Educational System Essays (Examples)

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Comparing Educational Data Across State Lines

Words: 1048 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14138709

Using Data to Make Educated Decisions:
Comparing Educational Data Across State Lines
Unlike many other industrialized nations, the educational system of the United States exists in a relatively piecemeal form. There is a great deal of variation not simply between states in terms of teachers’ salaries and student test scores but also in terms of conditions which make it even more challenging to compare such datasets. This can be extremely challenging in the modern era, where evidence-based research and statistics are often used to make major educational decisions. Since the passage of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), statistical benchmarks have been used to compare school districts, despite the admitted challenges of doing so; teachers themselves may attempt to compare datasets when deciding the best area of the nation to pursue certification and to teach.
For example, in regards to teachers’ salaries, cost of living can be difficult to compare from…… [Read More]

Andrews, E. (2016). Test score inflation can boost graduation rates but comes with consequences. Education Week. Retrieved from: inflation-can-boost-graduation-rates-comes-consequences-stanford-study-finds
Iasevoli, B. (2017). Which states pay teachers the most (and least)? Education Week. Retrieved from: ml
Strauss, V. (2015). New York’s Common Core test scores flop yet again — with 20 percent of students opting out. The Washington Post. Retrieved from: test-scores-flop-yet-again/?utm_term=.c0a28c23d664
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Academic Qualifications of Educators and Their Compensation

Words: 1320 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24152841

Educators’ compensation is based on their academic qualifications and their experience in training. As the times change and the demand for high educational performance grows, a confusion arises on how to implement the necessary changes. Educational administrators are mandated with the responsibility to affect change in their areas of specialization. The public is equally interested in better performance from the educational institutions although they are barely informed in the assessment strategies employed to gauge performance. The old system in the USA where the teachers were remunerated based on their experience and performance orientation has been recommended as a more appropriate strategy.
Plunkett (2002) suggests a change in the mindset and cultural orientation is necessary to foresee bring forth the improvement required. However, he cautions that all the stakeholders must be committed to instigating the reliance on performance measures.
The routine of remunerating teachers based on education and experience has…… [Read More]

Candoli, I. C., Cullen, K., & Stufflebeam, D. L. (1997). Superintendent Performance Evaluation: Current Practice and Directions for Improvement. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
Earl, L. M. (2004). Assessment as learning: Using classroom assessment to maximize student learning. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Corwin Press.
McDonald, M. (2002). Systematic assessment of learning outcomes: Developing multiple-choice exams. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Milkovich, G. T., & Wigdor, A. K. (1991). Pay for performance: Evaluating performance appraisal and merit pay. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press.
Publishing, E. (2012). Performance Based Management. Brisbane: Emereo Publishing.
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Educational Crisis Do You Feel

Words: 1202 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38976641

Private schools are just as vulnerable to the issues that public schools are facing today.

Each one of us carries a responsibility for trying to improve the situation. Parents and familial groups have a huge responsibility to augment educational strategies. In the environment where most school systems employ strategies to make students part of the masses, without individual attention or nurturing, it is important for the family to step up and educate children about independence and autonomy. According to the research, "schools train children to be employees and consumers; teach your own to be leaders and adventurers. Schools train children to obey reflexively; teach your own to think critically and independently" (Gatto 155). Encouraging them to engage in learning material that goes beyond the simple curriculum offered at most public schools. Education should not be purely the responsibility of the institutions overwhelmed with responsibility, but should be extended to include…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gatto, John Taylor. "Against School." Learning Power.

Moore, Michael. "Idiot Nation." Learning Power.

Lopez, Steve. "Looking Out of State for What California Once Offered." Los Angeles Times.
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Educational Theories Guiding Educational Experience Description of

Words: 3172 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29439383

Educational Theories Guiding Educational Experience

Description of an education event experienced

I am a dentist, and I have started a course on teaching dentistry. My experience with education was never a particularly encouraging one as my teacher was always absent. When I was at school, the teachers went on strike, and that left us with no attention from them. We had to do much of the studying alone, and all required research lay squarely on our shoulders in the absence of teachers for as long as they were striking. Whenever the teachers came around school, they applied a work to rule strategy and that was extremely devastating. Lecturers were never available for any extra consultation, and we had to take our learning as individual responsibilities instead of waiting for support or guidance from lecturers. Any difficulties, which we may have faced during the study never, had a chance in the…… [Read More]


Annand, D. (2011). Social presence within the community of inquiry framework. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12(5), 40-56. Aristotle.

(2002). Aristotle nicomachean ethics. (J. Sachs, Trans.). Newburyport, MA: Focus

Publishing/R. Pullins Co.

Baker, C. (2010). The impact of instructor immediacy and presence for online student affective learning, cognition, and motivation. The Journal of Educators online, 7(1), 1-30.
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Educational Administration Supervision Educational Supervision

Words: 1670 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12447933

98). The need for ongoing research to identify optimal solutions in a given setting is also made clear by the reliance on experimental methods to measure options. The efficacy of the scientific method is well established, of course, and it is not surprising that many educators are drawn to this super-philosophy as a way of formulating effective solutions to convoluted problems. For instance, Glickman and his colleagues add that, "The use of trial and error in a laboratory setting is the key to evaluating the outcome of action. Therefore, experimentalists do not view knowledge as absolute or external to human capabilities. ather, knowledge is a result of the interaction between the scientific person and the environment" (p. 97).


The research showed that educational supervisors are faced with a complex set of challenges in their day-to-day work that demands a viable educational super-philosophy. For this purpose, the research also showed…… [Read More]


Brubacher, J.S. (1939). Modern philosophies of education. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Ediger, M. (1995, Spring). Demonstration teaching in the schools. Education, 115(3), 371-375.

Garubo, R.C. & Rothstein, S.W. (1998). Supportive supervision in schools. Westport, CT:

Greenwood Press.
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Educational Equality in Canada Canada's

Words: 2862 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64920592

436-437). In other words, official commitment to multiculturalism is just a smoke screen for many Canadian officials who believe that the Euro-Canadian way of doing things is the norm.

The limits of multiculturalism in practice are also visible in the treatment of Canadian citizens and immigrants who have dark skin color. According to Kelly (1998), African Canadians are routinely "racialized" and "othered" (that is, they are put outside of the dominant group). The manner in which African Canadians are unable to become fully-fledged Canadians even if they are born in Canada was succinctly explained by Marlene Nourbese Philip, an African Canadian essayist: "Being born elsewhere, having been fashioned in a different culture, some of us may always feel 'othered,' but then there are those -- our children, nephews, nieces, grandchildren -- born here, who are as Canadian as snow and ice, and yet, merely because of their darker skins, are…… [Read More]


Fieras. A & Elliot. J (2010a) Chapter 10, Multiculturalism in Canada: "Living together with differences." In Unequal relations: An introduction to race, ethnic, and Aboriginal dynamics in Canada (6th ed) (p283-308).

Fieras. A & Elliot. J (2010b) Chapter 11, "Institutional Inclusiveness: Putting Multiculturalism to work." In Unequal relations: An introduction to race, ethnic, and Aboriginal dynamics in Canada (6th ed) (p309-343; 362-374).

