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E-mail provides ability for 'peer review' and editing of assignments whilst word processing programs enables students to creates their own ideas and documents. More sophisticated programs encourage inquiry-based learning where students explore new fields and format solutions in all sorts of creative manners to all sorts of fields. Computer also assists the teacher in that students can work independently at certain programs whilst others receive teacher-based instruction. In many ways, therefore, technology has become part of the school-based reform. (EdWeb.com)
After school programs
After school programs also called 'extra learning opportunities" (ELO) offer students a spectrum of enriching opportunities that go beyond their school day and regular education. Opportunities extend to subjects such as sewing, cooking, carpentry, ballet, drama, athletics, or small business enterprise. These not only indirectly improve student's academic progress but also enhance student's esteem whilst pointing them towards their special skills and enabling them to actualize their…… [Read More]
Education Reforms: Private or Public
United States education system is not at par with general standards of quality education worldwide. The problem lies with our school and college curriculum and lack of sound reforms in the area of education. Though every year, our administration declares that education reforms is at the top of its political agenda, still each year we fail to notice any changes in the school and college education. Not only is our curriculum faulty, we also do not have right degree of private participation in this field which is resulting in deterioration of education especially in state run schools and colleges. For this reason it is important to encourage private initiative in this area because public participation has not only failed to improve the standard of education, it has also resulted in intense public resentment. Many people feel that public funds must not be used to educate…… [Read More]
Education: Education eform
Education eform: Public Education
Education reformers have proposed a number of strategies to help increase teacher effectiveness and overall student performance in public schools. Proposals include, among other things, reducing the level of teacher autonomy, use of testing and standards to evaluate performance, and introduction of charter schools as a way of encouraging public schools to improve their performance. This text examines the arguments put forth by the proponents and critics in each of these three areas.
School reform is the name given to the various efforts geared at changing public education in the country to focus on outputs (student achievement) as opposed to input. School reformers acknowledge public education as the primary source of K-12 education for the country's young generation. As such, they desire to transform public education to be able o work like a market, that is, an input-output system where accountability…… [Read More]
Governor Cuomo and Education Policy
Governor Cuomo strongly supports the establishment of a statewide teacher evaluation system. New York is following the robust example of states like Kentucky that have put teacher evaluation systems in place, and will soon to add principle evaluation systems. Borrowing phraseology from the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education ruling, Cuomo recently asserted that public schools are failing so badly that "the great equalizer that was supposed to be the public education system can now be the great discriminator." Cuomo is putting money where his mouth is since the evaluation system is the key to school districts being able to access an increase in state education aid that has been scheduled. Cuomo has been pressuring the teachers' union and schools in New York City to implement the new standards approved by the State Legislature, including the use of an instructional framework that stipulates criteria for…… [Read More]
Responsibility for Failing Schools
Central Falls, Rhode Island came under Obama Administration's "Race to the Top" policy in January 2010 with new district policy to improve the district's low student performance. After months of debate, teacher firings and rehiring, lawsuits, and negotiations, the policy was finally implemented. Questions remain on how effective the new policy will resolve the district's problems.
The Obama Administration's "Race to the Top" policy consists of implementing one of four turnaround models (Rochefort, 2011). The transformational model replaces the principal, strengthens school staff, implements researched-based instruction with new governance and flexibility, and extended learning time. The turnaround model replaces the principal, rehires only 50% of staff, implements researched-based instruction, new governance, and extended learning time. The restart model converts or closes the school and reopens under an effective charter operator or an educational management organization. And the school closure model closes the school and sends students…… [Read More]
Professional Learning Community"?
Professional learning communities: rticle review
DuFour, R. What is a 'professional learning community?' Educational Leadership, 2004.
popular idea in the field of education today is the need to develop a 'professional learning community' of educators to facilitate the goals of the institution. One of the 'big ideas' of a professional learning community is the responsibility for educators to come together and to determine how students really learn and how to achieve set learning objectives. For example, if a teacher is struggling with providing differentiated instruction to a diverse community of learners, the school can offer her additional support and resources to bolster the performance of her students (DuFour 2004: 1). Creating a professional learning community ensures that there are institutional structures to support learning in a meaningful fashion so that learning is 'easy' and avoiding learning is not an option. Not only educators and administrators but the…… [Read More]
Evidence-Based Instruction and Intervention
Evidence-Based Instruction & Intervention
The terms evidence-based instruction, research-based instruction, and scientifically based instruction are often used interchangeably. What is the basic meaning of such terms and the approach to instructional practices and interventions advocated in their name?
The terms evidence-based, research-based, and scientifically based are used interchangeably in the field of education. At the most fundamental level, these terms are meant to indicate that formal research has been conducted on a particular methodology, technique, or approach. Generally, an assumption prevails that the research conducted is grounded in a positivist or an empirical tradition that is, by its very nature, a theory building endeavor. The attributes associated with an evidence-based practice include, reliability, validity, trustworthiness, and replicability.
Moreover, there is an implicit understanding that the approach can be generalized to populations outside the original research, and that similar outcomes can be anticipated when the recommended and…… [Read More]
, 2000). This increased responsibility has placed a tremendous amount of pressure on teachers, which in turn places a tremendous amount of pressure on the students as well.
