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Finally, Erickson promotes the idea of educational curricula and teaching methods that are structured while being simultaneously much more flexible than traditional information-based education.
3. Identify at least two areas of weakness in the Erickson Provide a rationale for selecting each area of weakness identified.
If there are any weaknesses of the text, they might include the relative lack of inclusion of: 1. specific types of cognitive intelligences; and 2. specific substantive interests of students. First, modern educational theorists have embraced the concept of Multiple Intelligences pioneered by Howard Gardner of the Harvard School of Education. Gardner has demonstrated that even the best traditional curricula neglect the needs of many students. Second, there are reasons to believe that students should be allowed more autonomy in the choice of subjects long before the middle or late high school years.
4. Identify suggested methods for improving the two areas of weakness identified…
Maximizing the brain-based learning methods identified as being optimally efficient for students likely to benefit more from those changes could be implemented with less comparative increase in the need for more teachers and supplemental instruction for educational professionals. However, other costs (such as the need for more classrooms and other learning areas) may be equally cost-prohibitive, especially on a system-wide basis. Similarly, the educational materials necessary to implement inquiry-based, active learning methods are also beyond the capacity of most public education systems (Adams & Hamm, 1994). Therefore, the most appropriate approach to improving the American education system through incorporation of inquiry-based, active learning, brain-based learning, and Gardner's multiple intelligences would be to design in as many features as possible of each within the constraints of budgetary realities.
In principle, it would be possible to dramatically improve the American public education system by identifying the specific methods and materials…
Adams, D. And Hamm, M. (1994). New Designs for Teaching and Learning: Promoting
Active Learning in Tomorrow's Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Gardner, H. (2000). The Disciplined Mind: Beyond Facts and Standardized Tests: The K-
12 Education That Every Child Deserves. New York: Penguin Putnam.
" (Jarvis, nd) Jarvis states that it is precisely "this movement along a maturity gradient that Mezirow regards as a form of emancipatory learning..." (Jarvis, nd) Jarvis states that according to Mezirow "emancipation is from libidinal, institutional or environmental forces which limit our options and rational control over our lives but have been taken for granted as beyond human control." (Jarvis, nd) Mezirow suggests that there are various levels of reflection which exist over the course of the individual's life and states that seven of these which occur during adult learning are those as follows:
Psychic reflectivity; and Theoretical reflectivity. (Jarvis, nd)
II. MARGARET NEWMAN
Newman writes in the work entitled: "Health as Expanding Consciousness" that intuition plays a key role in her life and for example, in the books that she chooses to read, the people she meets, and the…
Benner is Back! (2008) FOUCHE December 2008, Vol. 24, No. 2. Online available at http://www.Fouche.org.za/index.php/FOUCHE/article/viewFile/63/63
Benner P. From Novice to Expert, Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. Menlo Park: Addison-Wesley, 1984.
Boverie, Patricia Eileen, and Kroth, Michael (2001) Transforming Work: The Five Keys to Achieving Trust, Commitment and Passion in the Workplace. 2001 Basic Books.
Dreyfus HL, Dreyfus S. A five-stage model of the mental activities involved in directed skill acquisition. Unpublished study, University of California, Berkeley, 1980.
intervention (RTI) like targeted individualized interventions and regular progress monitoring are occasionally missed due to the lack of fidelity to best practices and recommended guidelines based on evidence-based instructional strategies. As a future director of special education, I would ensure that RTI is responsive and responsible, first by developing standard procedures for progress monitoring. Research on specific learning disability shows that the tiered structure of RTI can be especially helpful but only when RTI is defined specifically because vagueness leads to inconsistent and unreliable results with children (Hauerwas, Brown & Scott, 2013). There is no "clear national definition of what specific RTI data a local multidisciplinary team must have in hand to make a determination of" specific learning disabilities (Hauerwas, Brown & Scott, 2013, p. 102). Stahl (2016) also found that schools "were implementing RTI on their own without the support of a research team or external funding," leading to…
Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."
As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.
This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…
Brandon, Thomas H.; Herzog, Thaddeus a.; Irvin, Jennifer E.; & Gwaltney, Chad J. (2004).
Cognitive and social learning models of drug dependence; implications for the assessment of Tobacco dependence in adolescents. Addiction, 99(1), 51-77.
Center on English Learning and Achievement. (2002). Scaffolding Student Performance of New and Difficult Tasks. Retrieved March 10, 2007, at http://cela.albany.edu/newslet/fall02/scaffolding.htm.
Demant, Meagan S, & Yates, Gregory C.R. (2003). Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Direct Instruction Construct. Educational Psychology, 23(5), 483-489.
This task can be performed with the support of animated movies. The teacher can introduce a certain character within the documentary, and seek the participation of the students for understanding of the traits and behavior of the particular character, and at the end of the day; the teacher can relate those traits with the essence of moral and ethical values. (Aristotle: (http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-arist.htm)
It is also important that the rights of the teachers are protected, and this can be achieved only if the teachers under their limited capacity are able to make and understand the students their importance and significance, not only within the premises of the school, but also in the society. This is an important aspect that has to be handled and treated with due diligence, because unless the teacher is successful in making their students respect them, it will be difficult to communicate and teach the students, otherwise.…
Margot Kaplan-Sanoff, Renee Yablans. Exploring Early Childhood: readings in theory and practice. 1963. Collier Macmillan. pp.63
Robert James Havighurst, Hilda Taba, University of Chicago Committee on Human Development. Adolescent Character and Personality. 1986. University Publications. pp.54
California Committee for the Study of Education Subcommittee on the Development of Moral and Spiritual Values in the Schools. Developing Moral-spiritual Values in the Schools. 1957. University Publications. pp.254
John R. Meyer, Brian Burnham, John Cholvat. Values education: theory, practice, problems, prospects. 1979. Longman. pp.54
Theory of Group Development
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Cognitive Behavior Therapy is one of the group development theories or models that are used in today's societies and institutions. The validity of making and developing groups is geared towards equitable management of the available group and behavior of people within an institution or place of work. According to Cognitive Behavior Therapy, group development is a lucrative endeavor that has to be worked on in every institution. Group behavior development refers to the concept of relaying equitable avenues of growth and development within a unified sector of human and material togetherness. There is no doubt that all human beings exist in a form or the form of groups in society. The existence and services of these groups is detrimental to the general performance and productivity of the people.
Group working and development surpasses individual performances in many regards. This is the…
Agazarian, Y. (2004). Cognitive Behavior Therapy. London: Karnac.
Agazarian, Y., & Peters, R. (1995). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Two perspectives on group psychotherapy and group process. London: Karnac Books.
Arrow, H., Berdahl, J.L., & McGrath, J.E. (2000). Small groups as complex systems:
Formation, coordination, development and adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Culture and education are inherently linked (Adams, 1992; Gay, 2000, Jones 2004; Wlodkcowski & Ginsberg, 1995 in: Guo and Jamal, 2007) In order to understand impact of diversity in the educational setting, Guo and Jamal write that it appears necessary to "first define some key terms, including culture and cultural diversity. Culture can be defined as a dynamic system of values, beliefs and behaviors that influence how people experience and respond to the world around them. For many, cultural diversity can be referred to as 'distinctions in the lived experiences, and the related perception of and reactions to those experiences that serve to differentiate collective populations from one another." (Marshall, 2002, p. 7)
Culture plays a key role in forming the manner in which students learn and communicate,"…how they relate to other students and instructors, their motivation levels, and their sense of what is worth learning." The extent…
Adams, M. (1992). Cultural inclusion in the American college classroom. In L.L.B. Border & N.V. Chism (Eds.), Teaching for diversity. New Dire
Banks (Eds.), Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives (pp. 229-250). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Banks, C.A.M. (2005). Improving multicultural education: Lessons from the intergroup education movement. New York: Teachers College Press.