Kelly, J. (1998) Under the Gaze: Learning to be Black in White Society. Fernwood publishing, Blackpoint Nova Scotia.

Millar. J. (1996a) Chapter 13, "Our greatest need today is proper education": Winding down the system. In Shingwauk's vision: A history of Native residential schools (p377-405; 526-535) Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
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Educational Psychology the Value of

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80604238

(Smitherman, 2000, p. 287) (Case Study 176) Motivation in education is a crucial aspect of success but it is often incongruent with social attitudes and with the actual educational environment one is exposed to. "Poor educational attainment and delinquency are often described as part of an 'oppositional youth culture' (Ogbu 1978)." (Sanders, 2002, p. 237) the oppositional youth culture that Betts experienced in St. Louis clearly demonstrates the extremes of cultural disenfranchisement. "Self-identity may be fluid, but the extent to which ethnic identity is optional varies by race." (Sanders, 2002, p. 237) Additionally the rigid manner in which Betts' mother and grandmother enforce broken English as reflective of his culture, is also evidence to the extreme disjointed nature of cultural diversity and disconnect. (Case Study 165) the reflection of the value of linguistic enforcement and the manner in which Betts must acclimatize his language to a given situation is a…… [Read More]


Harry, B., Klingner, J.K., & Hart, J. (2005). African-American Families under Fire: Ethnographic Views of Family Strengths. Remedial and Special Education, 26(2), 101.

Myers-Scotton, C. (1993). Duelling Languages: Grammatical Structure in Codeswitching. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Sanders, J.M. (2002). Ethnic Boundaries and Identity in Plural Societies. 327.

Smitherman, G. (2000). Talkin That Talk: Language, Culture, and Education in African America. New York: Routledge.
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Educational Vouchers

Words: 3125 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34155545

Educational Vouchers: Multiple Issues and Contradictory esults

The Merriman-Webster online dictionary offers three definitions for "voucher": "...a documentary record of a business transaction; a written affidavit or authorization; a form or check indicating a credit against future purchases or expenditures." None of the three even approaches the emotionally charged version of the term "voucher" when it comes to the current debate swirling around public vs. private schools. This paper digs into the "vouchers" - or "scholarships," or "subsidies," if you prefer - provided to families in several cities and states, to move their children from less desirable, academically troubled public schools to more desirable, for-profit private, mainly religious schools.

Long before there was any discussion about vouchers, Horace Mann of Massachusetts - the "Father of American public school education" - was in the vanguard of the movement (1837) to solidify support for quality public education, excellence in teacher training, and…… [Read More]


ABC News (June 27, 2002). [Online] "Divided Court: Voucher Program Victory

American Federation of Teachers (2002). [Online] "Report Reveals Right-Wing Backers of BAEO" "Milwaukee Vouchers Cost Twice the Tuition Amount Charged Non-Voucher Students

Friedman Foundation (2002). [Online] "School Choice Works

Greene, Jay P. (2002). [Online] "Vouchers in Charlotte" Education Next Magazine
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Educational Psychology Thirteen-Year-Old African-American Female

Words: 1079 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8736497

Talisha was welcomed as a daughter by Barbara, even when the relationship was informal. Barbara intones while discussing the positive nature of Talisha and Nile's relationship as close and non-confrontational siblings that Talisha slept in Nile's crib before he did and that their bond is essential to Talisha feeling a part of the family. Talisha herself reiterates this when she discusses the manner in which herself and Nile partner in conflict resolution outside the home. (Case Study p. 3-5)

Barbara Williams, Talisha's "mom" has exemplified the role of mother caregiver and protector since the beginning of her relationship with Talisha, beginning with her recognition that Talisha's grandmother was overwhelmed by responsabilties and may have neglected Talisha if she, Barbara had not chosen to take on the responsibility to care for her. Barbara has also been paramount in Talisha's ability to recover from the grief of the loss of her mother…… [Read More]


Brainerd, C.J. (2003). 11 Jean Piaget, Learning Research, and American Education. In Educational Psychology: A Century of Contributions, Zimmerman, B.J. & Schunk, DH (Eds.) (pp. 251-284). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Howe, D., Brandon, M., Hinings, D., & Schofield, G. (1999). Attachment Theory, Child Maltreatment, and Family Support: A Practice and Assessment Model. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.


Sacks, P. (2000). Standardized Minds: The High Price of America's Testing Culture and What We Can Do to Change it. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.
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Educational Reform We Understand That

Words: 2536 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95641008

Fullan, et al.'s approach is to employ "greater specificity without suffering the downside of prescription," (9) meaning that curriculum design must teach people how to do something within the proper context and that all details must be included without the complicating and ineffective method of saying that all children must be taught the same subjects in the same manner ("prescription"). The attending result, then, would be that curriculum would be designed with an inherent awareness of all learning modalities, with the flexibility to be taught to all students in any number of different manners, with ultimate flexibility - in short, massive textbooks would give way to a more interactive multi-branched approach that the teachers would actively control during the classroom much like a boat captain pilots a tricky inner-harbor channel. To allow this, curriculum design would be a collaborative process not only within the schools and districts but between the…… [Read More]


Fullan, M., Hill, P. & Crevola, C. (2006). Breakthrough. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. pp109.
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Educational Theories Historically There Have

Words: 964 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1538673

Finally, the third of the theories expects the student to develop in accordance with the interaction he had previously developed with the teacher. If the interaction was based on mutual respect and true feelings of cherishing and honesty, with also hard work, the individual is expected to further succeed. If on the other hand the interaction had been based on less fortunate feelings, beliefs and actions, the individual is likely to develop in a manner frowned on by society.

Having to choose a philosophy I would most agree with, I would select realism. The philosophy, promoted by Aristotle, amongst other great thinkers of all times, is a mixture of social influences and personal characteristics. It states that each individual is formed based on the events that occurred in his vicinity, but also by how his personal features made him relate and comprehend those particular events. In other words, realism promotes…… [Read More]


Stevens, W., Functional and Conflict Theory: A Point-of-View, 2008, accessed on September 10, 2008

Webb L., Metha a., & Jordan, K. 2007. Foundations of American Education 5th edition, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall

2008, Theories of Education, Cliff Notes, last accessed on September 10, 2008
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Educational Theory and Philosophy in

Words: 5040 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21973033

Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).

Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).

All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…… [Read More]


Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;

Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.

Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.

Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.
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Educational Trends in U S and

Words: 1312 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10531225

Boys, Kosciolek, Spicuzza & Ysseldyke (2003) points out that during the third International Mathematics and Science Study students in the United States scored below "the international average in mathematics," with 20 countries scoring significantly higher than U.S. subjects (p. 163). They suggest that principles of learning can be adopted and utilized in the United States to improve student outcomes. The study does not compare U.S. liberal arts education with European education.