However, even with the negative issues that have come with education reform, it has been shown that discarding certain traditional teaching methods may be a positive step for education especially in the math and science departments. Hands-on lab exercises have begun to dominate the landscape of science classes, replacing the traditional methods of passive-student lectures. True experimentation and exploration of scientific principles is encouraged and highlighted in many classrooms and seem to be much more effective than the traditional "recipe"-driven lab experiences. These interactive approaches have, so far, been proven to be far more effective teaching techniques than the traditional ones. However, even through these techniques the scoring on standardized tests are still disappointingly low in America especially in comparison to students…… [Read More]
According to a British Study conducted on all students born in the first week of March 1958, and following them through adolescence and on until the age of twenty-three:
There were no average differences between grouped and ungrouped schools because within the grouped schools, high-group students performed better than similar students in ungrouped schools, but low-group students did worse. Students in remedial classes performed especially poorly compared to ungrouped students with similar family backgrounds and initial achievement. With low-group losses offsetting high-group gains, the effects on productivity were about zero, but the impact on inequality was substantial." (Gamoran 1992)
As Gamoran points out, grouping or "tracking" tended to accentuate a student's skills or lack thereof. High-ability students benefited from segregation, but low-ability students did even worse than before. And while low-ability pupils received no benefit whatsoever from the tracking system, neither did their schools. The net gain in performance among…… [Read More]
Over the last several years, educators have been facing considerable challenges in meeting rising expectations for performance. This is because a host of solutions (such as the No Child Left Behind Act) have not addressed the lack of student achievement. Instead, academic performance has continued to linger and become worse in some areas (i.e. mathematics and science). (Hannah, 2012)
In New Jersey, the Core Content and Common Core Curriculum standards is designed to provide clarity on specific subjects and topics students must learn in order to graduate from high school. To fully understand how this occurring requires examining the way it is related to the concepts from Mary Zimmerman's Metamorphoses and a contemporary issue. This will be accomplished by focusing on the modes of communication, its shape and the way the literature can provoke cultural insights. Together, these elements will highlight how the Core Content and Common Core Curriculum…… [Read More]
Nearly all failing schools fit this description (Six Secrets of School Success 2000)." If a country is to overcome educational problems, they must take into account the mentality that poverty creates and how that mentality deteriorates the wherewithal to do well in school.
Although poverty is the issue that affects most underachieving schools, the idea of the super head was conceived as the answer to poorly performing schools. According to Marshall (2001), recruiting exceptional headmasters to improve schools was begun with what was once known as the Hammersmith County School (Marshall, 2001). The local authority school was located in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham (Marshall, 2001). The neighboring schools were grant maintained and church schools (Marshall, 2001). The Hammersmith School was being closed because of poor results and OFSTED reports (Marshall, 2001). However, instead of closing the school the administration decided to reopen it and called it the…… [Read More]
Fifth, the NCLB is devoid of any meaningful consequences for failing to achieve federal objectives other than the publication of such failures in conjunction with the rights of parents to request transfers of their children to better-performing academic institutions (Darling-Hammond 2004). Critics have suggested that the most likely result of enforcement of such limited consequences for noncompliance is the overcrowding of institutions who fulfill the federal requirements to their detriment by virtue of diminution in their ability to meet the educational needs of increased enrollment of low-achieving students (Sonnenblick 2008). Likewise, the NCLB Act authorizes increased federal funding of home schooling and for-profit institutions that further reduces necessary funds to public institutions.
Sixth, whereas George H. Bush articulated the connection between adequate nutrition and access to healthcare and preparedness to learn in school, the NCLB Act ignores this element entirely. Many critics and career educators believe that any proposed educational…… [Read More]
This changed in 1833 when crowds of people, called 'abolitionists', joined the American Anti-Slavery Society en masse, with William Garrison drafting the society's "Declaration of Sentiments" that, drawing on the American Constitution, demanded immediate emancipation for slaves, condemned slavery as a sin, and recommended that its repeal be brought about through moral persuasion rather than through violent acts. The American Anti-Slavery Society set about disseminating themselves in every city, town, and hamlet, circulating pamphlets and broadsheets in order to publicize their opinions. Their activities were largely helped by evangelical ministers and churches, and it was in this way that activists such as Frederick Douglas became aware of the movement and active on its account. Southerners attempted to hinder the movement, but it continued unabated.
Two categories of anti-slavery activities may be made. There were moderate antislavery individuals (such as Garrison) who attempted a gradual approach to cessation of slavery by…… [Read More]
People need look no further than their own homes to see the interdependence of world trade; no further than their neighborhoods to see the results of international migration and multiculturalism; no further than the news to see the causes and effects of global economics, ecology and ethnic conflicts. "While domestic debate continues over the nature of these connections, few can doubt their existence. As these connections increase, educators, utilizing a global model, can provide a context that allows students to analyze and understand the impact of world events" (Baker, 1999).