Banks, J.A. (1997b). Approaches to multicultural curricular reform. In J.A. Banks & C.A.M.
There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside (Montessori theory, 2011)
No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible. All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned. Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education.
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. etrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong.…
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong. Retrieved from http://www.hoover.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6408
Gray, P. (2009). Rousseau's Errors: They Persist Today in Educational Theory. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200902/rousseau-s-errors-they-persist-today-in-educational-theory?page=2
Jean-Jacques Rousseau on nature, wholeness and education. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm
Students who have low self-efficacy will be likely to give up easily, avoid challenging tasks, focus on their failings, and quickly lose confidence at the first sign of criticism (Cherry, 2013). Bandura's social cognitive theory and the concept of self-efficacy can be applied to this classroom with regard to the differences between genders. Clearly, boys had a high sense of self-efficacy vs. The girls, and the teacher did not recognize this fact. Again, refraining from offering feedback immediately after a verbal presentation might help the students with low self-efficacy address challenges in a safe way. As they build self-efficacy, learn to enjoy the art of failing gracefully, and see difficult tasks through to the end, the girls may increase their self-efficacy. The teacher can achieve this through gentle encouragement.
Self-regulated learning is related to social learning, motivation, and self-efficacy. In this classroom, the teacher already incorporates activities that will encourage…
Cherry, K. (2013). What is self-efficacy? Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/self_efficacy.htm
The United Kingdom (and Northern Ireland) used to provide free higher education to all native Brits, but contemporary economic realities have forced UK and Northern Ireland colleges and universities to charge up to the approximate equivalent of $6,000 annually to offset the enormous cost of education. Unlike Canada, Britain provides higher education at the same price for students from Continental European nations but charges students from other nations more than the maximum allowed to be charged to UK students (Ciccone & Peri, 2006). Unlike in the U.S., there are few opportunities to earn scholarships to UK colleges and universities. Similarly, higher education in Southern Ireland costs only the approximate equivalent of $2,000 in the form of registration and related fees for students from Ireland and the European Union.
France provides (essentially) free education that is paid for by public funds and only imposes a nominal annual enrollment fee that is…
Ciccone, A. And Peri, G. "Identifying human-capital externalities: Theory with applications."
Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 73, No. 2; (2006): 381-412.
Dur, R. And Glazer, A. "Subsidizing enjoyable education" Labour Economics, Vol 15, No.
5; (2008): 1023-1039.
While both gender and race are positionalities that are difficult to hide (not that one should need or want to, anyway), sexual orientation is not necessarily something that is known about a person, and its affects on the learning process can be very different. The very fact that sexual orientation can be hidden can create a situation where the learner closes off, hiding not only their sexuality but demurring away from other opportunities of expression and engagement as well. Conversely, if an individual with an alternative sexuality was open about this fact, it could very well cause discomfort in other adult learners who have a marked generational bias against many alternative sexualities and lifestyles (Cain). Both situations could provide useful grounds for personal growth in self-acceptance and self-security, for the learner of a minority sexual orientation and for the other learners in the class, respectively (Cain).
Situated Cognition v. Experiential…
Cain, M. "Theorizing the effects of class, gender, and race on adult learning in nonformal and informal settings."
Cranton, P. (2002). "Teaching for transformation." New directions for adult and continuing education 93, pp. 63-71.
Hansman, C. (2001). "Context-based adult learning." New directions for adult and continuing education 89, pp. 63-71.
Isopahkala-Bouret, U. 92008). "Transformative learning in managerial role transitions." Studies in continuing education 30(1), pp. 69-84.
With Kim's help, I saw that I had a knack for helping people. I was able not just to be supportive of others, but I could really connect with people and help them. I also had a great knowledge of course planning for almost every major at UConn, because I liked to read through the course booklet and see what kinds of classes were out there and see the different majors and what the requisites were for each. Also, I realized that I often helped my friends with their course selections and major planning before they went to their own advisors. Therefore, I decided to major in Human Services, where my concentration was in academic advising.
Thus, in my own way, I was able to travel through each of the seven vectors identified by Chickering and elucidated by eisser, ultimately arriving at the final point: the development of purpose in…
Chickering, a.W. Education and Identity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1969.
Straub, C. And Roberts, R.F. "An Exploration of Chickering's Theory and Women's
Development." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1986, 27, pp. 216-224.
Reisser, L. "Revisiting the Seven Vectors." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1995, 36, pp.
It is now recognized that individuals learn in different ways -- they perceive and process information in various ways. The learning styles theory suggests that the way that children acquire information has more to do with whether the educational experience is slanted toward their specific style of learning than their intelligence.
The foundation of the learning styles methodology is based in the classification of psychological types. The research demonstrates that, due to heredity factors, upbringing, and present circumstantial demands, different students have an inclination to both perceive and process information differently. These different ways of learning consist of: 1) concrete or abstract perceivers, where concrete perceivers acquire information through direct experience of doing, sensing, and feeling, and abstract perceivers, instead accept new ideas through analyzing, observing and thinking; 2) active or reflective processors -- active processors understand a new experience by immediately utilizing new information, and reflective processors analyze an…
Bruner, J. (1973). Going Beyond the Information Given. New York: Norton.
Dewey, J. (1910) How We Think. Boston: Heath.
Dryden, G. And Vos, (1999) Jeannette. The Learning Revolution. Austin, TX: Jalmar
Gardner, Howard (1983) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences, New York: Basic Books.
Children who possess this curiosity will become adults that are more fully engaged in their world, and that examine their environment for better alternatives; this is the kind of adult that I would like to see eventually emerging form my continued educational practice.
While I see educators more as guides than as authoritarian figures, there does need to be a clear hierarchy established between the teacher and the learner. This does not have to be strictly and explicitly defined, but rather should come more easily from the tone with which the classroom is run and how conflicts are handled when they arise (Gordon & Burch 2003). Simply guiding rather than directly instructing works until it doesn't, in other words, and once that point is reached instructions need to be followed. Even such instances are part of the educational process when it comes to building critical thinkers and careful…
Applebaum, P. (2002). Multicultural and diversity education Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Davis-Seaver, J. & Davis, E. (2000). Critical thinking in young children. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.
Gordon, T. & Nurch, N. (2003). Teacher effectiveness training. New York: Random House.
Winch, C. (2006). Education, autonomy and critical thinking. New York: Routledge.
The empirical design and its results, not age, should determine the validity and relevance of a given educational theory. Too often, educational policy makers and the professional support system skip from level one research (theory and conjecture based on correlations) to policy. A shared knowledge base might be created from theory alone and as Grossen (nd) points out, it often is. "Most of the educational practices that become widely disseminated in our university teacher-training programs and across the nation do not even have level two research support, nevermind level three," (Grossen nd).