Trends in Education

Sarason (1998) proposes that the U.S. educational system has "all of the features of a non-learning system" (p.1). He clarifies by proposing that students are incapable of learning because the educational system as it stands at present is a system of parts that are uncoordinated, rather than a structured system where agreement exists with regard to schooling, goals an achievement. His examination suggests that the trends currently occurring with the United States are resulting in negative…… [Read More]


Assenova, M. (2003 - Jan). "Educating the European way." World and I, 18(1): 62

Boys, C., Kosciolek, S., Spicuzz, R. & Ysseldyke, J. (2003). "Effects of a learning information system on mathematics achievement and classroom structure." The Journal of Educational Research, 96(3): 163

Cetron, M.J. & Gayle, M.E. (1990 - Sept-Oct). "Educational renaissance: 43 trends for U.S. schools." The Futurist, 24(5): 33

Darlington, Y. & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Stories from the field. Crows Nest, N.S.W, Allen & Unwin
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Educational Essentialism as a Theory

Words: 540 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26689686

The launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union in 1957 -- an event which marked the beginning of the space race and showed a significant Soviet lead -- renewed the vigor of essentialist practices and theories in the United States especially, but this event also helped to spur on the spread of essentialist practices in countries less involved with the Cold War (Nayak 2008). Cultural literacy programs are all essentialist when viewed as a set of basic theoretical trappings; as multicultural understanding has become a greater part of the educational process and system in many countries, essentialist programs have also become more widespread and more deeply engrained (K12 2010). Growing industrialization and development have also produced many basic educational systems, and essentialist practices are inherent to many of them (Siddiqui 2008).

There have also been political pressures brought to bear on various educational institutions that have supported and proliferated the…… [Read More]


K12. (2010). "Educational essentialism." Accessed 14 August 2010.

Nayak, a. (2008). Educational philosophy. Delhi: APH Publishing.

Siddiqui, M. (2008). Philosophical and sociological foundations of education. Delhi: APH Publishing.
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Educational Background of 2 Or

Words: 718 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30491636

Nigeria has a national, European-style entrance examination, but like Israel, it also has religious schools that rivals in dominance, and it has the additional dividing element of rural educational systems with little ties to the larger nation.

Equality Matching Cultures," "Market Pricing Cultures," and "Cleft National Cultures"

Market pricing cultures are based upon individualism. They place a high value upon the free market culture and a system of enterprises where inequality may result, but this is deemed acceptable because the free market presumably allows for a meritocracy, where the strongest will survive, and because opportunities are equal, even though results are not equal. Equality matching cultures, in contrast, value community over individualism, and sustaining the community through collective efforts and bargaining rather than through monetary exchanges (Gannon, 2006).

American belief in individual merit, the ideal of the self-made person, and also the equation of financial success with personal success are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Education Israel" (2007). Country Studies. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 8 Mar 2007 at 

Education Nigeria" (2007). Country Studies. U.S. Library of Congress. Retrieved 8 Mar 2007 at 

Gannon, Martin. (2006). Understanding Global Cultures. Third Edition. Additional information available on the web 8 Mar 2007 at
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Systems Services or Resources for

Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92414107

Perhaps the best solution for parents is to create local support networks to better enable them to work together within the existing school systems. Dealing with the administrative bureaucracy of the educational system can be difficult, particularly for a parent with the additional stresses of coping with a special need child's emotional, educational, and social challenges. Parents can share advice and 'war stories' together in school-specific support groups.

In conclusion, working in conjunction with national and state organizations that specifically address and provide information specific to the child's rights; with private organizations that give information about the child's disability; and soliciting nearby emotional support and information specific to the child's school district may be the most satisfying multi-pronged strategy for a parent coping with a child with special needs.

Working locally with other parents enables families with special needs children to find personal, emotional support for what they are enduring.…… [Read More]


Autism speaks. (2010). Official website. Retrieved November 24, 2010 at

National Federation for the Blind. (2010). Official website. Retrieved November 24, 2010 at

Parent Education Network (PEN). (2010). Official website. Retrieved November 24, 2010 at 

Resources for Children with Special Needs (RCSN) (2010). Official website. Retrieved November 24, 2010 at
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Educational Theory by Comparing and Contrasting Two

Words: 1333 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16520690

educational theory by comparing and contrasting two authors of education theory with the Montessori method of teaching. The writer explores all three ideas and discusses their similarities. The writer used four sources to complete this paper.

Since the advent of the educational system there have been many changes throughout the years. As the world evolves and matures and technology advances the world discovers more things that it wants its students taught. In addition there are many different ways to teach and the system has gone from whole language to back to basics and back again. Several forward thinking theorists have developed education theories in which they discuss what they believe to be the most sound foundation for teaching that is available. In John Dewey's Experience and Education and Curriculum and Aims by Decker F. Walker, and Jonas F. Soltis both suggest and develop critiques on education systems that have been…… [Read More]


Decker F. Walker, Jonas F. Soltis. Curriculum and Aims (Thinking About Education Series)

Publisher: Teachers College Press. (August 1997)

Dewey, John. Education and Experience. Touchstone Books (August 1997)

John Dewey (Accessed 10-27-2002)
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Educational Sector Is Often Approached

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26890402

These techniques gather information and create networks of people and they help promote the interests of the unions at the level of policy making.

In terms of the future, this is difficult to foresee. Nonetheless, a feature which gains more and more popularity is the possibility for the No Child Left Behind Act to further increase the bargaining powers of the teacher and their unions. In such a context then, the policy making process would be more influenced by the teachers' unions.

At the same level of impasses which need resolution, Joan E. Pynes and Joan M. Lafferty take a more distant approach. Unlike Paul Manna, who emphasizes on the specifics of the NCLB act, Pynes and Lafferty take a more objective stand to the problems in the public sector and create a list of the means to be used in resolving impasses; their approach is more distant and more…… [Read More]


Gewertz, C., Collective bargaining bumping up against No Child Left Behind Law, Education Week, last accessed on November 9, 2011

Manna, P., Teachers unions and No Child Left Behind

Pynes, J.E., Lafferty, J.M., Impasse resolution in the public sector
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Educational Evaluations in Culturally Diverse

Words: 7024 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51600783

This view is reflected in increasing calls for financial equity among schools, desegregation, mainstreaming, and standardized testing for teachers and students alike; it has been maintained that by providing the same education to all students, schools can equalize social opportunity (Bowman, 1994).

This latter position is typically followed up with the use of a particular curriculum designed to support the approach. In this regard, Bowman suggests that, "Knowledge is thought to exist in the collected wisdom of a canon, and education is the transferral of established wisdom to the learner" (p. 218). Unfortunately, when educators attempt to impose a "one-size-fits-all" curriculum on a diverse study body, there are bound to be problems -- particularly for those students who are already marginalized through language and other socioeconomic constraints.

Furthermore, in many ways, the public schools are unique in that they have been assigned the responsibility of communicating what American society regards…… [Read More]


Artiles, A.J., Higareda, I., Rueda, R., & Salazar, J.J. (2005). Within-group diversity in minority disproportionate representation: English language learners in urban school districts. Exceptional Children, 71(3), 283.

Banks, J.A. (1994). An introduction to multicultural education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Bowman, B.T. (1994). The challenge of diversity. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(3), 218.

