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While one must applaud a sentiment such as, "... success in such matters comes from having determined their own identity, recognized their own distinct strengths, and sharing those strengths with the world," one must also question the hint of ambiguity that this presents when related to a desire to break down cultural barriers and promote discourse.
This concern comes from my own experience of the way in which most modern universities function. It is usually true in this age of economic and cultural jealousy that Universities tend to be territorial and very competitive. Universities often have entrenched views and perspectives that might hamper the process of producing a true inter-cultural and holistic educational movement. The focus on cultural identity might exacerbate the situation in educational institutions even further.
However, besides this concern, there are many other areas of her speech which are brilliantly clear. The above ambiguity all but disappears…
Kerdeman D. The BOUNDARIES of MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION.
University of Washington. October 14, 2004 http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/EPS/PES-Yearbook/93_docs/KERDEMAN.htm
Leith, T. Big Ideas (in a shrinking world). Ulster University. 1996.
Accessed October 14, 2004. http://www.infm.ulst.ac.uk/~ted/html/big.htm
" (Hurtado et al., p. 1)
This idea of a structural change is further girded in the article by Hiebert & Morris (2012), which agues in favor of altering the fundamental strategy of instruction. To the authors, the focus on improving the characteristics of educators rather than the educational resources and parameters given to these educators if wrongheaded and problematic. Hiebert & Morris "expose the assumptions on which this logic is built, propose an alternative approach to improving teaching that engages teachers (and researchers) directly in the work of improving teaching, present some indirect evidence to support this approach, and examine the cultural traditions and beliefs that have kept the conventional approach in place for so long." (p. 92)
The article by Hiebert & Morris challenges the idea that teacher qualifications are the flaw in the present educational system. The opportunities for improvement lay, instead, in bringing about greater intuition…
Coffey, J. & Alberts, B. (2013). Improving Education Standards. Science, 339(6119), p. 489.
The article by Coffey & Alberts reports on standards devised by the assembled governors of the 50 states in order to strengthen the use of standardized testing in evaluating students. The standards reported on here relate to the field of science. The article contributes to the position of the opposition in the above research discussion.
Hiebert, J. & Morris, A.K. (2012). Teaching, Rather Than Teachers, As a Path Toward Improving Classroom Instruction. Journal of Teacher Education, 63(2), 92-102.
The article by Hiebert & Morris argues that the strategy for improving education by improving teachers has been fundamentally flawed. Instead, the authors take the approach that teaching methods and strategies must be addressed first and foremost. This reinforces the idea in the present research that the best way to improve American education is to address the strategic approach taken to promoting learning.
This has affected both the in-born (native) and immigrant Hispanics. This can be attributed to the change in demographics, especially the cultural shift being faced by these Hispanics. The U.S. Immigration department has been curbing this trend by having the U.S. border fenced, placing border patrols in every station and even using choppers to reduce the number of Mexican immigrants entering the country. Economic situations in Mexico compel fathers and their families to trek long journeys across the desert to get here in America in pursuit of a different social and economic life. However, upon arrival, children are offset to school but due to the receipt of less family support and high rates of poverty, these Hispanic students drop out to assist their families get basic needs. Most of them are usually unqualified for job opportunities here in the U.S., hence their entrance into drugs and crimes. The latter has…
Despite the attempt of the U.S. government to appraise education, the U.S. Bureau of Census has released several data on how students drop out before their graduation time. As confirmed by the National Center for Policy Analysis who narrows down the dropouts to the Hispanic and Blacks, Asians and Native American populous in the region. However, an alarming rate of the Hispanic dropout has called for attention from various arms of the U.S. education system. Those left in schools still do not produce expected results required for societal change.
Hispanic students are the most vulnerable to the education system of the U.S. these Hispanic face the major disparities of education leading to their high number in drop out. Statistics reveal that just 18% of Hispanic-American holds an associate degree. Associate responses from their conduct in education reveal that they rarely perform to the expectations, are not diploma recipients after being in high school for four years, and are linguistically and socially isolated (Wahala 2010). This has affected both the in-born (native) and immigrant Hispanics. This can be attributed to the change in demographics, especially the cultural shift being faced by these Hispanics. The U.S. Immigration department has been curbing this trend by having the U.S. border fenced, placing border patrols in every station and even using choppers to reduce the number of Mexican immigrants entering the country. Economic situations in Mexico compel fathers and their families to trek long journeys across the desert to get here in America in pursuit of a different social and economic life. However, upon arrival, children are offset to school but due to the receipt of less family support and high rates of poverty, these Hispanic students drop out to assist their families get basic needs. Most of them are usually unqualified for job opportunities here in the U.S., hence their entrance into drugs and crimes. The latter has made U.S. vulnerable, especially to the ever increasing population of the Hispanics.
As compared to the other minorities, the rates at which Asians, Blacks and Native Americans drop out of school is lower. These minority populations have invested in education and helped factorize the dropping out problem. According to the National Center of Policy Analysis, Asians have continued topping the graduation lists and performing exceptionally, seconded by the whites. The Asians continued success is due to their informal social groups that from the basis of their social interaction. Black students were confined to their own racial groups, but through the integration of inter-racial collaborative exercises,
It is irresponsible to claim that schools do not seem serious as long as they keep programs that are currently in order. One should not look at the matter from the perspective of an adult who considers a part-time job to be childish. Individuals need to acknowledge that young people have to spend a significant amount of their time with their families in order for them to be able to integrate society properly. By taking them away from their families at an early age and by making them use the most important part of their time to learn, the educational system is likely to experience significant problems. Simply accumulating information present in the curricula is not the only thing that children should do while in school. They should also be able to learn how to behave properly and how to integrate the social order. It is practically as if Trachtenberg…
The 1892 Committee of Ten of the NEA stressed that high schools were sadly only for the elite, but in the succeeding century, there was a marked increase of national wealth, improved living standard and a greater demand for better trained labor force. This led to reorganization of secondary education into one that would cater to the population's growing industrial democracy and the cardinal principles of secondary education were introduced in 1918. These principles stressed guidance, a wide range of subjects, adaptation of contents and methods to students' abilities and interests, and flexibility of organization and administration. High schools began focusing on stress health, citizenship, vocation education and preparation, ethics and the proper use of leisure, in addition to academic instruction. This was what "comprehensive" means.
Educators continue to experiment with the curriculum and, in the process, there have been more modifications in attitudes and methods than subject matter. Elementary…
Ahmeed, Marilyn. "The Failed American Education System." Internet Online. Available at www.caribvoice.org/Opinions/ameriedsys.html. October 15
Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Education and Training for Employment. National Academy of Sciences: Academies Press, 2004. Internet Online. Available at http://www.nap.edu/books/0309033926/html/22.html . October 15, 2004
Dougherty, Jon. Privatize American Education. World Net Daily, February 7, 2001. Internet Online. http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=21639.October 15, 2004
Hume, Susan, ed. The American Education System. International Student Guide. Worldwide edition. Internet online. Available at www.educationguide-usa.com/isg/edusystem.htm. October 16
Utopian Model of Education
The utopian model proposed in this essay is an attempt to incorporate utopian ideals into the modern, flawed, classroom setting. It includes ideas for dealing with the real issue of child abuse in the schools, and the problem of inequality in education. Further, it explores the important issue of ongoing teacher education, and promotes the incorporation of computers in the classroom. Finally, an open and warm classroom atmosphere is encouraged through the use of open communication between teachers, students, and administrators.
One of the most important concepts in designing a utopian education system is to set clear boundaries for the environment in which it occurs. ill the system occur in the future, and attempt to outline a completely innovative scheme, or will it occur in the past, with a "revisionist" attempt to make prior education systems more workable? It is tempting to create either of these…
Anderson, E.M., & Levine, M. Concerns about allegations of child sexual abuse against teachers and the teaching environment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 23(8), 833-843, 1999.
Clements, DH, and Sarama, J. 2002. The role of technology in early childhood learning. Teaching Children Mathematics, 8, 6.
Drimmelen, Aimee van. Canadian Federation of Students. Free School, Utopian Dream or long Overdue?