Multiculturalism and globalism are obviously not unique to the United States. The majority of Western societies are racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse. Ethnic revival movements have come up in a lot of countries including quite a few Western European nations (Banks & Lynch, 1986). This type of revival movement occurs when an ethnic group organizes efforts to attain equality inside…… [Read More]
" (Chan, East, Ali and Neophytou, 2002; p.6)
III. POST-WWII ENGLAND SCHOOLS
The work entitled: "Doing Comparative Education: Three Decades of Collaboration" relates the fact that the post-World War II world in England "left a series of emergencies for which immediate answers had to be found. There were shortages of staff, equipment and building..." (Eckstein, 1960) Eckstein additionally states: "Post-war legislation has generally been characterized by radical thinking and optimism. However, the euphoria brought by the end of a war is so often soon dissipated in the exhausting battle of the peace. At such a time, the ambitiously optimistic spirit of reconstruction may also be lessened. A more cautious planned expansion replaces the scheme for extensive reconstruction, ideas of reform have once again to vie with practices which are entrenched in the typical ways of thinking of a people. The educational legislation of the last five years or so has…… [Read More]
The State has also established a string of both general and specific policies for improving and developing special education and set aside special funds for this purpose. Consequently, just like regular education, special education has also developed rapidly. Although local governments are encouraged to provide compulsory education to children with and without disabilities, the enacted policies do not necessitate that education be provided to all students.
Despite the fact that students with disabilities were earlier educated in special schools, China has adopted new channels of special education including the integration of disabled children into general education classes. Currently, the number of disabled children enrolled in schools has continued to experience a big increase since 1987. Although many articles in the laws formulated by the Chinese government call for the overall education of handicapped children, special education for children with autism or severe disabilities is not directly mentioned in these policies…… [Read More]
Education for Economy Theory as it elates to Adult Education
In an economy motivated by improvement and information, in marketplaces betrothed in powerful opposition and steady regeneration, in a world of incredible chances and risks, in a culture facing multifaceted business, political, scientific, technological, health and environmental challenges, and in diverse workplaces and neighborhoods that center on mutual associations and social networking, the cleverness, nimbleness and skills of the American people are vital to U.S. competitiveness (21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness, 2008).
Education economics is the study of economic matters as they relate to education, comprising the demand for education and the funding and condition of education. The leading model of the demand for education is founded on human capital theory. The main idea is that undertaking education is an investment in the attainment of skills and information which will augment earnings, or offer long-range benefits such as an…… [Read More]
Finding out about other peoples and cultures, through technology, will be an essential part of education in the years to come.
Numerous aspects of the current educational system will need to be improved in future years. The focus must be on children's individual needs and abilities. Today, standardized tests and general requirements frequently restrict students' opportunities to learn. Many youngsters do not get the attention they need, or the enrichment they deserve. Teachers often lack the necessary resources to prepare children for the real world, or to deal with children's real world problems. "Teaching to the test" creates its own difficulties for the educator, leaving many unprepared for atypical classroom situations. Young people have difficulties at home, or in their personal lives, and educators do not have the training to deal with these potentially serious problems. Disruptive and violent behavior can lead to tragedy. Children do not receive sufficient ethical…… [Read More]
According to both testimonials and statistics, educated people report higher levels of personal happiness and job satisfaction. In her book, Nickel and Dimed, comfortably wealthy author Barbara Ehrenreich reports being taken out for a "$30 lunch and some understated French country-style place" and discussing "future articles I might write for [the editor of Harpoer's] magazine" (1). It is lunching with this editor from Harpers that she decides to take on a monumental task: leaving her posh environment and working in a blue collar job in order to prove, or not prove, that such one can get by making so little.
It is not only her work, but also her ability to take on such a task that proves the importance of education in both personal happiness and job satisfaction. Here, in the first few lines of the introduction, Ehrenreich alludes to her education and the choices it has allowed her…… [Read More]
While popularly associated with the advent of web-based technologies, DE is not a new phenomenon (agusa et al. 2009, 679)." The author asserts that during the nineteenth century many universities had correspondence programs. These programs remained popular for many years because they were different from more conventional learning environments. At the current time, distance education is driven by the pace of technological change and such changes are occurring globally in a manner that is rapid and complex. There are currently more than 130 countries in which institutions of higher learning provide students with distance courses (agusa et al. 2009). These courses often have as a foundation new information and communication technologies. The author also explains that
"In Australia, DE has particularly been embraced, at institutional and policy levels, as a means of extending higher education to rural, isolated, and often structurally disadvantaged learners (little or no access to a reliable…… [Read More]
A two-year degree can offer an affordable foundation towards a Bachelor's degree through a community college, however, it is important to have students take courses that can easily transfer to a university when the time comes. Educators and administrators should be mindful of the importance of guiding students to choose courses wisely with a focus on transferring.
What it all Means
The changes are here to stay. Students with Bachelor's degrees are more economically successful than those who do not attain them. esearch concludes that the disparity between incomes of those who are educated and those who are not, is only going to get wider until there is serious class distinction between the two lifestyles.
Educators nationwide can work to bridge that gap at every level of education. Those charged with educating grades kindergarten through high school, need to focus on learning styles, and the importance of teaching students how…… [Read More]
Need for Study
Roles and Responsibilities of Assistant Principals
Historical Perspective of Assistant Principal Roles
Prior and Current Research Studies of Assistant Principal Roles
Assistant Principals and Use of Instructional Leadership
Transforming Assistant Principals into Instructional Leaders: Key Obstacles
General consensus indicates that the role of the assistant principals should move beyond its traditional clerical and disciplinary heritage to evolve to instructional leaders that deal with curriculum development, teacher and instructional effectiveness, clinical supervision, staff development and teacher evaluation. Yet, historical and current research shows that there has been little change in the assistant principal occupation since its origin in 1920. This paper uncovers research that tries to reconcile why the role change that practically everyone seems to want to happen hasn't been that quick to occur. As these reasons are better identified and understood, perhaps the twenty first century will see a positive transformation in the role of…… [Read More]
Apex Middle School, part of the wake county public school system in aleigh, NC has implemented a rigorous curriculum for grades 6, 7 and 8. The curriculum for Apex Middle School includes the following: Language Arts, Math, Science, Social Studies, Computer Education, Health and Physical Education (Wake, 2003). The objectives of each of these programs are stated below. The Apex Middle School curriculum and objectives outlined in this paper are similar to the curriculum and objectives for most public middle schools in NC. How does this differ from the middle school curriculum typically seen in New York middle schools?