Greater gatekeeping is necessary to restore the integrity of the educational policy system and the professional networks that support it. Current gatekeepers do not draw their policies from science but from opinion. Almost all of the most popular educational theories touted today have little to no empirical support. Grossen lists a litany of common teaching methods and theories…
Grossen, B. (nd). What does it mean to be a research-based profession? Retrieved July 10, 2007 at http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~bgrossen/pubs/resprf.htm
Education for Economy Theory as it elates to Adult Education
In an economy motivated by improvement and information, in marketplaces betrothed in powerful opposition and steady regeneration, in a world of incredible chances and risks, in a culture facing multifaceted business, political, scientific, technological, health and environmental challenges, and in diverse workplaces and neighborhoods that center on mutual associations and social networking, the cleverness, nimbleness and skills of the American people are vital to U.S. competitiveness (21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness, 2008).
Education economics is the study of economic matters as they relate to education, comprising the demand for education and the funding and condition of education. The leading model of the demand for education is founded on human capital theory. The main idea is that undertaking education is an investment in the attainment of skills and information which will augment earnings, or offer long-range benefits such as an…
21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/documents/21st_century_skills_education_and_competitiveness_gui
Bouchard, P. (n.d.). Human Capital and the Knowledge Economy. Retreived from http://doe.concordia.ca/Downloads/PDF/Colloquium_PBouchard.pdf
Checchi, Daniele. (2006). The Economics of Education: Human Capital, Family Background
Education is the central component in forming a society that is affluent in every way. Educators make education an obtainable goal. The purpose if this discussion is to explore the personal philosophy of an educator. We will investigate; how the educator believes children learn, how his beliefs are demonstrated through hid teaching and classroom concepts, and how his teaching techniques are based on the philosophies are based on the research of various theorists.
The philosopher John Dewey said the following of education,
Education is the fundamental method of social progress and reform. All reforms which rest simply upon the law, or the threatening of certain penalties, or upon changes in mechanical or outward arrangements, are transitory and futile.... ut through education society can formulate its own purposes, can organize its own means and resources, and thus shape itself with definiteness and economy in the direction in which it wishes to…
The John Dewey Society.. http://cuip.uchicago.edu/jds/links.htm
The Educational Theory of Thomas Jefferson. New Foundations www.newfoundations.com/GALLERY/Jefferson.html2002
Howard Gardner. http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/gardner.html
The Educational Theory of John Dewey (1859-1952). New Foundations
It is important to recognize the many different areas within adult education, and what type of students these areas attract. Ultimately, for the adult education department to be successful, it must attract a wide variety of students, and keep at least some of those students coming back to continue their education in order to be successful. Adult education serves a vital role in the upper education system, and it serves a diverse amount of people, but in most institutions it also has to support itself if not turn a profit, and that is an important aspect to take into consideration. Therefore, classes must be viable to the institution, but to the student, as well, to keep attracting a wide variety of students into the program.
In addition, diverse students could form a major foundation of the program, and so, it pays to understand these diverse learners so administrators and teaching…
In a classroom setting, there are different sets of people; they may vary from ethnic backgrounds, genders and abilities (Gravells, 2008). The constant need for equality in the classroom should be addressed, and no bias towards individuals should be displayed. Diversity must be well embraced; however this is not that easy. When introducing a set of individuals to each other, they may all react in different ways, some may be reserved and some may openly reject group conformity. A way to get by this is through ice-breakers. This is a form of team building which students can take part of and get to know each other. Ice breakers break down barriers and encourage teamwork and inclusion. Inclusion in the classroom is necessary, for no student should be left out in any way, especially because of their uniqueness; for example, they come from a different country, or they are generally…
Gravells, A. (2008). Preparing to teach in the Lifelong Learning Sector, 3rd ed. Learning Matters.
What works for one child is not necessarily going to work for the next. So how can one promote the use of standardized tests as the only way to measure educational learning and success? The premise of the No Child Left Behind Act is very honorable. Each child should be taught by the best teachers that there are and each school should be held accountable for making sure that this occurs. But the measuring device that this act relies on is faulty. It places so much emphasis on the scores of the tests that all of the other educational ideas are being lost among the numbers.
Beveridge, Tina. (2010). No Child Left Behind and Fine Arts Classes. Arts Education Policy
eview. 111(1), p4-7.
Caillier, James. (2010). Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions
egarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education. Clearing House. 83(2),
Derthick, Martha and Dunn, Joshua M.…
Beveridge, Tina. (2010). No Child Left Behind and Fine Arts Classes. Arts Education Policy
Review. 111(1), p4-7.
Caillier, James. (2010). Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions
Regarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education. Clearing House. 83(2),
Education Literature eview
Whenever the disturbing news of yet another school shooting shatters the adolescence of innocent teenagers, the national media, concerned parents and strained educators alike once again focus their collective attention on the epidemic of bullying which is crippling American schools. In the wake of the Columbine High School massacre which claimed 13 lives and the 2007 Virginia Tech shootings that killed 32 students and faculty, recent tragedies like that which occurred at Sandy Hook elementary bring the consequences of rampant bullying in schools back to the forefront of the national consciousness. Although the loss of life associated with these terrible incidents, and the erosion of self-confidence that results from unchecked bullying, are tragedies that cause society to collectively mourn, it is possible that the diminished safety of our nation's schools has also reduced the ability of modern students to achieve academic excellence. While a causal link between…
Cuero, K.K., & Crim, C.L. (2008). You Wish It Could Speak for Itself. Issues in Teacher
Education, 17, 117-140. Retrieved from www.eric.edu.gov.
Eipstein, M., Atkins, M., Cullinan, D., Kutash, K., & Weaver, R. (2008). Reducing Behavior
Problems in the Elementary School Classroom. IES Practice Guide. What Works
As the educational system continues to come unde inceasing amounts of scutiny, the teache is ultimately at the fulcum of pessue. They ae equied to digest new educational theoy and sot out the wheat fom the chaff. They ae asked to manage inceasing levels of divesity in the classoom, and students who come to class acoss a widening spectum of pepaedness. At the same time, they ae expected to be a students fiend, motivato, and at times suogate paent. Technological advances in the maketplace have made it necessay fo teaches to adapt to inceasing amounts of technology in the classoom. All of these issues ae coming at a time when fedeal mandates in the No Child Left Behind act ae demanding impoved pefomance, in some cased damatically impoved pefomance.
In light of the inceased levels of demands placed on teaches and the continuing decline of academic pefomance, it is…
references for ways and means of communicating and sharing information
The pedagogy takes into account the e-learning styles of different students, 4) Learners have no option other than to "hack" their way through a lesson, picking up tips and tricks as they stumble across them The pedagogy encourages the development of team communication skills, in order to reduce information overload, and leverage team learning and improve group practices and performance.
Adapted from C. Willet (2002) "eRoom for Power Users, http://www.akgroup.com/solutions/eRoom_powerusers.pdf
Part Seven: Miscellaneous.
The final section of this book contain a collection of essays that address larger cultural issues in the framework of the classroom. Equality in races, between black, white, Hispanic, and others is still a hotly debated topic. Some want to measure equality by equality of outcome. However, in an increasing diverse culture, this measuring stick often does not contain the correct units to make a valid evaluation. Schools cannot guarantee equality of outcome between students, because the outcome is a function of the input the student applies. The equality of opportunity is the cry which must be heard in educational institutions. Whether a student is male of female, white or colored, upper middle class or urban poor, schools need to provide equal access, and equal opportunity. The results, ultimately, are up to the child to take advantage of the opportunity, and become an educated person.