Texas Politics: Illegal Immigration, Economy, And Education
One of the contentious issues facing the economy of Texas is that of increasing cases of illegal immigration. Opponents of the undocumented immigration argue that, the immigrants act as a source of financial and social burden crippling the economy of the U.S. Statistics have shown that the immigrant population comprises about one third of the U.S. population: 12% (38 million), and 5.4% comprising of the U.S. workforce. Of the immigrant population, 76% comprise of the Latino, with a high percentage from the Mexico (59%) (LeMay and Michael 98). These rates have stimulated heated debates across the U.S. On the effects of the high percentage of immigrants on the U.S. economy and education with some arguing that, it has negative impacts while others argue that it has positive impacts to the economy and education system of Texas.
Financial analysts have argued that illegal immigrants…
Gonzales, Manuel G. Mexicanos: A History of Mexicans in the United States. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009. Print
LeMay, Michael C.U.S. Immigration: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-Clio, 2003. Internet resource.
Maxwell, William E, Ernest Crain, and Adolfo Santos. Texas Politics Today. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
So-derlind, Sylvia, and James T. Carson. American Exceptionalisms: From Winthrop to Winfrey. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2011. Internet resource
British Education System
A scheme of work
A scheme of work is a guideline, which defines the content and structure of a particular point course (Frankum 2006). A scheme of work helps in mapping out clearly the usage of resources, class activities and assessment strategies. Through this, a teacher is able to meet the learning aims as well as objectives of a certain course (Scheme works 2012). A scheme of work is primarily an interpretation of the syllabus of a specification (Errington 2011). It guides teachers throughout the course, monitoring progress against the initial plan. It always includes specific times and dates (Frankum 2006). In most cases, teachers share schemes of work with students so that to enable them have an overview of their course outline (Errington 2011). The main components a scheme of work includes content, objectives or outcomes, methods of delivery, assessment strategies, resources and other remarks (Frankum…
Austin, M. (2008, Apr 13). GCSEs. Sunday Mirror. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/339826410?accountid=35812
Boaler, J. (2000). Multiple perspectives on mathematics teaching and learning. Westport, Conn. [u.a.], Ablex Pub.
Crisan, C. (2005). How mathematics teachers' own learning experiences with ICT affects their classroom practice.Micromath, 21(1), 14-16. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/195451685?accountid=35812
Culpin, J., & Foote, A. (2000). Scheme of work in physical education. Husbands Bosworth, Featherstone Education.
education system in USA
The education system in the U.S. has over the years raised a lot of criticism and concerns among critics from all sectors despite having undergone continued changes and improvement since its inception by the founders of education system in the country. Various task force teams have been set up to help adjust the education system as a whole to be the most relevant that it can be but still, over the years, challenges have been experienced in implementing the accepted curriculum and especially in the applicability of the education system to the American society after school. Basically, the American students are expected to attend both primary and secondary school for a period of 12 years combined commonly referred to as first to twelfth grade. The children start attending elementary school at an average age of 6 years. After the graduation at the twelfth grade, students go…
Bunker A.C., (2015). Guide to the Education System in the United States. Retrieved July 5, 2015 from http://www.isss.umn.edu/publications/useducation/2.pdf
Lindsey C., (2015). U.S. Education: Still Separate and Unequal. Retrieved July 5, 2015 from http://www.usnews.com/news/blogs/data-mine/2015/01/28/us-education-still-separate-and-unequal
Study in the U.S., (2015). Understanding the American Education System. Retrieved July 5, 2015 from http://www.studyusa.com/en/a/58/understanding-the-american-education-system
Higher education system in the United States is dominated by tenure process, which has continued to be a source of controversy when examining the American education system. The controversy associated with tenure within higher education is attributable to the belief that the process generates lazy professionals who are interested in attending conferences and creating unreadable research (Mcpherson & Schapiro, n.d.). Such professionals do not focus on teaching and generating practical insights, which is crucial in higher education. Therefore, this issue requires the identification of a suitable measure to address it in order to enhance the quality of higher education in the country. This process requires examining the background of the tenure process and challenges associated with it.
Background of the Tenure Process
The tenure process is one of the dominant aspect/features of higher education in the United States. This process can be described as a basic concept through…
Asbill et al. (2016, August 25). Debating the Effectiveness and Necessity of Tenure in Pharmacy Education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 80(6). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5023986/
Bernstein, S. & Kezar, A. (2016, June 29). Is It Time To Eliminate Tenure For Professors? Retrieved November 16, 2016, from http://theconversation.com/is-it-time-to-eliminate-tenure-for-professors-59959
Cameron, M. (2010). Faculty Tenure in Academe: The Evolution, Benefits, and Implications of an Important Tradition. Journal of Student Affairs at New York University, 6, 1-9.
McPherson, M. & Schapiro, M.O. (n.d.). Tenure Issues in Higher Education. Retrieved from EDUCAUSE website: https://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ffp9904.pdf
Education Law Policy and Social Justice Mother Tongue Instruction
The population of students receiving their instruction in another language apart from their mother tongue is increasing as a consequence of the increased migration. Indeed, as Bingol (2012) points out, “migration and language are clearly linked issues…. because the language of instruction in the schools is different from the language spoken at home, some arrangements must be done for these children in these bilingual situations” (1016). Quite a number of research studies conducted in the past indicate that learners could have better comprehension of curriculum in those instances whereby learning is firmly rooted in their mother tongue. This is particular the case in early learning. In one such study, it was found out that in early childhood classroom education, mother tongue was a key factor in the further advancement of the learning abilities of children (Awopetu, 2016). To a large extent,…
All significant approaches to educational development are always multi-faceted endeavors with several aspects, decisions, dimensions, and alternatives that have to be considered. Since education is a sector that brings many people in society together, any alternatives arrived at should be agreed upon by the majority and common ground reached. Also, because education has different levels in society, the alternatives chosen must be consistent with and align with other alternatives at different levels. While the Federal government has a significant influence on education, education as far as policy and implementation is concerned is highly decentralized in the United States (Barnhardt, 1981). The United States Constitution’s 10th amendment provides that all powers that are not explicitly delegated by the constitution to the United States or those that are not prohibited by the constitution to the states shall be reserved to the people and the states. Education, being one of these matters,…
Anomaly, J. (2018). Public goods and education. Retrieved from https://philpapers.org/archive/ANOPGA-5.pdf
Barnhardt, R. (1981). Culture, community and the curriculum. Retrieved from http://www.ankn.uaf.edu/curriculum/articles/raybarnhardt/ccc.html
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2019). Expansion of American education. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/topic/education/Expansion-of-American-education
Lattier, D. (2016). Education in America before the education system. Retrieved from https://www.intellectualtakeout.org/blog/education-america-education-system
Little, W. (2014). Introduction to Sociology: 1st Canadian Edition. BC Open Textbook Project.
Lucca, D., Taylor N., & Shen, K. (2017). Credit supply and the rise in college tuition: Evidence from the expansion of federal student aid programs. Staff Report no. 733. Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
Lynch, M. (2018). 3 important themes of American culture that influence our schools. Retrieved from https://www.theedadvocate.org/3-important-themes-of-american-culture-that-influence-our-schools/
Spellings, B. (2005). Education in the United States: A brief overview. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Education.
Fisher, E. (2015). Public philology: text criticism and the sectarianization of Hinduism in early modern south India. South Asian History and Culture, 6(1), 50-69.
This study examines the sectarianism of Hindus in South India (Tamil) to explain the dramatic polarization among religious groups in Tamil Nadu over the past few centuries. The study shows that this sectarianism developed as a result of public philologists dismissing orthodoxy and religions standards in favor of their own personal form of religious meaning, style and form.
Mundey, P. (2017). Salvation with a smile: Joel Osteen, Lakewood Church and American Christianity. Review of Religious Research, 59(1), 101-103.
This article reviews a work by Philip Luke Sinitiere which examines the smiling preacher Joel Osteen and his brand of American Protestantism. It shows how this unique style of religion appeals to Americans and how the megachurch represents a type of Manifest Destiny in the religious world of Protestant…
Course in Educational System. Curriculum, Teaching Material and Method, 1, 017.
