protecting Groundwater: The Invisible but Vital Resource C.D. Howe Institute
DeMarco, Jerry V;Valiante, Marcia;Bowden, Marie-Ann (2005) Opening the Door for Common Law Environmental Protection in Canada Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 15, 2
Of the top 150 medications that are sold by prescription in the U.S. 118 of these are medications that are either "derived from or modeled on naturally occurring substances." (SEAM Global, 2005) Some of the medications that count on habitat presently being destroyed are "aspirin, morphine, vincristine, taxol, digitalis, and most antibiotics."(SEAM Global, 2005)
VI. Internet/Networking: Role Played in Preservation
Through global and subglobal assessments of the ecosystem and monitoring of data in relation to global changes information may be shared from one region to another and earlier attempts made in changing, slowing or altogether avoidance of more extreme conditions. As stated on the web page of "GreenFacts.org": "Some ecosystem problems have been reduced by innovative local responses...Therefore institutions are needed at multiple levels to strengthen the adaptive capacity and effectiveness of sub-national and local responses. (GreenFacts.org, 2005)
VII. Globalization and Changes in Production
Changes have been seen in the…
Globalization's Effects "A World Connected" Online available at http://www.aworldconnected.org/article.php/231.html
Shah, Anup (2005) Effects of Consumerism 2005 April 18 Online available at http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/Consumption/Effects.asp
Globalization: Negative Effects of Development (2005) Walon Laboratories Online available at http://whalonlab.msu.edu/Student_Webpages/2003_EC_Projects / Globalization/page_6.html.
Robbins, Richard H. Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism. Allyn & Bacon. Copyright: 2002.
Discuss this product in terms of its repositioned target market demographics using U.S. Census Data.
In regards to U.S. Census Data, the target market demographic show promise. The repositioned product will focus on high level and medium income level people. These individuals tend to be high lifestyle and business professionals. The product is full of applications and latest operating system that is helpful for professionals and other business persons to accomplish their tasks on the phones. This demographic is experiences positive change. For instance, consumer confidence for the past three months has risen in this segment. Discretionary income for individuals making $100,000 or more has risen 12% over the past decade. This positive trend allows consumers to spend more on IM's products and services. The smartphone industry overall is growing at an annual rate of 9% per year with adoption rates increasing at a corresponding amount.
Determine the types…
1) Robert J. Gordon (1988), Macroeconomics: Theory and Policy, 2nd ed., Chapter 22.4, 'Modern theories of inflation'. McGraw-Hill.
2) Susan Mallik (2010). Hossein Bidgoil. ed. The Handbook of Technology Management: Supply Chain Management, Marketing and Advertising, and Global Management, vol 2 (1 ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley @ Sons, Inc.. p. 100- 104. ISBN 978-0-470-24948-2.
3) John T. Phelan, Jr. P.E. "Guest Column: Knowing When a WMS or WCS Is Right for Your Company." Supply & Demand Chain Executive. Enom, Inc. http://www.sdcexec.com/web/online/FulfillmentLogistics-Trends/Guest-Column -- Knowing-When-a-WMS-or-WCS-Is-Right-for-Your-Company/15$10,982
Dubai should be thinking about sustainability, since the seaport expansion and modernization has been damaging to the environment over the past decade. AS more and more ships begin to use the Dubai port, and as commerce and economic activity return after the global economic recession, the environmental challenges surrounding the port will likely increase as well.
Bagaeen, Samer. (2007). "Brand Dubai: The Instant City; or the Instantly ecognizable
City." International Planning Studies. Vol. 12, No. 2. Pp. 173-197.
Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens. (2008). "Dubai -- a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding." Journal of Place Management and Development. Vol. 1, No. 1. Pp. 62-91.
Betriebswirt; Dipl. And Noack, Sascha MBA. (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the UAE. GIN Verlag: Berlin.
Burt, J; Bartholomew, A.; Usseglio, P; Bauman, A. And P.F. Sale. (2009). "Are artificial reefs surrogates of natural habitats for corals and fish in…
Bagaeen, Samer. (2007). "Brand Dubai: The Instant City; or the Instantly Recognizable
City." International Planning Studies. Vol. 12, No. 2. Pp. 173-197.
Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens. (2008). "Dubai -- a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding." Journal of Place Management and Development. Vol. 1, No. 1. Pp. 62-91.