According to the New York State Education Department, the objective or mission of educators is "That all students will meet or exceed high learning standards at the elementary, middle, secondary and continuing education levels" (NYSED, 2003). Major reform is currently occurring in New York. These reforms will have the potential…… [Read More]
An Analysis of the book "Life in Schools" by Peter McLaren
Peter McLaren is a well-known proponent for enforcing social reform and teaching and discussing about new issues in education and critical theory, which is the critical pedagogy and multicultural education. His extensive works regarding the study of critical pedagogy has already made him popular and well received by students, scholars, and readers who are in line of thinking with Paulo Freire, one of the most famous educational thinkers who revolutionized the way scholars treat the problem of education in the contemporary American society. The book "Life in Schools: An Introduction to Critical Pedagogy in the Foundation of Education," (4th edition), published by Allyn & Bacon, is a reflection of McLaren's belief about the radical change the educational system needed, and the social reform the educational system needs in order relieve the poor, 'oppressed' people from suffering the commercialization…… [Read More]
Education is the central component in forming a society that is affluent in every way. Educators make education an obtainable goal. The purpose if this discussion is to explore the personal philosophy of an educator. We will investigate; how the educator believes children learn, how his beliefs are demonstrated through hid teaching and classroom concepts, and how his teaching techniques are based on the philosophies are based on the research of various theorists.
The philosopher John Dewey said the following of education,
Education is the fundamental method of social progress and reform. All reforms which rest simply upon the law, or the threatening of certain penalties, or upon changes in mechanical or outward arrangements, are transitory and futile.... ut through education society can formulate its own purposes, can organize its own means and resources, and thus shape itself with definiteness and economy in the direction in which it wishes to…… [Read More]
Whatever biases remain in public education can be removed, because the belief in equal opportunity has prevailed.
Standardized testing offers the only known way to ensure admissions to universities are based more on merit than on social class. In spite of their limitations, standardized tests do offer the only means to assess scholastic aptitude. A merit-based admissions procedure contributes to the betterment of society by offering educational opportunities to citizens who would be otherwise denied them. Upward social mobility and the ability to participate fully in the political process are possible outcomes of a merit-based educational system.
Effective educators understand the cultural contexts in which they work. In "Culture of Youth and How it Affects Learning," we saw how educators need to work hard to understand youth culture. To relate to their students, teachers must find common ground. Learning the language and values their students use out of the classroom…… [Read More]
Nature of Probable Research
The South Bronx section of New York is among the poorest and most diverse school districts in America. Crime and teenage pregnancy have plagued the primarily Hispanic and Afro-American Bronx community for decades. However, in recent years there has been a concerted effort to curb the dire social conditions and education system. For the purposes of our research we will focus on the efforts to improve the educational system through before school and after school programs.
The probable research will involve studying the effects of before school and after school programs on a low performing middle school in the South Bronx section of New York City. The research will examine the manner in which these programs have been implemented and the students that benefit from the programs. The investigation will also discuss the conditions present in some of the middle schools in the South Bronx…… [Read More]
Accordingly, the ties between the psychological aspects of learning and the social aspects tend to be quite strong. Since the student's early social encounters take place within the classroom, he is learning far more than the step-by-step processes of test taking. Knowledge of his social conditions is necessary for the proper development of the student's abilities. Social and psychological features of education are so fundamentally related that they cannot be separated from each other without a sufficient loss of understanding concerning the other.
Primarily, the purpose of education is to produce functional members of society who value both each other and the work they perform. As simple as that may sound, it is an exceedingly difficult goal. In the United States the philosophical basis outlined by the Constitution demands that public institutions not only be employed, but also that they provide an equal level of schooling across geographic and social…… [Read More]
It is headed in the right direction and will surly prosper in the many years to come.
(c)Why were you able to accomplish what you did when you did?
We have been able to accomplish what we have because of the Land Grant College Act of 1862. In early 1848, Congressman Justin Smith Morrill of Vermont suggested that American colleges might steer away from the portion of the studies that had been established so many years ago and think about moving in a direction of having studies with more practical values. In 1857, he introduced a bill that incorporated leading reform notions in regards to technical education. He proposed that institutions should promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in areas that relate to the professions that people were doing (udolph, 1990, p. 149).
This act provided for the support in every state of at least one…… [Read More]
Symbolic interactionalism thus posits a much more dynamic view of human learning, rather than the rote reception of societal norms in functionalism, or functionalism's belief in education to shape human minds in a pre-determined fashion. But it also is a more positive view of education than conflict theory, because even if there are problematic ideas in the way knowledge is conveyed, human beings may be creative enough to reconfigure preexisting systems of meaning in a liberating fashion. Also it is the individual who chooses how his or her personal liberation and development should take place, not the teacher. "Symbolic interactionalism emphasized several important dimensions of knowledge management through schooling: in school classroom interaction; by the professionalizing of the teaching process; through the bureaucratization of school organization; and, at the cultural level, where the links between the sociology of education and the sociology of knowledge are more immediately visible" (Marshall 1998).…… [Read More]
3. How did the American professoriate change and in what ways did the American Association of University Professors contribute to that change?