Zajcev, V. A., Tat\\'yana, M. P., Podgornyj, V. I., Shabalina, E. I., & Potapov, V. J. (2017).
Moscow Autocracy of XVI-XVII Centuries: Eastern ‘’Despotism’’or an Early Modern European Monarchy?. Journal of History Culture and Art Research, 6(3), 1190-1198.
People Express's (PE) System
People Express's (PE) System, Style Skills Strategy Implementation and perspectives
People Express (PE) views itself as the largest and profitable economical, short-haul airline from North America. From this Vision, the Company came up with the corporate strategies which will help PE to achieve what it wants to become in the future.
People Express (PE) needs to expand its operations continuously country wide through the development of new routes and a new hub, as the company adapts internal structure and capabilities to fit with the strategic growth. Also the employees remain the force behind growth, just as the low rates, efficiency and customer experience are keys to success in order to continue being an economical and short haul airline.
People Express (PE) does not follow the traditional management control or the conventional budgetary systems. Instead it opts for a new system that extends beyond financial…
In this way there would be more teachers paying greater attention to students who would learn not more, but perhaps better. The level of education is one of the most important concepts in this discussion and it is directly connected to the required standards. If these are lowered then everyone will "pass," but this success is ephemeral and is not translated into capacities or resources which could be afterward used outside school in the real life. Excellence in education is a must for a strong democracy while at the same time, one of the most important challenges that democracy faces is that of finding a way to provide all the citizens with the opportunity to an education of excellent level.
Last but not least a measure which could help improve the present situation of the educational system is reducing the bureaucracy. The work of teachers and professors ought to be…
Barber, B.R. "America skips school: why we talk so much about education and do so little." Harper's Magazine, nov.1993, v287, n1722, p.39
"Where does the money go? How the average U.S. consumer spends their paycheck" in visualeconomics.com, Retrieved September 30, 2010 from http://www.visualeconomics.com/how-the-average-us-consumer-spends-their-paycheck/
American Education System in Trouble?
In an enlightening article by writer April Shenandoah, on March 20, 2002, the reality that Americas' education system is in real trouble becomes clearly evident. The writer feels that when a child in America attends school, he is, in fact, more at risk than if he did not attempt to attend. This is because, of late, it has become obvious that most negative influences that children are faced with are being increasingly found in the public schools that they attend, and it is during the past few decades that the situation has worsened even further. In a simple comparison between the situation in public schools today and that during the 1940's, it is indeed amazing that punishments were given for 'offences' such as, for example, running in the corridor, chewing gum, talking in the class, and at times, unfinished homework, whereas today the top offences…
"American Education in Trouble" January 23, 1990. Retrieved From
Accessed 24 September, 2005
Berger, Michael. L; Darilek, Richard. (1977) "The Public Education System"
Teachers should feel the pressure when their students do not succeed while opponents argue that placing such pressure on teachers just adds to the problem and makes success just that more difficult and unlikely.
Even the most ardent opponents to standardized testing among the teaching profession would likely argue that the demand for accountability is a legitimate one. Every profession needs to establish its credibility among the public and teachers should not be immune from this process, however, what has been lost in the process of trying to make teachers accountable is the value of what can be learned beyond the preparation for the standardized test. There is a necessity and value in establishing accountability but the method of using the standardized test to do so must be questioned.
When the use of standardized testing first came into vogue throughout the U.S. The goal was to establish a procedure for…
Herman, J.L. (1993). The Effects of Standardized Testing in Teaching and Schools. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 20-25.
Linn, R.L. (2001). A Century of Standardized Testing: Controversies and Pendulum Swings. Educational Assessment, 29-38.
McGuinn, P.J. (2006). The Early Federal Role in Education (to 1988) - ESEA and the Equity Regime. In P.J. McGuinn, No Child Left Behind and the Transformation of Federal Education Policy, 1965-2005 (pp. 25-50). Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.
McNeil, L.M. (2007). Contradictions of School Reform: Educational Costs of Standardized Testing. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Integration of technology in the education system is a trending training design
When teachers are equipped with knowledge of technology, they develop useful learning experiences
Incorporating of technology into the education system be essential
Allowing Pre-service teachers to make contact with technology in classes could cause implications to the traditional ways of classroom practice
After conductive an intensive research, I have noticed that integration of technology in the education system, is the trending training design. Incorporation of technology into the teacher education services is increasingly gaining recognition. Many researchers argue that when teachers are equipped with knowledge of technology, they develop useful learning experiences that are technology-mediated for their students. Some researches even recommend that incorporation of technology into the education system be essential. In addition, it would be of much essence for technology to come hand in hand with assignments and course content. Separating technology from the regular courses…
It is important to recognize the many different areas within adult education, and what type of students these areas attract. Ultimately, for the adult education department to be successful, it must attract a wide variety of students, and keep at least some of those students coming back to continue their education in order to be successful. Adult education serves a vital role in the upper education system, and it serves a diverse amount of people, but in most institutions it also has to support itself if not turn a profit, and that is an important aspect to take into consideration. Therefore, classes must be viable to the institution, but to the student, as well, to keep attracting a wide variety of students into the program.
In addition, diverse students could form a major foundation of the program, and so, it pays to understand these diverse learners so administrators and teaching…
The United Kingdom (and Northern Ireland) used to provide free higher education to all native Brits, but contemporary economic realities have forced UK and Northern Ireland colleges and universities to charge up to the approximate equivalent of $6,000 annually to offset the enormous cost of education. Unlike Canada, Britain provides higher education at the same price for students from Continental European nations but charges students from other nations more than the maximum allowed to be charged to UK students (Ciccone & Peri, 2006). Unlike in the U.S., there are few opportunities to earn scholarships to UK colleges and universities. Similarly, higher education in Southern Ireland costs only the approximate equivalent of $2,000 in the form of registration and related fees for students from Ireland and the European Union.
France provides (essentially) free education that is paid for by public funds and only imposes a nominal annual enrollment fee that is…
Ciccone, A. And Peri, G. "Identifying human-capital externalities: Theory with applications."
Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 73, No. 2; (2006): 381-412.
Dur, R. And Glazer, A. "Subsidizing enjoyable education" Labour Economics, Vol 15, No.
5; (2008): 1023-1039.
The State has also established a string of both general and specific policies for improving and developing special education and set aside special funds for this purpose. Consequently, just like regular education, special education has also developed rapidly. Although local governments are encouraged to provide compulsory education to children with and without disabilities, the enacted policies do not necessitate that education be provided to all students.
Despite the fact that students with disabilities were earlier educated in special schools, China has adopted new channels of special education including the integration of disabled children into general education classes. Currently, the number of disabled children enrolled in schools has continued to experience a big increase since 1987. Although many articles in the laws formulated by the Chinese government call for the overall education of handicapped children, special education for children with autism or severe disabilities is not directly mentioned in these policies…
Baker, M. (2007, November 17). China's Bid for World Domination. Retrieved April 11, 2010,
Mu K, Yang H & Armfield A (n.d.). China's Special Education: A Comparative Analysis.
Retrieved April 11, 2010, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/13/16/25.pdf
" (Chan, East, Ali and Neophytou, 2002; p.6)
III. POST-WWII ENGLAND SCHOOLS
The work entitled: "Doing Comparative Education: Three Decades of Collaboration" relates the fact that the post-World War II world in England "left a series of emergencies for which immediate answers had to be found. There were shortages of staff, equipment and building..." (Eckstein, 1960) Eckstein additionally states: "Post-war legislation has generally been characterized by radical thinking and optimism. However, the euphoria brought by the end of a war is so often soon dissipated in the exhausting battle of the peace. At such a time, the ambitiously optimistic spirit of reconstruction may also be lessened. A more cautious planned expansion replaces the scheme for extensive reconstruction, ideas of reform have once again to vie with practices which are entrenched in the typical ways of thinking of a people. The educational legislation of the last five years or so has…
Chan, Sui-Mee; East, Pat, Ali, Sabia; and Neophytou, Maria (2002) Primary and Secondary Education in England and Wales: From 1944 to the Present Day - 8th Edition. August 2002.