Betriebswirt; Dipl. And Noack, Sascha MBA. (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the UAE. GRIN Verlag: Berlin.
Natural Resources and nergy: Florida verglades
ffects of Agriculture
The verglades' freshwater ecosystem supplies vital services to the local population, such as the maintenance of South Florida's agriculture and drinking water (National Wildlife Preservation, 2012). However, these services are rarely accounted for in decision making in regards to land use and planning. As a result of the natural services being taken for granted, Agricultural scientists agree that modern agriculture faces an environmental calamity. Specifically, " the very nature of the agricultural structure and prevailing policies have led to this environmental crisis by favoring large farm size, specialized production, crop monocultures and mechanization" (Altieri, 2001).
The absence of diversifications and rotations of crops, necessary for the self-regulating process, induces the agroecosystems to rely on vast amounts of chemicals, such as fertilizer nutrients. Moreover, crops ineffectively absorb the chemical fertilizers, thus contaminating the surface and ground water. According to Altieri (2001), "In…
Effects of Human Population
In July 2010 the World Heritage Committee placed the Everglades on the "List of World Heritage in Danger" as a result of the reduction in natural water flows and the introduction of various pollutants from urban growth that reduce the nutrients necessary for ecological balances to occur naturally. Excess water flows at given times is also a problem for nesting animals that build in areas that would normally be elevated during dryer seasons. The Everglades is an aquatic ecosystem and the loss of the habitat for all the species that inhabit or migrate to the area is critical. Furthermore, the Everglades represents a dynamic region where saltwater meets freshwater. This acts to provide a replenishment area for the Biscayne Aquifer which in turn accounts for most of the freshwater supply for Southern Florida.
The increase of construction and related activities after hurricanes Katrina and Andrew have increased the amount of pollution emitted into the local system which in turn further increases the environmental threats for 14 endangered species, over 400 birds, and many mammals,
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…
1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
This writer intends to have children and a family life and to keep abreast of technology and scientific advancements that occur over the next 25 years. Furthermore, sustainable living is an interest of this writer and therefore the writer will be committed to participating in such initiatives that serve to bring about more sustainable and healthier living.
The houses of the future are much more likely to be more practicable than are today's houses and are likely to have features that are if not unheard of in the present, are at least presently not viable features due to the constraints of the cost of such features. However, over the next 25 years, just as the computer and other technological advances have become affordable the new products of the future will also become more affordable as time goes on.
The ecosystem 25 years from now will likely have undergone…
The Delta is also a habitat for many species of fish, birds, mammals, and plants, and it supports agricultural and recreational activities while also being the focal point for water distribution throughout the State.
The development of the Delta as it exists today started in late 1850 when the Swamp and Overflow Land Act transferred ownership of all swamp and overflow land, including Delta marshes, from the federal government to the State of California. In 1861, the State Legislature created the Board of Swamp and Overflowed Land Commissioners to manage reclamation projects, and in 1866, the authority of the Board was transferred to county boards of supervisors. The Delta now covers 738,000 acres interlaced with hundreds of miles of waterways, with much of the land below sea level, relying on more than 1,000 miles of levees for protection against flooding. 20
White sturgeon is one of the most spectacular native…
1. Northridge, S.P. An updated world review of interactions between marine mammals and fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. No. 251, Suppl. 1. Rome,
FAO. 1991. 58p.
2. DeMaster, Douglas P., Fowler, Charles W., Perry, Simona L. And Richlen,
Michael F. Predation and Competition: The Impact of Fisheries on Marine-Mammal
The ecologies and environment: From the Atlantic Ocean to the Appalachian Plateau, Georgia is a very diverse state in terms of its ecology and geography. The state is the largest east of the Mississippi River, and its elevation ranges from sea level to more than 4,700 feet. The New Georgia Encyclopedia reports that there are five distinct "physiographic provinces" in Georgia: the Blue Ridge, the Piedmont, the Appalachian Plateau, the Ridge and Valley, and the Atlantic Coastal Plain. In the extreme northwestern part of the state, the Appalachian Plateau has historically been a region where mining has taken place. That Appalachian Plateau actually connects some parts of Georgia with Tennessee and eastern Alabama.
