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6% total attendance) while dropout rates decreased by amazing percentiles (300% decrease from 8 to 1.9%). This is not only in Maryland's schools but in others as well.
III. Outcomes Reported in National Reports
The work entitled "Engendering School Improvement Through Strung Instructional Leadership" a study of the Sale Elementary School and Columbus Municipal School District in Columbus, Mississippi, by author Gregory E. oods states that "effective schooling research identified schooling practices and characteristics were the focus of "the outcomes of measured practices in the classroom in relation to the achievement of and improvement in leadership in the instructional prices of the teachers. Through District-wide effort the school, with a 51.2% African-American population and 48 percentage of other the 5,840 students enrolled passed a 17 million bond for funding reorganization in the district and through efforts such as the school librarian, Virginia Lindsey, who gained a grant for the school…
Shaughnessy, Joan M. (2001) Preparing High school Students for the World of Work in a Tech Prep Program - St. Mary's County Public Schools "school Improvement Research Series (SIRS) Online available at5
Woods, Gregory E. (2001) "Engendering School Improvement Through Strung Instructional Leadership" National Institute for Urban School Improvement Commission a study of the Sale Elementary School and Columbus Municipal School District in Columbus, Mississippi.
Educational l System: School Improvement
First of all, in 2004, only 9% of the federal budget as a whole went to educating our own; a whopping 42% of our tax dollars went to support the war effort. How does the administration expect to improve the success of our educational system when it is not even a mere concern monetarily? (www.fcnl.org,2005). uccess within a crumbling system requires money.
In addition to the lack of funding for our nation's next generation, the introduction of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) during President Bush's first term in office is wasting the little 9% of tax dollars that are allocated to education. The administration of the many new exams that are required for schools to take to receive funding take a great deal of money to administer in exam materials, preparation, disbursement, assessment, and reporting of the scores. That does not even take into account the amount of time wasted…
1. Friends Committee on National Legislation. April 2005. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on April 27, 2005, at http://www.fcnl.org/pdfs/taxday_05.pdf .
educational system in America is facing heavy criticism (eich, 2010). This criticism centers on the effectiveness of the system and its capacity to educate the nation's children. Critics argue that America's children continue to record poor scores in standardized testing and that graduation rates continue to decline. On one side are those who are arguing that drastic changes are needed while the opposing side argues that the American education system is performing adequately (Strauss, 2006).
One of the major criticisms of the American system of education is that it is too bureaucratic in structure (Douglas, 1991). One of the causes that the system has become so bureaucratic is its heavy reliance upon funding from governmental agencies. This reliance results in schools being required to conform to layers and layers of regulation and compliance rules that divert attention from the primary goal which is to educate. Teachers and administrators spend inordinate…
Douglas, J.D. (1991). Only Freedom of Education can solve America Bureaucratic Crisis of Education. Washington, D.C.: Cato Institute.
Knox, N. (2005, August 11). Religion takes a back seat in Western Europe. USA Today .
Newport, F. (2009). Religious Indentity: States Differ Widely. Washington, D.C.: Gallup.
Pew Research Center. (2010). U.S. Religious Knowledge Survey. Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center.
educational system is failing?
In his manifesto, Earth in Mind, environmental activist and educator David . Orr states that his pro-environmentalist policies and his philosophy of education are united. Going against the current tendency, even amongst liberal educators, to embrace standardized testing as a measurement of scholastic success, Orr instead emphasizes the need to create more mindful consumers of the earth's resources. Our failure to produce environmentally savvy students is why our education system is failing the planet. In the field of biology "because of the recent overemphasis on molecular biology and genetic engineering, which are more lucrative but not more important," the study of ecology and environmental biology is being lost, and systems of "vernacular" and indigenous knowledge or 'folk culture' are being completely rejected as worthy of scientific value, and are instead relegated to anthropological curiosities (Orr 9-10).
The problem is not that the United States is failing…
Orr, David W. Earth in Mind. Island Press, 1994.
Klein and the Educational System in New York
Case Questions: Leaders Who Make a Difference: Joel Klein Brings Accountability to NYC
Klein was a prominent leader in the educational system of New York. He had made impressive developments throughout his term in the Chancellor post. For example, Klein ensured an elevating trend in the number of graduates in New York. During his leadership, the number of graduating students shifted from fifty percent to sixty five percent. Nevertheless, his developments were subject to inadequate funds. The intense recess brought much limitation towards his reforms towards the educational system. Klein was a significant leader in the New York educational system. He had outstanding methodologies of developing the quality of education throughout the locality. Klein left a legacy in his area of leadership.
His strategies remained outstanding towards the development of the educational system. His leadership marked a memorable trend. His most memorable…
Sentiments, such as these, are widespread.
Philosophies such as behaviorism assert that the environment compels the nature of a child. Biological perspectives believe that the child may be evolutionarily ingrained to act in a certain manner. My philosophy is that the educator is a necessary component in a child's life and that, as remarkable educators have taught us again and again -- such as Marva Collins who created her own low-cost private schol for African-American children whom the public schol system had labeleld as learning disabled and who taught third grade students to read at ninth grade level, four-year-olds to read in a few months, second-graders ro study Shakespeare -- I believe that a teacher can always affect the child's level.
To that effect, therefore:
"If a child lives with hostility," he need not necessarily 'fight.'
"If a child lives with ridicule" he need not 'be shy.'
Altenbaugh, R.J. (1999) Historical Dictionary of American Education online edition Retrieved 2/13/2011
Anderson, G.J. (1998). Fundamentals of educational research. UK: Routledge
Gorard, S., & Taylor, C. (2004). Combining methods in educational and social research. U.S.: McGraw-Hill International
Plato's Educational Systems And Divisions Of Classes In The Republic
On "Educating Philosopher Kings," the in Republic, trans. Robin aterfield
(Oxford University Press, 1993), pp. 250-276.
Unlike the democratic society of ancient Athens, Plato's philosophical conception of the self and state is based upon divisions of education, politics, and social stratum, rather than unity. Of course, it should be noted that even democratic Athenian conceptions of the larger body politic were divided into Greeks v. Barbarians, omen v. Slaves, and that not all individuals received an equal education from tutors and public schools. However, the division of the self within the human person and the importance of categorization are reflected in Plato's discussion of the formulation of an ideal society within his Republic to an extent not found even in Athenian society of his day. (250-276)
Plato, it should be noted, wrote from a society where the division in terms…
Annas, Julia. An Introduction to Plato's Republic. Oxford: 1981, 294-304.
Plato: The Republic. Translated by Robin Waterfield. Oxford: 1993, 250-276.
The educational system in the United States, with time, has undergone several upheavals. There are over 1000 colleges and Universities in the United States. These institutions of learning range from conventional degree colleges that offer achelor's, Master's and Doctoral degrees. Others offer specific training geared towards a specific program. No matter what the level of a student intellect, training or career aspirations, there is a college that suits a student's need. In the last decade, strides in our abilities to communicate have resulted in several universities offering distance learning. Institutions such as the University of Phoenix offer various affordable degrees where the student never has to walk into a campus classroom. (ACT.org, 2003) Nearly one and a half million students take standardized college entrance examinations every year. This essay will explore the SATs.
The previous paragraph mentions the upheavals in U.S. education. The debate is about the methods…
ACT.org. Act: Information for Life's Transitions. 2003. ACT.org. Available:
http://www.act.org/.October 30, 2003.
Admissionsconsultants.com. Sat Test Preparation Tips. 2003. admissionsconsultants.com. Available:
http://www.admissionsconsultants.com/college/sat.asp.October 25, 2003.
ethics within the educational system is a very tricky path to navigate due to the consistent stream of variable behavior from numerous sources. As an administrator, it is important to realize that no matter what decision is made, there will always be some opposition to that stance. Therefore it is important to satisfy my own personal ethical agenda before adopting anyone else's. When dealing with issues it is important that I keep focused on what I believe to be right within my own guidance and values. Improving on this self-awareness and ability to stand strong when things get tough, will provide me the strength needed to sustain ethical battles. As a rule of thumb ethical issues will be dealt with quickly, openly and with reason and balance in order to fairly determine the right outcome in these types of situations.