Lopez-Muniz, Jose Luis Martinez; De Groof, Jan; and Lauwers, Gracienne (2006) Religious Education and Collective Worship in State Schools: England and Wales" published in the Religious Education in Public Schools: Study of Comparative Law - Yearbook of the Association for Education and Policy (2006)
M.A. Eckstein, "Present Trends in Public Secondary Education in Western Europe," the High School Journal, 44 (October, 1960): 8-19. Reprinted by permission of the University of North Carolina Press.
Riddell S. & Salisbury J., (2000) ' Introductions: educational reforms and equal opportunities programmes', in Salisbury J & Riddell S., (eds.) Gender, Policy & Educational Change: shifting agendas in the UK and Europe, London, Routledge
Education in the Community
A major issue currently effecting culture, population, and demographics is that of wealth inequality. As the global economic downturn continues throughout the world, wealth disparity is increasing rapidly. This affects culture, population, and overall demographics in a litany of ways. First, due primarily to lower wages, families are postponing child birth. The uncertainty surrounding the future creates an atmosphere of fear. Families are now waiting until the economic climate becomes more certain before they have their children. Furthermore, the median income for middle class families has plummeted within the last 3 years. The median income for the average American household was roughly $51,000 in 2008. Now the median income is roughly $48,000. This creates problems as families are less apt to spend money are discretionary activities that form the basis of their culture. Holiday spending, for example has yet to reach its 2007 heights. Families are…
1) "Employment Situation Summary." U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Web. 14 July 2011. .
2) Rice Culture of China." China.org.cn - China News, Weather, Business, Travel & Language Courses. Web. 14 July 2011. .
3) "History of American Agriculture - Farm Machinery and Technology." Inventors. Web. 14 July 2011. .
4) Breaden, M.C. (2008, Feb 6), "Teacher-Quality Gap Examined Worldwide," Education Week, Feb. 6, 2008. Education Trust,
Education of Abbasid
Today, the majority of high school students hope to finish college one day. This is a realistic dream for many, as there is an established education system that gives students a choice of career paths and training. The modern world if full of universities and training centers. However, the world was not always like this. Many centuries ago, education was limited to the privileged and even the privileged did not have many opportunities in learning. Today's existing modern educational system has been influenced by traditions of the past, particularly by the great advances that occurred during the Abbasid Dynasty in the Muslim world.
One of the achievements of Muslim culture during the Abbasid Dynasty was the widespread spread of literacy. Elementary education was almost universal, especially in the cities. Emphasis on the value of reading and writing stems from the very first revelations of the Qur'an, which…
It is now recognized that individuals learn in different ways -- they perceive and process information in various ways. The learning styles theory suggests that the way that children acquire information has more to do with whether the educational experience is slanted toward their specific style of learning than their intelligence.
The foundation of the learning styles methodology is based in the classification of psychological types. The research demonstrates that, due to heredity factors, upbringing, and present circumstantial demands, different students have an inclination to both perceive and process information differently. These different ways of learning consist of: 1) concrete or abstract perceivers, where concrete perceivers acquire information through direct experience of doing, sensing, and feeling, and abstract perceivers, instead accept new ideas through analyzing, observing and thinking; 2) active or reflective processors -- active processors understand a new experience by immediately utilizing new information, and reflective processors analyze an…
Bruner, J. (1973). Going Beyond the Information Given. New York: Norton.
Dewey, J. (1910) How We Think. Boston: Heath.
Dryden, G. And Vos, (1999) Jeannette. The Learning Revolution. Austin, TX: Jalmar
Gardner, Howard (1983) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences, New York: Basic Books.
Education for Economy Theory as it elates to Adult Education
In an economy motivated by improvement and information, in marketplaces betrothed in powerful opposition and steady regeneration, in a world of incredible chances and risks, in a culture facing multifaceted business, political, scientific, technological, health and environmental challenges, and in diverse workplaces and neighborhoods that center on mutual associations and social networking, the cleverness, nimbleness and skills of the American people are vital to U.S. competitiveness (21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness, 2008).
Education economics is the study of economic matters as they relate to education, comprising the demand for education and the funding and condition of education. The leading model of the demand for education is founded on human capital theory. The main idea is that undertaking education is an investment in the attainment of skills and information which will augment earnings, or offer long-range benefits such as an…
21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/documents/21st_century_skills_education_and_competitiveness_gui
Bouchard, P. (n.d.). Human Capital and the Knowledge Economy. Retreived from http://doe.concordia.ca/Downloads/PDF/Colloquium_PBouchard.pdf
Checchi, Daniele. (2006). The Economics of Education: Human Capital, Family Background
Even within the United States, the education system has proven itself to be extremely vulnerable to the detrimental influence of intellectual corruption by the excessive entanglement of ideology and formal education. Specifically, the infamous Scopes Trial featured the criminal prosecution for teaching evolutionary biology because it conflicted with prevailing religious dogma (Davidson, 1999). Much more recently, a conservative political agenda has dominated the educational systems of individual American states in which educational administrative authorities have sought (in some cases, quite successfully) to promote religious or quasi-religious dogma under the very thinly veiled guise of teaching nonsense such as "Intelligent Design" (Feldman, 2005; Mooney, 2005). Specifically, that approach (in conjunction with renewed attempts to challenge the legitimacy of established evolutionary science) was a deliberate attempt to promote particular religious beliefs in a manner designed to circumvent very explicit constitutional prohibition against that church-state entanglement (Feldman, 2005; Mooney, 2005).
Davidson, K. (1999). Carl Sagan: A Life. New York: Wiley & Sons.
Feldman, N. (2005). Divided by God: America's Church and State Problem and What
We Should Do about it. New York: Farrar, Straus, & Giroux.
Goldfield, D., Abbot, C., Argersinger, J., and Argersinger, P. (2005). Twentieth-Century
Part of that includes instilling in students an intellectual curiosity, receptivity to learning through genuine understanding, and definitions of professional success that are motivated by positive aspirations rather than by overcompensation impulses triggered by negative assumptions, messages, or early experiences. In addition to ensuring basic literacy and computational skills required by adults in society, modern primary education must dedicate itself to producing graduates who have discovered their greatest intellectual abilities and developed a genuine interest in a specific academic and/or vocational application of those aptitudes and interests in a manner most conducive to their long-term fulfillment and (ideally) to their optimal benefit to their families and communities in adulthood.
Toward that end, modern education must adapt to the wealth of empirical evidence that traditional methodologies (such as passive lecture and rote memorization, in particular) are comparatively ineffective at achieving the highest goals of education in society. Specifically, as society becomes…
S. is a worthwhile goal, but the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 is a poorly conceived approach whose deficiencies may actually do more to undermine many aspects of education than any meaningful improvement inspired by its programs.
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their
Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. etrieved September 8, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. etrieved September 8, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169.
Forgary, . (1997) Brain Compatible Classrooms. Andover, MA: Skylight Publishing.
Hendrie, C. (2002) Taking a Chance on Choice; Education Week, Oct 23, 2002. etrieved September 8, 2008, from www.edweek.org/ew/ewstory.cfm?slug=08choice.h22
Murray, C. (2006) Acid Tests: No Child Left Behind…
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their
Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. Retrieved September 8, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. Retrieved September 8, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169.