Education in the Community
A major issue currently effecting culture, population, and demographics is that of wealth inequality. As the global economic downturn continues throughout the world, wealth disparity is increasing rapidly. This affects culture, population, and overall demographics in a litany of ways. First, due primarily to lower wages, families are postponing child birth. The uncertainty surrounding the future creates an atmosphere of fear. Families are now waiting until the economic climate becomes more certain before they have their children. Furthermore, the median income for middle class families has plummeted within the last 3 years. The median income for the average American household was roughly $51,000 in 2008. Now the median income is roughly $48,000. This creates problems as families are less apt to spend money are discretionary activities that form the basis of their culture. Holiday spending, for example has yet to reach its 2007 heights. Families are…
1) "Employment Situation Summary." U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Web. 14 July 2011. .
2) Rice Culture of China." China.org.cn - China News, Weather, Business, Travel & Language Courses. Web. 14 July 2011. .
3) "History of American Agriculture - Farm Machinery and Technology." Inventors. Web. 14 July 2011. .
4) Breaden, M.C. (2008, Feb 6), "Teacher-Quality Gap Examined Worldwide," Education Week, Feb. 6, 2008. Education Trust,
est Virginia's State education department has established English Language Proficiency ELP standards. A student is classified as an English Language Learner if their English proficiency is limited. In est Virginia a limited English proficient (LEP) is classified as such in accordance with the federal government definition as established by section Public Law 107-110, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.
In addition once a student has been identified as an English Language Learner, they are assessed each year using the est Virginia Test for English Language Learners (ESTELL). These assessment measures the progress that the student has made during the school year. Students who score high enough can be identified as English Language Proficient (ELP). ESTELL is the tool that schools in est Virginia use to monitor ELL over time.
How are teachers informed of ELLs language proficiency status? hat accommodations do teachers make in daily assessments to ensure…
Assessment. Retrieved September 17, 2009 from; http://wvconnections.k12.wv.us/assessment.html
e-learning for educators. Retrieved September 17, 2009 from; http://wvde.state.wv.us/pd/elearning/docs/eLearning_Course_Catalog.pdf
Programs of Study for Limited English Proficient Students. Retrieved September 17, 2009 from; http://wvconnections.k12.wv.us/elpstandards.html
Education is a basic need and a fundamental right of every human being regardless of what background or class he belongs to. An important nurturing ground for any child is his primary educational institute. This is a place where a child is groomed and prepared into a confident human being in order to face the world practically in future. However, for many young children this very place becomes a source of damaging their confidence and esteem and pushing them towards isolation by subjecting them towards constant physical and/or verbal abuse. This paper highlights such forms of bullying that is prevalent in schools not only in Canada, but in many parts around the world. The paper evaluates the actions that could and that could not be classified as an act of bullying. Furthermore, the paper also evaluates the causes and effects of bullying. Finally, the paper discusses the ways in which…
Education, and that too, a quality education is a right of every human being regardless of gender, race, cast, color, creed or socio economic background. Education plays an important role in the grooming, upbringing, nurturing and mental nourishment of a person. Good education does not only guarantee good living, but also builds one's confidence and esteem. Unfortunately, the double standards and inequality in the provision of education has led to a lot of social problems. These inequalities lead to serious social gaps, and in many cases, the ones who are not among the privileged lot, face social discrimination and are treated as inferiors. There are various forms of inequality in the education system that exists. These include inequality in terms of class and economical background, racial and religious discrimination and discrimination on account of one's mental or physical abilities. The victims of these double standards usually fail to get into the same institution as their superior and privileged counter parts. However, even if they somehow manage to make into those superior institutions, they many a times are subjected to severe discrimination, both intentional, and unintentional, which makes them feel alienated and leads to their isolation. These issues, in turn have serious psychological impact on the victim (Pivik, McComas & Laflamme, 2002). Many a times, this discrimination takes an extreme form and as a result, offends and abuses the victim. This is referred to as bullying.
Bullying is one of the most common, and at the same time,
The current state of institutions of higher learning is interesting and complex. The structure of universities throughout the world brings into question the traditional purpose of universities juxtaposed to the current climate at universities. In particular there is a great emphasis placed on the state of business education at Universities. An article entitled, "Scholarship in university business schools" written by Craig et al., 1999 explores issues of the changing university structure. The purpose of this essay is to provide a critical review of the conclusions made in the article. I will then discuss whether or not I agree with some or all of the conclusions, findings and opinions of the author.
The article takes into consideration different assertions made by academics throughout the years related to defining traditional universities and corporate universities.
I didn't find a clear definition of what a traditional university is in the article.…
Craig, R.J., Clarke F.L., Amernic, J.H.. (1999) Scholarship in university business schools Cardinal Newman, creeping corporatism and farewell to the "disturber of the peace"? Accounting Auditing & Accountability Journal, 12 ( 5), pp. 510-524.
According to both testimonials and statistics, educated people report higher levels of personal happiness and job satisfaction. In her book, Nickel and Dimed, comfortably wealthy author Barbara Ehrenreich reports being taken out for a "$30 lunch and some understated French country-style place" and discussing "future articles I might write for [the editor of Harpoer's] magazine" (1). It is lunching with this editor from Harpers that she decides to take on a monumental task: leaving her posh environment and working in a blue collar job in order to prove, or not prove, that such one can get by making so little.
It is not only her work, but also her ability to take on such a task that proves the importance of education in both personal happiness and job satisfaction. Here, in the first few lines of the introduction, Ehrenreich alludes to her education and the choices it has allowed her…
Ehrenreich, Barbara. Nickel and Dimed. New York: Holt Paperbacks, 2002.
Gamoran, Adam. Standards-Based Reform and the Poverty Gap. Washington D.C.:
Brookings Institute Press, 2007.
In this report on the No Child Left Behind Act, author Adam Gamoran looks
Standardized tests do not do well in measuring the emerging content standards, and over use of this type of assessment often leads to instruction that stresses only basic knowledge and skills. Although basic skills may be important goals in education, they are often overstressed in an effort to raise standardized test scores. Basic skills and minimum competencies become the main goal of schools and teachers as accountability and minimum competency exams concentrate on these areas (Critical Issue: ethinking Assessment and Its ole in Supporting Educational eform, 1995).
ecently, educators, policymakers, and parents have begun to recognize that minimums and basics are no longer sufficient and are calling for a closer match between the skills students learn in school and the skills they will need to succeed in the world. Schools are now expected to help students develop skills and competencies that apply to real life, genuine situations, and schools are…
A group that is, by its very nature, mentally defective, will also easily be viewed as incapable of supporting itself without help - a strain on the larger society. In terms of modern day American society, this could be seen as declaring that African-Americans, and other similarly impoverished and marginalized groups, are likely to remain forever within the care of the social welfare system. Believers in such ideas might easily raise the question - why bother with caring for these people at all? More to the point; however, is the question of whether there is really anything wrong with most of these individuals at all? Clearly, a large part of their "mental disabilities" derive from internal and external assumptions about what it means to be African-American, or a member of some similarly tagged minority group. A multicultural approach to the educational process helps to guarantee that all individuals are ranked…
Allen, J., & Hermann-Wilmarth, J. (2004). Cultural Construction Zones. Journal of Teacher Education, 55(3), 214+.
Block, P., Balcazar, F., & Keys, C. (2001). From Pathology to Power: Rethinking Race, Poverty and Disability. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 12(1), 18.
A two-year degree can offer an affordable foundation towards a Bachelor's degree through a community college, however, it is important to have students take courses that can easily transfer to a university when the time comes. Educators and administrators should be mindful of the importance of guiding students to choose courses wisely with a focus on transferring.