Breitborde, M.L. (1993). Multicultural education in the classroom. Childhood Education,
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Educational Challenges Spelled Out in Specifics

Words: 3347 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37702565

diversity of learning styles and needs represented in a typical 21st century classroom. As the United States continues to see an increase in multi-ethnic, multinational populations, the children of immigrants that bring diverse cultures and ethnicities to American shores are represented in the classroom. This presents a serious challenge for the educator, since the diversity of students reflect a wide range of competencies, skills and levels of intellectual comprehension. Within the context of that diversity the instructor must embrace a pivotal 21st century learning challenge -- meeting the learning needs of students who may fall behind without one-on-one instruction and the learning needs of more advanced students seeking to surge ahead while many students in the classroom may be struggling simply to stay up with the assignments.

In order for students to reach their optimum level of academic achievement, the system must change and the philosophy of instruction must change…… [Read More]


Ashford University (2014). Assessment in the 21st century. Retrieved November 30,

2014, from

Framework for 21st Century Revision. Creativity and Innovation.

Leston-Banderia, C. (2013). Methods Teaching through a Discipline Research-Oriented
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Educational Jobs in New Zealand

Words: 1055 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77526358

New Zealand

Economic Characteristics

New Zealand is a developed country that has a comparatively small and open economy that is based upon free market principles. In fact, the Heritage Foundation has rated New Zealand with an economic freedom score of 82.1, which makes it the third freest economy in the world in the 2015 index (The Heritage Foundation, N.d.). Some of the factors that have allowed New Zealand to achieve this level of economic freedom include a well-established rule of law, the lowest corruption reported in the world, strong property rights (including intellectual property), efficient regulations, an efficient labor market, and a relatively open financial sector. Prudent regulations allowed firms to withstand the global financial turmoil with little disruption; including the economic recession of 2008 which it recovered fairly quickly from.

Another interesting fact about the New Zealand economy is that it is heavily export oriented. In fact, New Zealand…… [Read More]


Kwintessential . (N.d.). New Zealand - Culture, Etiquette and Customs. Retrieved from Kwintessential:

New Zealand Council for Education Research. (2012, June). Supporting future-oriented learning and teaching - a New Zealand perspective. Retrieved from Education Counts:

New Zealand. (N.d.). Economic overview. Retrieved from New Zealand Now:

New Zealand Now. (N.d.). Education Jobs. Retrieved from New Zealand Now:
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System Superficially Upheld the Traditional

Words: 576 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46800230

Because Confucianism arranged classes according to moral criteria rather than economic criteria, even a poor shenshi enjoyed enormous status and respect among the lower classes, so their position as higher-level shenshi probably helped gain cooperation. Shenshi held. Shenshi were members of the gentry in their own right, as well, with the wealth, honor, and tax-exempt status due their position. Shenshi handled taxes for the central government, as well, which helped supplement their income.

One could say that our country does engage in a meritocracy similar to the shenshi system. Our children all go to public schools. Though our schools' educational systems are supposed to be locally based, in reality we have a common national standard, especially in specific subjects, including nationalized textbooks. Public school teachers are specifically instructed to create good, obedient citizens (witness the whole Thanksgiving Pilgrim mythology). Those who test well then are paid to go to on…… [Read More]

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Educational Analysis of Student Testing

Words: 1084 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66506615

Education and the Analysis of Student Tests: Current Trends and ecommendations for Practice

In both the practical realm of educational provision and in education policies and legislation, the need to effectively and accurately measure the efficacy of various teaching methods and educational program is of paramount concern. There is a legislative mandate that all children in the United States have a right to a free and equal public education, and ethical principles also insist that all students receive the same opportunities for learning and growth. Given the practical constraints of providing public education on such a broad scale, it is also important that most students progress at approximately the same rate, so that instruction can be kept meaningful for all students. While this often translates to teaching towards the bottom of knowledge and skill levels represented in the class, it ought to mean being able to identify struggles and problems…… [Read More]


Garcia, E. (2001). Hispanic Education in the United States. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Phelps, R. (2005). Defending Standardized Testing. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Sacks, P. (1999). Standardized Minds. New York; Da Capo Press.

Spring, J. (2001). American Education. New York: McGraw Hill.
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Is the American Education System in Trouble

Words: 1247 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91224112

Educational Problems


The United States has enjoyed a long history of providing public education for all students. However, many people believe that our educational system does not function well and that it has not for some time. Although multiple ways to improve public education have been tried, the belief persists that our schools produce under-educated students who are under-prepared for college or work. The goal of education is to teach students, but not all the students learn well, and for those who do not learn, we cannot always find either adequate explanations or solutions.

For some decades, the United States has attempted to use group testing to track the success of our educational programs. One attempt was by use of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) tests (Ipka, 2003). These tests provide raw scores of from 0 to 500. The Department of…… [Read More]


Ipka, V.W. 2003. "At Risk Children in Resegregated Schools: An Analysis of the Achievement Gap. Journal of Instructional Psychology, Vol. 30.

Kozol, Jonathan. Savage Inequalities. 1992: Harper Perrenial.

McQuillan, Jeff. 1998. "Seven myths about literacy in the United States." Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 6(1). Accessed via the Internet 8/23/05.

Schrag, Peter. 2004. "What's Good Enough? Advocates Are Demanding Not Just Equal but Decent Schools for All Children." Magazine article by Peter Schrag; The Nation, Vol. 278, May 3.
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Educational Mission the Unc Health Care System

Words: 917 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27540462

Educational Mission

The UNC Health Care System runs a teaching hospital that publishes its mission statement, statement of core values, and nursing philosophy on the organization's Web site at < >. The mission is stated briefly as: "to be a leader in providing compassionate, quality care focusing on the unique needs of patients and their families." Key words in the mission statement include "compassionate," "quality care" and "unique needs." The core values of the UNC Health Care System's nurses include five main elements. Those elements include "My patient," "My team," "My Hospital," "My Community," and "My Profession." Phrasing these five main values in terms of "my" helps the nurse to feel like an integral part of the organization.

Furthermore, the nursing philosophy of the UNC Health Care System is outlined as being a reflection of the vision and values of the organization as a whole. The main principles of…… [Read More]


East Carolina University College of Nursing (2012). Philosophy of the college of nursing. Retrieved online:

UNC Health Care System (2007). Nursing mission, core values, philosophy. Retrieved online:
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System Theory the Origin and

Words: 4711 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99908857

However, in the most recent theory of evolution which discusses the living world appears as the result of chance and an output of different randomly selected natural mills. This kind of development came to present as a result of the need of more subjects or topics in areas such as cybernetic, general system theory, information theory, theories of games which is needed in most decision making process in line with real applications. In mathematics techniques however, there are a number of general assumption which are insufficient and most of the time very contradict themselves (Laszlo & Krippner, 1982).

Again, Laszlo (1982) outlined that von Bertalanffy considered the idea of organization to be involved at various stages in the expression of natural system. This could be highlighted from his first statement on the system which he made between the years 1925-1926, during the time when similar thinking of organism was being…… [Read More]


Bailey, K.D. (2004). Beyond System Internals: Expanding the Scope of Living Systems Theory. Los Angeles: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Bailey, K.D. (2006). Living systems theory and social entropy theory. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 23, 291-300.