Education is a basic need and a fundamental right of every human being regardless of what background or class he belongs to. An important nurturing ground for any child is his primary educational institute. This is a place where a child is groomed and prepared into a confident human being in order to face the world practically in future. However, for many young children this very place becomes a source of damaging their confidence and esteem and pushing them towards isolation by subjecting them towards constant physical and/or verbal abuse. This paper highlights such forms of bullying that is prevalent in schools not only in Canada, but in many parts around the world. The paper evaluates the actions that could and that could not be classified as an act of bullying. Furthermore, the paper also evaluates the causes and effects of bullying. Finally, the paper discusses the ways in which…
Education, and that too, a quality education is a right of every human being regardless of gender, race, cast, color, creed or socio economic background. Education plays an important role in the grooming, upbringing, nurturing and mental nourishment of a person. Good education does not only guarantee good living, but also builds one's confidence and esteem. Unfortunately, the double standards and inequality in the provision of education has led to a lot of social problems. These inequalities lead to serious social gaps, and in many cases, the ones who are not among the privileged lot, face social discrimination and are treated as inferiors. There are various forms of inequality in the education system that exists. These include inequality in terms of class and economical background, racial and religious discrimination and discrimination on account of one's mental or physical abilities. The victims of these double standards usually fail to get into the same institution as their superior and privileged counter parts. However, even if they somehow manage to make into those superior institutions, they many a times are subjected to severe discrimination, both intentional, and unintentional, which makes them feel alienated and leads to their isolation. These issues, in turn have serious psychological impact on the victim (Pivik, McComas & Laflamme, 2002). Many a times, this discrimination takes an extreme form and as a result, offends and abuses the victim. This is referred to as bullying.
Bullying is one of the most common, and at the same time,
While popularly associated with the advent of web-based technologies, DE is not a new phenomenon (agusa et al. 2009, 679)." The author asserts that during the nineteenth century many universities had correspondence programs. These programs remained popular for many years because they were different from more conventional learning environments. At the current time, distance education is driven by the pace of technological change and such changes are occurring globally in a manner that is rapid and complex. There are currently more than 130 countries in which institutions of higher learning provide students with distance courses (agusa et al. 2009). These courses often have as a foundation new information and communication technologies. The author also explains that
"In Australia, DE has particularly been embraced, at institutional and policy levels, as a means of extending higher education to rural, isolated, and often structurally disadvantaged learners (little or no access to a reliable…
Bradley. Review of Australian Higher Education. Retrieved online from: http://www.deewr.gov.au/HigherEducation/Review/Documents/PDF/Higher%20Education%20Review_one%20document_02.pdf
Filan, G.L., & Seagren, A.T. (2003). Six critical issues for midlevel leadership in post-secondary settings. New Directions for Higher Education, (124), 21 -- 31.
Gray K. & RadloffA. (2010). Higher Education Research & Development
Vol. 29, No. 3, 291 -- 305
An Analysis of the book "Life in Schools" by Peter McLaren
Peter McLaren is a well-known proponent for enforcing social reform and teaching and discussing about new issues in education and critical theory, which is the critical pedagogy and multicultural education. His extensive works regarding the study of critical pedagogy has already made him popular and well received by students, scholars, and readers who are in line of thinking with Paulo Freire, one of the most famous educational thinkers who revolutionized the way scholars treat the problem of education in the contemporary American society. The book "Life in Schools: An Introduction to Critical Pedagogy in the Foundation of Education," (4th edition), published by Allyn & Bacon, is a reflection of McLaren's belief about the radical change the educational system needed, and the social reform the educational system needs in order relieve the poor, 'oppressed' people from suffering the commercialization…
However, the more open and creative classes were more the exception than the rule and mostly we had to endure the conservative" banking" type of education which deprived many of us of any enthusiasm for the subjects that were being taught. This was particularly depressing when the teacher required that we learn by rote and regurgitate facts and data without any critical discussion. I should also state that I often felt that the students were not the only victims or " slaves" and that many of the teachers themselves were obviously felt confined and constrained by the education system and curriculum that they were forced to follow.
On the surface the education system that I attended did promote equal learning opportunities for all with no obvious discrimination in terms of race, class or gender. There was in fact every attempt in the particular institution to stop any sign of prejudice…
3. Hispanic, White Communities Forge Ties in Alabama (2003) a UA Center for Public Television and Radi9o Production. Online available at:
4. McDade, Sharon a. (2002) Definition of a Case Study. Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning - North Carolina State. Online available at http://www.ncsu.Edu/fctl/Programs/Instructional- Development/Teaching _Materials / CaseStudies/Materials / Case studyDefintion.pdf# search =%22 CASE%20STUDY % 3A%20DEFINIT ION%20OF %22.
5. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
6. English Language Development and Multicultural Education (2005) University of Alabama. Berkeley University Online available at http://crede.berkeley.edu/tools/directory2-/PDF/esl.pdf#search=%22Alabama%3A%20Elementary%20ESL%20SERVICES%22.
7. English as a Second Language (ESL) (2004) Baldwin County Public Schools; Bay Minette, Alabama. Online available at http://www.bcbe.org/Default.asp?DivisionID='824'&DepartmentID='958'.
8. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
9. Alabama (2006) KYTESOL Newsletter Vol.…
11. Alabama: Featured Facts (2005) From the SREB Factbook on Higher Education. Online available at http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:Mb3MWbM-0b4J:www.sreb.org/main/EdData/FactBook/2005StateReports/Alabama05.pdf+Alabama+Hispanic+education&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=6
12. Alabama Education Policy Primer: Chapter 2 Achievement (2005) Education Foundation - Online available at; http://www.aplusala.org/primer/ch2.asp
Education for Hispanic Students in the Elementary Schools of Alabama
Nature of Probable Research
The South Bronx section of New York is among the poorest and most diverse school districts in America. Crime and teenage pregnancy have plagued the primarily Hispanic and Afro-American Bronx community for decades. However, in recent years there has been a concerted effort to curb the dire social conditions and education system. For the purposes of our research we will focus on the efforts to improve the educational system through before school and after school programs.
The probable research will involve studying the effects of before school and after school programs on a low performing middle school in the South Bronx section of New York City. The research will examine the manner in which these programs have been implemented and the students that benefit from the programs. The investigation will also discuss the conditions present in some of the middle schools in the South Bronx…
Worth, Robert. (1999) Guess Who Saved the South Bronx? Big Government. Washington Monthly. Volume: 31. Issue: 4. Page Number: 26.
Zinsmeister, Karl (2002) The insufferable wonder. The American Enterprise. Volume:
13. Issue: 4. Page Number: 4+.
It appears that the school systems are failing here in America. Every year test score trend downward as a continual new stream of information floods into the public consciousness. More schooling and more intensive schooling efforts have shown little if any progress in recent decades and before any more money or energy is thrown at these problems indiscriminately, a tactical pause to contemplate the situation seems in order.
New problems arise everyday in the schooling system as the complexity of the world increases seemingly exponentially. The purpose of this research is to take a view point that steps back at the situation and looks at general trends and questions the very purposes of compulsory school. To do this properly it is necessary to take an unbiased and objective reexamination of the efficacy of public schooling.
By all measurable standards of decency, it appears American society is in some…
Boli, J., Ramirez, F.O., & Meyer, J.W. (1985). Explaining the origins and expansion of mass education. Comparative education review, 29(2), 145-170.
Casillas, A., Robbins, S., Allen, J., Kuo, Y.L., Hanson, M.A., & Schmeiser, C. (2012). Predicting early academic failure in high school from prior academic achievement, psychosocial characteristics, and behavior. Journal of educational psychology, 104(2), 407.
Rothstein, R. (1993). The myth of public school failure. The American Prospect, 4(13), 20-34.
The ease of use of email systems for example generally tend to relate to high satisfaction levels. According to the study, students find it extremely convenient to be able to contact instructors at any time according to their convenience and available time frame. This does away with the inconvenience of specific office hours or telephone availability. This satisfaction is however also related to the ability of the instructor to respond to email in a speedy fashion. In Enockson's study, for example, the instructor made an effort to consistently respond within 24 hours. Students also experienced the online system as particularly convenient, as physical barriers to communication were eliminated, and students were able to set their own hours for instruction and communication. The time and costs of commuting are also eliminated by the use of such a system. This is the basic advantage of a generally online system of instruction as…
Nearly all failing schools fit this description (Six Secrets of School Success 2000)." If a country is to overcome educational problems, they must take into account the mentality that poverty creates and how that mentality deteriorates the wherewithal to do well in school.