The cities in Georgia are located in the Piedmont region, which is highly industrialized, and includes the sprawling megalopolis of Atlanta. The "fall line" in Georgia is the place where the coastal plain meets the…
Baxter, Tom. (2012). Georgia becomes Ground Zero for energy, environmental issues. Atlanta Business Chronicle. Retrieved March 3, 2012, from http://saportareport.com .
Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Climate Change and Georgia. Retrieved March 4,
2012, from http://www.epa.gov .
Georgia Department of Natural Resources. (2009). Georgia's Natural Resources. Retrieved March 4, 2012, from http://www.gadnr.org/resources .
Explain what conservation biology is and highlight its goals.
Conservation biology is a branch of biological sciences which is primarily concerned with the preservation of life on earth including organisms which are classified as plants and animals. It examines biodiversity and ways and means in which the biodiversity of life on Earth can best be sustained (Sahney 2008,-page 759). This branch of biological study began as a reaction to the growing concern over extinction of species and disruption of habitats because of natural disasters and/or the actions and behaviors of human beings and industrialization. Interactions between species, particularly the interaction between humans and native populations is of particular interest to conservation biologists, particularly in terms of negative effects of human interaction.
The goals of conversation biologists are to protect various species as well as their habitats and ecosystems. They also want to prevent the extinction of species and…
Fujikawa, T. & Dougherty, J. (2010). The value of biodiversity and its impact on human health.
David Suzuki Foundation.
Sadava, et al. (2011). Life: the Science of Biology Volume 2. 9th ed. Sinauer: Gordonsville, VA.
Sahney, S. & Benton, M. (2008). Recovery from the most profound mass extinction of all time.
This is a case study that defines sustainable development. It explains the importance of sustainable development, why it is a catch phrase for countries, why it is promoted as a primary solution to protecting the environment, and some pros and cons. Sustainable development meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations. (Shah, 2009) It encompasses a number of areas, such as industry energy efficiency, climate change, and industrial policy, and highlights sustainability as the idea of environmental, economic, social progress, and equity, within the limits of natural resources.
While all humans depend on nature and the ecosystem, the ecosystem has been decreased by growing demands for food, water, fiber, and energy. There has been improvement for some, but conditions are worse for others because nature's ability to purify water and air, protect from disasters, and provide medicine has been weakened. Some of the…
Living Beyond Our Means. (n.d.). Retrieved from Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: http://news.bbc.us/2/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/30_03_05_boardstatement.pdf
Shah, A. (2009, Nov 18). Sustainable Development Introduction. Retrieved from Global Issues: http://www.globalissues.org/article/408/sustainable-development-introduction
Sustainable Development. (n.d.). Retrieved from Water Enclyclopedia: http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/St.-Ts/Sustainable-Development.html
Turner, R.K. (n.d.). Sustainable Development: Ethics and Economics. Retrieved from CSERGE: http://www.cserge.ac.uk/sites/default/files/pa_1992_09.pdf
The Hoover Dam was built in the 1930s as a major infrastructure project to help create jobs during the Great Depression and to help meet the energy needs of a growing Southwest. The human population has grown considerably in the region since then, putting a strain on a number of different resources. The dam actually helped to facilitate an increase in the human population in Nevada, particularly in Las Vegas, by providing a source of electricity. The dam actually created a means of controlling the water supply along the Colorado iver, which in turn allowed for a lot of the growth in the population of the area (ONE, 2014).
This growth has been a challenge to the local ecosystem, however. The Hoover Dam is located in the Mojave Desert, and desert ecosystems are typically quite fragile. A lot of this ecosystem has been overrun for urbanization that the…
Crook, H. & Fudge, T. (2010). How has Hoover Dam impacted the growth of the American west? KPBS. Retrieved May 31, 2014 from http://www.kpbs.org/news/2010/jun/09/how-has-hoover-dam-impacted-growth-american-west/
ONE. (2014). Hoover Dam's impact on Las Vegas. Online Nevada Encyclopedia. Retrieved May 31, 2014 from http://www.onlinenevada.org/articles/hoover-dams-impact-las-vegas
Speed here is of essence and spices like flying fish are able to jump out of water to escape predators. Others that lack like jellies are transparent. Turtles will have a shell to protect them. Gills enable animals to manage different water pressures like the sharks while whales have the capability of holding their breaths for longer periods. On the other hand, since the benthic zone does not allow sunlight to reach it due to its depth (beyond 600 feet), some fish and crustaceans, at this level do not see, in fact half of the species at this level are blind. In this sense, the organisms have adapted to produce their own lights from their specialized parts in their bodies known as photophores. In addition, since there is lack of phytoplacton to start the food chain, life is limited and fish have adapted to fulfill their needs. For instance, some…
Crouse, R. (n.d.). Waves: Tsunamis/Seismic sea waves. Water encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/Tw-Z/Waves.html
Gardiner, L. (2010, January 8). Surface ocean currents. windows.ucar.edu. Retrieved from http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Water/ocean_currents.html
Lee, H.J., and Normark, W.R. (2009). Earth science in urban ocean: The Southern California continental borderland. New York, U.S.: Geological Society of America.