During this time there was a new idea surrounding academic professionalism that was essential to the creation of a university professoriate. The gradations of rank and promotion which included instructor, assistant professor, associate professor, and full professor, became the standard. The ranks were tied to the institution that is conferring tenure and the privileges of academic freedom to professors who had gained promotion. Academic freedom was institutionalized beyond the individual campus with the creation of the American Association of University Professors. This group intended to provide assurance and redress for faculty members who claimed that their academic rights had be violated by irate presidents or irritable board members (Thelin, 2004, 128).
The formation of the American Association of University Professors paved the way for tremendous change. The American…… [Read More]
An act, the pupose of which was the elimination of pejudice and the povision of equal oppotunity fo all, could not possibly have been endosing the setting up of a new system of evese discimination. To select applicants solely on the basis of thei acial backgound is to deny the oppotunity of othes on the basis of thei acial backgound. Unde the plan advocated by the Jounal fo Blacks in Highe Education, Blacks would simply "cowd out" othe membes of the student and faculty bodies. The othes who would be cowded out would include not only membes of the majoity White acial goup, but Hispanics and Asians as well, themselves membes of minoity goups. It is, I think, a plan to pomote an incease in Black student and faculty populations, and not a poject fo the ceation of a colo-blind society.
Nevetheless, I can also see and undestand the poweful…… [Read More]
Standardized tests do not do well in measuring the emerging content standards, and over use of this type of assessment often leads to instruction that stresses only basic knowledge and skills. Although basic skills may be important goals in education, they are often overstressed in an effort to raise standardized test scores. Basic skills and minimum competencies become the main goal of schools and teachers as accountability and minimum competency exams concentrate on these areas (Critical Issue: ethinking Assessment and Its ole in Supporting Educational eform, 1995).
ecently, educators, policymakers, and parents have begun to recognize that minimums and basics are no longer sufficient and are calling for a closer match between the skills students learn in school and the skills they will need to succeed in the world. Schools are now expected to help students develop skills and competencies that apply to real life, genuine situations, and schools are…… [Read More]
There are specific daily steps that students in these working class schools must take, and in math, for example, the teacher "told them what the procedure was for each problem, rarely asking them to conceptualize or explain it themselves" (Anyon 528). And so the emphasis was on memorizing the steps, not on understanding how or why they are taken. Language arts class was much the same (copy the teacher's notes from the board). In the middle-class school, it was all about "getting the right answers." In social studies, it was the old-fashioned routine of reading the chapter and answering questions, and the same was true in language arts. "Creativity is not often requested in social studies and science projects..." Anyon writes (532).
Things were different in the affluent professional school and fathers' careers included corporate lawyer, cardiologist, engineer; difficult assignments required specific projects like film-making and script-writing; children wrote essays…… [Read More]
Most economists feel that if China's currency were allowed to trade freely, it would be a whole lot more. No one can know for sure how much more, but leading economists put it in a range of 10 to 40% higher value than it is now (Davidson 2006),
By keeping the Yuan artificially low in value, China is effectively giving the U.S. consumer a discount on all Chinese exports. By doing this they are discounting their own exports. This is good for many U.S. consumers because it allows them to buy cheaper clothes and electronics along with many other items. But on the other had it is bad for U.S. manufacturers who can't compete with low Chinese prices in the end. Some U.S. manufacturers have adapted by buying many component parts at a lower cost from China. The ability of a manufacturer to adapt depends on the company and the…… [Read More]
Current state of American education
In the United States of America, both the public and private schools are liable for the provision of education within the entire nation. In accordance with funding and the full control by the local, state, and federal government, there is universal availability of public schools across the whole nation (Orland, 2011). Empowered by the jurisdictions over school districts, the locally elected school boards are responsible for setting the education policies, funding, employment, teaching, and the formulation of the public schools' curriculum (Frank, 2012). Additionally, the state governments control the standardized tests and educational standards for public school systems. On the other hand, private schools are free to determine their own staffing policies, as well as their curriculum via voluntary accreditation available with the regional independent accreditation authority. Educational statistics reveal that approximately 85% of school age children go to public schools, 10% attend…… [Read More]
Flat World and Education
Linda Darlin-Hammond's book, The Flat World and Education: How America's Commitment to Equity Will Determine Our Future, presents an eye opening account of the current state of the U.S. public education system and what needs to be done to guarantee every child's right to learn. Darlin-Hammond's analysis of the education system in this case can only be described as sobering. In this book report, I discuss Darlin-Hammond's text from an objective point-of-view.
Darlin-Hammond's book details what most educators and policy makers are already aware of but are not ready to talk about, let alone address. Using a rather candid approach, Darlin-Hammond offers the reader a compelling view of the United States education policy. The arguments she presents in this text are well researched, argued and presented. The author also deviates from speculation and instead relies on evidence. Some of the key problems dogging our education system…… [Read More]
S. educational system. The impact of such law is very noticeable among teachers, students and even to the school administrators. However, there are a number of issues that have been continuously arising as people try to avail of their rights to education.