Although poverty is the issue that affects most underachieving schools, the idea of the super head was conceived as the answer to poorly performing schools. According to Marshall (2001), recruiting exceptional headmasters to improve schools was begun with what was once known as the Hammersmith County School (Marshall, 2001). The local authority school was located in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham (Marshall, 2001). The neighboring schools were grant maintained and church schools (Marshall, 2001). The Hammersmith School was being closed because of poor results and OFSTED reports (Marshall, 2001). However, instead of closing the school the administration decided to reopen it and called it the…
Education. 2004. Official Site of the Labor Party. retrieved January 15, 2005 from;
Mixed feelings from 'super heads'. retrieved January 15, 2005 from; http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/2132516.stm
Superheads' call for £120k a year, (2000). retrieved January 15, 2005 from; http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/914516.stm
It is headed in the right direction and will surly prosper in the many years to come.
(c)Why were you able to accomplish what you did when you did?
We have been able to accomplish what we have because of the Land Grant College Act of 1862. In early 1848, Congressman Justin Smith Morrill of Vermont suggested that American colleges might steer away from the portion of the studies that had been established so many years ago and think about moving in a direction of having studies with more practical values. In 1857, he introduced a bill that incorporated leading reform notions in regards to technical education. He proposed that institutions should promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes in areas that relate to the professions that people were doing (udolph, 1990, p. 149).
This act provided for the support in every state of at least one…
Andrew Dickson White. (2009). Retrieved June 15, 2009, from Cornell University Web site:
Rudolph, Frederick. (1990). The American College and University. Athens: The University of Georgia Press.
There is no subject that exists in isolation of others. This is especially true for social studies, which is inherently cross disciplinary. Social studies encompass economics, politics, sociology, history, geography, religion, and culture. Cross-curricular integration allows students to see the inter-connectedness between the Social Studies and the other subject areas in the school curriculum. The following analysis of a course on Trinidad and Tobago provides a detailed example of how Social Studies integrates with other subjects in the curriculum. Other subjects in the curriculum include mathematics, social sciences (psychology and sociology), hard science (chemistry, physics, and biology), art, art history, music, and physical education.
The syllabus of the course on Trinidad and Tobago includes the following: history and geography; culture and people; government, politics, and transnational issues; and the economy.
History and Geography
This section of the course addresses the history and geography of Trinidad and Tobago. It is…
"Trinidad and Tobago," (2012). CIA World Factbook. Retrieved online: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/td.html
"Values and Benefits of Interdisciplinary/Cross-Curricular Teaching." (1997). Retrieved online: http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/res/literacy/interd1.html
"What is Interdisciplinary/Cross-Curricular Teaching?" (1997). Retrieved online: http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/res/literacy/interd0.html
The conflict between Sara and her father mirrors that of Ana and her mother. Reb and Carmen both try to control and manipulate their daughters by appealing to traditional cultural values. Gender is at the heart of their struggle, as gender norms are critical to their old-fashioned worldviews. Interestingly, there are traditionalists in both Bread Givers and in Real Women Have Curves who retain their ethnic identities while promoting gender equality. For example, Ana's grandfather relays a tale about a treasure-filled mountain in Mexico. He tells the tale to a captivated Ana before telling her that he wants Ana to "find her gold" too. Ana's father and grandfather support her academic achievements and want her to take advantage of the scholarship. In Bread Givers, Sara meets another traditional Polish-American. Although Hugo is not Jewish, he and Sara bond over their cultural identity and prove that ethnic pride does not need…
For the at-risk students that NCLB was supposed to help, this could actually make their educational situation much worse.
As a consequence, the National Education Association has proposed a reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act in 2007 as an alternative to the rigid, punitive, and unscientific methods of NCLB (ESEA, 2006; Crawford, 2004). While the ESEA summary does include some of the same elements that are present in NCLB -- such as accountability standards -- it does so without the agreed upon flaws of the current law. The overarching purpose of the ESEA is to ensure that all necessary resources are available for educators, that the achievement gap can be closed quickly, that students leave schools with the skills the 21st century demands, and that educators and students will have more enthusiasm for the educational process (ESEA, 2006). These goals ask a lot of a single piece of…
Crawford, J. (2004, September 14). No Child Left Behind: misguided approach to school accountability for English language learners. Forum on Ideas to Improve NCLB Accountability Provisions for Students with Disabilities and English Language Learners. Retrieved May 3, 2007, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
ESEA: it's time for a change! (2006, July). National Education Association. Retrieved May 3, 2007, at http://www.nea.org/esea/posagendaexecsum.html
Perstein, L. (2004, October 21). The issue left behind. The Nation. Retrieved May 3, 2007, at http://www.thenation.com/doc/20041108/perlstein
Apart from increasing subject matter retention, active learning promotes intellectual curiosity, flexibility, and confidence, in effect, teaching students how to reason and think for themselves.
Unfortunately, current indications suggest strongly that the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act is retarding progress in the direction of better education, precisely because it emphasizes rote memorization and drilling in two or three subjects at the relative exclusion of other academic subjects and to the establishment of an effective learning environment for students (Sonnenblick, 2008). That is because the most essential function of modern education is to teach thinking.
Huber, .A., Moore, C.J. (2001). "A Model for Extending Hands-on Science to Be Inquiry Based." School Science and Mathematics, 101(1), 32. Sonnenblick, J. (2008). "Killing Me Softly: No Child Left Behind" School Library Journal, May 1, 2008, etrieved January 7,…
Huber, R.A., Moore, C.J. (2001). "A Model for Extending Hands-on Science to Be Inquiry Based." School Science and Mathematics, 101(1), 32. Sonnenblick, J. (2008). "Killing Me Softly: No Child Left Behind" School Library Journal, May 1, 2008, Retrieved January 7, 2009, at http://www.schoollibraryjournal.com/article/CA6555540.html
This was achieved by the fact that college has allowed me to take 5 courses that are totally different from one another in each semester.
One of the essential aspects in personal development and eventual self-fulfillment is individual freedom. College promotes the achievement of personal development and fulfillment through providing freedom that is quite liberating. In essence, the student has to make decisions independently regarding significant aspects of his/her education. This contributes to personal development since the person is taught how to make smart choices and concentrate on what is best for him/her. As there are numerous opportunities to explore, the individual must learn to make decisions without increased supervision from parents or teachers. As a result, the ability of a person to make decisions is tested through analysis of the effectiveness of these decisions, which results in individual growth and ability to determine self-fulfillment.
Discovery of Passion:…
Ehrenreich, Barbara. "Higher Education Conformity." Alternet. Alternet, 1 May 2007. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. .
Menand, Louis. "Live and Learn." The New Yorker. Conde Nast., 6 June 2011. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. .
Schwartz, Steven. "The Higher Purpose." Times Higher Education. TSL Education Ltd., 16 May 2003. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. .
Tugend, Alina. "Vocation or Exploration? Pondering the Purpose of College." The New York Times. The New York Times, 05 May 2012. Web. 17 Sept. 2012. .
Feminists, like Christine Pizan, who stressed the importance of female education and some of her male feminist contemporaries would mainly remain on the fringes as the classical form of education was reaffirmed as the standard.
In the 1970s, much of the challenge to female education was answered as the tradition of educating all people was accepted early in the development of the U.S. educations system, though it was not an easy transition and according to most inequalities still existed even in the late modern era. In fact there was no official federal department of education until 1979, yet this did not stop the progress of education.
Stallings 677) the marked entrance of women into higher education is thought by most people to be the beginning of the end for male exclusive education but pre-secondary education was available for women from the early part of the foundation of education as a…
Brown-Grant, Rosalind. Christine de Pizan and the Moral Defence of Women: Reading beyond Gender. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Clark, Donald Lemen. John Milton at St. Paul's School: A Study of Ancient Rhetoric in English Renaissance Education. New York: Columbia University Press, 1948.
Clinton, Catherine, and Christine Lunardini. The Columbia Guide to American Women in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
Furniss, W. Todd, and Patricia Albjerg Graham, eds. Women in Higher Education. Washington, DC: American Council on Education, 1974.
Even under ordinary circumstances, the NCLB motivates teachers to spend more time teaching standardized test-taking and less time on substantive teaching.