What it all Means
The changes are here to stay. Students with Bachelor's degrees are more economically successful than those who do not attain them. esearch concludes that the disparity between incomes of those who are educated and those who are not, is only going to get wider until there is serious class distinction between the two lifestyles.
Educators nationwide can work to bridge that gap at every level of education. Those charged with educating grades kindergarten through high school, need to focus on learning styles, and the importance of teaching students how…
Becker, Christine (2004) Panel examines link between jobs, education.
Nation's Cities Weekly "
Bernake, Harold (2007) RPT - Bernanke: Education Will Cut Income Gap
Need for Study
Roles and Responsibilities of Assistant Principals
Historical Perspective of Assistant Principal Roles
Prior and Current Research Studies of Assistant Principal Roles
Assistant Principals and Use of Instructional Leadership
Transforming Assistant Principals into Instructional Leaders: Key Obstacles
General consensus indicates that the role of the assistant principals should move beyond its traditional clerical and disciplinary heritage to evolve to instructional leaders that deal with curriculum development, teacher and instructional effectiveness, clinical supervision, staff development and teacher evaluation. Yet, historical and current research shows that there has been little change in the assistant principal occupation since its origin in 1920. This paper uncovers research that tries to reconcile why the role change that practically everyone seems to want to happen hasn't been that quick to occur. As these reasons are better identified and understood, perhaps the twenty first century will see a positive transformation in the role of…
Anderson, L., & Pigford, A. (1987). Removing administrative impediments to instructional improvement efforts. Theory Into Practice, 26(1), 67-71.
Calabrese, Raymond (1987). A comparative analysis of alienation among secondary school administrators. Planning and Changing, 18(2), 90-97.
Chell, J. (1994) Introducing principals to the role of instructional leadership. SSTA Research Centre Report 95(14), 1-73.
Fullan, M. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press.
3. Hispanic, White Communities Forge Ties in Alabama (2003) a UA Center for Public Television and Radi9o Production. Online available at:
4. McDade, Sharon a. (2002) Definition of a Case Study. Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning - North Carolina State. Online available at http://www.ncsu.Edu/fctl/Programs/Instructional- Development/Teaching _Materials / CaseStudies/Materials / Case studyDefintion.pdf# search =%22 CASE%20STUDY % 3A%20DEFINIT ION%20OF %22.
5. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
6. English Language Development and Multicultural Education (2005) University of Alabama. Berkeley University Online available at http://crede.berkeley.edu/tools/directory2-/PDF/esl.pdf#search=%22Alabama%3A%20Elementary%20ESL%20SERVICES%22.
7. English as a Second Language (ESL) (2004) Baldwin County Public Schools; Bay Minette, Alabama. Online available at http://www.bcbe.org/Default.asp?DivisionID='824'&DepartmentID='958'.
8. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
9. Alabama (2006) KYTESOL Newsletter Vol.…
11. Alabama: Featured Facts (2005) From the SREB Factbook on Higher Education. Online available at http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:Mb3MWbM-0b4J:www.sreb.org/main/EdData/FactBook/2005StateReports/Alabama05.pdf+Alabama+Hispanic+education&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=6
12. Alabama Education Policy Primer: Chapter 2 Achievement (2005) Education Foundation - Online available at; http://www.aplusala.org/primer/ch2.asp
Education for Hispanic Students in the Elementary Schools of Alabama
John Gatto is one of the few teachers who are speaking out against the current educational culture who knows what he is talking about. After teaching the state of New York, which has one of the highest per student budgets in the nation, uses many progressive teaching theories, and still produces some of the lowest test scores in the nation, his frustration comes from a wealth of experience. Teachers who start their careers with a sincere desire to educate students have their hands are tied by multi-cultural disconnectedness and a socialist teaching culture which discourages individual accomplishment. The frustration expressed by Mr. Gatto (Berlau, 2003) is likely only the tip of the iceberg representing the depth of the nationwide problem. From Atlanta to Minneapolis, news papers are filled with stories of failing students, failing schools, and school systems which are confused as to the source of the problem. Maybe…
Pink, Daniel H. 'I'm a Saboteur.'., Fast Company, 11-01-2000, pp 242.
Asghar, I. (1995) Constructivism as Substitute for Memorization in Learning: Meaning Is Created by Learner. Education, Vol. 116
Berlau, J. (2003, Sept 30) Teachers Discard the Union Label; as the National Education Association Pursues a Liberal Agenda, Many of Its Rank and File Refuse to Toe the Line and Have Formed Their Own Teacher-Advocacy Groups. Insight on the News.
HAINES, ERRIN. EDUCATION NOTEBOOK. (02-07-2002) The Atlanta Journal and Constitution, pp J3.
Therefore, instead of requiring non-science majors to enroll in general studies science courses such as biology, chemistry, or "physics for non-majors," the only mandatory science instruction should be courses that relate more directly to useful information. For example, obesity is a virtual epidemic in American society; therefore, a science class in practical nutrition makes mush more sense than the traditional focus of science courses for non-majors. Similarly, computer use classes would be more useful, as would classes emphasizing the logical scientific method rather than substantive science subject matter. Perhaps if mandatory scientific courses related more directly to useful information and to beneficial intellectual processes, American presidential election politics would not feature potential candidates with college (and advanced academic) degrees who still believe that Creationism or "Intelligent Design" are more plausible explanations for the existence of human life than Darwinian evolutionary theory.
As pertains to the study of foreign languages, it…
Carter, J. (2001) an Hour Before Daylight: Memories of a Rural Boyhood. New York: Touchstone.
Gardner, H. (1991) the Unschooled Mind: How Children Think and How Schools Should Teach. New York: Basic Books.
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
The traditional prototype was the employee driving to their place of employ and repeating the same tasks daily for thirty years. Today's workplace is dynamic and ever-changing and therefore requires the same of employees. Professional development, once an unknown and unconsidered concept, is now an integral part of any organization.
Yi has written an insightful piece. With each passing day the demands of the workplace increase. New types of jobs are created while other types of jobs disappear. For today's graduates a four-year degree is only the beginning of a person's educational experience. Training to update knowledge and skills will be continual throughout a career. For all of these reasons this makes Yi's article timely and relevant and adds to the growing body of research on the topic of adult learning. I expect this article will be both a basis for future research as well as a reference piece for…
Driscoll, M.(1994).Psychology of learning for instruction. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Ertmer, P., & Newby, TJ. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly 6 (4): 50 -- 71.
Schwen, T.M., Kaiman, H.K., Hara, N., & Kisling, E.L. (1998). Potential knowledge management contributions to human performance technology research and practice. Educational Research and Development. 46(4), 73-89.
According to a British Study conducted on all students born in the first week of March 1958, and following them through adolescence and on until the age of twenty-three:
There were no average differences between grouped and ungrouped schools because within the grouped schools, high-group students performed better than similar students in ungrouped schools, but low-group students did worse. Students in remedial classes performed especially poorly compared to ungrouped students with similar family backgrounds and initial achievement. With low-group losses offsetting high-group gains, the effects on productivity were about zero, but the impact on inequality was substantial." (Gamoran 1992)
As Gamoran points out, grouping or "tracking" tended to accentuate a student's skills or lack thereof. High-ability students benefited from segregation, but low-ability students did even worse than before. And while low-ability pupils received no benefit whatsoever from the tracking system, neither did their schools. The net gain in performance among…
Barth, R.S. (2001). Teacher Leader. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(6), 443.