State legislatures attempting to comply with state Supreme Court mandates to reform their education finance systems should strive to meet the demands of both adequacy and equity. The experiences of some schools and/or states regarding the influx of enrollees suggest that regardless of the catalyst for reform, education reform can and should include elements of both equity and adequacy.
More so, it should be noted that whether a state is in the initial stages of implementing court-mandated reform, like the Equal Education Opportunities Act, or whether it has been in the process for decades, modern reform should incorporate the lessons of the last thirty years of reform efforts…… [Read More]
Since the introduction of PL-142 the Special education system has received both praise and criticism. Special Education Programs are an essential component to our educational system. The current special education system has aided many people but improvements are desperately needed as rates of enrollment increase and the number of special education teachers' decrease. The growth in the number of special education students is the topic of conversation among educators all across the country.
The purpose of this investigation is to discuss the increase in the American special education population. We will discuss the factors that have contributed to the increase including; the effect of PL-142 on the growth of the special education population early identification of special needs, the additional conditions that qualify students for special education, the placement of low achieving students in special education programs, accountability reforms, pressure from parents, the disproportionate amount of minorities that…… [Read More]
This system is stated to be flawed as "The school board members have a vested interest in the success of the existing local school system and are reluctant to introduce a competitor into the marketplace, said charter school supporters." (O'Donoghue, 2010)
Summary and Conclusion
It is very likely that laws will be changed and policy reformed relating to charter schools in the state of Virginia as to do otherwise means to miss the $350 million in funding opportunity for Virginia's school system and it appears highly unlikely that in the present state of the economy that Virginia will be willing to shun this much in educational funding.
Charter Schools, When Explained, Get Support (2009) Augusta Press. 16 Dec 2009. Online available at: http://augustafreepress.com/2009/12/16/charter-schools-when-explained-get-support/
Schaeffer, Adam . (2006) No, Virginia, There is No such thing as School Choice. 29 Oct 2006. CATO Institute. Online available at: http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6756
raunlich, Christian (2009)…… [Read More]
Indigenous peoples thus contributed to educational policies set in the last two decades. The last ten years have been even more essential in drafting an educational agenda meant to guarantee that minorities are provided with equal opportunities. In spite of all efforts, however, progress was slow and little has changed when considering education opportunities. hereas most people would be inclined to consider that the government is solely responsible for this, the truth is that minorities have actually contributed to this situation. Having been used to centuries of discrimination, most minorities were unenthusiastic about the benefits that they would be provided with as a result of reform in the educational system.
Many individuals in charge of educational programs directed at educating minorities express lack of interest in their field of work and can be held accountable for the fact that a great deal of individuals gradually develop distrust in public officials…… [Read More]
Through Lesson Study, teachers see first-hand the reasons why standards-based instruction is effective." (NCREL, nd) the standards-based classroom has four embedded central strategies:
1) inquiry and problem-solving;
2) collaborative learning;
3) continual assessment embedded in instruction; and 4) higher-order questioning. (NCREL, nd)
III. TEACHER'S VIEWS of STANDARDS-ASED INSTRUCTION OUTCOMES
NCREL relates the statement of arbara Morgan, a teacher who states that the standards make the provision of a strong focus for learning stating: "I think the standards have helped focus the curriculum so that there is more across the schools and up and down the grade levels. We have an understanding of the content we want kids to learn, but I think we have a long way to go in how the students best learn it and how we get them excited about learning." (NCREL,
According to Kathy Johnson, a teacher of four-grade mathematics and Science at Oak Park Elementary…… [Read More]
Board of Education
An Examination of Several Issues Facing a Typical American School Board Today
According to Shannon (1994), school board members today are increasingly recognizing that genuine education reform is only possible when it is completely fashioned in the local community and only when there is a firm commitment to support and maintain it locally. "The school board," he says, "is the most credible agent of change in the community it serves. Elected directly by the people in the community (less than 3% are appointed by other locally elected officials), the school board has the political support to lead educational change in the best tradition of Jeffersonian democracy" (p. 387). To accomplish change effectively, though, a school board's consistent message to the entire school system must be that systemic reform is its main goal rather than just a passing fad (Kirst, 1994). Local school boards play a major role…… [Read More]
The media is involved in all stages of policy-making, including in identifying what type of policies are needed. In many cases, the print media and social journalism draw attention on the problems that society has as they bring into discussion issues that interest the American public. Although print media is not the sole identifier of policy issues, it has the power to make the subject reach a great deal of the population, but most importantly, it has the power to reach to the decision-making responsible.
It is a known fact that politicians and politics can not be made without print media because only print media has the power to make the connection between a politician and his policies and the general public. In all times, print media was the main connector between politics and the people. This is why print media has a crucial importance in the political life of…… [Read More]
" (itek, 1989, Ngugi wa Thiongo, 1986, Mazrui, 1986, 2001, Mamdani, 1990, 1993, Copans, 1990, Rwomire, 1992, and van Rinsum, 2001; as cited in: Nyamnjoh, 2004)
According to Nyamnjoh (2004) "...the elite have 'often in unabashed imitativeness' and with little attempt at domestication, sought to reproduce, even without finances to sustain, the Oxfords, Cambridges, Harvards, Stanfords and Sorbonnes of England, the U.S.A. And France." (Nyamnjoh, 2004) Education in Africa is stated to have been and "mostly remains a journey fuelled by an exogenously induced and internalized sense of inadequacy in Africans, and endowed with the mission of devaluation or annihilation of African creativity, agency and value systems." (Nyamnjoh, 2004)
It is related by Nyamnjoh (2004) that the process of cultural uprooting of Africans "has been achieved often through literally uprooting children of the well-off from their communities and nurturing them in boarding schools" and as stated in the work of…… [Read More]
This emphasis will build culturally sensitive curriculum. (Oakes, Quartz, yan & Lipton, 2000, p. 77) Though the importance of cultural identity, and even the dreaded sources of nationalism, such as independent cultural identity and linguistic heritage must not be ignored in an attempt to universalize education. With some of the world's most influential organizations in a serious bid to establish universal education the goals of the economists may be essentially answered, but educators must take care to make sure that universalization does not include an element of whitewashing that reduces the importance of individual cultural/linguistic heritage.