Bertalanffy, L. (1951). General system theory - a new approach to unity of science. (Symposium), Human Biology, 23, 303-361. Dec 1951.

Bertalanffy, L. (1972). General system theory: Foundations, development, applications. London: Allen Lane.
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Educational Psychology An Overview the Topic of

Words: 3935 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70187039

Educational Psychology: An Overview

The topic of educational psychology, or psychology as it is practiced within a school system, has become increasingly important in recent years as the number of special education demands on school systems and especially public school systems has increased. While educational psychologists tend to work in universities and other research settings rather than in the school system per se, they are continually affected by what is happening in schools as they seek to respond to the changing needs of student bodies. Thus the needs of school psychologists tend to be reflected at least in some measure in the research of educational psychologists, who in turn affect the practice of school psychologists. Thus one area of research that is becoming increasingly important to educational psychologists is one that is among the most pressing demands made on the school psychologist today. This topic is how to help autistic…… [Read More]


Alberto, P., & Troutman, A. (2003). Applied behavior analysis for teachers (6th ed.). Columbus, OH, USA: Prentice-Hall-Merrill.

Cameron, J., Pierce, W.D., Banko, K.M., & Gear, A. (2005). Achievement-based rewards and intrinsic motivation: A test of cognitive mediators. Journal of Educational Psychology 97, 641 -- 655.

Furth, H.G., & Wachs, H. (1975). Thinking goes to school: Piaget's theory in practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Koegel, R.L. & Schreibman, L. (n.d.) Pivotal Response Training. Retrieved from
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Educational Tech Annotated Bib Astleitner

Words: 3759 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2331558

Chapter 3 stresses the importance both fundamentally and ethically of representing information truthfully and honestly through visual and experiential means that are meaningful to the learner and respect the fact that the individual mind is rather limited and therefore needs human centered externals to help it learn and retain information. Chapter 4 stresses the importance of individuality in the development of technologies that teach and interact with people. The overall work is important as it stresses the fact that technologies, as a creation of man must be developed and manipulated to reflect the humanity of their purpose. The fallibility of the mind is stressed as is its limitations and the possibility of the development of greater tools to impart knowledge is the most important factor in the development of learning tools.

Norman, D. (1988). The Design of Everyday Things. New York: Doubleday/Currency. [chapters 1, 2, 3, 4]

In this work…… [Read More]

Wittrock, M.C. (1992). Generative learning processes of the brain. Educational Psychologist, 27(4), 531-541.

Wittrock present a functional model of learning that pays close attention to four processes of learning; attention, motivation, knowledge or preconceptions and generation. The author's point-of-view is clearly one of biological i.e. neurological brain function and develops a schema in which knowledge or learning takes place, as interactive and fluid in the mind. Understanding each of these four aspects can give the educational developer an idea of the need to bring learners all the way in to a learning environment through attention, motivation and base knowledge to elicit generative principles of cognition, i.e. The assimilation of novel material, that will add to their base knowledge of understanding. Wittrock's model in fact stresses that in creation of interactive or even static instruction if one key aspect is lacking, the whole of the system is resistant to learning. This is important in that it makes clear that development of technologies that instruct must produce attention and elicit motivation as well as build from some existing knowledge base to be effective for any user to generate a set of new knowledge. Even the most simple instructions often build on a set of base knowledge, that is frequently taken for granted and many instructional environments lack the sort of stimulation that garners attention and motivates the learner.

Total 17 papers including 3 books. I'll send you the articles in PDF files except three books Saffer, D. (2007). Designing for Interaction. Berkeley: New Riders. Norman, D. (1988). The Design of Everyday Things. New York: Doubleday/Currency. Norman, D. (1993). Things that make us smart. New York: Doubleday/Currency. I think you can find these easiliy in libraries.
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Educational Needs of Children in

Words: 2030 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71350329

(Renchler, 1993)

Datcher-Loury researched a set of black children belonging to low income families from three regions to find out whether variations in educational performance were due to variation in behavior and attitudes within the families. Focused on the outcomes of the student's achievement on reading and math exams and also on the interviews with and examination of the mothers of the children; Datcher-Loury arrived at the decision that variations in family behavior and attitudes of course had huge and vital long-term impacts on the educational performance of children. From these outcomes, Datcher-Loury recommends that the programs concentrated at changing parental attitudes might be helpful in assisting to surmount the impact of economic shortcoming on the academic achievement on children. (Renchler, 1993) research undertaken by Judith Anderson and others demonstrated the association between poverty at public school and achievement of students among eighth graders, concentrating on the most poor schools…… [Read More]

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Educational Psychology Within the Work

Words: 1094 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22975848

Or finally, students may have insufficient motivation to put into practice what they have learned, such as fears of making a serious mistake. (Zimmerman & Schunk, 2003, p. 444)

In the case of Jean she frequently failed because the motivation to achieve was undefined, and her inability to understand the connection between academic knowledge and achievement, through the modeling of her historical culture plagues her throughout her education.

People in the lower-lower class are largely unskilled laborers and the chronically unemployed. Life for them is a continual struggle for survival, a struggle that many of them feel they cannot win without outside help. Hollingshead says that they "give the impression of being resigned to a life of frustration and defeat in a community that despises them for their disregard of morals, lack of 'success' goals, and dire poverty" (25). (Lindgren, 1962, p. 102)

The value of her culture did much…… [Read More]


Lindgren, H.C. (1962). Educational Psychology in the Classroom (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Shafer, M.S., & Rangasamy, R. (1995). Transition and Native American Youth: A Follow-Up Study of School Leavers on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. The Journal of Rehabilitation, 61(1), 60.

Bredo, E. (2003). 4 the Development of Dewey's Psychology. In Educational Psychology: A Century of Contributions, Zimmerman, B.J. & Schunk, DH (Eds.) (pp. 81-107). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Zimmerman, B.J. & Schunk, DH (Eds.). (2003). Educational Psychology: A Century of Contributions. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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Educational Situations

Words: 6837 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97521471

Educational Situations

Name four practices that commonly require written administrative procedures.

Memorandums that include school policy changes or important information for the staff are commonly distributed in writing so that the information is accurately conveyed and properly received and documented. Many staff communications to the administration, such as requests for new classroom supplies or for personal leaves of absence, are also communicated in writing. If disciplinary action of any kind is taken against a student, it is commonly recorded in writing in the student's permanent file, and a copy of this information may be sent home to parents. Finally, the recording of daily vital information, such as student attendance and test scores, are done in writing.

How would you know if you are complying with EQ policies and procedures?

A a) If I were not complying with EQ policies, I would receive notification or a warning of some kind from…… [Read More]


Graves, Bonnie & Michael. "Scaffolding Reading Experiences to Promote Success: A Flexible Approach to Fostering Comprehension." University of Minnesota.

Education Queensland. Queensland Government.
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Educational Development Is a Mix of Both

Words: 1591 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92500107

Educational development is a mix of both formal and informal learning conditions as assessment of my own educational experience has taught me. I cannot say that one is more important than the other; each segment together has taught me different elements -- made me grow -- and combined in producing the 'me' that you see today.