The rate at which school resources can be consumed…
Every recognized accrediting agency is expected to demonstrate that it has standards for accreditation and pre-accreditation that are sufficiently rigorous to ensure that the agency is a reliable authority regarding evaluation of the quality of the education or training provided by the institutions or programs it accredits. The standards, set by the U.S. Secretary of Education, must effectively address the quality of the institution or program in ten areas." (Commission eport, 2004)
Hence, the very goal of the accrediting bodies is to guarantee that every schools or educational facilities within the state or the country offers quality education and learning system that passed the standards sets by the Department of Education. Needless to say, those students from a non-U.S. country will have to be assessed first if the subjects taken and the schools they attended before are aligned with the standards of the schools in the U.S. before they can…
Commission Report. "State Licensure vs. Accreditation of Proprietary Schools and Colleges: A Review and Comparison of Roles and Functions. California PostSecondary Education commission. (2004).
Commission Review of a Proposal by Riverside Community College District to Convert the Norco Educational Center to College Status: A Report to the Governor and Legislature in Response to a Request from California Community College Board of Governors (March 2004)
Fiscal Profiles, 2002: The Twelfth Annual in a Series of Factbooks About the Financing of California Higher Education (April 2003)
State Licensure vs. Accreditation of Proprietary Schools and Colleges - a Review and Comparison of Roles and Functions (March 2004)
Using Data to Make Educated Decisions:
Comparing Educational Data Across State Lines
Unlike many other industrialized nations, the educational system of the United States exists in a relatively piecemeal form. There is a great deal of variation not simply between states in terms of teachers’ salaries and student test scores but also in terms of conditions which make it even more challenging to compare such datasets. This can be extremely challenging in the modern era, where evidence-based research and statistics are often used to make major educational decisions. Since the passage of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), statistical benchmarks have been used to compare school districts, despite the admitted challenges of doing so; teachers themselves may attempt to compare datasets when deciding the best area of the nation to pursue certification and to teach.
For example, in regards to teachers’ salaries, cost of living can be difficult to compare from…
Andrews, E. (2016). Test score inflation can boost graduation rates but comes with consequences. Education Week. Retrieved from: https://ed.stanford.edu/news/test-score- inflation-can-boost-graduation-rates-comes-consequences-stanford-study-finds
Iasevoli, B. (2017). Which states pay teachers the most (and least)? Education Week. Retrieved from: http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/teacherbeat/2017/02/which_states_pay_teachers_the_.ht ml
Strauss, V. (2015). New York’s Common Core test scores flop yet again — with 20 percent of students opting out. The Washington Post. Retrieved from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/answer-sheet/wp/2015/08/13/n-y-common-core- test-scores-flop-yet-again/?utm_term=.c0a28c23d664
Educators’ compensation is based on their academic qualifications and their experience in training. As the times change and the demand for high educational performance grows, a confusion arises on how to implement the necessary changes. Educational administrators are mandated with the responsibility to affect change in their areas of specialization. The public is equally interested in better performance from the educational institutions although they are barely informed in the assessment strategies employed to gauge performance. The old system in the USA where the teachers were remunerated based on their experience and performance orientation has been recommended as a more appropriate strategy.
Plunkett (2002) suggests a change in the mindset and cultural orientation is necessary to foresee bring forth the improvement required. However, he cautions that all the stakeholders must be committed to instigating the reliance on performance measures.
The routine of remunerating teachers based on education and experience has…
Candoli, I. C., Cullen, K., & Stufflebeam, D. L. (1997). Superintendent Performance Evaluation: Current Practice and Directions for Improvement. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
Earl, L. M. (2004). Assessment as learning: Using classroom assessment to maximize student learning. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Corwin Press.
McDonald, M. (2002). Systematic assessment of learning outcomes: Developing multiple-choice exams. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Milkovich, G. T., & Wigdor, A. K. (1991). Pay for performance: Evaluating performance appraisal and merit pay. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press.
Publishing, E. (2012). Performance Based Management. Brisbane: Emereo Publishing.
Private schools are just as vulnerable to the issues that public schools are facing today.
Each one of us carries a responsibility for trying to improve the situation. Parents and familial groups have a huge responsibility to augment educational strategies. In the environment where most school systems employ strategies to make students part of the masses, without individual attention or nurturing, it is important for the family to step up and educate children about independence and autonomy. According to the research, "schools train children to be employees and consumers; teach your own to be leaders and adventurers. Schools train children to obey reflexively; teach your own to think critically and independently" (Gatto 155). Encouraging them to engage in learning material that goes beyond the simple curriculum offered at most public schools. Education should not be purely the responsibility of the institutions overwhelmed with responsibility, but should be extended to include…
Gatto, John Taylor. "Against School." Learning Power.
Moore, Michael. "Idiot Nation." Learning Power.
Lopez, Steve. "Looking Out of State for What California Once Offered." Los Angeles Times.
Educational Theories Guiding Educational Experience
Description of an education event experienced
I am a dentist, and I have started a course on teaching dentistry. My experience with education was never a particularly encouraging one as my teacher was always absent. When I was at school, the teachers went on strike, and that left us with no attention from them. We had to do much of the studying alone, and all required research lay squarely on our shoulders in the absence of teachers for as long as they were striking. Whenever the teachers came around school, they applied a work to rule strategy and that was extremely devastating. Lecturers were never available for any extra consultation, and we had to take our learning as individual responsibilities instead of waiting for support or guidance from lecturers. Any difficulties, which we may have faced during the study never, had a chance in the…
Annand, D. (2011). Social presence within the community of inquiry framework. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12(5), 40-56. Aristotle.
(2002). Aristotle nicomachean ethics. (J. Sachs, Trans.). Newburyport, MA: Focus
Publishing/R. Pullins Co.
Baker, C. (2010). The impact of instructor immediacy and presence for online student affective learning, cognition, and motivation. The Journal of Educators online, 7(1), 1-30.
98). The need for ongoing research to identify optimal solutions in a given setting is also made clear by the reliance on experimental methods to measure options. The efficacy of the scientific method is well established, of course, and it is not surprising that many educators are drawn to this super-philosophy as a way of formulating effective solutions to convoluted problems. For instance, Glickman and his colleagues add that, "The use of trial and error in a laboratory setting is the key to evaluating the outcome of action. Therefore, experimentalists do not view knowledge as absolute or external to human capabilities. ather, knowledge is a result of the interaction between the scientific person and the environment" (p. 97).
The research showed that educational supervisors are faced with a complex set of challenges in their day-to-day work that demands a viable educational super-philosophy. For this purpose, the research also showed…
Brubacher, J.S. (1939). Modern philosophies of education. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ediger, M. (1995, Spring). Demonstration teaching in the schools. Education, 115(3), 371-375.
Garubo, R.C. & Rothstein, S.W. (1998). Supportive supervision in schools. Westport, CT:
436-437). In other words, official commitment to multiculturalism is just a smoke screen for many Canadian officials who believe that the Euro-Canadian way of doing things is the norm.
The limits of multiculturalism in practice are also visible in the treatment of Canadian citizens and immigrants who have dark skin color. According to Kelly (1998), African Canadians are routinely "racialized" and "othered" (that is, they are put outside of the dominant group). The manner in which African Canadians are unable to become fully-fledged Canadians even if they are born in Canada was succinctly explained by Marlene Nourbese Philip, an African Canadian essayist: "Being born elsewhere, having been fashioned in a different culture, some of us may always feel 'othered,' but then there are those -- our children, nephews, nieces, grandchildren -- born here, who are as Canadian as snow and ice, and yet, merely because of their darker skins, are…
Fieras. A & Elliot. J (2010a) Chapter 10, Multiculturalism in Canada: "Living together with differences." In Unequal relations: An introduction to race, ethnic, and Aboriginal dynamics in Canada (6th ed) (p283-308).
Fieras. A & Elliot. J (2010b) Chapter 11, "Institutional Inclusiveness: Putting Multiculturalism to work." In Unequal relations: An introduction to race, ethnic, and Aboriginal dynamics in Canada (6th ed) (p309-343; 362-374).