The other principal set of interrelated problems currently plaguing American education is that teachers are underpaid, there is little if any correlation between performance and compensation, and tenure policies make it virtually impossible to remove bad teachers once they have achieved tenure. As a result, the teaching profession cannot attract top talent, simply because the highest performing graduates have no incentive to take on high-stress, low-paying jobs where they cannot earn more based on their superior performance. In light of the tremendous importance of improving the American education system for the well-being of the country, public education must make only very limited use of standardized testing. Public funds should be directed into programs to increase the compensation of all entry-level teachers instead of being wasted on standardized test preparation…
Caillier J. (2007). "No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their
Goals?" Journal of Negro Education. Retrieved September 12, 2010, from:
Darling-Hammond L. "NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's
(Galston) All in all, it is clear that your social statute is a strong factor of influence when concerning the level of education that you receive.
In some isolate cases, people can actually improve the efficiency of their educational systems. It is absolutely necessary for an educational institute to have virtuous directors in order for its students to become well educated. An academic curriculum would surely be benefic for the young minds waiting to be taught. A solution for the U.S. educational system to be efficient regardless of people's backgrounds would be for the government to attempt to pay equal attention to all people. Also, the government needs to create better educational programs for all students to enjoy the same level of education.
One of the biggest mistakes made by a normal institution is to believe that in order for a certain problem to be solved, one would need to…
1. Livergood, Norman D. "The Destruction of American Education." Retrieved June 21, 2009, from The New Enlightenment Web site: http://www.hermes-press.com/education_index.htm
2. Simpson Richard L., Lacava Paul G., Graner Sampson Patricia. (2004). "The No Child Left Behind Act: Challenges and Implications for Educators." Intervention in School & Clinic, Vol. 40.
3. "Interview: William Galston." Retrieved June 21, 2009, from the PBS Teachers Web site: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/vouchers/interviews/galston.html
Culture and education are inherently linked (Adams, 1992; Gay, 2000, Jones 2004; Wlodkcowski & Ginsberg, 1995 in: Guo and Jamal, 2007) In order to understand impact of diversity in the educational setting, Guo and Jamal write that it appears necessary to "first define some key terms, including culture and cultural diversity. Culture can be defined as a dynamic system of values, beliefs and behaviors that influence how people experience and respond to the world around them. For many, cultural diversity can be referred to as 'distinctions in the lived experiences, and the related perception of and reactions to those experiences that serve to differentiate collective populations from one another." (Marshall, 2002, p. 7)
Culture plays a key role in forming the manner in which students learn and communicate,"…how they relate to other students and instructors, their motivation levels, and their sense of what is worth learning." The extent…
Adams, M. (1992). Cultural inclusion in the American college classroom. In L.L.B. Border & N.V. Chism (Eds.), Teaching for diversity. New Dire
Banks (Eds.), Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives (pp. 229-250). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Banks, C.A.M. (2005). Improving multicultural education: Lessons from the intergroup education movement. New York: Teachers College Press.
Banks, J.A. (1997b). Approaches to multicultural curricular reform. In J.A. Banks & C.A.M.
Ceasar and McGuinn (1998), "We are approaching the end of an era in educational philosophy." What was once a wholly Eurocentric framework for constructing an approach to the structures of the mind, psychology, and education, is shifting to include models of Eastern thought and new constructions of educational psychology. Western education has had for more than two millennia a singular purpose in mind - to make a better citizen of the community through learning, social development, and an initiation into the prevailing political, economic, and social structures of the community. Aristotle observed that there is no hard and fast rule to determining what should and should not be the focus of education. To determine what balance is "perfect" for education between practical and theoretical, between concrete and abstract, is a question that has been unanswered since Aristotle and, likely, will be unanswered over the course of the next two-thousand years.…
From Aristotle to Arendt...education has always served profoundly political functions, functions that inextricably link the social responsibilities of schools with their intellectual responsibilities. Indeed, noted reformers -- Thomas Jefferson, Horace Mann, John Dewey -- have amplified such purposes, viewing schooling as the process of creating an embryonic community life in which children's intellectual, personal, emotional, and social development should be nourished (Kagan, 1994)." However, beginning with the American cultural revolution of the 1960's and 70's, the focus of American education has been changing. Increasingly, schools are the developing point of the individual. Individualism is what guides most children through school now which is particularly true of higher education. The introduction of the child to the community was once based upon a very grand plan to mold minds into the shape of the ideal citizen (a very Roman ideal). Education, then, was intended to create citizens who would further the cause and ensure the longevity of the community / nation. While this approach continues today, it has been steadily changing. We continue to teach citizenship in schools by encouraging sharing of toys and ideas, joining in group activities, and feeling part of something bigger (i.e. patriotism and nationalism). But, one must ask, what is an ideal citizen?
Aristotle's question of whether education should be of the mind or the character of the soul, toward practice or virtue, is one that many individual schools have tried to take on in a small scale. While elementary level education is fairly universal, our national education system is peppered with Charter Schools, Magnet Schools, and other unique institutions that are conducting an experiment seemingly, on a larger scale, to answer Aristotle's question. What it is that makes a good citizen is what guides our educational system. The problem is, however, that in a culture so bent upon erasing barriers, of unconditional equality, of absolute access, and to complete political correctness, the definition of citizenship no longer acts as a unifying theme in education. Indeed, the very idea of "civic education" grows out of the connection with this kind of regime. As everything depends on education in a republican system - the city being formed more by the character of its citizens than formal institutions - it cannot be left to chance but must be legislated by the city (Ceasar & McGuinn, 1998). But, this too is in contention because of the concerns since the 1960's about the overreaching power of the government in controlling our minds and lives.
If education is to focus upon the functions of the body, the instinctual behaviors or
Opportunities in K-12 Urban City Schools
This paper intends to show that the best educational leadership can provide to individuals is to provide students with the skills they need to skillfully and successfully cope with "today" and upon doing so to be secure in the knowledge that the tomorrows and the future will follow. This paper will research, explore and examine the options that present themselves to today's graduate student with a Master of Education K-12 Leadership in the urban city school setting.
According to Elliot W. Eisner:
The unknowable future is not a sound basis on which to plan curriculum."
Eisner that upon first contemplating the creation of a curriculum that will prepare students for the future seems to be a task that is unachievable because the future world is something we see through a "glass but darkly" concerning the future. However, as Eisner points out no…
Eisner, Elliot W. (2003) Educational Leadership "Preparing for Today and Tomorrow" [Online] available at http://www.ascd.org/cms/objectlib/ascdframeset/index.cfm?publication = http://www.ascd.org/publications/ed_lead/200312/eisner.html
Deposition of Thomas Sobolo Ed.D http://www.mofo.com/decentschools/expert_reports/sobol_report.pdf
Deposition of Jeannie Oakes, Ph.D
Eisner, Elliot W. (2003) Educational Leadership "Preparing for Today and Tomorrow"
brain development opens up tremendous opportunities to improve education. In some aspects, the education community has embraced this research and used it to develop profoundly different approaches to learning. At the same time, the research conflicts with many systemic practices among school administrators and education policy-makers.
Five significant conclusions about the developing brain affect education. First, the capacity for lifelong learning begins during "critical periods" (temporary windows of opportunity for development). Once a critical period is over, it is too late to develop that part of the brain. Throughout, optimal learning occurs when the brain is appropriately challenged. Second, music and art help children develop brain functions related to logic/spatial abilities, illustrating that subject disciplines previously thought to be mutually exclusive are not. Third, emotions experienced while learning affect brain development for that particular type of knowledge. A more meaningful experience with which a student can identify results in more…
Begley, Sharon. "Your Child's Brain," Newsweek, Inc. 1996.
Hancock, LynNell. "Why Do Schools Flunk Biology?" Newsweek, Inc. 1996.
Learning Styles." Exceptional Children, Vol. 49, No. 6, April 1983
The 2009-2010 Accountability Progress Reporting System issued by the Department of Education from the state of California contains information necessary to understand the laws and requirements necessary for public educators to meet. The state of California issues adequate yearly progress report (AYP) to not only issued guidance but also to take accountability of what the new standards will be for the future of educators and what things they need to know in order to continue on with their profession.