In his "Notes for an Obituary," Einstein once noted that the system of education was a deliberate intention on the part of the state to mislead youth. He distrusted all forms of education, and from his pre-adolescent days refused to be taught. Religious leaders, too, he felt were disillusioned and deluding society. Yet Einstein felt that the fault belonged, not to the rabbi or to the priest, but with the force behind them that disregarded liberty of thought and made education compulsory. As regards Einstein himself, he was determined that formal education would not…… [Read More]


Kolb, David (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall

Ottawa University. Retrieved on Monday, January 24, 2011 from:

Reaching In, Reaching Out.(RIRO) (n.d.) Children's storybooks that promote resilience. Retrieved on Monday, January 24, 2011 from:

4. Conclusion
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Educational Needs of Office Professionals

Words: 648 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50754315

Educational Needs of Office Professionals

A better trained and educated workforce has been directly associated with increased productivity, improved morale and higher earnings for workers (Gentry & Springer, 2002).

There has been slow progress in developing comprehensive and responsive secondary education across states and school districts nationwide. Furthermore, the need for challenging curricula in U.S. schools is widely recognized (Archambault et al., 1993). The current level of educational achievement for the typical office professional in this state, though, is largely unknown.

In order to develop appropriate curricula for secondary students intending to pursue careers in administration, it is important to determine what classes and content should be offered. To this end, as the chair of the State Education Department, this researcher conducted a study examining the educational needs of office professionals by developing a quantitative and qualitative questionnaire and conducting a randomized state study of professional office workers.

Methodology. Based…… [Read More]


Archambault, F.X., Westberg, K., Brown, S.B., Hallmark, B.W., Emmons, C.L., & Zhang, W.

(1993). Regular classroom practices with gifted students: Results of a national survey of classroom teachers (RM 93102). Storrs: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut.

Gentry, M. & Springer, P.M. (2002). Secondary Student Perceptions of Their Class Activities

regarding Meaningfulness, Challenge, Choice, and Appeal: An Initial Validation Study.
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Educational Psychology the Transitional Stages

Words: 2676 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69876207

Additionally, Frank may be deliberately acting out and acting lazy as a result of his resentment that he was not given the opportunities that his two high achieving siblings were given by living in a stimulating urban environment, as long as they did. Though Frank does not specifically intone resentment he is clear that he does not like the place they now live and that the people around him do not share his interests or intelligence. Addressing all these problems with Frank, by actually directly asking him if this is how he feels, and making sure to give him plenty of time to think about it would likely greatly help his predicament, as it would facilitate recognition for him of his uniqueness (something he desires) and would allow him to possibly overcome the hurdles of his current situation. The teachers in his school would also do better directly with Frank…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bergman, Roger. "2 Identity as Motivation: Toward a Theory of the Moral Self." Moral Development, Self, and Identity. Ed. Daniel K. Lapsley and Darcia Narvaez. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004. 21-43.

Bronfenbrenner, Urie. "Thoughts on Teaching." Human Ecology 33.3 (2005): 26.

Evans, Richard I., and Erik Erikson. Dialogue with Erik Erikson. 1st ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1967.

Kaplan, Jeffrey S., ed. Using Literature to Help Troubled Teenagers Cope with Identity Issues. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.
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Educational Leadership Leaders in the

Words: 314 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63716616

Saudi Aramco's training department was underdeveloped, and therefore the potential of their employees was being squandered. Once armed with an advanced degree I will stand poised to help organizations like Saudi Aramco to improve their training departments. Ultimately I will be able to perform consulting work in numerous private, non-profit, and government sectors to expand my range of expertise and offer the best guidance I possibly can to my clients.

Having worked as a translator as well as a professional training director, I have developed solid communications and leadership skills that can easily be imparted to my clients. I also have proven experience in developing and implementing training programs for professionals. What I need now is a leap forward, to hone my ability to design optimal training programs that meet the needs of both individuals and organizations. The higher education doctoral program at the University of Massachusetts offers… [Read More]

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Educational Research Phonemic Awareness Web

Words: 627 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18790115

" Their article entitled "The ole of Phonemic Awareness in Learning to ead" describes phonemes as the smallest units of spoken language that are used to create words. The English language has between 41 and 44 phonemes. The concept of phonemes can be confusing for children because there are not always the same numbers of phonemes as there are letters in a word. Phonemic awareness is important because the English language uses an alphabetic writing system, and all aspects of learning to read and write incorporate PA on some level.


In the April 2009 article "Using Scaffolding to Teach Phonemic Awareness in Preschool and Kindergarten," McGee and Ukrainetz note that many children enter school without the ability to recognize the individual sounds within words. Moreover, their teachers find it difficult to teach phonemic awareness and that there is little in the teaching curricula that can help teachers understand how…… [Read More]


Farstrup, A. And Samuels, S. (2002). What research has to say about reading instruction. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association.

Hoover, W. (2002, December). The importance of phonemic awareness in learning to read. SEDL. Retrieved April 19, 2010 from

Langland, C. (2004, December 23). Working with sounds: educators trying to boost reading skills with phonemic awareness. Beaver Country Times. Retrieved April 19, 2010 from,6119937&dq=phonemic+awareness&hl=en

McGee, L. And Ukrainetz, T. (2009, April). Using scaffolding to teach phonemic awareness in preschool and kindergarten. The Reading Teacher, 62(7), 599-603.
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Educational Assessment Research Bowen G L

Words: 1379 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79682554

Formative assessment gives teachers the opportunity to provide students with feedback in time to improve learning. Fluckiger, Vigil, Pasco & Danielson (2010) describe several techniques to provide formative feedback to students more frequently and to involve them more fully in the process. Although their techniques were developed specifically to enhance the learning experiences of postsecondary students across a variety of disciplines, teachers of students at all levels can adapt the ideas to their classrooms. Their goals are to "give feedback in time for revisions to occur, provide scaffolding for learners, inform instruction, and most importantly, involve students as partners in assessment" (Fluckiger et al., p. 140). The researchers believe their techniques result in improved instruction, enhanced student learning and better student products. Helping to build a productive classroom climate in which the emphasis is on learning, not grades achieved. Instructors can improve assessments by incorporating both formative and summative assessments…… [Read More]

Study Island. (2011). Retrieved from

Tasdemir, M. (2010). The effects of REAP reading comprehension technique on students'

success. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal 38 (4), 553-560.
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System Paradigms Humans Have the

Words: 2110 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70999728

The religious organization has other-worldly goals, but must adapt to the demands of this world in order to survive. There are generally two kinds of responses to this problem -- the church response and the sect response. The church response is to adapt at the expense of the goals and the sect response is value-rational-to maximize goal commitment at the expense of adaptation (Satow, 1975).