Makai. (n.d). Threats to marine ecosystems. Waianae ecological characteristics. Retrieved from http://hawaii.gov/dbedt/czm/initiative/wec/html/sea/marine/threats.htm
" The report claims that the soft shell clam and oyster fisheries "have collapsed" and the commercial harvest of striped bass is now restricted to protect the survival of that species (Virginia Environment). In the last 30 years, according to the Executive Summary of the Arlington "Urban Forest Master Plan" (UFMP) Arlington County has lost "a significant amount of acreage with heavy tree cover"; this has had "a dramatic effect on the overall canopy coverage." Of the 16,500 acres of forests more than 3,000 acres have been "converted from heavy tree cover of over 50% to low tree cover of less than 20%" (UFMP).
How might global warming affect local ecosystems in and around Arlington? The rising level of the Atlantic Ocean is considered a major risk in terms of global warming. Already the rising waters have submerged several islands in the Chesapeake Bay. "The region's coastal habitats and the…
Natural Resources Management Plan. (2008). Natural Resource Conservation Areas. Retrieved March 8, 2011, from http://www.arlingtonva.us /departments/parksrecreation/documents/file76445.pdf.
National Wildlife Federation. (2008). Sea-Level Rise and Coastal Habitats of the Chesapeake
Bay: A Summary. Retrieved March 8, 2011, from http://www.nwf.org .
Parks, Recreation & Cultural Resources. (2010). Fort C.F. Smith -- History. Retrieved March 7,
134). In addition, ussian authorities have also joined with the international community to protect the lake. In this regard, Hudgins adds that, "Increased awareness of such threats to the unique ecology of Lake Baikal has prompted a number of international organizations -- including the Sierra Club and Baikal Watch in the United States -- to join the ussians in their efforts to protect this natural wonder of the world" (1998, p. 135). According to the Sierra Club, "Lake Baikal, arguably ussia's most significant environmental treasure -- it contains a fifth of the world's unfrozen freshwater and is a UNESCO World Heritage site -- is being polluted by toxic waste from a paper mill that Vladimir Putin ordered reopened for economic reasons" (Pollutin' Putin, 2010, para. 2). In fact, the recently reopened paper mill disposes of toxic wastes directly into Lake Baikal's fragile biological system (Hoare, 2008). While the Sierra Club…
Current programs. (2010). Baikal Watch. Retrieved from http://www.earthislandprojects.org / project/campaignPage.cfm?pageID=7&subSiteID=1&CFID=43926225&CFTOKEN=32
Gladkochub, D.P., Donskaya, T.V., Wingate, M.T., Poller, U., Kroner, a., Fedorovsky, V.S.,
Mazukabzov, a.M., Todt, W. & Pisarevsky, S.A. (2008). Petrology, geochronology and tectonic implications of C. 500 Ma metamorphic and igneous rocks along the northern margin of the Central Asian orogen. Journal of the Geological Society, 165, 235-237.
NEPA and SEQA
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was ratified in 1970. It is a federal law that is designed to assess the damage to the environment from various projects. This was in response to decades of neglect to the ecosystem and its effect on the general public. Under the law, any project that is initiated by the federal government must conduct some type of evaluation to determine the impact of its activities on nature. This takes place by having all federal agencies conduct Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Studies prior to implementation. These tools are helping to provide an objective analysis of the proposed project on the ecosystem. It is at this point, that the effects will clear by taking into account a number of perspectives (prior to beginning). What these regulations do is to create a standard that must be utilized…
"National Environmental Policy Act." CEQ, 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2012.
"State Environmental Quality Review Act." ELR, 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2012
"SEQR." DEC, 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2012
"Village of Pomona v. Town of Ramapo." New York Court of Appeals, 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2012