Brown Center on Education Policy, the Brookings Institution. (2000). "Part 2: A Closer Look at Mathematics Achievement." How Well are American Students Learning? Brown Center Report on American Education: 2000.
An Analysis of the book "Life in Schools" by Peter McLaren
Peter McLaren is a well-known proponent for enforcing social reform and teaching and discussing about new issues in education and critical theory, which is the critical pedagogy and multicultural education. His extensive works regarding the study of critical pedagogy has already made him popular and well received by students, scholars, and readers who are in line of thinking with Paulo Freire, one of the most famous educational thinkers who revolutionized the way scholars treat the problem of education in the contemporary American society. The book "Life in Schools: An Introduction to Critical Pedagogy in the Foundation of Education," (4th edition), published by Allyn & Bacon, is a reflection of McLaren's belief about the radical change the educational system needed, and the social reform the educational system needs in order relieve the poor, 'oppressed' people from suffering the commercialization…
' Standardized test preparation also takes time away from creative activities that can really engage students with learning, and may even better reinforce skills needed in business, like critical thinking, writing, and working with others. Often teachers know better than administrators or managerial professionals what is needed in their classroom. One of the problems with education is that although schools superficially seem to be structured on a hierarchy similar to a corporation with a board of directors, not all managerial principles apply to schools. Schools are not factories and students are not end products. A teacher may know better what a classroom needs than a principal, a principal may know better the challenges of his or her school than someone comparing the school's results to a very different institution in another county. Finally, slashing costs is not the ultimate goal of the Board of Directors, as it is in a…
Imagine that you are providing professional development on these topics. Which strategies from your reading would you use? Which strategies would you omit if time constraints did not permit you to use all of them? How would you assess their understanding and implementation of the training?
Adjustable assignments, compacting and grouping are used in conjunction with one another to improve the quality of education. This is accomplished through using each method to increase the student's comprehension of key concepts. In differentiated instruction, this is addressing individual styles of learning through various formats. (Gregory, 2007, pp. 71- 86)
Adjustable assignments are when there is a focus on understanding different skill sets of the student and identifying potential strengths / weaknesses. The way that this can be implemented, is by pre-assessing individual capabilities through: quizzes and other formats. Compacting is when specific curriculum is presented to the student that will address their…
Brown, D. (2004). Differentiated Instruction. American Secondary Education, 32 (3), 34 -- 64.
Desimone, L. (2004). Are We Asking the Right Questions? Educational Evaluation and Policy, 26 (1), 1- 22.
Gregory, G. (2007). Differentiated Instructional Strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Gregory, G. (2003). Differentiated Instructional Strategies in Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Nature of Probable Research
The South Bronx section of New York is among the poorest and most diverse school districts in America. Crime and teenage pregnancy have plagued the primarily Hispanic and Afro-American Bronx community for decades. However, in recent years there has been a concerted effort to curb the dire social conditions and education system. For the purposes of our research we will focus on the efforts to improve the educational system through before school and after school programs.
The probable research will involve studying the effects of before school and after school programs on a low performing middle school in the South Bronx section of New York City. The research will examine the manner in which these programs have been implemented and the students that benefit from the programs. The investigation will also discuss the conditions present in some of the middle schools in the South Bronx…
Worth, Robert. (1999) Guess Who Saved the South Bronx? Big Government. Washington Monthly. Volume: 31. Issue: 4. Page Number: 26.
Zinsmeister, Karl (2002) The insufferable wonder. The American Enterprise. Volume:
13. Issue: 4. Page Number: 4+.
It appears that the school systems are failing here in America. Every year test score trend downward as a continual new stream of information floods into the public consciousness. More schooling and more intensive schooling efforts have shown little if any progress in recent decades and before any more money or energy is thrown at these problems indiscriminately, a tactical pause to contemplate the situation seems in order.
New problems arise everyday in the schooling system as the complexity of the world increases seemingly exponentially. The purpose of this research is to take a view point that steps back at the situation and looks at general trends and questions the very purposes of compulsory school. To do this properly it is necessary to take an unbiased and objective reexamination of the efficacy of public schooling.
By all measurable standards of decency, it appears American society is in some…
Boli, J., Ramirez, F.O., & Meyer, J.W. (1985). Explaining the origins and expansion of mass education. Comparative education review, 29(2), 145-170.
Casillas, A., Robbins, S., Allen, J., Kuo, Y.L., Hanson, M.A., & Schmeiser, C. (2012). Predicting early academic failure in high school from prior academic achievement, psychosocial characteristics, and behavior. Journal of educational psychology, 104(2), 407.
Rothstein, R. (1993). The myth of public school failure. The American Prospect, 4(13), 20-34.
The locus in this study would be to take the concepts of what is perceived as the duties of the resource officers and using these to determine what it is they can do to alleviate some of the concerns that face middle schools today.
Both the focus and the locus help the researcher to formulate the questions that they hope to answer by doing the research that they are looking at. Devising good questions from the beginning will help ensure that the appropriate research is conducted and good results are obtained.
SUBJECT: Generating an analytic memo
A good analytic memo should focus on a single term or idea within the research that is being done. The memo should explore the concepts characteristics while exploring the ways in which these characteristics might vary within different contexts.
In the study regarding resource officers' perceptions of their duties in suburban middle schools one…
Conceptual. (n.d.). Retrieved May 9, 2009, from The Free Dictionary Web site:
Empirical. (n.d.). Retrieved May 9, 2009, from The Free Dictionary Web site:
Symbolic interactionalism thus posits a much more dynamic view of human learning, rather than the rote reception of societal norms in functionalism, or functionalism's belief in education to shape human minds in a pre-determined fashion. But it also is a more positive view of education than conflict theory, because even if there are problematic ideas in the way knowledge is conveyed, human beings may be creative enough to reconfigure preexisting systems of meaning in a liberating fashion. Also it is the individual who chooses how his or her personal liberation and development should take place, not the teacher. "Symbolic interactionalism emphasized several important dimensions of knowledge management through schooling: in school classroom interaction; by the professionalizing of the teaching process; through the bureaucratization of school organization; and, at the cultural level, where the links between the sociology of education and the sociology of knowledge are more immediately visible" (Marshall 1998).…
Four 20th century theories of education." Excerpt from George F. Kneller. Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. 1962. Excerpt available 2 Jan 2008 at http://people.morehead-st.edu/fs/w.willis/fourtheories.html
McClellan, Kenneth. (2000). "Functionalism." Sociological Theories. Grinnell University.
Retrieved 2 Jun 2008 at http://web.grinnell.edu/courses/soc/s00/soc111-01/IntroTheories/Functionalism.html
Marshall, Gordon. (1998). "Sociology of education." Retrieved 2 Jun 2008 from the Dictionary of Sociology
In this regard, the instructor's individual characteristics should be secondary to the readiness of the instructor to recognize individual learning strengths and needs in the students.
Diversity is often taken as a term which refers particularly to difference in race, ethnicity, gender, religion or sexual orientation, to name just a few categories of cultural distinction. And indeed, it does refer to this within the context of education. However, there is yet another level to the discussion on diversity which concerns education in particularly, relating to the individual nature of learning styles. It is therefore necessary for the teacher to channel a recognition of learning styles and cultural diversity into a unified approach to the classroom. This tends to reinforce the position taken throughout this research, which is that the successful teacher will, therefore, tend to an educational strategy which diverts from strict academic prerogatives and instead approaches its subjects…
Chang, J.; De Silva, a.D.; Dien, T.T.; Mccarty, T.C.; Nordlander, a & Perez, B. (2004). Sociocultural Contexts of Language and Literacy. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Haselhurst, G. (1997). Aristotle Metaphysics. Space and Motion.com.