Kelly, J. (1998) Under the Gaze: Learning to be Black in White Society. Fernwood publishing, Blackpoint Nova Scotia.
Millar. J. (1996a) Chapter 13, "Our greatest need today is proper education": Winding down the system. In Shingwauk's vision: A history of Native residential schools (p377-405; 526-535) Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Educational Vouchers: Multiple Issues and Contradictory esults
The Merriman-Webster online dictionary offers three definitions for "voucher": "...a documentary record of a business transaction; a written affidavit or authorization; a form or check indicating a credit against future purchases or expenditures." None of the three even approaches the emotionally charged version of the term "voucher" when it comes to the current debate swirling around public vs. private schools. This paper digs into the "vouchers" - or "scholarships," or "subsidies," if you prefer - provided to families in several cities and states, to move their children from less desirable, academically troubled public schools to more desirable, for-profit private, mainly religious schools.
Long before there was any discussion about vouchers, Horace Mann of Massachusetts - the "Father of American public school education" - was in the vanguard of the movement (1837) to solidify support for quality public education, excellence in teacher training, and…
ABC News (June 27, 2002). [Online] "Divided Court: Voucher Program Victory http://abcnews.go.com/sections/us/DailyNews/scotus_vouchers020627.html .
American Federation of Teachers (2002). [Online] "Report Reveals Right-Wing Backers of BAEO" "Milwaukee Vouchers Cost Twice the Tuition Amount Charged Non-Voucher Students http://www.aft.org/research/vouchers/ .
Friedman Foundation (2002). [Online] "School Choice Works http://www.friedmanfoundation.org/schoolchoiceworks/schoolchoiceresearch.html.
Greene, Jay P. (2002). [Online] "Vouchers in Charlotte" Education Next Magazine http://www.educationnext.org/20012/46greene.html .
Fullan, et al.'s approach is to employ "greater specificity without suffering the downside of prescription," (9) meaning that curriculum design must teach people how to do something within the proper context and that all details must be included without the complicating and ineffective method of saying that all children must be taught the same subjects in the same manner ("prescription"). The attending result, then, would be that curriculum would be designed with an inherent awareness of all learning modalities, with the flexibility to be taught to all students in any number of different manners, with ultimate flexibility - in short, massive textbooks would give way to a more interactive multi-branched approach that the teachers would actively control during the classroom much like a boat captain pilots a tricky inner-harbor channel. To allow this, curriculum design would be a collaborative process not only within the schools and districts but between the…
Fullan, M., Hill, P. & Crevola, C. (2006). Breakthrough. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. pp109.
Finally, the third of the theories expects the student to develop in accordance with the interaction he had previously developed with the teacher. If the interaction was based on mutual respect and true feelings of cherishing and honesty, with also hard work, the individual is expected to further succeed. If on the other hand the interaction had been based on less fortunate feelings, beliefs and actions, the individual is likely to develop in a manner frowned on by society.
Having to choose a philosophy I would most agree with, I would select realism. The philosophy, promoted by Aristotle, amongst other great thinkers of all times, is a mixture of social influences and personal characteristics. It states that each individual is formed based on the events that occurred in his vicinity, but also by how his personal features made him relate and comprehend those particular events. In other words, realism promotes…
Stevens, W., Functional and Conflict Theory: A Point-of-View, 2008, http://www.helium.com/items/828440-functional-and-conflict-theory-a-point-of-viewlast accessed on September 10, 2008
Webb L., Metha a., & Jordan, K. 2007. Foundations of American Education 5th edition, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall
2008, Theories of Education, Cliff Notes, last accessed on September 10, 2008
Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).
Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).
All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…
Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;
Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.
Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.
Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.
Boys, Kosciolek, Spicuzza & Ysseldyke (2003) points out that during the third International Mathematics and Science Study students in the United States scored below "the international average in mathematics," with 20 countries scoring significantly higher than U.S. subjects (p. 163). They suggest that principles of learning can be adopted and utilized in the United States to improve student outcomes. The study does not compare U.S. liberal arts education with European education.
Trends in Education
Sarason (1998) proposes that the U.S. educational system has "all of the features of a non-learning system" (p.1). He clarifies by proposing that students are incapable of learning because the educational system as it stands at present is a system of parts that are uncoordinated, rather than a structured system where agreement exists with regard to schooling, goals an achievement. His examination suggests that the trends currently occurring with the United States are resulting in negative…
Assenova, M. (2003 - Jan). "Educating the European way." World and I, 18(1): 62
Boys, C., Kosciolek, S., Spicuzz, R. & Ysseldyke, J. (2003). "Effects of a learning information system on mathematics achievement and classroom structure." The Journal of Educational Research, 96(3): 163
Cetron, M.J. & Gayle, M.E. (1990 - Sept-Oct). "Educational renaissance: 43 trends for U.S. schools." The Futurist, 24(5): 33
Darlington, Y. & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Stories from the field. Crows Nest, N.S.W, Allen & Unwin
The launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union in 1957 -- an event which marked the beginning of the space race and showed a significant Soviet lead -- renewed the vigor of essentialist practices and theories in the United States especially, but this event also helped to spur on the spread of essentialist practices in countries less involved with the Cold War (Nayak 2008). Cultural literacy programs are all essentialist when viewed as a set of basic theoretical trappings; as multicultural understanding has become a greater part of the educational process and system in many countries, essentialist programs have also become more widespread and more deeply engrained (K12 2010). Growing industrialization and development have also produced many basic educational systems, and essentialist practices are inherent to many of them (Siddiqui 2008).
There have also been political pressures brought to bear on various educational institutions that have supported and proliferated the…
K12. (2010). "Educational essentialism." Accessed 14 August 2010. http://www.k12academics.com/educational-philosophy/educational-essentialism
Nayak, a. (2008). Educational philosophy. Delhi: APH Publishing.
Siddiqui, M. (2008). Philosophical and sociological foundations of education. Delhi: APH Publishing.
Nigeria has a national, European-style entrance examination, but like Israel, it also has religious schools that rivals in dominance, and it has the additional dividing element of rural educational systems with little ties to the larger nation.
Equality Matching Cultures," "Market Pricing Cultures," and "Cleft National Cultures"
Market pricing cultures are based upon individualism. They place a high value upon the free market culture and a system of enterprises where inequality may result, but this is deemed acceptable because the free market presumably allows for a meritocracy, where the strongest will survive, and because opportunities are equal, even though results are not equal. Equality matching cultures, in contrast, value community over individualism, and sustaining the community through collective efforts and bargaining rather than through monetary exchanges (Gannon, 2006).
American belief in individual merit, the ideal of the self-made person, and also the equation of financial success with personal success are…
Education Israel" (2007). Country Studies. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 8 Mar 2007 at http://countrystudies.us/israel/59.htm
Education Nigeria" (2007). Country Studies. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 8 Mar 2007 at http://countrystudies.us/nigeria/49.htm
Gannon, Martin. (2006). Understanding Global Cultures. Third Edition. Additional information available on the web 8 Mar 2007 at http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/troufs/anth1095
Perhaps the best solution for parents is to create local support networks to better enable them to work together within the existing school systems. Dealing with the administrative bureaucracy of the educational system can be difficult, particularly for a parent with the additional stresses of coping with a special need child's emotional, educational, and social challenges. Parents can share advice and 'war stories' together in school-specific support groups.
In conclusion, working in conjunction with national and state organizations that specifically address and provide information specific to the child's rights; with private organizations that give information about the child's disability; and soliciting nearby emotional support and information specific to the child's school district may be the most satisfying multi-pronged strategy for a parent coping with a child with special needs.
Working locally with other parents enables families with special needs children to find personal, emotional support for what they are enduring.…
Autism speaks. (2010). Official website. Retrieved November 24, 2010 at http://www.autismspeaks.org/
National Federation for the Blind. (2010). Official website. Retrieved November 24, 2010 at http://www.nfb.org/nfb/Default.asp
Parent Education Network (PEN). (2010). Official website. Retrieved November 24, 2010 at http://www.parentednet.org
Resources for Children with Special Needs (RCSN) (2010). Official website. Retrieved November 24, 2010 at http://www.resourcesnyc.org/
educational theory by comparing and contrasting two authors of education theory with the Montessori method of teaching. The writer explores all three ideas and discusses their similarities. The writer used four sources to complete this paper.