A directly related to the world's economic needs. Education and the global economy are envisioned as having an interdependent relationship. Competition in the global economy is dependent on the quality of education, whereas the goals of education are dependent on the economy. Under these circumstances, education changes as the requirements of the economy change.…… [Read More]
n addition to the explicit curriculum of facts and the implicit curriculum of cultural indoctrination, Eisner (1985) argues that there is also a null curriculum that is taught precisely through not teaching certain things -- there is a set of facts and values that is explicitly (and implicitly) not a part of any given educational system, so students are also taught what to discount, ignore, or even simply fail to perceive. This is perhaps the most profound and the most essential part of Eisner's argument in this essay, with definite and resounding implications and ramifications on attempts at a well-rounded religious education.
For Catholic schools, the issues that Eisner raises must be viewed in the context of a school that is at least somewhat explicitly indoctrinating students with specific values and beliefs. That is, a major part of the explicit curriculum in Catholic schools -- the facts and figures that…… [Read More]
special education has changed dramatically. Gone are the days of the special classroom down the hall where special education students were hidden away and kept from the general student population. Gone are the days when special education students were given comic books to read and passed because they were there. Civil rights mandates of the 1960's turned the world of special education inside out and today, four decades later, special education students are fully protected by federal law. Special education students are now educated in the least restrictive environment which many times means they are mainstreamed into regular education classrooms, with a variety of peer abilities. This blending of abilities is commonly referred to as inclusion, and it is so named because of the idea that it includes students of different abilities in one educational setting. Inclusion is practiced throughout the nation, and in all grade levels at this point…… [Read More]
Categorizations included 'steamer children', 'backward', 'defective', 'truant', and 'incorrigible'. At least two of these terms have persisted still today. In 1904, special procedures for identifying 'defectives' were presented at the World's Fair.
In 1951, the categorization changed again, with a major section of special education called the 'slow learner' what today we refer to as 'learning disability'. Even here, this term has split into countless subcategories such as 'ADD', 'ADHD', 'Asperger's', 'learning deficiency', 'special needs', 'borderline line special needs', and so forth.
The 'take home' points for inclusion in the classroom would be primarily the endeavor to respect each and every student as an individual and to look past the labels. I believe that the use of diagnostic labels are potentially stigmatizing to students locking student in an, oftentimes, undeserved categorization that impedes the teacher from seeing him as a complex, remarkably rounded individual who has tremendous potential. The label…… [Read More]
Gabrieli asserts that schools use time in an outmoded way: schools used to take summers off because children would help at the farms to bring in the crops in the old days -- or because summers are hot and school houses need to be cool; but today these are not really factors (Koonce, 2016). Therefore, according to this side of the argument, time can be better managed and -- in fact -- expanded so as to close the achievement gap; in short, there should be more time spent in schools. On the other side of the argument is Larry Cuban, however, who shows that there is no evidence that more time spent in school actually leads to greater academic achievement (Koonce, 2016). So, there is the idealistic side, represented by Gabrieli, and the scientific side, represented by Cuban.
My belief about this issue is that success is largely dependent upon…… [Read More]
..concerns exist that (a) time will be taken away from the development of functional or vocational skills, (b) referral rates will increase, - students will be exempted or omitted from the accountability system" (Defur, 2002). These are some of aspects that the leader has to be aware of in the implementation of policy and in practice.
Possibly the most important aspect to consider is the actual quality of leadership that is required. One of the most significant facets of leadership in this particular educative environment is the development of a positive school and educative culture in which facets of special education - and their integration into the mainstream - can be addressed. Studies note that "...a positive school culture and school improvement go hand in hand" (Apted et al. 2007).
The leader, by providing a collaborative and creative educational and environment, can be instrumental in aiding and facilitating necessary changes,…… [Read More]
While his loss of accent brought himself and his teachers a sense of pride, it brought sorrow to his parents, who saw the change, however gradual, in their child. The author furthermore admits that for children like him, from a non-white American background, the home and school environment are at cultural extremes. This creates conflict that the young Rodriguez handled by conforming to his school environment. In effect he replaced the importance and roles of his parents in his life with those of his teachers, and as such became an academic success.
The author however admits that this is a shameful and lonely type of success. Nonetheless, it is a success that the author has chosen to conform to. Instead of therefore being successful because he has been educated, Rodriguez emphasizes that his success was chosen. He worked towards academic success with great passion, because this is what he wanted.…… [Read More]
special education from the standpoint of the students' parents. The writer explores the opinions on the accessibility and quality of special education afforded their children in Massachusetts. The writer examines the opinions through the use of research project that is proposed here. There were eight sources used to complete this paper.