Theories and research concerned with individual performance, employee satisfaction, and reduction of tension between individual and organizational goals deal only with internal aspects of events, relationships, and structures that make up the total organizational system. However, if an organization is seen as an open-energy system, it is apparent that it is dependent for survival and growth upon a variety of energy transfers within the organization and also between the organization and its external environment. It is sure,…… [Read More]


Barnard, C. (1938). The Functions of the Executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University

Friedlander, F., and Pickle, H. (1968). Components of Effectiveness in Small Organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly13(2), 289-304

Kanigel, Robert (1997). The One Best Way: Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency. New York:

Kloos, B., McCoy, J., Stewart, E., Thomas R.E., Wiley, a., Good,- T.L., Hunt G.D., Moore, T. And Rappaport, J. (1997) Bridging the Gap: A Community-Based, Open Systems Approach to School and Neighborhood Consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation 8(2), 175-196
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System Analyst Job Website Overview

Words: 450 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22182554

" The job required a candidate with a BS in Technical Writing, Food Science, Food Engineering, Food Microbiology or Food Chemistry and competency in Microsoft Word. Salary was commensurate with experience.

A software system architect for the Interoperable Solutions Team at Motorola would be part of a development group within the company's Worldwide adio Solutions Group. The job required a BA and 5+ years in software or system engineering, along with experience with one of the following systems: C++, java, lte, wimax, tau g2, doors, udp, igmp, multicast ip, sdt, evdo. Salary was not specified. A systems analyst for eCommLink was to act as a liaison between eCommLink's engineering, quality assurance, business, and operations teams and create the technical requirements for the prepaid card system created by the company.


Associate product lifecycle management specialist. (2010). Con Agra. etrieved February 17,

2010 at

Manager, business development II, Air Force…… [Read More]


Associate product lifecycle management specialist. (2010). Con Agra. Retrieved February 17,

2010 at

Manager, business development II, Air Force systems and requirements. (2010). BAE Systems.

Retrieved February 17, 2010 at
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System Thinking

Words: 698 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19148977

System Issues & Chikfila

Systems thinking is a way of synthesizing the issues surrounding any organization in both a macro and micro manner. This allows more shared values through teamwork, mental paradigms, the ability to think in the future, and look at projects in a way that are best for the organization as a holistic entity. Thus, when the process of inquiry is moved from the individual and rote (only knowledge) to an organization that moves through different, more analytical modes of thinking, the individual involved are more active participants and there is a shared vision alone with a personal and team mastery of the question in point. This evolution engenders personal buy-in, a feeling of empowerment, and clearly a new way of processing disparate information (Senge, 2006).

Chick-Fil -- A is an American fast food restaurant chain specializing in Chicken Sandwiches. Their headquarters are in Atlanta, Georgia, and have…… [Read More]

Works Cited and Consulted

Chick Fil -- a Controversy. (2013). The Huffington Post. Retrieved from:

Chick-Fil-a. (2013). Press Releases. Retrieved from:

Chick-Fil-a. (2010). Corporate Message. Retrieved from:

Nunziato, M. (June 2013). PR in Practice: Chick-fil-A. Retrieved from:
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System of Inquiry for the

Words: 1886 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86002585

The model consists of five phases:

1. Perception of the ethical problem

2. Description the situation and objective definition of the ethical issue

3. Identification of alternatives

4. Selection of an alternative

5. esolution (Cooper, 2006).

This model has been implemented successfully in both the public and private sectors. The goals of the model are to create a management team consisting of responsible individuals that promote high standards, ethical decision-making practices on behalf of their code of ethics, transparency and accountability (Cooper, 2006). Ultimately, according to Cooper's model, ethical decision making is the process of identifying a problem, generating alternatives, and choosing among them so that the alternatives selected maximize the most important ethical values while also achieving the intended goal.


Most work-related decisions have an ethical component. With few exceptions, problems that involve people also involve ethical issues. Decisions that affect people's jobs and careers have an ethical…… [Read More]


Business Dictionary (2009) "Conflict of Interest" 

Cooper, T. (2006). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass.

Olsen, a. (2009). Authoring a code of ethics: Observations on process and organization. Center for the study of ethics in the professions. Illinois Institute of Technology.

Schnebel, E., & Bienert, M.A. (2004). Implementing ethics in business organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 53, 203-211.
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Educational Gap Between Whites and

Words: 3172 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22641131

They will in turn pass on that legacy to their own children. Since that is the general rule and principle, why does it affect persons of color more fiercely?

Persons of color are disproportionately represented in the low strata of the SE ladder. Amongst the poor persons of color have higher percentages and are more likely to exist in extreme poverty. Since SES determines where you live to a large extent, and where you live will determine the schools to which your children can attend. Then SES becomes a limiting factor because person whose household income is low will live in government housing and may be on some government support program. These persons will also have their children attend schools within these communities' schools where there is high teacher absenteeism, poor results on standardized testing and generally poor conditions (Lee, 2002). Again, in this regard persons of color are over…… [Read More]


Achievement gap (2002) National conference for community and justice. Retrieved from

Anderson M.L. & Taylor H.F. (2010) Sociology the essentials. NY, New York: Wadsworth

Cengage Learning.

Brunner, B., & Haney, E. (2007). Civil Rights Timeline Milestones in the modern civil rights movement. Retrieved from
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Educational Theory Dewey vs Eliot the Contrast

Words: 668 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97519183

Educational Theory: Dewey vs. Eliot

The contrast between the contemporary educational theories of John Dewey and Charles . Elliot cannot be subsumed under the dichotomies of 'right and wrong' so much as the two men's different sociological contexts, although the two men expressed contempt of one another during their respective lifetimes. Overall, Dewey stressed the idea of education through one's pursuit of a vocation and Charles . Eliot's stressed the need for education for education's sake for the vocations. Dewey believed education was a constant process, and that life was an education, while Eliot saw a strong dichotomy between university life and professional life, as well as those who were fit to become a part of the system of higher education and those who were not.

Dewey was a Midwesterner. He strongly believed in the democratic need for education. He advocated the end of entrance exams as necessary to enter…… [Read More]

Works Cited

University of Michigan: School of Education. "Thought and Action: John Dewey -- School Accreditation's Club." 2004. UMSOE Website. 24 November 2004.
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Educational Law How Lawful How

Words: 3482 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99959850

Conservatives, on the other hand, have many passions and one of them is a color-blind government. Most of them believe that all policies of discrimination should be discarded. They view these policies as unwise, immoral and unconstitutional. Three conservative organizations submitted a collective brief to the Supreme Court on the Michigan cases. These organizations were the Center for Equal Opportunity, the Independent Women's Forum and the American Civil Rights Institute. Their brief succinctly stated that racial preferences were incompatible with the 14th Amendment. The 14th Amendment, according to them, clearly states that no person within its jurisdiction would be denied the equal protection of the laws. The silence of the justices to this statement was perceived to indicate insufficient interest in the original understanding than in their own case law. In 1865 and 1866, radical Republicans proposed a constitutional amendment that no State could set distinctions in civil rights and…… [Read More]


Katznelson, I. (2006). When is affirmative action fair? 19 pages. Social Research: New School for Social Research

National Review (1995). Courting trouble. 2 pages. National Review, Inc.: Gale Group

O'Sullivan, J. (2003). Affirmative action forever? 5 pages. National Review: National Review, Inc.