Slavin, R.E. (2007). Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice. Prentice Hall.
Steup, M. (2005). Epistemology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Philosophy is an extensive branch of knowledge that deals with the notions of reality and existence with a solid correlation to wisdom. Therefore, education philosophy is an applied field of specification dealing with conventional development of educative standards, for example, from ethics. For years, the development of education has undergone several transitions from fields of concern and especially through theoretical pedagogic philosophies. These theories and philosophies have had a significant implication towards shaping normative education philosophies and personal beliefs towards education nowadays. This context draws attention to two philosophers whose substantial efforts in improving education depended greatly on their contributions; Socrates and Plato.
Socrates was an ancient educator, termed as the father of Western philosophy. Although he was a controversial philosopher, his tactics and wise sayings concerning life were always acknowledged. He developed several philosophies concerning education. Under them, he asserted the importance of self-education based…
Curren, R. (2008). A Companion to the Philosophy of Education. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.
Lodge, R.C. (2000). Plato's Theory of Education. Volume 8. New York: Routledge.
Fifth, the NCLB is devoid of any meaningful consequences for failing to achieve federal objectives other than the publication of such failures in conjunction with the rights of parents to request transfers of their children to better-performing academic institutions (Darling-Hammond 2004). Critics have suggested that the most likely result of enforcement of such limited consequences for noncompliance is the overcrowding of institutions who fulfill the federal requirements to their detriment by virtue of diminution in their ability to meet the educational needs of increased enrollment of low-achieving students (Sonnenblick 2008). Likewise, the NCLB Act authorizes increased federal funding of home schooling and for-profit institutions that further reduces necessary funds to public institutions.
Sixth, whereas George H. Bush articulated the connection between adequate nutrition and access to healthcare and preparedness to learn in school, the NCLB Act ignores this element entirely. Many critics and career educators believe that any proposed educational…
Adams, D. & Hamm, M. (1994). New Designs for Teaching and Learning: Promoting Active Learning in Tomorrow's Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169. Forgary, R. (1997) Brain Compatible Classrooms. Andover, MA: Skylight Publishing.
Nearly all failing schools fit this description (Six Secrets of School Success 2000)." If a country is to overcome educational problems, they must take into account the mentality that poverty creates and how that mentality deteriorates the wherewithal to do well in school.
Although poverty is the issue that affects most underachieving schools, the idea of the super head was conceived as the answer to poorly performing schools. According to Marshall (2001), recruiting exceptional headmasters to improve schools was begun with what was once known as the Hammersmith County School (Marshall, 2001). The local authority school was located in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham (Marshall, 2001). The neighboring schools were grant maintained and church schools (Marshall, 2001). The Hammersmith School was being closed because of poor results and OFSTED reports (Marshall, 2001). However, instead of closing the school the administration decided to reopen it and called it the…
Education. 2004. Official Site of the Labor Party. retrieved January 15, 2005 from;
Mixed feelings from 'super heads'. retrieved January 15, 2005 from; http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/2132516.stm
Superheads' call for £120k a year, (2000). retrieved January 15, 2005 from; http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/914516.stm
ather than a fixed set of rules and objective standards that are impossible to develop and apply in any case, this combined approach would presently a consciously subjective view of education in specific instances, with certain knowingly constructed variable examined and described particularly in their relationships to each other as elements of social phenomena. That is, the subjective nature of education itself is more open to examination by modes of inquiry that are aware of their own subjectivity, as the standards of objectivity that are held as paramount in traditional science are simply inapplicable and wholly inadequate to an examination of education.
Natural and real experiments depend upon the existence of a rigid framework of previously agreed upon realities and truths, for which further casual relationships can be inferred. Not only does the lack of theoretical agreement in the study of education preclude the use of these experimental methodologies…
Mjoset, L. The contexualist Approach to Social Science Methodology. In Byrne (2009) (Ed) the SAGE Handbook of Case-Based Methods. London: Sage.
Hacking, I (1983) Representing and intervening: Introductory topics in the philosophy of natural science. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press
Hacking, I. (2000). The social construction of what? Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: Harvard University Press.
Shadish, Cook, and Cambell. 2002. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Gardner, like Emerson, Russell, and Einstein, also criticizes the substantive choice of subject matter and the ineficiency with which traditional educational methods inspire genuine understanding or long-term retention of what is learned that way.
I think that we teach way too many subjects and we cover way too much material and the end result is that students have a very superficial knowledge, as we often say, a mile wide and an inch deep. Then once they leave school, almost everything's been forgotten. And I think that school needs to change to have a few priorities and to really go into those priorities very deeply." (Gardner 3007)
Similarly, Gardner (2007) emphasizes the importance of transforming the educational environment from the accumulative approach of traditional education and the NCL approach to one that mirrors the suggestions of Emerson, Russel, and Einstein:
we need to have the individuals who are involved in education,…
BIBLIOGRAPHY Einstein, a. (1936) on Education (From Ideas and Opinions.) New York: Crown Emerson, R.W., (1884) on Education (From a World of Ideas). Friere, P. (1972) the Banking Concept of Education (From a World of Ideas)
Gardner, H. (2000) the Disciplined Mind: Beyond Facts and Standardized Tests: The K-12 Education That Every Child Deserves.
New York: Penguin Putnam.
Gardner, H. (2007): Multiple Intelligences and New Forms of Assessment. Edutopia: What Works in Public Education the George Lucas Educational Foundation. Retrieved June 30, at http://www.edutopia.org/howard-gardner-interview#graph5
Russell, B. (1926) the Functions of a Teacher (From the Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell. London: Routledge.
Transitions occur in many different educational, societal, and familial situations. Among the more common situations where problems of adjustment might be encountered are changing from one school to another, a change in grades, the shift to regular participation in afterschool programs and childcare, and going from school (non- special education) into the workplace.
(Taylor & Adelman, 2003, p. 122) Various programs have been devised, and services provided, that meet each of these import transitional needs. Children with emotional or behavioral disorders may be as much in need of transition services and programs as those challenged by physical or cognitive disabilities. Children with such conditions are frequently moved from school to school, or form program to program, either through the actions of their own families, or in an attempt to find the right form of treatment for the difficulties they face. These constant changes may, in and of themselves, result in…
Benz, M.R., Lindstrom, L., Unruh, D., & Waintrup, M. (2004). Sustaining Secondary Transition Programs in Local Schools. Remedial and Special Education, 25(1), 39+.
Field, S., & Hoffman, a. (2002). Lessons Learned from Implementing the Steps to Self-Determination Curriculum. Remedial and Special Education, 23(2), 90+.
In various trials in which learners were presented with different formats of video- only, auditory-only, combinations of both, and formats combining each with note-taking by students, researchers have determined that results are comparable, although more so for superior students than for average students. In that regard, average students learn better from repeated viewing in conjunction with audio-based information while superior students benefited equally regardless of the precise combination of those variables.
The author presents the results of research documenting the extent to which developers of computer-based video instruction may be overemphasizing the value of technical sophistication and suggests that the relative value of video-based lessons is substantially the same without the inclusion of all the bells and whistles available by virtue of the latest computer-based information formats. On the other hand, the author reports that vocational task-specific training effectiveness is somewhat more dependent on more sophisticated interactive information formats.