For the last four decades the nation has been steadily working to improve the special education system within its public schools. A Supreme Court decision in the 1960's mandated that special education children be given many more services than they had in the past and that they receive that education within the least restrictive learning environment possible. Over the last four decades as these changes have taken place there have been many articles published on the changes, and the success or failure of those changes. Massachussets has enjoyed the cutting edge of special education reform with prototype programs as…… [Read More]
In other, more charter-friendly states, there are multiple authorizers -- universities, state boards, even specially created bodies with expertise in charter school creation. The new bill before the state House and Senate will give the Board of Education an advising role on charter school applications prior to going before the local school board.
Patrick Henry School of Science and Arts opened Aug. 11, 2010 making it the 10th charter school to open in the state of Virginia since charter schools were allowed to open in 1998. However, if history repeats itself, Patrick Henry will have a bumpy road ahead. Including Patrick Henry only three charter schools are operating currently in the state of Virginia and Patrick Henry is the only one operating in the city of ichmond. At one time there were nine charter schools in Virginia, but most of them closed due to financial reasons. (citation)
According to the…… [Read More]
Pre-Course Program for Entry-Level Online Adult Students
Distance education is one of the most dynamic and fastest-growing segments of college and graduate level education. Many educational institutions with long histories of traditional classroom-based learning opportunities are expanding their programs to include distance-based learning via the Internet. In fact, many colleges and universities have invested heavily in their distance education programs. Courses for distance learners are offered in an array of formats that are designed to make learning opportunities accessible to students at anytime, anywhere in the world.
Limited information is available concerning the ability of traditional adult learners to adapt to the online learning environment to successfully complete an online learning degree program. (Baker, et al., 1994)
Today, educational elitism is a serious problem for many distance and non-traditional students. Most traditional learners look down on the non-traditional learner and distance-based educational programs as a whole. Many times these degrees…… [Read More]
Economic Changes in the North and Social Reform Movements
The years between 1820 and 1860, also known as the pre-Civil War years or the antebellum years, were the most chaotic in American History (Dudley 2003). During this time, significant changes took place in the United States. The nation saw a transformation from a largely undeveloped nation of farmers and frontiersmen into an urbanized and economic powerhouse. This essay will explore how these economic changes in the North are linked to the social reform movements of the time.
The North was completely transformed by the Market Revolution, that is, a shift from an agricultural-based economy to one based on wages and the exchange of goods and services (Dudley 2003). A contributing factor was a manufacturing boom in the North which was created by the invention of the cotton gin. Infrastructure began to improve along with modes of transportation, such as the…… [Read More]
local education plan best be developed to reveal the extent to which public, private, and non-profit funding methods meet fiscal and administrative requirements of IDEA? Why?
One of the two main components of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is the grant program that provides federal funding to the states ("What School Financial Officers Need to Know about Special Education," 2014). Under the provisions of the Department of Education, funding is provided on a per-student basis, based on total enrollment. However, additional issues such as poverty levels, are also taken into account ("What School Financial Officers Need to Know about Special Education," 2014). The state and local education plans can best be developed to reveal the extent to which public, private, and non-profit funding methods meet fiscal and administrative requirements of IDEA by focusing on ongoing support services and statistical tracking of student performance. The fundamental requirements of IDEA…… [Read More]
life brought about by computer technology and the spread of digital media. Educationalists also agree that this development in technology has left an undeniable mark on the process of education reforms (U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, 2010). esearchers also agree that technology has the ability to help students improve and enhance knowledge and skill acquisition. This, they say, can be achieved through learning with and about technology, which has become essential for students in the 21st-century society and workforce to gain competencies to perform well (Chen & Hwang, 2014). Additionally, student-centered learning can be well supported by technology since it is intrinsically motivating for many students and can be easily customized.
Academicians and researchers have defined technology as an articulation of a craft and deals with that branch of knowledge which can help in the creation and the use of technical means with constant interrelation to life,…… [Read More]
Technology & Education
There has been a fundamental change in almost all aspects of our life brought about by computer technology and the spread of digital media. Educationalists also agree that this development in technology has left an undeniable mark on the process of education reforms (U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Technology, 2010). esearchers also agree that technology has the ability to help students improve and enhance knowledge and skill acquisition. This, they say, can be achieved through learning with and about technology, which has become essential for students in the 21st-century society and workforce to gain competencies to perform well (Chen & Hwang, 2014). Additionally, student-centered learning can be well supported by technology since it is intrinsically motivating for many students and can be easily customized.
Academicians and researchers have defined technology as an articulation of a craft and deals with that branch of knowledge which can…… [Read More]
Qualitative research is an assortment of various approaches, which have differences and commonalities. In qualitative research, the truth is not considered as an objective but as a subjective reality where various individuals experience differently. The aim of qualitative research is to address any of the problems found in the society. Psychology, education, and sociology are the subjects in which qualitative research methods are used. Qualitative research methods attempt to know why human beings exhibit specific behaviors and make certain choices unlike in the quantitative research method where such details are not shown (Lewis, 2015). The contents of a research paper written using qualitative method vary depending on the methods incorporated and focus in the study.
The introduction is the first part of the process, which sets down the direction of the paper. It lays out exactly what the researcher is trying to achieve at the end of…… [Read More]