Paul, P. (2003). The legacy of affirmative action. 2 pages. Media Central, Inc.: PRIMEDIA Company
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Educational Program Needs and Expectations of the

Words: 1092 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83861832

Educational Program

Needs and expectations of the stakeholders in the project

This Far West education program has a variety of stakeholders bearing that it is directed towards not only impacting the English speaking ability among the immigrant population, but also equipping them with prerequisite skills and material like books and other support to ensure the people involved in the program benefit to the maximum. The stakeholders involved here are categorized as the sponsors, teachers, students, staff members, the community within which the project is to be established as well as the management that will oversee the implementation of the project.

There are varied needs that the stakeholders would have in the course of the project. These expectations widely influence running of every program and this will not be an exemption. The One of the very significant expectations of the stakeholders is the proof of transparency and fairness of the program.…… [Read More]


SEO, (2012). Preparing a new Generation of Leaders. Retrieved December 5, 2012 from
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Educational Challenges for Special Needs

Words: 1771 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48078087

Included in life skills are such as the ability to manage personal finances, the ability to manage a household, the ability to care for personal needs, and awareness of safety as well as many other life skills including citizenship and leisure activities.

Findings & Conclusion

In the United States and the United Kingdom, governmental assistance to special needs students in education is seen as the answer to making appropriate educational provisions for these students with disabilities. The view of the World Health Organization to developing countries is quite different however; this may be based on the cultural barriers to education for special needs students in the developing countries.


Recommendations arising from this brief study and proposal for research include a recommendation that research be conducted for the purpose of determining what governmental aids and supports can be made for special needs students in education to provide them with the…… [Read More]


Brolin, D.E. (1989). Life Centered Career Education: A Competency Based Approach (3rd ed.). Reston, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children.

Edgar. G. (1988). Employment as an outcome for mildly handicapped students: Current status and future direction. Focus on Exceptional Children 21(1), 1-8 (EJ380199).

Goodship, Joan M. (1990) Life Skills Mastery for Students with Special Needs. ERIC Digest #E469.

Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education (2002) National Research Council U.S. Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education. National Academies Press 2002.
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Educational Assessment in the Future

Words: 758 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97209750

Educational assessment in the future seems to be moving towards teacher-oriented and performance-based assessments. Societal forces are driving this move, spurred by the increasing amounts of knowledge, and the demand for individuals capable of manipulating large amounts of information. As standardized tests slowly lose importance, the special needs environment will likely benefit from teacher-oriented assessments that allow instructors to focus curriculum on a child's individual needs and capabilities.

Stiggins (1991) argues that educational assessment in American schools is currently undergoing a rapid change that represents "the end of a six-decade assessment era and the beginning of a whole new era" (p. 263). The past 60 years have been dominated by assessments based upon standardized versions of objective tests. In this system, teachers "would teach.. And assessors would assess" (Stiggins, 264), thus clearly separating teaching and assessment.

This method of assessment began to come under fire, argues Stiggins, as society began…… [Read More]


Professional Development Support Program: Teacher Centers, Aminda Gentile, Director. Assessment: Glossary of Terms.

Stiggins, R.J. 1991. Facing the challenges of a new era of educational assessment. Applied Measurement in Education, 4(4), 263-273.

Taylor, R.L., Tindal, G., Fuchs, L., and Bryant, B.R. 1993. Assessment in the nineties: A possible glance into the future. Diagnostique, 18 (2), 113-122.
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Educational Software Evaluation Language-Learning Software

Words: 1212 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40632572

Its playback learning system allows the student to hear his/her own voice, which helps in learning. y exposing the student to native speakers, it allows them to hear the accent and cadence of the native language. Updated in 2007, it is able to use most of the current interactive tools. One disappointment: it is not Vista-capable.

French Verb Games 1

This is a flash-card program which is used to memorize French verbs. This could be a tedious task, but is made easier by the games-oriented flash card architecture. It uses flash cards and a series of games to make learning fun. On the downside, it does not have a voice playback feature, nor does it have native speakers who can help the student understand the context and accent for the verbs. It is Vista-enabled, and up-to-date with a 2007 version.

Human Japanese

Of the 10 software programs found, this is…… [Read More]

Bibliography "Learning Language." 25 October 2007. 25 October 2007

NFLRC. "Multimedia Language Learning Software." 2006. NFLRC, University of Hawaii. 25 October 2007 .

Educational Software Evaluation
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Educational Programs for Adult Offenders

Words: 1227 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80818531

Among the study subjects, those who were under 21 at the time of release and did not have GED programmes, receidivism rate at 3 years post release was 54% compared to those who had GED while at prison. (40%). This study proved that educational programs are a more effective deterrent for young adults keeping them from falling back into criminal ways. [John, 2003]

Studies have also focussed on other programs besides education that could aid in reducing recidivism rates. A recent study by Marylin and Cindy (2007) found that the Prison Industry Enhancement Certification Program (PIECP) which allows a prisoner to work for a private employer and earn real wages is also very effective in reducing recidivism rates. It was found that the PIECP program was better than both employment in TI (traditional industries paying modest wages) and OTW (other than work) activities in reducing recidivism rates and in…… [Read More]


Released and Restored, 'Released and Restored: Statistics', Accessed Dec 14th available at

Marylin C.Mosses & Cindy J.Smith (June 2007), 'Factories Behind Fences: Do Prison 'Real Work' Programs Work?, NIJ journal No 257

Nuttall, John (Sep 2003), 'The effect of earning a GED on recidivism rates'

Journal of Correctional Education
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Educational Philosophies Richard D Mosier

Words: 1516 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61437982

Synthesize traditional and progressive education for today's students. Education digest. Vol. 68, Issue 7, 4-8. etrieved January 17, 2011, from:

Cohen, L.M. & Gelbrich, J. (1999). Philosophical perspectives in education. Oregon State University, School of Education. etrieved January 17, 2011, from:

Moser, .D. (1951, July). The educational philopophy of William T. Harris. Peabody Journal of education. Vol. 29, No. 1, 14-33 etrieved January 17, 2011, from http://www. Jstor, org/stable/1489104

Nehring, J.H. (2006, February 1). Progressive vs. traditional: eframing an old debate. Education week. Vol. 25, Issue 21, 32-33. etrieved January 17, 2011, from:

Neil, J. (2005, January). John Dewey: Philosophy of education. Experimental learning. etrieved January 17, 2011, from

Sternberg, J., & Zhang, L. (2005, Summer). Styles of thinking as a basis of differntiated instruction. Theory into practice, 44(3), 245-253. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. etrieved January 17, 2011, from:… [Read More]


Ackerman, D.B. (2003, March). Synthesize traditional and progressive education for today's students. Education digest. Vol. 68, Issue 7, 4-8. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from:

Cohen, L.M. & Gelbrich, J. (1999). Philosophical perspectives in education. Oregon State University, School of Education. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from: 

Moser, R.D. (1951, July). The educational philopophy of William T. Harris. Peabody Journal of education. Vol. 29, No. 1, 14-33 Retrieved January 17, 2011, from http://www. Jstor, org/stable/1489104

Nehring, J.H. (2006, February 1). Progressive vs. traditional: Reframing an old debate. Education week. Vol. 25, Issue 21, 32-33. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from: