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Joy at a victory is not particularly remarkable, but the volume -- in size and decibels -- of the crowd, and the length of time MSNBC devoted to its coverage, indicates more the kind of "all-in" trust that Hobbes describes than the support of the masses for a political candidate in a healthy democracy.
Hobbes goes on to say that an assembly of men speaking in one voice would also be possible. But an assembly of men can never truly have just one voice; this country is a giant assembly of men and women, with many voices, and differing opinions. To put this much trust in one man, however much he may appeal to one's sensibilities and political opinions, is a scary step away from democracy and towards something far less individual and more nebulous.
Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan, Chapter XVII of the Causes, Generation, and Definition of a…
Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan, Chapter XVII of the Causes, Generation, and Definition of a Commonwealth.
Election Coverage. MSNBC. 4 November 2008.
The Prime Minister of the country was for example under extreme pressure to prove that the elections could be run in a perfectly democratic manner. However, when democracy was not in his favor, violent measures were taken and a reelection demanded to manipulate the results.
The reaction of all involved parties to all the actions taken by the Prime Minister and his ruling party were negative and heavily oppositional. This was not the case in the United tates. While some campaign tactics may have resorted to extreme measures in terms of insult or discreditization, this did not result in murder or public violence. Indeed, when the results were made known, parties were able to communicate peacefully. The Republicans, who lost the campaign, accepted the results gracefully once it became clear that recounting the ballots would not change the results (BBC News). Indeed, according to BBC News, President Bush is perfectly…
BBC News. "U.S. Democrats secure sweeping win." 9 Nov. 2006. URL:
Washington University in St. Louis. "Campaign Tactics & Strategy." 2006. URL: http://news-info.wustl.edu/cat/page/normal/131.html
presidential election of 1992 was a tight race, compared to others in history. The struggle between the Clinton camp, which focused on a platform involving the economy, the Bush camp, who focused on a platform whose basis was trust and taxes, and the Perot camp, who relied on a business-style economic platform, all combined to form one of the most interesting and changing races in recent years. This paper will discuss how Clinton used his economic platform to win a difficult election, and how the Bush campaign's overconfidence and faulty pre-election strategy helped Clinton to win what some believed was an unwinnable race for the Democratic Party.
It is important to first understand the incumbent's reliance on his popularity in the era of a victory in Iraq, and in the post-cold war atmosphere. In 1992, the American population found themselves in a changed world, where the Berlin Wall and intercontinental…
Clinton, Bill. My Life. New York: Knopf, 2004.
Gallup Organization. "Timeline of Polling History: Events that Shaped the United States, and the World." The Gallup Organization. 2005. The Gallup Organization. 21 March 2005. .
Henderson, Hazel. "Retooling Budgets, Taxes." Christian Science Monitor 31 July 1992, Opinion 18.
Kranish, Michael. "Clinton Lists Steps on Economy, May Modify Some Plans." Boston Globe 13 Nov 1992, A1.
election of Lee Myung Bak as president of South Korea echoes a new era of hope for the survival of democracy in that often troubled country. Lee, a member of the conservative Grand National Party (GNP) easily defeated his opponent Chung Dong Young who is a member of the progressive party that had been in power in South Korea since the late 1990's. The size of Lee's victory in the popular vote was significant in itself but the fact that his party and other conservative parties were able to easily dominate the National Assembly elections as well affords Lee the opportunity to push through his party's agenda on the national stage.
What impact Lee may have on the continued development of democracy in South Korea remains to be seen but, in a nation where democratic principles have not always been well supported, the country's movement back to the right is…
Armstrong, C. (2007). Korea in the World. In C. Armstrong, The Koreas (pp. 1-20). London: Routledge Publishing.
Kirk, D. (2008, June 11). South Korea's beef protests: Lee's woes deepen. Retrieved December 21, 2011, from The Christian Science Monitor: http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Asia-Pacific/2008/0611/p12s01-woap.html
Lee, J.-h. (2004). The Emergence of 'New Elites' in South Korea and its implications for Popular Sentiment Toward the United States. In D.J. (Editor), Strategy and Sentiment: South Korean Views of the United States and the U.S.-ROK Alliance (p. 61). Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies.
Lee, N. (2005). Representing the Worker: The Worker-Intellectual Alliance of the 1980s in South Korea. The Journal of Asian Studies, 911-937.
election of 1912, Theodore oosevelt, supported by his own Progressive Party, advocated ideas based around Progressive reform. He called for a "pure democracy," or a government free of influence by special interests. He emphasized that government officials derived their authority from the people. He espoused that the people had the right to recall judicial decisions. He also believed that the people should have the right to amend the constitution, in order to make it more appropriate and applicable to current times.
Woodrow Wilson, with the backing of the Democratic Party, advocated the use of schools as centers for public forums. More generally, he emphasized the need for public centers and forums to spark discussion, debate, and an active participation in democracy. He and his party called for antitrust measures and regulations, as well as an overall expansion of the national government's responsibilities while finding "non-bureaucratic and non-centralized ways to treat…
Milkis, Sidney M. (2003, February 15). Why the Election of 1912 Changed America.
Retrieved from http://www.claremont.org/publications/crb/id.1152/article_detail.asp
Characteristically, each voter is given the alternative of casting votes separately in each tier, which in this study we refer to as nominal vote and the list vote. On the other hand, there are instances wherein the voter gives only a nominal vote. In such instances allotment of assembly-seats in the list-tier is founded on a combined-total of nominal-votes on party-basis (Cain, 1987).
The Nominal Tier
Typically the nominal tier comprises of single-seat districts. In single-seat districts the allotment model is normally "plurality," although in some Nominal Tier systems there is a "runoff," needed in any district wherein there is no majority in the first-round. One can count countries like Albania, Georgia, Hungary, and Lithuania as states where there is a runoff. imilarly, there have been mixed-systems with multiple-seat nominal-tier districts, which include outh Korea during the 1987 election and some districts in Venezuela during the 1998 election. The main…
Schiemann, J.W. Risk, Radicalism, and Regime Change: Institutional Choice in Hungary, 1989." Ph.D. thesis, Columbia University, 1999.
Taagepera, R., and Shugart, M.S. Seats and Votes: The Effects and Determinants of Electoral Systems. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.
The suggestions goes towards extending these active table campaigning during the last 3 days of the passive table campaigning to ensure a fair and better visibility to candidates and offer individual promotion and distribution of campaign flyers.
Another proposal goes towards the costs of the electoral campaign that each candidate has. There can be cases when funding does not come from sources of trust and therefore such a measure would ensure transparency of the entire process. Change is critically important to any system and usually is accepted and put into practice after long negotiations. An electoral system's change, of any sort, "has a great effect on the type of the system which results, its appropriateness for the political situation, and the degree of legitimacy and popular support it will ultimately enjoy." (Reynolds, 2005,-page 5). Therefore, any change to this electoral process must not only be put into practice by the…
Reynolds, Andrew, Ben Reilly and Andrew Ellis. Electoral System Design:the New International IDEA Handbook. The International IDEA Handbook Series, Stockholm: 2005
University of Kansas. Student Senate, Rules and Regulations, 2010. Retrieved on 15th December 2010 from https://documents.ku.edu/policies/StudentSenate/StudentSenateRulesandRegs.pdf
1932 campaign is considered different with respect to communication. Breaking the tradition of republican to restrict themselves to front porches Hoover went out and traveled far and wide to deliver speeches. This pattern of traveling to all places is still followed today by the presidential candidates. Public speeches became the hallmark of the 1932 campaigns for both democratic and republican candidates. Both oosevelt and Hoover delivered speeches in public setting the standards for direct public involvement.
Another development that really affected the election campaign was the extensive use of radio. The use of radio became widespread in America by 30s. In previous campaigns the involvement of media such as radio was minimal. Use of radio by the candidates in 1932 elections can also be considered a starting point for the importance of electronic media in the U.S. election campaigns. Previously in cases of front-porch campaigns candidates delivered the same speech…
Dibacco, Thomas V. "Until 1932, Party's Nominee Didn't Even Attend the Convention." The Washington Times August 15, 1996: 11.
Zirakzadeh, Cyrus. "John Steinbeck on the Political Capacities of Everyday Folk: Moms, Reds, and Ma Joad's Revolt." Polity 36(4): 595+.
Carcasson, Martin. "Herbert Hoover and the Presidential Campaign of 1932: The Failure of Apologia." Presidential Studies Quarterly 28(2): 349+.
United States presidential election, 1932." Wikipedia Encyclopedia. 2006. 10 Dec 2006 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_election%2C_1932 .
Andrew Jackson and the Election of 1828
The presidential election of 1828 sparked a turning point in the American political system. ith the inauguration of General Andrew Jackson in 1829 and the atmosphere of victory within the populace, it was clear then that Jackson was truly the American "People's President." A war hero, a statesman, a "man of action," it becomes no surprise that the citizens of the United States supported him so. Yet it was not just his popularity that marked the election of 1828 as an important historical event. In fact, not only did he defy the general "image" of U.S. presidency, he was also part of the beginnings of the modern-day two-party platforms.
The tense, wary, and politically hostile atmosphere of the election of 1828 was believed to be a result of the corruption of the election in 1824. Jackson, a soldier-turned-statesman, had run against political rivals…
Badertscher, Eric. "Andrew Jackson." Andrew Jackson (2005): 1. Biography Collection Complete. EBSCO. Web. 4 May 2011.
Howell, William Huntting. "Read, Pause, and Reflect!!." Journal of the Early Republic 30.2 (2010): 293-300. Literary Reference Center. EBSCO. Web. 4 May 2011.
Remini, Robert V. "The Election of 1828." Election of 1828 & the Administration of Andrew Jackson (2003): 16. History Reference Center. EBSCO. Web. 4 May 2011.
Richardson, Janine. "Andrew Jackson's Election." Cobblestone 31.5 (2010): 18. Middle Search Plus. EBSCO. Web. 4 May 2011.
Because ammy has no real interest in winning the presidency, she does not campaign in the traditional sense but instead gives a rousing speech about the pointlessness of the election, winning herself support but precipitating her own expulsion from the race.
Jim thinks that others will suffer because of racy because he is one of the few characters in the film to fully understand the extent of racy's character. Part of racy's skill lies in her ability to appear innocent, but Jim understands how easily she manipulates people to get what she wants, and so he is afraid of giving her any more power. On a more personal level, racy has already helped get Jim's fellow teacher fired by the beginning of the film, so Jim has immediate experience with the collateral damage caused by racy's machinations. Furthermore, Jim struggles with the idea that someone as manipulative and cold-hearted as…
Tracy thinks she deserves victory because she has worked hard on her campaign, and she believes herself to be one of the "strong," deserving of destiny's rewards. Put simply, she believes she deserves to win because she wants to win, and her self-absorption is so total that she cannot consider anyone else and anything other than an obstacle. This can be seen most clearly in her voiceover, when she tells God, "I really must insist that you help me win the election tomorrow because I deserve it and Paul Metzler doesn't, as you well know. I realize that it was your divine hand that disqualified Tammy Metzler and now I'm asking that you go that one last mile and make sure to put me in office where I belong." Her self-aggrandizement continues to the point of instructing God as to his role in the plot, and she is unable to consider why Tammy may have been disqualified other than how it relates to her own chances of success. Furthermore, Tracy continuously makes a distinction between the weak and the strong, identifying herself with the latter and proposing that a propensity for manipulation and strategy are what separates the two.
Election examines the occasionally combative relationship between students and teachers, and through the character of Jim McAllister, deals with a rivalry between teacher and student which ultimately ends in Jim's resignation. Jim's initial problem with Tracy is that she escaped punishment while his colleague was fired, and the film seems to suggest that this injustice can never be rectified, because the students always ultimately have more power than the teachers, as evidenced by Tracy Flick's continued success. In fact, the film can be seen as arguing against the kind of personal investment Jim commits to the school, because his investment in school is only the result of his own personal problems and so ends up being corrupted by his own failings and fanaticism.
Payne, Alexander, Dir. Election. Paramount Pictures: 1999, Film.
3% in July of this year. The epublican Governors Association is paying for ads that are stating that 400,000 jobs were lost during Strickland's tenure. The truth is that the state started losing jobs in 2000, during the seven years when epublicans held the governor's office along with both houses of the legislature, but at a considerably lesser rate. Ohio has had more than 568,300 jobs since 2000 vanish, consisting of 403,800 in the manufacturing segment. This is a key matter in front of both epublican and Democratic incumbents in this mid year campaign cycle. The usual answer is to blame worldwide issues beyond their control, but it's particularly sensitive in Ohio (The most important governor's race? Why top politicians are flocking to Ohio, 2010).
Strickland's major issue has been the economy and the job loss across the state, a lot of which moved to other states. Ohio's financial system…
Davey, Monica. (2010). Ohio Governor Profile. Retrieved October 29, 2010, from The New
York Times Web site: http://elections.nytimes.com/2010/governor/ohio
Hayden, Erik. (2010). Why the Ohio Governor's Race Is Critical for Obama. Retrieved October
29, 2010, from The Atlantic Wire Web site:
Third parties face a number of troubles which frequently make their candidates terms short lived. The most apparent reason that third parties have trouble surviving is that most voters are faithful to their traditional party. Voters typically identify with a certain political party, often inheriting their particular association from their parents. There are other great roadblocks third parties faces on the path to becoming a typical fixture in politics such as ballot access, campaign finance and the Electoral College system.
There are also many laws which hold back third parties from being triumphant (Tabor, n.d.).
Politics in this country have been for years based on popularity and not necessarily the issues at all. Jessie Ventura pulled off an upset in the 1998 gubernatorial race in Minnesota because he was popular. He had tremendous name recognition based on his past endeavors and the public was tired of the two major political…
Ferguson, Margaret Robertson. (2006). The executive branch of state government: people, process, and politics. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.
Grossbach, Andrew, Kath, Rusty, Spencer, Alicia and Stuard, Danielle. (n.d.). Where Has the Jesse Voter Gone? Retrieved April 11, 2011, from Web site:
The similarities between these qualifications and those of the Senate are evident and in both instances, there is no reference of gender, ethnicity, or social position as a qualification. The term of a member of the House of Representatives is two years.
To become a member of either the House of Representatives or the Senate requires that the aspiring individual win an election to that position. Initially, the state legislatures appointed the Senators from each state. This practice was discontinued by the 17th Amendment to the constitution. The second of November is a critical date for the House and Senate; at that time, the people choose who will represent them by direct vote. In every general election cycle, one third of the Senate is up for reelection along with the entire House of Representatives. While the Senate will always contain previous members, it is theoretically possible to replace all the…
Voter Participation, Campaign Financing, and the Legitimacy of Elections
One of the greatest challenges for candidates in the American electoral system is securing enough financing to run a campaign. The system favors incumbents who have greater resources to solicit contributions more easily from donors (as they can already deliver on implied promises in exchange for donations) and wealthy candidates. According to Sides (2015), public funding reduces the overall advantage of incumbents and incumbent margins of victory, although when there is only partial, versus complete government funding of elections, this also results in more polarized legislatures, as “public financing weakens the influence of a maligned, but moderating, force in elections: access-oriented interest groups” by empowering smaller donors who might hold more extreme, partisan views (Sides, 2015, par. 6).
Reducing the influence of even moderate special interest lobbying groups is not necessarily a bad thing. But this phenomenon does highlight how voter…
A. Fascism v Communism
1. Reproductive Rights
2. Gun Control
5. Law Enforcement
C. Thesis: Therefore, the real key to election 2020 may be which candidate can convince more people in the middle that, regardless of where they stand on policy issues, the voters can expect that candidate to consistently try to act in the best interests of all Americans.
A. Donald Trump
3. Impeached but acquitted
B. Joe Biden
2. Former VP
III. Reproductive Rights
A. Trump is pro-life/ anti-choice candidate
B. Biden is pro-life candidate
C. Vacancy on Supreme Court makes this issue more critical.
IV. Gun Control
A. Biden is for gun control
B. Trump is against gun control
A. Trump wants to eliminate the ACA and replace it.
B. Biden wants to expand…
Biskupic, Joan. (September 26, 2020). Amy Coney Barret, A Proven Conservative With a Compelling Personal Story. CNN. Accessed online from: https://www.cnn.com/2020/09/21/politics/amy-coney-barrett-supreme-court/index.html
Hawkins, Derek, Felicia Sonmez, Seung Min Kim, and Hannah Knowles. (October 4, 2020). Live Updates: Trump’s Medical Team Says He Could Be Discharged From Hospital As Soon As Monday. CNN. Accessed online from: https://www.forbes.com/sites/jemimamcevoy/2020/07/27/trump-administration-reportedly-sending-more-federal-agents-to-portland/#926672125db6
McEvoy, Jemima. (July 27, 2020). Trump Administration Reportedly Sending More Federal Agents to Portland. Forbes. Accessed online from:
America’s Transition from President Trump to President Biden
The 2020 U.S. Presidential election may have been the most contentious election in American history. While President-elect Joseph Biden was the decided winner, with almost 8 million more popular votes and a decisive victory in the electoral college, President Trump began claiming election fraud would occur almost a year before the election. In fact, Trump and his supporters have continued to suggest that the results of the election are somehow illegitimate and have contested them in various ways including over 60 lawsuits, all of which were dismissed. Despite the allegations of election fraud, there has been no credible evidence of any type of widespread election fraud that would change the outcome of the election. However, a group of Trump-supporting Republican members of Congress, in both the House and the Senate, announced their intention to refuse to certify electoral votes from the…
Ballotpedia. “Election Results, 2020.” Ballotpedia.org. 14 December 2020. https://ballotpedia.org/Election_results,_2020 . Accessed 7 January 2021.
Cilizza, Chris. “Donald Trump’s Election Threat Is Actually Worse Than It Appears.” CNN Politics. 24 September 2020. https://www.cnn.com/2020/09/24/politics/donald-trump-election-peaceful-transition/index.html . Accessed 7 January 2021.
Richardson, Heather Cox. “January 6, 2021.” Letters from an American. 6 January 2021. https://heathercoxrichardson.substack.com/p/january-6-2021 . Accessed 7 January 2021.
Robert Mueller was appointed by George W. Bush to serve a ten year term as the 6th Director of the FBI from 2001 to 2013 (Obama granted him a two year extension). Today, appointed by Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein, Mueller is heading the Special Counsel investigation into the long-standing claim that Russia “hacked” the 2016 presidential elections, though the investigation has been said to be more wide ranging than that (Mondics, 2017). This paper will provide information on who Mueller is, what the investigation is all about, why it was initiated, and what the latest news on it has revealed.
Robert Mueller was born in New York City in 1944. His father worked for DuPont and had served in the Navy during WWII. Mueller’s boyhood was spent in Princeton, New Jersey and at St. Paul’s School in Concord, New Hampshire. Mueller attended Princeton University, took a BA…
Blum, H. (2017). How scared should Trump be of Mueller? Retrieved from https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2017/12/how-scared-should-trump-be-of-mueller-ask-john-gotti-or-sammy-the-bull
Fredericks, B. (2018) GOP-led House panel fins no collusion. Retrieved from https://nypost.com/2018/04/27/gop-led-house-panel-finds-no-collusion-between-trump-campaign-kremlin/
Goodwin, M. (2017). New York Times’ coverage of Mueller is peak liberal bias. Retrieved from https://nypost.com/2017/11/05/new-york-times-coverage-of-mueller-is-peak-liberal-bias/
Lamothe, D. (2018). Robert Mueller’s military career. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/checkpoint/wp/2018/02/23/robert-muellers-military-career-detailed-in-documents-was-brief-but-remarkable/?utm_term=.53093487ad8d
Mayer, J. (2009). The dark side. NY: Anchor Books.Mondics, C. (2017). Wide-ranging Mueller probe could end up far from where it began. Retrieved from http://www.philly.com/philly/columnists/chris-mondics/trump-russia-mueller-manafort-investigation-20170810.html
Reuters. (2013). FBI Director says U.S. will hold Snowden responsible on NSA leak. Retrieved from https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-usa-security-mueller/fbi-director-says-u-s-will-hold-snowden-responsible-on-nsa-leak-idUKBRE95C0Q420130613
Tanfani, J. (2017). Trump campaign manager, ex-aide charged in Russia probe. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/politics/washington/la-na-pol-essential-washington-updates-paul-manafort-and-business-associate-1509365548-htmlstory.html
Turley, J. (2018). ‘Ethical’ James Comey is under investigation for unethical acts. Retrieved from http://thehill.com/opinion/judiciary/384257-ethical-james-comey-under-investigation-for-unethical-acts
The Mueller Investigation or the Special Counsel Investigation was established as a counterintelligence investigation to examine the involvement or interference of the Russian government in the 2016 US Presidential Election. Donald Trump’s presidential campaigns were characterized by allegations of collusion with the Russian government to interfere with the elections. Controversy regarding the probable interference of the Russian government in the US presidential elections in 2016 is one of the major issues that has faced President Trump’s administration. The Special Counsel led by Robert Mueller carried out its investigations into the matter for two years. Given the significance of the issue in the American political landscape, the Mueller Investigation has attracted lots of media coverage and attention over the past two years. This paper examines media coverage on the Mueller Investigation, particularly coverage by Sean Hannity (Fox) and Rachel Maddow (MSNBC).
Media Coverage of Mueller Investigation
Roeder & Mehta (2018) contend…
Associated Press & Griffith, K. (2019, March 23). How Pundits Reacted to Conclusion of Mueller Probe: Hannity Celebrates End of ‘With Hunt’ While Maddow Foresees Further Investigations. Daily Mail. Retrieved April 16, 2019, from https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6841471/Cable-viewers-digest-Mueller-news-Hannity-Maddow.html
Ewing, P. (2019, April 15). Robert Mueller’s Russia Report is Coming Thursday. Here’s What You Need to Know. National Public Radio. Retrieved April 16, 2019, from https://www.npr.org/2019/04/15/712720679/robert-muellers-russia-report-is-coming-soon-here-s-what-you-need-to-know
Horton, A. (2019, March 28). Samantha Bee: ‘You Don’t Need Mueller to Tell You Trump is a Bad, Corrupt Man.’ The Guardian. Retrieved April 16, 2019, from https://www.theguardian.com/culture/2019/mar/28/samantha-bee-mueller-report-trump-late-night
Liptak, K. & Collins, K. (2019, March 28). Trump Claims Vindication After Mueller Does Not Establish Collusion. CNN. Retrieved April 16, 2019, from https://edition.cnn.com/2019/03/24/politics/donald-trump-response-mueller-report/index.html
Roeder, O. & Mehta, D. (2018, December 19). How Cable News Covered Mueller in 2018. ABC News. Retrieved April 16, 2019, from https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-cable-news-covered-mueller-in-2018/
President Biden and What He Must Accomplish
President Joe Biden faces a difficult challenge of uniting a nation that has never before been more divided. To pull it off, it is crucial that he select the right members for his Cabinet. It is also important that in his first 100 days in office he lays the foundation for the administration and what it aims to accomplish. This paper will discuss the background situation in which Biden takes office, who will play a role in his Cabinet, and what he needs to accomplish in his first 100 days. It will show that the goal of Biden’s presidency is to heal the nation and to make good on his campaign promise to restore the soul of America.
How President Joe Biden can restore the soul of America in the wake of the Trump Era.