Since the advent of the educational system there have been many changes throughout the years. As the world evolves and matures and technology advances the world discovers more things that it wants its students taught. In addition there are many different ways to teach and the system has gone from whole language to back to basics and back again. Several forward thinking theorists have developed education theories in which they discuss what they believe to be the most sound foundation for teaching that is available. In John Dewey's Experience and Education and Curriculum and Aims by Decker F. Walker, and Jonas F. Soltis both suggest and develop critiques on education systems that have been…
Decker F. Walker, Jonas F. Soltis. Curriculum and Aims (Thinking About Education Series)
Publisher: Teachers College Press. (August 1997)
Dewey, John. Education and Experience. Touchstone Books (August 1997)
John Dewey (Accessed 10-27-2002)
These techniques gather information and create networks of people and they help promote the interests of the unions at the level of policy making.
In terms of the future, this is difficult to foresee. Nonetheless, a feature which gains more and more popularity is the possibility for the No Child Left Behind Act to further increase the bargaining powers of the teacher and their unions. In such a context then, the policy making process would be more influenced by the teachers' unions.
At the same level of impasses which need resolution, Joan E. Pynes and Joan M. Lafferty take a more distant approach. Unlike Paul Manna, who emphasizes on the specifics of the NCLB act, Pynes and Lafferty take a more objective stand to the problems in the public sector and create a list of the means to be used in resolving impasses; their approach is more distant and more…
Gewertz, C., Collective bargaining bumping up against No Child Left Behind Law, Education Week, http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2004/09/08/02philly.h24.html last accessed on November 9, 2011
Manna, P., Teachers unions and No Child Left Behind
Pynes, J.E., Lafferty, J.M., Impasse resolution in the public sector
This view is reflected in increasing calls for financial equity among schools, desegregation, mainstreaming, and standardized testing for teachers and students alike; it has been maintained that by providing the same education to all students, schools can equalize social opportunity (Bowman, 1994).
This latter position is typically followed up with the use of a particular curriculum designed to support the approach. In this regard, Bowman suggests that, "Knowledge is thought to exist in the collected wisdom of a canon, and education is the transferral of established wisdom to the learner" (p. 218). Unfortunately, when educators attempt to impose a "one-size-fits-all" curriculum on a diverse study body, there are bound to be problems -- particularly for those students who are already marginalized through language and other socioeconomic constraints.
Furthermore, in many ways, the public schools are unique in that they have been assigned the responsibility of communicating what American society regards…
Artiles, A.J., Higareda, I., Rueda, R., & Salazar, J.J. (2005). Within-group diversity in minority disproportionate representation: English language learners in urban school districts. Exceptional Children, 71(3), 283.
Banks, J.A. (1994). An introduction to multicultural education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Bowman, B.T. (1994). The challenge of diversity. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(3), 218.
Breitborde, M.L. (1993). Multicultural education in the classroom. Childhood Education,
diversity of learning styles and needs represented in a typical 21st century classroom. As the United States continues to see an increase in multi-ethnic, multinational populations, the children of immigrants that bring diverse cultures and ethnicities to American shores are represented in the classroom. This presents a serious challenge for the educator, since the diversity of students reflect a wide range of competencies, skills and levels of intellectual comprehension. Within the context of that diversity the instructor must embrace a pivotal 21st century learning challenge -- meeting the learning needs of students who may fall behind without one-on-one instruction and the learning needs of more advanced students seeking to surge ahead while many students in the classroom may be struggling simply to stay up with the assignments.
In order for students to reach their optimum level of academic achievement, the system must change and the philosophy of instruction must change…
Ashford University (2014). Assessment in the 21st century. Retrieved November 30,
2014, from https://student.ashford.edu .
Framework for 21st Century Revision. Creativity and Innovation.
Leston-Banderia, C. (2013). Methods Teaching through a Discipline Research-Oriented
Because Confucianism arranged classes according to moral criteria rather than economic criteria, even a poor shenshi enjoyed enormous status and respect among the lower classes, so their position as higher-level shenshi probably helped gain cooperation. Shenshi held. Shenshi were members of the gentry in their own right, as well, with the wealth, honor, and tax-exempt status due their position. Shenshi handled taxes for the central government, as well, which helped supplement their income.
One could say that our country does engage in a meritocracy similar to the shenshi system. Our children all go to public schools. Though our schools' educational systems are supposed to be locally based, in reality we have a common national standard, especially in specific subjects, including nationalized textbooks. Public school teachers are specifically instructed to create good, obedient citizens (witness the whole Thanksgiving Pilgrim mythology). Those who test well then are paid to go to on…
Education and the Analysis of Student Tests: Current Trends and ecommendations for Practice
In both the practical realm of educational provision and in education policies and legislation, the need to effectively and accurately measure the efficacy of various teaching methods and educational program is of paramount concern. There is a legislative mandate that all children in the United States have a right to a free and equal public education, and ethical principles also insist that all students receive the same opportunities for learning and growth. Given the practical constraints of providing public education on such a broad scale, it is also important that most students progress at approximately the same rate, so that instruction can be kept meaningful for all students. While this often translates to teaching towards the bottom of knowledge and skill levels represented in the class, it ought to mean being able to identify struggles and problems…
Garcia, E. (2001). Hispanic Education in the United States. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Phelps, R. (2005). Defending Standardized Testing. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Sacks, P. (1999). Standardized Minds. New York; Da Capo Press.
Spring, J. (2001). American Education. New York: McGraw Hill.
IS THE AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN TROULE?
The United States has enjoyed a long history of providing public education for all students. However, many people believe that our educational system does not function well and that it has not for some time. Although multiple ways to improve public education have been tried, the belief persists that our schools produce under-educated students who are under-prepared for college or work. The goal of education is to teach students, but not all the students learn well, and for those who do not learn, we cannot always find either adequate explanations or solutions.
For some decades, the United States has attempted to use group testing to track the success of our educational programs. One attempt was by use of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) tests (Ipka, 2003). These tests provide raw scores of from 0 to 500. The Department of…
Ipka, V.W. 2003. "At Risk Children in Resegregated Schools: An Analysis of the Achievement Gap. Journal of Instructional Psychology, Vol. 30.
Kozol, Jonathan. Savage Inequalities. 1992: Harper Perrenial.
McQuillan, Jeff. 1998. "Seven myths about literacy in the United States." Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 6(1). Accessed via the Internet 8/23/05.
Schrag, Peter. 2004. "What's Good Enough? Advocates Are Demanding Not Just Equal but Decent Schools for All Children." Magazine article by Peter Schrag; The Nation, Vol. 278, May 3.
The UNC Health Care System runs a teaching hospital that publishes its mission statement, statement of core values, and nursing philosophy on the organization's Web site at < http://www.unchealthcare.org/site/Nursing/nurseleadership/visionvalues >. The mission is stated briefly as: "to be a leader in providing compassionate, quality care focusing on the unique needs of patients and their families." Key words in the mission statement include "compassionate," "quality care" and "unique needs." The core values of the UNC Health Care System's nurses include five main elements. Those elements include "My patient," "My team," "My Hospital," "My Community," and "My Profession." Phrasing these five main values in terms of "my" helps the nurse to feel like an integral part of the organization.
Furthermore, the nursing philosophy of the UNC Health Care System is outlined as being a reflection of the vision and values of the organization as a whole. The main principles of…
East Carolina University College of Nursing (2012). Philosophy of the college of nursing. Retrieved online: http://www.nursing.ecu.edu/philosophy.htm
UNC Health Care System (2007). Nursing mission, core values, philosophy. Retrieved online: http://www.unchealthcare.org/site/Nursing/nurseleadership/visionvalues
However, in the most recent theory of evolution which discusses the living world appears as the result of chance and an output of different randomly selected natural mills. This kind of development came to present as a result of the need of more subjects or topics in areas such as cybernetic, general system theory, information theory, theories of games which is needed in most decision making process in line with real applications. In mathematics techniques however, there are a number of general assumption which are insufficient and most of the time very contradict themselves (Laszlo & Krippner, 1982).
Again, Laszlo (1982) outlined that von Bertalanffy considered the idea of organization to be involved at various stages in the expression of natural system. This could be highlighted from his first statement on the system which he made between the years 1925-1926, during the time when similar thinking of organism was being…
Bailey, K.D. (2004). Beyond System Internals: Expanding the Scope of Living Systems Theory. Los Angeles: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bailey, K.D. (2006). Living systems theory and social entropy theory. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 23, 291-300.
Bertalanffy, L. (1951). General system theory - a new approach to unity of science. (Symposium), Human Biology, 23, 303-361. Dec 1951.
Bertalanffy, L. (1972). General system theory: Foundations, development, applications. London: Allen Lane.
Chapter 3 stresses the importance both fundamentally and ethically of representing information truthfully and honestly through visual and experiential means that are meaningful to the learner and respect the fact that the individual mind is rather limited and therefore needs human centered externals to help it learn and retain information. Chapter 4 stresses the importance of individuality in the development of technologies that teach and interact with people. The overall work is important as it stresses the fact that technologies, as a creation of man must be developed and manipulated to reflect the humanity of their purpose. The fallibility of the mind is stressed as is its limitations and the possibility of the development of greater tools to impart knowledge is the most important factor in the development of learning tools.
Norman, D. (1988). The Design of Everyday Things. New York: Doubleday/Currency. [chapters 1, 2, 3, 4]
In this work…
Wittrock, M.C. (1992). Generative learning processes of the brain. Educational Psychologist, 27(4), 531-541.
Wittrock present a functional model of learning that pays close attention to four processes of learning; attention, motivation, knowledge or preconceptions and generation. The author's point-of-view is clearly one of biological i.e. neurological brain function and develops a schema in which knowledge or learning takes place, as interactive and fluid in the mind. Understanding each of these four aspects can give the educational developer an idea of the need to bring learners all the way in to a learning environment through attention, motivation and base knowledge to elicit generative principles of cognition, i.e. The assimilation of novel material, that will add to their base knowledge of understanding. Wittrock's model in fact stresses that in creation of interactive or even static instruction if one key aspect is lacking, the whole of the system is resistant to learning. This is important in that it makes clear that development of technologies that instruct must produce attention and elicit motivation as well as build from some existing knowledge base to be effective for any user to generate a set of new knowledge. Even the most simple instructions often build on a set of base knowledge, that is frequently taken for granted and many instructional environments lack the sort of stimulation that garners attention and motivates the learner.
Total 17 papers including 3 books. I'll send you the articles in PDF files except three books Saffer, D. (2007). Designing for Interaction. Berkeley: New Riders. Norman, D. (1988). The Design of Everyday Things. New York: Doubleday/Currency. Norman, D. (1993). Things that make us smart. New York: Doubleday/Currency. I think you can find these easiliy in libraries.
Datcher-Loury researched a set of black children belonging to low income families from three regions to find out whether variations in educational performance were due to variation in behavior and attitudes within the families. Focused on the outcomes of the student's achievement on reading and math exams and also on the interviews with and examination of the mothers of the children; Datcher-Loury arrived at the decision that variations in family behavior and attitudes of course had huge and vital long-term impacts on the educational performance of children. From these outcomes, Datcher-Loury recommends that the programs concentrated at changing parental attitudes might be helpful in assisting to surmount the impact of economic shortcoming on the academic achievement on children. (Renchler, 1993) research undertaken by Judith Anderson and others demonstrated the association between poverty at public school and achievement of students among eighth graders, concentrating on the most poor schools…
Name four practices that commonly require written administrative procedures.
Memorandums that include school policy changes or important information for the staff are commonly distributed in writing so that the information is accurately conveyed and properly received and documented. Many staff communications to the administration, such as requests for new classroom supplies or for personal leaves of absence, are also communicated in writing. If disciplinary action of any kind is taken against a student, it is commonly recorded in writing in the student's permanent file, and a copy of this information may be sent home to parents. Finally, the recording of daily vital information, such as student attendance and test scores, are done in writing.
How would you know if you are complying with EQ policies and procedures?
A a) If I were not complying with EQ policies, I would receive notification or a warning of some kind from…
Graves, Bonnie & Michael. "Scaffolding Reading Experiences to Promote Success: A Flexible Approach to Fostering Comprehension." University of Minnesota. http://education.umn.edu/carei/Reports/Rpractice/Winter95/comprehension.htm
Education Queensland. Queensland Government. http://education.qld.gov.au
Educational development is a mix of both formal and informal learning conditions as assessment of my own educational experience has taught me. I cannot say that one is more important than the other; each segment together has taught me different elements -- made me grow -- and combined in producing the 'me' that you see today.
In his "Notes for an Obituary," Einstein once noted that the system of education was a deliberate intention on the part of the state to mislead youth. He distrusted all forms of education, and from his pre-adolescent days refused to be taught. Religious leaders, too, he felt were disillusioned and deluding society. Yet Einstein felt that the fault belonged, not to the rabbi or to the priest, but with the force behind them that disregarded liberty of thought and made education compulsory. As regards Einstein himself, he was determined that formal education would not…
Kolb, David (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall
Ottawa University. Retrieved on Monday, January 24, 2011 from: http://www.ottawa.edu/ .
Reaching In, Reaching Out.(RIRO) (n.d.) Children's storybooks that promote resilience. Retrieved on Monday, January 24, 2011 from: http://www.reachinginreachingout.com/documents/Guidebook%20-%20Storybooks%20that%20Promote%20Resilience.pdf
Educational Needs of Office Professionals
A better trained and educated workforce has been directly associated with increased productivity, improved morale and higher earnings for workers (Gentry & Springer, 2002).
There has been slow progress in developing comprehensive and responsive secondary education across states and school districts nationwide. Furthermore, the need for challenging curricula in U.S. schools is widely recognized (Archambault et al., 1993). The current level of educational achievement for the typical office professional in this state, though, is largely unknown.
In order to develop appropriate curricula for secondary students intending to pursue careers in administration, it is important to determine what classes and content should be offered. To this end, as the chair of the State Education Department, this researcher conducted a study examining the educational needs of office professionals by developing a quantitative and qualitative questionnaire and conducting a randomized state study of professional office workers.
Archambault, F.X., Westberg, K., Brown, S.B., Hallmark, B.W., Emmons, C.L., & Zhang, W.
(1993). Regular classroom practices with gifted students: Results of a national survey of classroom teachers (RM 93102). Storrs: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut.
Gentry, M. & Springer, P.M. (2002). Secondary Student Perceptions of Their Class Activities
regarding Meaningfulness, Challenge, Choice, and Appeal: An Initial Validation Study.
Saudi Aramco's training department was underdeveloped, and therefore the potential of their employees was being squandered. Once armed with an advanced degree I will stand poised to help organizations like Saudi Aramco to improve their training departments. Ultimately I will be able to perform consulting work in numerous private, non-profit, and government sectors to expand my range of expertise and offer the best guidance I possibly can to my clients.
Having worked as a translator as well as a professional training director, I have developed solid communications and leadership skills that can easily be imparted to my clients. I also have proven experience in developing and implementing training programs for professionals. What I need now is a leap forward, to hone my ability to design optimal training programs that meet the needs of both individuals and organizations. The higher education doctoral program at the University of Massachusetts offers
Formative assessment gives teachers the opportunity to provide students with feedback in time to improve learning. Fluckiger, Vigil, Pasco & Danielson (2010) describe several techniques to provide formative feedback to students more frequently and to involve them more fully in the process. Although their techniques were developed specifically to enhance the learning experiences of postsecondary students across a variety of disciplines, teachers of students at all levels can adapt the ideas to their classrooms. Their goals are to "give feedback in time for revisions to occur, provide scaffolding for learners, inform instruction, and most importantly, involve students as partners in assessment" (Fluckiger et al., p. 140). The researchers believe their techniques result in improved instruction, enhanced student learning and better student products. Helping to build a productive classroom climate in which the emphasis is on learning, not grades achieved. Instructors can improve assessments by incorporating both formative and summative assessments…
Study Island. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.studyisland.com/
Tasdemir, M. (2010). The effects of REAP reading comprehension technique on students'
success. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal 38 (4), 553-560.
The religious organization has other-worldly goals, but must adapt to the demands of this world in order to survive. There are generally two kinds of responses to this problem -- the church response and the sect response. The church response is to adapt at the expense of the goals and the sect response is value-rational-to maximize goal commitment at the expense of adaptation (Satow, 1975).
EXAMPLE NATUAL -- Management NEED in Business OGANIZATION
Theories and research concerned with individual performance, employee satisfaction, and reduction of tension between individual and organizational goals deal only with internal aspects of events, relationships, and structures that make up the total organizational system. However, if an organization is seen as an open-energy system, it is apparent that it is dependent for survival and growth upon a variety of energy transfers within the organization and also between the organization and its external environment. It is sure,…
Barnard, C. (1938). The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Friedlander, F., and Pickle, H. (1968). Components of Effectiveness in Small Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly13(2), 289-304
Kanigel, Robert (1997). The One Best Way: Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency. New York: http://www.leaonline.com/entityImage/?code=200B
Kloos, B., McCoy, J., Stewart, E., Thomas R.E., Wiley, a., Good,- T.L., Hunt G.D., Moore, T. And Rappaport, J. (1997) Bridging the Gap: A Community-Based, Open Systems Approach to School and Neighborhood Consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation 8(2), 175-196
" The job required a candidate with a BS in Technical Writing, Food Science, Food Engineering, Food Microbiology or Food Chemistry and competency in Microsoft Word. Salary was commensurate with experience.
A software system architect for the Interoperable Solutions Team at Motorola would be part of a development group within the company's Worldwide adio Solutions Group. The job required a BA and 5+ years in software or system engineering, along with experience with one of the following systems: C++, java, lte, wimax, tau g2, doors, udp, igmp, multicast ip, sdt, evdo. Salary was not specified. A systems analyst for eCommLink was to act as a liaison between eCommLink's engineering, quality assurance, business, and operations teams and create the technical requirements for the prepaid card system created by the company.
Associate product lifecycle management specialist. (2010). Con Agra. etrieved February 17,
2010 at http://jobview.monster.com/Assoc-Prod-Lifecycle-Mgmt-Spec-Job-Omaha-NE-U.S.-86306416.aspx
Manager, business development II, Air Force…
Associate product lifecycle management specialist. (2010). Con Agra. Retrieved February 17,
2010 at http://jobview.monster.com/Assoc-Prod-Lifecycle-Mgmt-Spec-Job-Omaha-NE-U.S.-86306416.aspx
Manager, business development II, Air Force systems and requirements. (2010). BAE Systems.
Retrieved February 17, 2010 at http://jobview.monster.com/Manager-Business-Development-II-Air-Force-Systems-Requirements-Job-Wright-Patterson-Afb-OH-U.S.-86304605.aspx
System Issues & Chikfila
Systems thinking is a way of synthesizing the issues surrounding any organization in both a macro and micro manner. This allows more shared values through teamwork, mental paradigms, the ability to think in the future, and look at projects in a way that are best for the organization as a holistic entity. Thus, when the process of inquiry is moved from the individual and rote (only knowledge) to an organization that moves through different, more analytical modes of thinking, the individual involved are more active participants and there is a shared vision alone with a personal and team mastery of the question in point. This evolution engenders personal buy-in, a feeling of empowerment, and clearly a new way of processing disparate information (Senge, 2006).
Chick-Fil -- A is an American fast food restaurant chain specializing in Chicken Sandwiches. Their headquarters are in Atlanta, Georgia, and have…
Works Cited and Consulted
Chick Fil -- a Controversy. (2013). The Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/news/chick-fil-a-controversy
Chick-Fil-a. (2013). Press Releases. Retrieved from: http://www.chick-fil-a.com /Pressroom/Press-Releases#?release=LGBT-statement
Chick-Fil-a. (2010). Corporate Message. Retrieved from:
The model consists of five phases:
1. Perception of the ethical problem
2. Description the situation and objective definition of the ethical issue
3. Identification of alternatives
4. Selection of an alternative
5. esolution (Cooper, 2006).
This model has been implemented successfully in both the public and private sectors. The goals of the model are to create a management team consisting of responsible individuals that promote high standards, ethical decision-making practices on behalf of their code of ethics, transparency and accountability (Cooper, 2006). Ultimately, according to Cooper's model, ethical decision making is the process of identifying a problem, generating alternatives, and choosing among them so that the alternatives selected maximize the most important ethical values while also achieving the intended goal.
Most work-related decisions have an ethical component. With few exceptions, problems that involve people also involve ethical issues. Decisions that affect people's jobs and careers have an ethical…
Business Dictionary (2009) "Conflict of Interest" http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/conflict-of-interest.html
Cooper, T. (2006). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass.
Olsen, a. (2009). Authoring a code of ethics: Observations on process and organization. Center for the study of ethics in the professions. Illinois Institute of Technology. http://ethics.iit.edu/index1.php/Programs/Codes%20of%20Ethics/Authoring%20a%20Code%20of%20Ethics.html
Schnebel, E., & Bienert, M.A. (2004). Implementing ethics in business organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 53, 203-211.
They will in turn pass on that legacy to their own children. Since that is the general rule and principle, why does it affect persons of color more fiercely?
Persons of color are disproportionately represented in the low strata of the SE ladder. Amongst the poor persons of color have higher percentages and are more likely to exist in extreme poverty. Since SES determines where you live to a large extent, and where you live will determine the schools to which your children can attend. Then SES becomes a limiting factor because person whose household income is low will live in government housing and may be on some government support program. These persons will also have their children attend schools within these communities' schools where there is high teacher absenteeism, poor results on standardized testing and generally poor conditions (Lee, 2002). Again, in this regard persons of color are over…
Achievement gap (2002) National conference for community and justice. Retrieved from http://www.kccjky.org/summaries/full_achieve.htm
Anderson M.L. & Taylor H.F. (2010) Sociology the essentials. NY, New York: Wadsworth
Brunner, B., & Haney, E. (2007). Civil Rights Timeline Milestones in the modern civil rights movement. Retrieved from http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html#axzz0wJNCuRjZ
Educational Theory: Dewey vs. Eliot
The contrast between the contemporary educational theories of John Dewey and Charles . Elliot cannot be subsumed under the dichotomies of 'right and wrong' so much as the two men's different sociological contexts, although the two men expressed contempt of one another during their respective lifetimes. Overall, Dewey stressed the idea of education through one's pursuit of a vocation and Charles . Eliot's stressed the need for education for education's sake for the vocations. Dewey believed education was a constant process, and that life was an education, while Eliot saw a strong dichotomy between university life and professional life, as well as those who were fit to become a part of the system of higher education and those who were not.
Dewey was a Midwesterner. He strongly believed in the democratic need for education. He advocated the end of entrance exams as necessary to enter…
University of Michigan: School of Education. "Thought and Action: John Dewey -- School Accreditation's Club." 2004. UMSOE Website. 24 November 2004. http://www.soe.umich.edu/dewey/schoolmasters/index.html
Conservatives, on the other hand, have many passions and one of them is a color-blind government. Most of them believe that all policies of discrimination should be discarded. They view these policies as unwise, immoral and unconstitutional. Three conservative organizations submitted a collective brief to the Supreme Court on the Michigan cases. These organizations were the Center for Equal Opportunity, the Independent Women's Forum and the American Civil Rights Institute. Their brief succinctly stated that racial preferences were incompatible with the 14th Amendment. The 14th Amendment, according to them, clearly states that no person within its jurisdiction would be denied the equal protection of the laws. The silence of the justices to this statement was perceived to indicate insufficient interest in the original understanding than in their own case law. In 1865 and 1866, radical Republicans proposed a constitutional amendment that no State could set distinctions in civil rights and…
Katznelson, I. (2006). When is affirmative action fair? 19 pages. Social Research: New School for Social Research
National Review (1995). Courting trouble. 2 pages. National Review, Inc.: Gale Group
O'Sullivan, J. (2003). Affirmative action forever? 5 pages. National Review: National Review, Inc.
Paul, P. (2003). The legacy of affirmative action. 2 pages. Media Central, Inc.: PRIMEDIA Company
Included in life skills are such as the ability to manage personal finances, the ability to manage a household, the ability to care for personal needs, and awareness of safety as well as many other life skills including citizenship and leisure activities.
Findings & Conclusion
In the United States and the United Kingdom, governmental assistance to special needs students in education is seen as the answer to making appropriate educational provisions for these students with disabilities. The view of the World Health Organization to developing countries is quite different however; this may be based on the cultural barriers to education for special needs students in the developing countries.
Recommendations arising from this brief study and proposal for research include a recommendation that research be conducted for the purpose of determining what governmental aids and supports can be made for special needs students in education to provide them with the…
Brolin, D.E. (1989). Life Centered Career Education: A Competency Based Approach (3rd ed.). Reston, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children.
Edgar. G. (1988). Employment as an outcome for mildly handicapped students: Current status and future direction. Focus on Exceptional Children 21(1), 1-8 (EJ380199).
Goodship, Joan M. (1990) Life Skills Mastery for Students with Special Needs. ERIC Digest #E469.
Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education (2002) National Research Council U.S. Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education. National Academies Press 2002.
Educational assessment in the future seems to be moving towards teacher-oriented and performance-based assessments. Societal forces are driving this move, spurred by the increasing amounts of knowledge, and the demand for individuals capable of manipulating large amounts of information. As standardized tests slowly lose importance, the special needs environment will likely benefit from teacher-oriented assessments that allow instructors to focus curriculum on a child's individual needs and capabilities.
Stiggins (1991) argues that educational assessment in American schools is currently undergoing a rapid change that represents "the end of a six-decade assessment era and the beginning of a whole new era" (p. 263). The past 60 years have been dominated by assessments based upon standardized versions of objective tests. In this system, teachers "would teach.. And assessors would assess" (Stiggins, 264), thus clearly separating teaching and assessment.
This method of assessment began to come under fire, argues Stiggins, as society began…
Professional Development Support Program: Teacher Centers, Aminda Gentile, Director. Assessment: Glossary of Terms.
Stiggins, R.J. 1991. Facing the challenges of a new era of educational assessment. Applied Measurement in Education, 4(4), 263-273.
Taylor, R.L., Tindal, G., Fuchs, L., and Bryant, B.R. 1993. Assessment in the nineties: A possible glance into the future. Diagnostique, 18 (2), 113-122.
Synthesize traditional and progressive education for today's students. Education digest. Vol. 68, Issue 7, 4-8. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=9317873
Cohen, L.M. & Gelbrich, J. (1999). Philosophical perspectives in education. Oregon State University, School of Education. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP2.html
Moser, .D. (1951, July). The educational philopophy of William T. Harris. Peabody Journal of education. Vol. 29, No. 1, 14-33 etrieved January 17, 2011, from http://www. Jstor, org/stable/1489104
Nehring, J.H. (2006, February 1). Progressive vs. traditional: eframing an old debate. Education week. Vol. 25, Issue 21, 32-33. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=19705742
Neil, J. (2005, January). John Dewey: Philosophy of education. Experimental learning. Wilderdom.com. etrieved January 17, 2011, from http://wilderdom.com/experiential/JohnDeweyPhilosophyEducation.html
Sternberg, J., & Zhang, L. (2005, Summer). Styles of thinking as a basis of differntiated instruction. Theory into practice, 44(3), 245-253. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&hid=111&sid=4dc68d17-580a=4983=af18=762283ca50ef%40sessionmgr114
Ackerman, D.B. (2003, March). Synthesize traditional and progressive education for today's students. Education digest. Vol. 68, Issue 7, 4-8. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=9317873
Cohen, L.M. & Gelbrich, J. (1999). Philosophical perspectives in education. Oregon State University, School of Education. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP2.html
Moser, R.D. (1951, July). The educational philopophy of William T. Harris. Peabody Journal of education. Vol. 29, No. 1, 14-33 Retrieved January 17, 2011, from http://www. Jstor, org/stable/1489104
Nehring, J.H. (2006, February 1). Progressive vs. traditional: Reframing an old debate. Education week. Vol. 25, Issue 21, 32-33. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=19705742
The man who first devised
the present mode of governing colleges in this country has done us more
injury than Benedict Arnold." (172) ayside's view would begin to reorient
Brown toward the prospect of staffing itself with professional educators
rather than clergy and men of influence.
The motive would be clear here, as the rising prominence in influence
and impulse of young students themselves would drive ayside and his
contemporaries to scrutinize college governance and administration as
processes separate from the priorities of education itself. The impact of
ayside's recognition would be the newfound scrutiny of decisions which
placed those unqualified in the areas of education in positions of power
and determination where education was concerned. Perhaps most troubling
amongst the outcomes of this orientation at America's universities was its
perpetuation of a class system. Those who had been elevated to places of
administrative oversight were typically wealthy elites whose…
Rudoph, F. (1990). The American College and University. Dartmouth
Educational institutions generally approach organizational improvement by addressing the performance standards to which students, educators, and administrators are held. The standards movement has been a dominant theme in educational policy arenas and in the public eye. With roots in the 1950s Cold War mentality, the thrust of educational improvement has been prodded by perceptions of international industrial and scientific competition. If the rigor of educational standards in the nation -- according to the logic of this argument -- falls below that of other countries, our economy will falter and the balance of trade will be compromised, perhaps beyond the point of recovery.
Fears for the future of the country and our citizens run deep; these fears propel a course of action that is not particularly based on rational thinking and lacks a base of evidence. The course of action adopted by educational policy makers and educational leaders in…
Barth, P. (1997, November 26). Want to keep American jobs and avert class division? Try high school trig. Education Week, 30,33.
Bosch, G. (2000). The Dual System of Vocational Training in Germany. In Tremblay, D.-G. And Doray, P. (2000). Vers de nouveaux modes de formation professionnelle? Le role des acteurs et des collaborations. Quebec: Presses de l'Universite du Quebec.
____. (1998). Business Coalition for Education Reform. The Formula for Success: A Business Leader's Guide to Supporting Math and Science Achievement. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
Hacker, A. (2012, July 20). Is algebra necessary? The New York Times [national ed.], SR1, SR6.
The Keller/PSI approach to academic and professional training has been documented to improve student performance as measured by course completion rates and subject matter retention among students. On the other hand, there are considerable practical and technical problems implementing the Keller/PSI approach within traditional educational institutions. Meanwhile, there is little if any empirical evidence suggesting precisely how the Keller/PSI model benefits learning outside of the focus on the reduced deadline orientation that is the hallmark of that teaching methodology.
Substantial evidence exists to suggest that the success of the Keller/PSI approach is actually attributable to other changes typically attributable to Keller/PSI, such as the broadening of the range of media of instruction, despite the fact that those changes are natural consequences of the Keller/PSI design rather than deliberately conceived components of the approach. The empirical evidence of the increased success of CAPSI programs further bolsters that argument.
Abdulwahed, M. And Nagy, Z.K. "Applying Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle for Laboratory Education." Journal of Engineering Education. American Society for Engineering Education. 2009. Retrieved January 19, 2010 from HighBeam
Burton, J.K., Moore, D.M., and Magliaro, S.G. (2004). Behaviorism and instructional technology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.
Dunne, J.D. (1997). Behavior Analysis: No Defense Required. Wright University.
social historical events educational nature helped form shape John COmenius's educational worldview. Discuss key ideas influenced educational policy formulation / provision young children time history, ( relevant) NZ.
John Comenius is considered to be the father of universal education, a title awarded to him as a result of the theories that he introduced into the sphere of affairs. Comenius was born in Europe at a time when individuals started to express a particular interest in revolutionizing society and in improving conditions in a variety of domains. He is believed to have written more than 154 books across his lifetime and to have provided the world with essential knowledge in regard to education. Even with the fact that his education did not start until he reached the age of sixteen, his impressive ability to process information assisted him greatly in accumulating knowledge rapidly.
Comenius started his education at the…
Leonard, David C. Learning Theories, A to Z (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002)
Perkinson, Henry J. Learning from Our Mistakes: A Reinterpretation of Twentieth-Century Educational Theory (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1984)
Comenius, John Amos, The Great Didactic ( London: Adam and Charles Black, 1896)
Morgan, Harry The Imagination of Early Childhood Education (Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 1999)
Teachers should feel the pressure when their students do not succeed while opponents argue that placing such pressure on teachers just adds to the problem and makes success just that more difficult and unlikely.
Even the most ardent opponents to standardized testing among the teaching profession would likely argue that the demand for accountability is a legitimate one. Every profession needs to establish its credibility among the public and teachers should not be immune from this process, however, what has been lost in the process of trying to make teachers accountable is the value of what can be learned beyond the preparation for the standardized test. There is a necessity and value in establishing accountability but the method of using the standardized test to do so must be questioned.
When the use of standardized testing first came into vogue throughout the U.S. The goal was to establish a procedure for…
Herman, J.L. (1993). The Effects of Standardized Testing in Teaching and Schools. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 20-25.
Linn, R.L. (2001). A Century of Standardized Testing: Controversies and Pendulum Swings. Educational Assessment, 29-38.
McGuinn, P.J. (2006). The Early Federal Role in Education (to 1988) - ESEA and the Equity Regime. In P.J. McGuinn, No Child Left Behind and the Transformation of Federal Education Policy, 1965-2005 (pp. 25-50). Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.
McNeil, L.M. (2007). Contradictions of School Reform: Educational Costs of Standardized Testing. New York: Taylor & Francis.
High School Dual Programs
Current social, political, and cultural concerns have hastened the call for high school reform and have intensified an interest in producing high school graduates that are college ready (Kuo, 2010). Competition from up-and-coming economies such as China and India have challenged traditional American economic world dominance and are forcing policy makers to be concerned about making substantive changes in the educational system (Kuo, 2010). However, when positive attempts are made to reform high schools, they often are not sustained due to the fact that the people who initiated the changes moved on and the system reverted back to the way it was prior to the reform effort (Hamann, 2005). Thus, there is the need for wider-ranging changes in education.
Twenty-first century educational reform efforts will need to address three emerging issues related to the American educational system: globalization, the continuity of the system, and the wasted…
Cohen, J.S., & Smerdon, B.A. (2009). Tightening the dropout tourniquet: Easing the transition from middle to high school. Washington D.C: New America Foundation.
Cooper, M.A. (2009). Dreams deferred? The relationship between early and later postsecondary educational aspirations among racial/ethnic groups. Educational Policy, 23, 615-649.
Domina, T. & Ruzek, E (2010). Paving the way: K-16 partnerships for higher education diversity and high school reform. Educational Policy, 26(2), 243-267.
Hamann, E.T. (2005). Systemic high school reform in two states: The serendipity of state-level action. The High School Journal, 89(1), 1-17.
(estructuring California's School Finance System) The requirement of funds that the schools necessitate is also a matter of controversy attracting the attention of courts in California. The ACLU filed a writ petition of Williams et al. Vs. State of California et al. emphasizing that the state fails to meet the obligations in providing all students with basic educational necessities.
The local school districts appearing the law suit of ACLU were charged in the Gov. Davis and the state law suit blaming that the accountability goes to the school authorities rather than the state with regard to adequate provisions. These law suits are seen to have profound impact on the ways the schools are financed in California and the authorities and the ways by which the decisions are affected to. (School Finance Overview) It is left for consideration of the problems by a newly appointed state commission. The commission among others…
Guide to California's School Finance System" (March 2004) Retrieved at http://www.ed-data.k12.ca.us/articles/article.asp?title=Guide%20to%20California%20School%20Finance%20SystemAccessed on 26 September, 2004 report from California: Proposition 13" New Tax Revolt Digest. Retrieved at http://www.lib.niu.edu/ipo/ii781213.html . Accessed on 26 September, 2004
Bell, Tom. (2004) "Fort Bragg schools feel sting of Proposition 13" Blethen Maine Newspapers. Retrieved at http://news.mainetoday.com/indepth/taxreform/040516taxschools.shtml. Accessed on 26 September, 2004
California's Proposition 13 Debacle: Could this lie in Wisconsin's future?" (March 4, 1997) Retrieved at http://www.weac.org/capitol/march97/prop13.htm . Accessed on 26 September, 2004
California School Finance" Retrieved at http://delmarschools.com/district/business/ca_school_finance.asp . Accessed on 26 September, 2004
" (Arnove & Torres, p. 14)
This is a shift in perspective that has carried significant implications for educators, who have been given a greater directive to promote the virtues of other nations, cultures and traditions. I have personally found that in addition to the degree to which this allows us to seize on practical and philosophical advances in the field, there is also a tremendous opportunity to bring a greater sense of multiculturalism to the classroom. I often take every chance available to help students avoid the pitfalls of ethnocentrism that have historically impeded on the quality of American education. As Arnove & Torres (2007) tell, "the study of cross-national currents and interactions is closely linked to notions of global and education and, in many ways, to world-systems analysis." (p. 7)
This has inclined me to couch the focus of all discussions in a way that challenges student assumptions.…
Arnove, R.F. & Torres, C.A. (2007). Comparative Education: The Dialectic of the Global and the Local. Rowman & Littlefield.
Bray, M. (2003). Methodology and Focus of Comparative Education.
Education and Society in Hong Kong and Macao. p. 237-251.
Allocation of funds for education as a model is a notion that is looked at in the academic construct. This work emphasizes this paradigm. The issues of this construct will be viewed as an exemplar. The issue of an equitable and justified funding incorporating the ideas herein will be developed. The paradigm concept and conceptual themes of meme and the paradigm will be concurrently explored to clarify the allocation of fund allocation sought.
A 'meme' (even in English, demonstrated on quality, disconnected and not to be mistaken for the same French) is a component of cultural connotation (illustration: an idea, a propensity, a data, a marvel, a demeanor, and so forth), reproduced and transmitted by the impersonation of the conduct of a single person by a group. The Oxford English Dictionary characterizes 'meme' as a component of a Culture (taken here in the feeling of human evolution) can…
(2012, 3) .Dawkins And Kozol Researchomatic .Retrieved Nov 26, 2014 from http://www.researchomatic.com/Dawkins-And-Kozol-120063.html
Eckl, C., & Pattison, S. (n.d.). A New Funding Paradigm For Higher Education. Retrieved November 26, 2014, from http://agb.org/sites/agb.org/files/u3/NewFundingParadigm.pdf
The infant mortality rate is of 8.97 deaths per 1,000 live births. This rate places Kuwait on the 160th position on the chart of the CIA. The adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS is of 0.1 per cent.
In terms of economy, Kuwait is a relatively open, small and wealthy economy. It relies extensively on oil exports -- petroleum exports for instance account for 95 per cent of the total export revenues as well as for 95 per cent of the federal income. The Kuwaiti representatives have recently set the goal of increasing the oil production per day. Currently, Kuwait is facing the pressures of the internationalized economic crisis -- which however, due to recent economic surpluses in Kuwait, affects the economy to a lower extent.
Simultaneously with the increase in oil production, the Kuwaiti authorities are also focusing on diversifying the economic activities in the sense of supporting…
Agency, Kuwait News. "Blair's "Kuwait Vision." 15 March 2010. Zawya.com. .
Al-Ansari, H. And S. AL-Enezi. "Health Sciences Libraries in Kuwait." Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 89.3 (2001): 287-93.
Al-Awadhi, Olusi, Al-Saeid, Moussa, et.al. "Incidence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Adult Kuwaitis." Annals of Saudi Medicine 25.6 (2005): 459=62.
Al-Baho, A. "Resident's Guide to the Curriculum for Training in Family Medicine." December 2008. Kuwait Institute for Medical Specialization. .