This document first introduces the key changes that will be implemented throughout the new year and how they differ from the past. This report breaks down California's progress in two different methods by state accountability requirements and by federal accountability requirements. State mandated requirements stem from California's public school accountability act of 1999 and the federal mandated requirements stem from the Elementary and Secondary education act that was passed…
Much of the time spent in school focuses on following arbitrary rules and not theories of importance.
This understanding places much pressure on the teacher. Directives often come from higher, demanding certain test scores be met and curriculum be tailored to more collective ideas. As a result, the very thing that empowers students is ignored. We are individuals with individual gifts and talents all worthwhile and important in way or another. Too often this quality is snuffed out of students and teachers by browbeating and disciplining actions. Although some of this is necessary, it has definitely reached a tipping point.
As a qualified person with intelligence and know-how, I, as a teacher, am often treated like a cow in a herded pasture. Autonomy rarely exists in the classroom anymore and students often leave these institutions with little more knowledge than when they entered. The rich spiritualness that Gatto talks about…
Gatto, J. (n.d.). The Nature of Public Education, Excerpts from the Writings of John Taylor Gatto. Retrieved from http://www.homeschooloasis.com/art_john_taylor_gatto.htm
How will the Current State of Education Effect my Future Profession?
According to several sources, the current state of social studies is something less than ideal by most standards that would value a liberal education. Students have been polled about their knowledge of subjects such as geography and history for many generations which offers a perspective not only on the current state of education in the social sciences, but also provides insights as to their evolution over time. One such measure is the Nation's eport Card which represents a series of assessments done on a sample basis that targets a series of student knowledge about specific subjects including geography, reading, math, science, writing, economics, and art (Williams, 2011).
These assessments are designed to be fairly static in order to make comparisons possible between generations of students and is maintained by the National Assessment Governing Board and the entire…
Rothstein, R. (2002, March 6). LESSONS; Going Beyond Mere Facts In the Study of History. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2002/03/06/nyregion/lessons-going-beyond-mere-facts-in-the-study-of-history.html?scp=1&sq=sam%20wineburg&st=cse
Williams, T. (2011, July 31). A Progress Report on Geography. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/01/us/01questions.html?pagewanted=print&_r=1
The effort to create an educational system by blacks and for blacks reflected the determined pride that characterized the newly freed black community. Moreover, the emphasis on black education also pointed to the segregated social conditions of the south.
Fairclough's second main point is that white supremacy reigned in the south until the Civil Rights movement. In fact, black political, social, and economic welfare actually worsened at key moments in history. White southerners relished the notion that blacks would run their own schools without the interference of socially liberal white Yankees. Black educators in the south found that schools did little to promote the practical advancement of black communities. African-Americans continued to earn less than their white counterparts even after they achieved the same level of educational attainment. Continued white supremacy led to a gradual mistrust of black educators and of black education in general. Cynicism poisoned the potential of…
The education system has been experienced a significant number of reforms over time and it would be safe to say that the general public think of it as being a concept that constantly needs renewal. In spite of the fact that the system is often renewed, it still fails to address particular issues with educational institutes today. This is largely due to the fact that the authorities seemed to employ discriminatory attitudes when it comes to education. By focusing on devising a strategy that can focus on the needs of students on an individual level, education can be effectively provided to people needing it and each person would be more likely to accumulate knowledge properly as long as this type of system is implemented.
Society often has the tendency to address the wrong ideas when discussing with regard to education. The majority of people believe that education is…
IS THE AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN TROULE?
The United States has enjoyed a long history of providing public education for all students. However, many people believe that our educational system does not function well and that it has not for some time. Although multiple ways to improve public education have been tried, the belief persists that our schools produce under-educated students who are under-prepared for college or work. The goal of education is to teach students, but not all the students learn well, and for those who do not learn, we cannot always find either adequate explanations or solutions.
For some decades, the United States has attempted to use group testing to track the success of our educational programs. One attempt was by use of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) tests (Ipka, 2003). These tests provide raw scores of from 0 to 500. The Department of…
Ipka, V.W. 2003. "At Risk Children in Resegregated Schools: An Analysis of the Achievement Gap. Journal of Instructional Psychology, Vol. 30.
Kozol, Jonathan. Savage Inequalities. 1992: Harper Perrenial.
McQuillan, Jeff. 1998. "Seven myths about literacy in the United States." Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 6(1). Accessed via the Internet 8/23/05.
Schrag, Peter. 2004. "What's Good Enough? Advocates Are Demanding Not Just Equal but Decent Schools for All Children." Magazine article by Peter Schrag; The Nation, Vol. 278, May 3.
Education: Social Foundation
Brown v. The Board of Education (1954) was a landmark ruling that not only marked the beginning of the era of desegregation in the school environment, but also served as a frontal attack on the practice and doctrine of white supremacy in the overall society. Many viewed it as a reprieve for the Black-American community, but as Justice William Douglas revealed in 1971, the de jure segregation ruling in Brown v. Board of Education was more than just a mere reprieve for blacks; it was a direct effort towards integrating the philosophies, policies, and cultures of different communities to make public education accessible to American Indians, Latinos, African-Americans, and Asian-Americans just as it was to whites. As it turns out, however, desegregation of public schools did not even come close to being the one-fits-all solution that many thought would address all the inequality concerns of minorities --…
Benton, M.A. (2001). Challenges African-Americans Face at Predominantly White Institutions. Colorado State University. Retrieved 28 January 2015 from http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/SAHE/JOURNAL2/2001/Challenges.htm
Boland, P. (2013). Catholic Education in the 21st Century. Journal of Catholic Education, 3(4), 508-520.
India Country Today Media Network. (2011). Foundation Helps Native American Students Overcome Education Challenges. India Country Today Media Network. Retrieved 28 January 2015 from http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2011/11/30/foundation-helps-native-american-students-overcome-education-challenges-65093
Krogstad, J.M. (2012). One in four Native Americans and Alaska Natives are Living in Poverty. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 28 January 2015 from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/06/13/1-in-4-native-americans-and-alaska-natives-are-living-in-poverty/
Education Inequality: A Sociological Perspective
One of the most important aspects of life today is probably education. Without a high quality of education, especially on the tertiary level, it is very difficult to find gainful employment or to advance in one's chosen career. For this reason, one of the great tragedies in the world today is social inequality and the educational inequality that goes along with it. Even if "jobs" were provided for every single homeless or unemployed individual in the country, this would be little more than a band aid; it would be hopeless inadequate to address the larger and longer-term problem, which is a basic inequality in education. Starting at the primary level, children whose parents can afford to place them in private schools receive a far better education than those in the public school system. When they have completed primary and secondary education, there is again income-related…
Sociological Perspectives on Education. (2015). Retrieved from: https://saylordotorg.github.io/text_sociology-understanding-and-changing-the-social-world-comprehensive-edition/s19-02-sociological-perspectives-on-e.html
Schools have more esponsibility to Prevent School Violence than ever before
Issues related to school violence have become an increasingly salient issue in modern society. This issue affects schools on many levels. On one level, there rise in the number of tragedies such as mass shootings have increased and these incidents clearly illustrate the need for safer educational environments for children and adolescents. However, there are also more subtle examples of violence that can occur in school environments such as bullying. The evidence that bullying is severe physical and psychological detriment to students has become increasingly clear. Furthermore, technology has also offered new platforms in which violence can occur between students. For example, there have been many cases of online bullying that have occurred on social networks. This analysis will provide a brief overview of different types of violence that can occur in schools as well as a…
Adelman, H., & Taylor, L. (2002). Building Comprehensive, Multifaceted, and Integrated Approaches to Address Barriers to Student Learning. . Childhood Education, 261-268.
Beccerra, S., Munoz, F., & Riquelme, E. (2015). School violence and school coexistence management: unresolved challenges. Procedia, 156-163.
Crews, G. (2014). School Violence Perpetrators Speak: An Examination of Perpetrators Views on School Violence Offenses. Jouranl of the Institute of Justice and International Studies, 41-62.