What must Biden do to bring…
Crawford, S. (2021). President-elect Joe Biden's top-level appointees and Cabinet picks. Retrieved from https://www.yahoo.com/gma/president-elect-joe-bidens-top-100407960.html
Moore, E. (2020). Biden’s first 100 days. Retrieved from https://www.npr.org/2020/11/09/932190347/bidens-first-100-days-here-s-what-to-expect
Tracy Flick, a preppy overachiever, is running unopposed for student council president. Mr. M, the faculty advisor, distains Tracy and has decided she needs an opponent. Mr. M talks Paul, the injured quarterback, into running - to go for the glory of leadership instead of the momentary glow of sports. Tammy, Paul's sister, decides to run for president after her girlfriend leaves her for Paul. Throughout the movie each character takes actions, fair or unfair, for personal gain. Mr. M throws the election to Paul as revenge against Tracy for having had an affair with his friend and fellow teacher who is fired. Tracy tears down the election posters out of frustration and blames someone else. Tammy falsely claims responsibility for ruining the posters so that she will be expelled and able to transfer to an all girl's school. Paul is the only candidates who wants whatever the outcome will…
Election is a humorous farce disguised as a high school student council election. It explores the motivations of and influences on a candidate. Tracy Flick, a preppy overachiever, is running unopposed for student council president. Mr. M, the faculty advisor, distains Tracy and has decided she needs an opponent. Mr. M talks Paul, the injured quarterback, into running - to go for the glory of leadership instead of the momentary glow of sports. Tammy, Paul's sister, decides to run for president after her girlfriend leaves her for Paul. Throughout the movie each character takes actions, fair or unfair, for personal gain. Mr. M throws the election to Paul as revenge against Tracy for having had an affair with his friend and fellow teacher who is fired. Tracy tears down the election posters out of frustration and blames someone else. Tammy falsely claims responsibility for ruining the posters so that she will be expelled and able to transfer to an all girl's school. Paul is the only candidates who wants whatever the outcome will be, praying to God for each person to do well regardless of who wins.
All three movies use humor to exaggerates the issue each is asking the movie viewer to consider: Wag the Dog uses movie production and media tricks to ask the question of what is real and what is fake; Bulworth takes a straight-laced Senator and turns him into a rapper to show the realities of campaign funding; and Election elevates a student council election to a matter of life or death. While these issues are presented as humor, each situation can be transferred to the realities of American politics. The movies each give the viewer permission to be cynical of the voting process. They each illustrate how elections are not what they appear to be; collectively showing that the news media, professional marketers, the television and movie industry, and a candidate's campaign team can easily turn truth into fiction and fiction into truth.
These movies ironically foretold the future. The 2000 Presidential election was decided not by the voters, not by the Electoral College but by the Supreme Court. Ballots in Florida were reviewed by hand, lawyers and academia were called in to review elections laws and processes, the media cried lack of fairness, and each and every voter had to question the value of their vote. The country as a whole needs to evaluate the influence of campaign financing, the lack of consistent voting methodology, and the use of television advertising on how the United States of America elects its leaders and establish their laws. The U.S.A. citizens need to question if the process is really fair, fully representative and produces the best leadership for their country.
The coming presidential elections in the United States will be conducted on Tuesday, November 6, 2012 and will be America's 57th quadrennial presidential election. As the election approaches, various initiatives and measures have been taken to educate and empower America's voting public and create an increasingly responsible government. These efforts have primarily involved the provision of comprehensive, non-partisan information that relate to presidential candidates, news, issues, and political parties. These initiatives are mainly geared towards providing a platform for voters and non-voters to regularly obtain useful, straightforward, and impartial information linked to politics and issues. However, the major issue revolving around these elections is how the election results will be determined by current and previous decisions of the court. This is mainly because of the increased expectation that the coming presidential election may be a close election.
Presidential Election Laws:
The United States presidential elections are guided by constitutional…
"Campaign Finance (Super PACs)" (2012, September 13). The New York Times. Retrieved September 14, 2012, from http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/c/campaign_finance/index.html
Coleman, K.J., Garrett, R.S. & Neale, T.H. (2012, January 9). Contemporary Developments in Presidential Elections. Retrieved from U.S. Department of State website: http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/180682.pdf
"Election Law -- An Overview." (n.d.). Legal Information Institute. Retrieved Cornell University
Law School website: http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/elections
Nigeria Election and Media Coverage
The Nigerian elections committee has postponed the national election until March 28, 2015. The election was scheduled to take place on February 14, but growing concerns about violence and security issues have triggered this cautionary response. Yet, there are some who believe that postponement will not substantially result in improved security, and instead will worsen conditions. Nigeria's security chiefs are not confident that they can keep voters in the northeastern region of the country safe from the extremist militant group Boko Haram. Hundreds of schoolgirls were abducted in the northeast Nigeria last spring, and Boko Haram fighters attacked a village in neighboring Chad in February.
President Goodluck Johnathan's decision to postpone the election until security improves does not align with his position for most of 2014 in which he attempted to diminish the militant threat. As Boko Haram's attacks have become more blatantly daring, the…
____. (2015, February 16). The Editorial Board. Nigeria's miserable choices. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/16/opinion/nigerias-miserable-choices.html?_r=0
____. (2015, February 19). Nigeria Ambassador Adefuye refutes New York Times editorial on election postponement. Sahara Reporters. Retrieved from http://saharareporters.com/2015/02/19/nigeria-ambassador-adefuye-refutes-new-york-times-editorial-election-postponement
____. (2015, February 8). Muhammadu Buhari: Nigeria "reduced to a failed state." Al Jazeera. Retrieved from http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/talktojazeera/2015/02/muhammadu-buhari-nigeria-reduced-failed-state-150208121316691.html
The voter is grappling with an economic landscape that has seen income inequality increase, with the elites enjoying prosperity; while the middle class hemorrhages wealth and loses income.
The economic variable is the most prominent short-term factor which affects the voter however, equally pressing is the "long-term predisposition" (Miller, W. & Niemi, R. 2002. P. 170) of the voter concerning; "an egalitarian/free-market values dimension that contrasts egalitarian or socialist vs. laissez-faire or free-market values" (Miller, W. & Niemi, R. 2002. P. 172). Voters in Europe and The U.S. are confronted with this polemical; the social democracy governed by a redistribution mentality, or the allure of capitalism and wealth creation despite its penchant for gyrations and economic uncertainty. The coming elections have at their core these fundamental choices based on both short-term and long-term factors, yet will voters have the ability, tools, or option to cast a vote representative of their…
Demobilization, Emotional Identification, and Deficient Information
Particularly in the U.S. The traditional party affiliation as determinant in electoral prediction has turned, with the new dynamic the independent voter who desires a pragmatism and common sense bipartisan solution. While self- described Republicans or Democrats vote tend to vote for their own candidate based on affiliation, this independent is far more likely to be swayed by the short-term factor as opposed to the long-term predisposition; "pre-determined factors have been overrated and more immediate factors-issues, candidates, and election campaigns-have been underrated" (Miller, W. & Niemi, R. 2002. P. 179).
These short-term factors which in this election cycle are without question: economic growth, government debt, and jobs in Europe and the U.S. are presented to voters via the media's
Local Elections in the City of York, UK
Many Western democracies are dealing with the problem of low voter turnout in elections. The United Kingdom is no different in this regard. Local elections seem to be particularly hard hit by an absence of voters participating in these elections. Political scientists everywhere have been studying the problem of low voter turnout for quite some time, though interviews and surveys with the voting population. Thus far, results of these studies have pointed to a variety of reasons why people may choose to not participate in voting in their local elections. This paper examines a May 2003 local election in the city of York in the United Kingdom, and looks at reasons why voter turnout in this election was relatively low.
In a local election in the city of York in May of 2003, the voter turnout was rather low. While it was…
Rallings, C. And Thrasher, M. (1997). Local Government Elections in Britain. London, Routledge.
Statistics About York." (2004). Neighborhood Statistics. Retrieved on January 12, 2004 at http://neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/AreaProfileFrames.
In the 2016 U.S. presidential elections, the Democrats experienced significant losses in both the Senate and the House of Representatives in addition to losing the presidency. While the Democratic presidential candidate, Hillary Clinton, won the popular vote, Donald Trump won the electoral college votes to clinch the presidency. The Republicans not only won the presidency but also won the Senate and the House of Representatives. In the aftermath of the 2016 elections, the performance of the Democratic Party has been the subject of scrutiny among political analysts and experts in political matters. The media has remained puzzled with the outcome of the elections because they were so wrong in their predictions. One of the issues that has received considerable scrutiny by the media is why Democrats failed to capture more seats in the U.S. House and why they lost control of the Senate. This paper focuses on examining the reasons…
Citizen United on the 2012 Elections
Effects of Citizen United
Citizens United is an organization in the United States that does not operate on profit and that focuses on conservatism. The scenario that is commonly related to the organization is the particular Supreme Court Case 'Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission," which attempted to ascertain the legality of specific aspects of campaign finance. The ruling that was made in the case influenced numerous practices that can be condoned during the election period. The 2012 elections are similarly projected to be influenced majorly by Citizens United based on the various changes that it has caused in the election system.
Citizen United's mission is described to be dedication to the restoration of the government of the United States to the control of the 'citizens'. In addition, it is committed to asserting American values that are linked to freedom of enterprise, national sovereignty…
Bai, M. (2012). How Much Has Citizen United Changed the Game? The New York Times. Retrieved September 5, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/22/magazine/how-much-has-citizens-united-changed-the-political-game.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all
Millhiser, I. (2012). Citizen United Has Already Doubled The Amount of Outside Spending in Presidential Election Years. Think Progress. Retrieved September 5, 2012 from http://thinkprogress.org/justice/2012/03/12/442227/citizens-united-has-already-doubled-the-amount-of-outside-spending-in-presidential-election-years/?mobile=nc
Stone, R. (2012). Koch Brothers Behind Paul Ryan as VP Choice. Economic Policy Journal.com. Retrieved September 5, 2012 from http://www.economicpolicyjournal.com/2012/08/paul-ryan-koch-brothers-get-their-man.html
Toobin, J. (2012). Money Unlimited. The New Yorker. Retrieved September 5, 2012 from http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2012/05/21/120521fa_fact_toobin
Pluralist theorists often dispute that political power in Texas is dispersed among an extensive range of rival groups and interests, and that this rivalry serves to limit the power of any single group on the institutions of government. Even though there are noticeable dissimilarities in the resources of groups, there is adequate opposition and dealings among the groups to attain the objectives of a democratic society. Public policy, in this outlook, reveals the cooperation of rival interests (the Power of Interest Groups, 2010).
Supporters of elitist theory contend that political power in Texas is concerted in the hands of a comparatively small amount of people who obtain their funds from influential institutional bases. These institutions are joined collectively with multifaceted interconnected associations, and access to their leadership places is limited. Known as the Texas Establishment, those who dominated authority in the past were mostly white males from the higher socioeconomic…
"Lone Star Election Laws: A Comparative Study of Texas's Campaign Finance System." 2000,
viewed 29 March 2011, from
"Texas Politics - Voting, Campaigns and Elections." 2011, viewed 29 March 2011, from
"The Power of Interest Groups." 2010, viewed 29 March 2011, from
Strategic Use and Impact of Social Media in the 2012 Elections
The goal of the research is to find evidence of the use and impact of social media in U.S.'s 2012 presidential elections. This is because it was reported that President Obama won the elections because of the ground operation presented by volunteers of his elections' campaigns (CNN ire 1). I chose this topic since reports in state media indicated that the Republican Party was heading in the pre-election polls, but in the end, the Democratic Party won due to the use of technological innovation (Edsall 1). An in depth analysis of the research problem intends to reveal that the presidential contest favored President Obama, for using social media. Social media is increasingly an easy, fast, and effective way for people to have personal contact through technology. The intention is to prove the political premise that the most effective means…
"Changing Face of America Helps Assure Obama Victory." Pew Research Center for the People & The Press. People-Press. 7 Nov 2012. Web. 19 Apr 2013.
"Election 2012: Barack Obama wins with 'Better Ground Game'." CNN Wire. 7 Nov 2012. Web. 19 Apr 2013.
Blow, Charles M. "Election Data Dive." New York Times. Nov 9, 2012. Web. Apr 19, 2013.
Edsall, Thomas, B. "Campaign Stops: What We Already Know." New York Times, The Opinion Pages. Nov 4, 2012. Web. Apr 19, 2013.
American Elections Have ecome Undemocratic
The American electoral process has been criticized on several points. This paper addresses some, though not all, of the ways in which the American political process has been criticized. Starting with campaign finance and whether expensive advertising exerts an influence on the outcome of elections out of proportion to its importance, I discuss the difficulty faced by potential candidates in getting their names on ballots when they are not the candidate being promoted by either the Democrats or Republicans. I then address whether the idea of plurality in national elections is a rational one and conclude with a discussion of the Electoral College and whether its presence and influence in the outcome of the presidential race runs contrary to the expressed democratic spirit of the United States.
First, there is the issue of campaign finance. Essentially, the uncomfortable question is this: is the American system…
1. "Abolish the Electoral College" The Rest of Us.Org 2005. 29 April 2005
2. "Frequently Asked Questions." U.S. Electoral College 2005. National Archives & Records Administration 30 April 2005.
3. "Quick Answers to Candidate Questions" U.S. Federal Election Commission. 2005. 1 May 2005.
4. Kinsley, Michael, "Sitting Pretty." CNN Time September Edition CNN.com 29 April 2005
This is significant, because the two elements will directly determine the overall extent that these issues will play in deciding when American forces will withdraw. It is through examining this complex role that United States is playing in Iraq, that provide the greatest insights as to what challenges will be faced in the future.
"1,487 Victims of Violence in March 2010." 1 April 2010. Aswat Al Iraq. Http://en.aswataliraq.info/?p=129534 .
Accessed 2 April 2010.
"Iraq Violence Facts and Figures." 29 November 2006. C. Http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/5052138.stm. Accessed 2
"Lebanon, Israel and the Greater West Asian Crisis." 17 August 2006. Open Democracy.
Http://www.opendemocracy.net/conflict/westasia_crisis_3833.jsp. Accessed 2 April 2010.
"Obama Keeps U.S. Troop Withdrawal Plan after Iraq Poll." 7 March 2010. Reuters.
Http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE6261YI20100307. Accessed 2 April 2010.
"PKK Surrender Test Turkey Plan." 19 October 2009. C. Http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8315088.stm. Accessed 2
"U.S. Commits to Iraq Withdrawal by 2011, but Could Seek an Extension."…
"1,487 Victims of Violence in March 2010." 1 April 2010. Aswat Al Iraq. Http://en.aswataliraq.info/?p=129534 .
Accessed 2 April 2010.
"Iraq Violence Facts and Figures." 29 November 2006. BBC. Http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/5052138.stm . Accessed 2
In 2004, approximately 120.3 million people cast a ballot for president, which, in absolute numbers, are the most to have participated in any American election.
In the popular vote, President ush received 51% of the popular vote to Kerry's 48% and in the Electoral College the final outcome was 286 electoral votes for the President and 252 electoral votes for Kerry. Republicans not only won the White House, but they also expanded their Senate lead to 55 from 51.
In the House, Republicans added three seats and emerged with a 29-seat majority. Republican control of the White House, Senate and Congress truly mark the 2004. The 2004 is truly a transforming election marking significant Republican influence over morals, the economy, and Iraq war policies.
According to CNN, an evenly divided electorate split sharply, and in some states decisively, on age, gender, religious, racial and ideological lines.
Botelho, Greg. "Exit Polls: Electorate is Sharply Divided." CNN 3 Nov. 2004. 13 Dec. 2004. .
"Election, 2004 Update, November 4, 2004 - President George W. Bush Wins a Second Term; the GOP also Makes Gains in Congress." 4 Nov. 2004. Thomson Wadsworth. 13 Dec. 2004. .
The election of 2016 produced a shocking outcome in the eyes of most political analysts. As noted by Larry J. Sabato, there are many parallels between the election of 1948 and 2016. In 1948, Harry Truman, who was predicted to lose to Thomas E. Dewey, had a similar, populist “give ‘em hell” style to Donald Trump. Dewey’s supporters were similarly unenthusiastic as many of Clinton’s supporters, who backed her more as the anti-Trump candidate versus someone they genuinely admired. But the parallels end there, as Truman was still an incumbent president who had a lifetime of political service, while Trump, in stark contrast, had never held office.
Sabato notes that first and foremost, Trump rode a wave of anti-immigration and white resentment of what they perceived as encroachments upon their privilege. Many individuals who voted for Obama shifted their allegiance back to the Republican Party because of Trump’s apparent outsider…
America is a competitive place and many of the economic and social systems in place reflect this quality. Economically, capitalism and all of its market specific rules apply to the many working people in this nation as well. The purpose of this essay is to describe how labor unions are affecting these economic processes and how they can contribute to the greater conversation revolving around the economy and employment issues. This essay will describe a union election from the standpoint of a campaign manager of union candidate to express my personal feelings and strengths towards this analysis. The second part of this essay will address the GMFC case study and explain my actions with a philosophy on employee relations.
Corporations appear to have much of the political power in the country today as far as labor realations are concerned. Labor unions are dwindling in power every year as…
Griswold, D. (2010). Unions, Protectionism and U.S. Competitiveness. Cato Journal, 30 (1), Winter 2010. Retrieved from http://www.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/serials/files/cato - journal/2010/1/cj30n1-10.pdf
US Department of Labor. Unions and Union Members. Viewed 2 Aug 2013. Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/compliance/topics/unions-elections.htm
US Department of Labor. Conducting Local Union Officer Elections. Viewed 2 Aug 2013. Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/olms/regs/compliance/localelec/localelec.htm
In this essay, we will investigate the topic of Russian interference in the United States’ 2016 Presidential election. This essay will contain a list of topics related to Russian meddling, possible titles for essays covering those topics, an outline of the essay, and an example demonstrating how to write a strong essay. Our free example essay will not only explain how Russian interference influenced the election, but also show you how to write each part of an essay: introduction, thesis statement, and body paragraphs that combine evidence and analysis. The essay will conclude with a review of the information presented in the essay and suggestions for further action.
A New Kind of Cold War: Russian Meddling in the 2016 Election
Is Putin the De Facto President of the United States: How Russia Influenced the 2016 Election
Should Russian Interference in the 2016 Election Invalidate the Results?
What Does Russian…
E-Voting and elated Use of the Internet for Elections
Electronic voting often regarded as Internet voting, online voting or e-voting is an electoral system that utilizes encoding to permit a voter to pass on their secure and confidential ballot over the web. (E-Ping meeting Brussels) The democratic system of formation of government entails authority of the citizens to choose leaders and to represent them in the Legislative Assembly and form the government. It is pertinent to note that a lot of citizens are found to be uninterested in the process of election and do not even cast their vote. Such attitude of the voters may arise out of the lack of awareness about how and where to cast their ballot, lack of awareness about the election process or lack of time. (unning Head: Future Elections -- On the Internet?)
This is particularly true in case of United States since there…
Cross, Michael. Voting against Internet Elections. The Guardian. February 12, 2004, pp: A4-A5
e-Ping meeting Brussels. 10 September 2002. Retrieved from www.eping.org/docs/oostveen.ppt Accessed on 14 October, 2004
How E-Voting Threatens Democracy. 29 March, 2004. Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/news/evote/0,2645,62790,00.html?tw=wn_story_related Accessed on 14 October, 2004
Jalonick, Mary Clare. Q& A: Campaigning on the Internet - Strategy & Tactics: Using the Internet in Politics. Campaigns and Elections. Volume: 12; No: 1; September, 2002. pp: 25-28
The third secondary source we will look at here is Kaiser (2009). Kaiser argues that money has corroded the electoral process in the United States. He gives statistical data on the rising cost of political campaigns as an indication of how money's importance has grown in the last several decades. If the campaigns of all the candidates for President, the House, and the Senate cost less than a billion dollars in 1976, in 2000 it was $2.8 billion (even if adjusted to the inflation), while in 2004 it was $4.2 billion. "This steady increase appears now to be a permanent fixture of our politics," he says (p. 290). Kaiser also gives examples of how money spent by individuals allowed them to win seats in the House or the Senate. For example, John Corzine, a retired investment banker and a Democrat, won a Senate seat from New Jersey in 2000…
Austen-Smith, D. (1993) Information and Influence: Lobbying for Agendas and Votes. American Journal of Political Science, 37(3): 799-833.
Bartels, L.M. (2005) Economic Inequality and Political Representation. Unpublished paper. Retrieved on February 15, 2001, from http://www.princeton.edu/~bartels/economic.pdf
Derek, C., ed. (2002) the Best Elections Money Can Buy. U.S. PIRG Education Fund Report. Retrieved on February 15, 2011, from http://cdn.publicinterestnetwork.org/assets/_8MuDgm1AnavpYKIfwgxSA/bestelections10_02.pdf .
Farman, T.W., & Eggen, D. (2010) Republican Congressional Candidates Race Ahead in Fundraising. Washington Post. Retrieved on February 15, 2011, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/16/AR2010101603236.html
Another factor that determined the failure in the 2002 elections, is that the Democratic candidates' campaign was not as aggressive as it should have been. The Democrats' opponents used attack campaigns, so the Democratic candidates should have responded "preferably with a plan that turns his attack campaign into a character issue on him."
Other than this, Shawni Littlehale of the free-market Pioneer Institute for Public Policy esearch estimates that: "the majority of the electorate wants a fiscally conservative governor to push for lower taxes and cuts in our bloated state government, while they want their [state] rep/state senator to bring home perks for their cities ad towns."
The Democrats' success in the 2006 elections was determined by a very strong electoral campaign, the 50-State Strategy. From the beginning, the Democrats were determined to win and geared up in every precinct in the country in an unprecedented 50-state organizing strategy.…
Massachusetts gubernatorial election, 2006. (2006). Wikipedia. Retrieved December 3, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massachusetts_gubernatorial_election%2C_2006 .
Kamarck, Elaine C. Glass Ceiling. Why the dominant Democrats can't elect a governor. (2003). CommonWealth. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
Keough, Robert. Why can't the Bay State elect a Democratic Governor? (2003). CommonWealth. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
The 50-State Strategy (2006). The Democratic Party. Retrieved December 4, 2006 at http://www.democrats.org/a/2006/09/50-state_strate_17.php .
Campaign Finance and its effect on Outcomes of Elections
In this paper, we are examining the underlying trends in campaign finance. To do this we will look at four different gubernatorial campaigns. Once this takes place, is when we will be able to see what patterns are developing in how campaigns are financed.
Over the last several decades, the issue of campaign finance and its outcome on elections has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of the reason for this, is because the relationship between politics and special interests will come together during an election. As political candidates, are forced to run for office through spending massive amounts of money. While having to accept funds; from a number of special interest groups that have active memberships throughout the country. This has led to a host of scandals with names such as Watergate, illustrating how this relationship between political and…
2002 General Election. (2002), Election Returns. Retrieved from: http://www.electionreturns.state.pa.us/ElectionsInformation.aspx?FunctionID=13&ElectionID=7&OfficeID=3
Contributor Results. (2011). Follow the Money. Retrieved from: http://www.followthemoney.org/database/search.phtml?searchbox=rick+perry&CurrentType=Contributors&so1=y#sorttable1
Candidate Election Results. (2011). Vote. Retrieved from: http://vote.sos.state.oh.us/pls/enrpublic/f?p=130:10:0
Contributor Results. (2011). Follow the Money. Retrieved from: http://www.followthemoney.org/database/search.phtml?searchbox=Ed+rendell+
S. such as providing affordable healthcare for all, paid for by raising taxes on the wealthy; making a sincere effort for energy independence, and generating more jobs while investing in renewable energy and conservation (Borosage and Heuvel).
America, after decades of its love relationship with Conservatism, topped by eight years of the disastrous Bush presidency that has left the country on the brink of financial collapse and almost universal dislike, was indeed ready for change. it, therefore, decisively rejected the candidate -- McCain -- who promised more of the same and chose the candidate for change.
as the U.S. In Need for Change?
That there was a need for change in the U.S. is a no-brainer. On the domestic front, the U.S. is facing perhaps the most formidable economic meltdown since the Great Depression of the 1930s. In eight short years, the Bush administration has managed to turn a huge…
Borosage, Robert and Katrina Heuvel. "What Obama Needs for Progressive Reform." The Nation. September 01, 2008. November 17, 2008. http://www.thenation.com/doc/20080901/borosage_kvh
Grunwald, Michael. "For Obama, Race Remains Elephant in the Room." Time Magazine. Monday, Sep. 15, 2008. November 17, 2008. http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1841109,00.html
It's time America should take a chance and make Barack Obama the next leader of the free world." The Economist. October 30, 2008
Jakes, T.D. "Will a Black President Really Heal the Racial Divide?" Time Magazine. November 04, 2008. November 17, 2008. http://www.time.com/time/politics/article/0,8599,1856574,00.html
Shady American Elections of 1876
The most corruption ridden, heinous and questionable presidential election in American history had only just begun. During the presidential campaign, Rutherford was blasted by Tilden's opposition labeling him thief, briber and a drunkard. Eyebrows were raised in states controlled by Republican about voting fraud; armed and dangerous bigoted white democrats had enveloped the South thwarting blacks from voting in elections. Hence in the aftermath, South Carolina, Louisiana and Florida were judged too close to call. With these states still in-pending, Tilden was short of one electrical vote of 185 as written in the constitution to win an election. Hayes captured 165 electoral votes; now he just needed 20 electoral votes to win from these mentioned three states to attain the president's seat. The crisis began slowly leading up to the threat of a civil war which finally concluded behind the curtain deal, popularly known as…
Harmon, Mark D. "The New York Time sand the Theft of the 1876 Presidential Election." Journal of American Culture (2004): 35-41. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1542-734X.1987.1002_35.x/abstract
History. n.d. 29 March 2015. Retrieved from: http://www.history.com/topics/us-presidents/compromise-of-1877
Holt, Michael F. Gilder Lehrman. n.d. 29 March 2015. Retrieved from: http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/reconstruction/essays/contentious-election-1876
King, Gilbert. Smithsonian Mag. 07 September 2012. 29 March 2015. Retrieved from: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-ugliest-most-contentious-presidential-election-ever-28429530/?no-ist
midterm elections reminded us - if we needed reminding - that the United States is indeed a two-party country, with Democrats and epublicans capturing the vast majority of officers from the local to the federal level. However, even as this is the case it is also true that there are serious third-party candidates running for many of those offices.
This paper examines the question of whether the coverage of the three candidates running for governor in New York were fairly covered by the press and in particular whether Tom Golisano, running as a third-party candidate for the office of the governor of New York in the past mid-term elections, received an appropriate degree of coverage in the region's newspapers.
One of the important questions in American politics is why the two parties have so much power, in contrast to many nations in which numerous political parties are represented both in…
In what is shaping up to be the strangest election in United States history, the contest between the Democratic nominee, former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton and the Republican nominee, billionaire real estate developer Donald J. Trump is being closely monitored by U.S. voters and an increasingly concerned international community. The Democratic nominee has most recently been charged with several abuses of classified information during her tenure as secretary of state, perjury before the U.S. Congress and illicit dealings with foreign interests buying favors from the State Department through donations to the Clinton Foundation. Conversely, the Republic nominee has been labeled alternatively as “crazy,” “insane,” and “deranged” by a growing number of observers based on his erratic and hate-filled speeches. This essay on the 2016 U.S. Presidential election reviews the literature to provide brief biographies of these presidential candidates followed by an analysis of recent trends that have…
Superiority of the anadian Government over that of the United States Regarding Access to the Media by Political Parties
The media, with its diverse modes of mass communication, plays a pivotal role in electoral campaigns both in anada and the United States. andidates for political office thoroughly understand the infinite potential in utilizing the media for their campaign platforms. With just one brief thirty-second advertisement during a commercial break either on the radio or on television, a candidate instantaneously speaks to millions of attentive listeners and/or viewers. By launching a national communications campaign, a political nominee essentially creates the most efficient and mesmerizing tool in his electoral arsenal.
Though the media has admittedly proven to be an invaluable tool in bridging the gap between a candidate and his constituency, there are a myriad of ethical issues that constrict a candidate from utilizing this resource to it's fullest potential. The main…
Center for Governmental Studies. "Grading State Disclosure 2003: Campaign Disclosure Laws. http://www.campaigndisclosure.org/gradingstate/lawfindings.html
Alliance for Better Campaigns. "All Politics is Local; But you wouldn't Know it by Watching TV. http://www.bettercampaigns/org/reports/display.php?ReportID=12.
Nichols and McChesney (2013) write about election spending and the negative effect that it has on democracy and governance in America in their book Dollarocracy: How the money-and-election complex is destroying America.. They have divided the book into central themes, including the concept of privilege, spending by the very wealthy, advertising and the role of the media in the election machine, finally arriving at some suggestions for reform to restore balance to the democratic system of the United States.
The book opens with an explanation of one of the core principles that underpins their arguments, that America is a society driven by class differences. Those with privilege consistently seek to use that privilege to enhance it. The authors make the case that such practices at this point are so rampant that "the United States is now rapidly approaching a point where the electoral process itself ceases to function as…
Nichols, J. & McChesney, R. (2013). Dollarocracy: How the money-and-election complex is destroying America. New York: Nation Books.
The media in Nigeria is covering the election in such a way that it is clear that it is attempting to preserve the solidarity of the country. The media is well aware of the various factions in the country that are contending with one another for the principle resource that it has: its oil supply and utility for natural energy. However, it is very aware of the tenuous nature of the political situation in the country. The media has reported about the impending election (and its postponement) by largely sticking to the facts. There is a dedicated effort on behalf of the Nigerian media to simply convey the facts surrounding the election in a non-partisan manner. The media is not dwelling on the frequent acts of violence that have occurred and which other media outlets are linking to the violence. In fact, were one simply to read about…
incumbent is the existing holder of a political office who normally has a structural advantage over challengers during an election," ("The Power of Incumbency" 1). In the House of Representatives, incumbents win over 80% of their elections ("The Power of Incumbency" 1). For the presidential race, the power of incumbency is different and in many ways, weaker due to term limits and the nature of the executive office. Anti-incumbency can haunt presidents who, for whatever exogenous or endogenous factors, had a difficult presidency. Prevailing party fatigue can also be a factor boosting the chances of a non-incumbent from the opposing political party. In the case of presidential elections taking place after a two-term president such as in 2016, there is no incumbent and therefore the process by which the hopefuls win their party's nomination becomes the focal point of their campaign work.
Incumbents enjoy obvious advantages over their non-incumbent counterparts…
McLaughlin, Dan. "History is not on the Democrats' Side in 2016." The Fedeeralist. Retrieved online: http://thefederalist.com/2014/09/04/history-is-not-on-the-democrats-side-in-2016/
Nelson, Michael. Guide to the Presidency and the Executive Branch. Fifth Edition. Los Angeles,: Sage, 2013.