This cultural enrichment would provide nutritional information all the children could use when with their families or in their neighborhoods.
constructionist teacher will find examples of careful and systematic thinking about how children learn that can guide him or her in the classroom. Piaget and Vygotsky (Gredler, 2002) give us solid examples of what children are ready for and at what ages they are most likely to benefit from specific kinds of instruction. Piaget's theories help the constructionist teacher be aware that although children think about what they're doing, they go through cognitive developmental stages. Respecting the types of cognitive thinking a child is likely to use at a given age is another way to teach the child respectfully -- by neither teaching below their abilities or by demanding that they perform as little adults.
Maria Montessori might serve as an excellent role model for such a teacher. Montessori looked…
Author not available, "Montessori, Maria." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2004.
Gredler, Margaret E. 2002. "A review and analysis of constructivism for school-based practice." School Psychology Review, Jan. 12.
Shaughnessy, Michael F. 1994. "Educating for understanding (Howard Gardner Interview)." Phi Delta Kappan, March 1.
3. How did the American professoriate change and in what ways did the American Association of University Professors contribute to that change?
During this time there was a new idea surrounding academic professionalism that was essential to the creation of a university professoriate. The gradations of rank and promotion which included instructor, assistant professor, associate professor, and full professor, became the standard. The ranks were tied to the institution that is conferring tenure and the privileges of academic freedom to professors who had gained promotion. Academic freedom was institutionalized beyond the individual campus with the creation of the American Association of University Professors. This group intended to provide assurance and redress for faculty members who claimed that their academic rights had be violated by irate presidents or irritable board members (Thelin, 2004, 128).
The formation of the American Association of University Professors paved the way for tremendous change. The American…
Rudloph, F. (1990). The American College and University. Athens: The University of Georgia
Thelin, J.R. (2004). A History of American Higher Education. Baltimore: The John Hopkins
That means that educational theories and models need to change if we want to catch up and surpass these nations. It is also a well-known fact that Asian children often do better in school, and are more motivated than many other children. A look at the National Spelling Bee and other similar competitions tend to show a lot of Asian, homeschooled, and private school students, and perhaps this is where education should change in the future.
Schools should model themselves after private schools, which can sometimes be stricter and more geared to academics than public schools. Many people believe the quality of public education has declined, and while there are some that say this is not true, it seems at least in some areas, that education has declined, while teacher's salaries have increased and class sizes have been reduced. Clearly, something is not right, and America's children are playing for…
This gave each member of the group a sense of affiliation within the group. Everyone felt that they were an important member of the group and their opinions and ideas counted. Because of this affiliation then each member of the group felt as if they had some power. They had influence and power over many of the important decisions that were being made, including those having to do with staffing. The affiliation and power within the group then led to affection. The members of the group truly cared about their jobs and about those that they worked with. Because of this every member of the group gave a hundred percent in order to make sure that there group was successful. This all lead to the fact that each group experienced prestige in the fact that they did their best to produce the best quality work that they could.
Characteristics of a group. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.brookes.ac.uk/services/ocsld/resources/small-group/sgt107.html
Group Cohesiveness. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.pitt.edu/~groups/kabindex.html
Sooialo, S. (2010). Does high cohesiveness in a group lead to higher productivity? Retrieved
When they see the library staff in this light, teachers are more willing to work with others in improving the effectiveness of their lesson planning (by incorporating more tools and techniques). (Gregory, 2003, pp. 100-109)
Task 4: Change can be difficult for some. Think about a change you would like to see in your educational or work environment. How would you implement this change? Consider and discuss the possible resistance that you may encounter from your professional community. How would you support them throughout the change process? How would you overcome any resistance to the change?
A change that can be implemented inside an educational environment is to unify the approach educators are using in reaching out to students. What normally happens is most teachers have different theories and practices they are following. This can be problematic as some of the most experience educators may be reluctant to alter their…
Adams, C. (2006). Differeniating Instruction. Waco, TX: Puff Rock Press.
Bender, W. (2009). Differentiating Math Instruction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Demmitt, C. (2007). Evidence-Based Counseling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Dryer, W. (2007). Team Building. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
English for academic purposes approach focuses on the reader, too, not as a specific individual but as the representative of a discourse community, for example, a specific discipline or academia in general. The reader is an initiated expert who represents a faculty audience. This reader, particularly omniscient and all-powerful, is likely to be an abstract representation, a generalized construct, one reified from an examination of academic assignments and texts (aimes, 1991).
Partnership Teaching is not just an extension of co-operative teaching. Co-operative teaching consists of a language support teacher and class teacher jointly planning a curriculum and teaching strategies which will take into account the learning needs of all pupils. The point is to adjust the learning situation in order to fit the pupils. Partnership Teaching is more than that. It builds on the notion of co-operative teaching by linking the work of two teachers with plans for curriculum improvement…
Davison, Chris. (2006). Collaboration Between ESL and Content Teachers: How Do We Know
When We Are Doing It Right? International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 9(4), 454-475.
Grover, Sam. (2009). Methods for Teaching TESOL. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from e-How
Web site: http://www.ehow.com/way_5403572_methods-teaching-tesol.html
Other models for the proposed school include increased use of hands-on active learning instead of the traditional reliance on the passive learning-by-lecture model and rote memorization of facts from textbooks.
Technology would be integrated in two specific ways: (1) the use of electronic media and computers to increase interest and learning in traditional academic areas; and (2) with the goal of providing practical training in the use of technology systems and the development of high-tech skills that are necessary for professional success and that also ensure the continued academic success in higher education or immediate employability after high school graduation where appropriate. Activity Plan, Physical Organization, Discipline, and Play: The envisioned program would implement the Multiple Intelligences approach to academic learning in the manner described and successfully demonstrated by Gardner (2000). ecause the school would emphasize early exposure to substantive lessons presented through intelligence-type-specific modules, the physical organization would be…
Adams, D. & Hamm, M. (1994). New Designs for Teaching and Learning: Promoting
Active Learning in Tomorrow's Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Gardner, H. (1993). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York:
Basic Books. Gardner, H. (2000). The Disciplined Mind: Beyond Facts and Standardized Tests: The K-12 Education That Every Child Deserves. New York: Penguin Putnam.
Generally I feel the easiest and bets way of memorizing a poem is to hear it out aloud and form a mental picture of the sea described in the poem and the activities of the sea.
Types of ehearsals
In trying to memorize information, there are basically two types of rehearsals that people engage in; the elaborative rehearsal and the maintenance rehearsal.
The elaborative rehearsal is a detailed manner of memorizing concepts by relating the words to the meaning and even their relations to other concepts within the discipline. This is as opposed to constantly repeating the word or the chunk of information in order to memorize (Craik, F.I.M., & Lockhart, .S. (1972). For instance looking at a word like 'cell' you look up the meaning in the anatomy dictionary, you also find out what the purpose in the body is, you also look at the shape and draw it…
Craik, F.I.M., & Lockhart, R.S. (1972). Levels of processing. A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 11, 671-684. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from http://penta.ufrgs.br/edu/telelab/3/elaborat.htm
Jeffry Ricker, (2013). Working Memory and Elaborative Rehearsal. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from http://sccpsy101.com/home/chapter-5/section-10/
Jennifer Mishra, (n.d). Correlating Musical Memorization Styles and Perceptual Learning Modalities. Retrieved February 23, 2013 from http://www-usr.rider.edu/~vrme/v9n1/vision/Mishra%20Final.pdf