"The Power of Incumbency." Boundless. Retrieved online: https://www.boundless.com/political-science/textbooks/boundless-political-science-textbook/congress-11/congressional-elections-81/the-power-of-incumbency-446-1638/
Because of the extreme conditions of the 1930s depression, the New Deal under Franklin Roosevelt went further in expanding the powers of the federal government than any previous administration in history, certainly far beyond the very limited role permitted to it by the conservative administrations of arren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover in 1921-33. It was the worst depression in U.S. history, and led not only to the complete collapse of all Street and the financial system, but of industrial production as well, which fell 85% in 1929-33, while the Gross National Project fell by half and in some cities like Chicago the unemployment rate rose as high as 50-60%. At the same time, the entire banking system collapsed by 1933, as did agricultural prices, and money stopped circulating. John Maynard Keynes and other economists blamed this severe contraction on low incomes, unequal distribution of wealth,…
Clarke, P. Keynes: The Rise, Fall and Return of the 20th Century's Most Influential Economist. Bloomsbury Press, 2009.
Fine, S. Sit-down: The General Motors Strike of 1936-37. University of Michigan Press, 1960.
Heinrichs, W. "Lyndon B. Johnson: Change and Continuity" in Warren I Cohen and Nancy Bernkopf Tucker (eds). Lyndon Johnson Confronts the World: American Foreign Policy, 1963-68. Cambridge, 1994: 9- 31.
Skidelsky, R. Keynes: The Return of the Master. Perseus Books Group, 2010.
Eason Jordan made what he defined as a "life and death" decision to withhold information that might get his informants killed in Iraq. "It's very simple," he said. "Do you report things that get people killed? The answer is no.," (cited by Rutenberg, 2003). Jordan's decision is a little bit surprising, considering the media's generally ruthless approach to journalism: such as the push to get the story first, or to glean information before competitors in the industry. Journalism is cutthroat enough on an individual level: leading reporters on the ground and editorial boards to make decisions that are in the best interest of the company, but which are not necessarily ethical.
In the case with Eason Jordan, however, it seems that the editorial choice might have been the ethical one. Although "several journalism professors and commentators said Mr. Jordan had compromised CNN's journalistic mission so the cable network could continue…
Social Psychology Dynamics in the Political Arena
Has America moved past Affirmative Action with the election of a Black President?
"Black Employment in Municipal Jobs: The Impact of Black Political Power" by Peter K. Eisinger explores levels of black employment in 43 U.S. cities as they relate to four variables: the size of the local black population, the presence of a black mayor, the expansion or contraction of the local public sector, and the level of education of the local black labor pool. Eisinger found that the size of the local black population most affected levels of black employment in the public sector, and argues that a partial reason for this circumstance is political; the larger the black population, the more substantial the black voting bloc. The second most influential factor affecting black employment levels is the presence of a black mayor. The expansion of the local public sector appears…
Eisinger, Peter K. (1982). Black Employment in Municipal Jobs: The Impact of Black Political
Power. The American Political Science Review,76(2), 380-392.
Hajnal, Zoltan L. (2001). White Residents, Black Incumbents, and a Declining Racial Divide.
The American Political Science Review, 95(3), 603-617.
South Africa: Electoral and Institutional Arrangements, Party Competition, and Checks and Balances in Government
South Africa's government is a constitutional democracy based upon a system of proportional representation. In other words, its national legislature is a parliament, with two houses, the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces (NCOP). The parliament called the National Assembly awards seats to each political party based upon that party's proportionate support in the national election. Elections for the National Assembly are held every five years. The second general democratic post-apartheid election in 1999 in yielded a majority for the African National Congress (ANC) Party, the party famously lead by the imprisoned Nelson Mandela during the years of apartheid that disenfranchised most of South Africa's majority black population ("Government in South Africa," SouthAfricainfo, 2008).
In addition to the ANC, South Africa has sixteen registered political parties under the Independent Electoral Commission, spanning a variety…
Government in South Africa." Southafrica.info. 24 Mar 2008. http://www.southafrica.info/ess_info/sa_glance/government/gov.htm
South Africa's Political Parties." Southafrica.info. 24 Mar 2008. http://www.southafrica.info/ess_info/sa_glance/constitution/polparties.htm
My family already recycles, and I am working with my community association to change garbage service providers to one that takes a broader range of recyclable materials, to encourage more recycling in my neighborhood. At home, my family has also stopped drinking bottled only eats organic free-range meat and poultry products, though we still drink bottled water and eat factory-farm products when dining out. While none of these changes can completely eliminate my carbon footprint, I think that if all Americans embraced these types of changes, we could see a noticeable difference in the continued rate of climate change and environmental destruction.
While it may be difficult to forecast the environmental future, it seems like making a ten-year financial forecast would be impossible in these difficult financial times. However, I think that I can accurately predict that I will be doing well financially in ten years. I am fortunate…
He still occasionally 'bums smokes' and chews nicotine gum to combat cravings (Altman, 2008, p 3). Obama's campaign released records suggesting that he is in excellent health -- only one page long. The only specific data they have revealed is his low cholesterol rating. The question arises -- if Obama is in such good health (and he does work out very frequently) why the reticence about the information (Altman, 2008, p.3).
The Obama campaign has implied that the mere appearance of good health on the part of the candidate should be enough, a statement that they would likely mock if it came from the older McCain. McCain has also cited the longevity of his mother as an example of why people should be unworried about his candidacy but again, this is hardly scientific proof of his fitness (Tasker & Chrissos, 2008, p.1). Of course, one of the reasons that questions…
Altman, Lawrence. "Many holes in disclosure of nominees' health." The New York Times.
20 Oct 2008. 20 Oct 2008. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/20/us/politics/20health.html?ref=health
The health and medical history of John F. Kennedy." Doctor Zebra. 6 April 2006.
20 Oct 2008. http://www.doctorzebra.com/prez/g35.htm
Another Wall Street Journal article (April 2, 2007) explains that Senator Hillary Clinton is the current top fundraiser among Democratic candidates for president.
n the Washington Post (March 29, 2007), former presidential candidate Steve Forbes has decided not to run again, but he threw his endorsement over to Republican Rudy Giuliani. Senator Hillary Clinton, meanwhile, picked up the endorsement of owa Governor Tom Vilsack, according to the New York Times (March 24, 2007). n the March 19, 2007 edition of the Washington Post, it is reported that presidential candidates will continue to receive Secret Service security protection. The Los Angeles Times (March 18, 2007) reports that Senator Clinton is running as "the female-warrior" candidate and Barak Obama is running as the "black-white-immigrant" candidate. And the Washington Post reports on March 18, 2007 that the excellence of the speechwriters for Democratic Senator Chris…
In the New York Times on March 13, 2007, it is reported that Nebraska Senator Chuck Hagel has decided not to run for the presidency on the Republican ticket. Although the senator was not in a financial position to compete against better-funded candidates - and his position against continuing the Iraq war might find favor with voters - Senator John McCain thought that Hagel could have made inroads. The New York Times reported on March 22 that New York State legislators have set next February 5, 2008, as the date for their presidential primary.
In the Los Angeles Times (January 25, 2007) it was reported that U.S. Senator John Kerry had decided not to make another run for the White House. Kerry was apparently not "position well" in contrast to some of the other Democratic candidates, and additionally, he said he wants to put "my energy to work as part of the majority in the Senate...to end this war." An editorial in the Wall Street Journal on April 3, 2007, reported that the Commission on Presidential Debates should create a presidential debate system whereby final presidential candidates from both parties would debate "at least once a week" from Labor Day to the November election. Another Wall Street Journal article (April 2, 2007) explains that Senator Hillary Clinton is the current top fundraiser among Democratic candidates for president.
In the Washington Post (March 29, 2007), former presidential candidate Steve Forbes has decided not to run again, but he threw his endorsement over to Republican Rudy Giuliani. Senator Hillary Clinton, meanwhile, picked up the endorsement of Iowa Governor Tom Vilsack, according to the New York Times (March 24, 2007). In the March 19, 2007 edition of the Washington Post, it is reported that presidential candidates will continue to receive Secret Service security protection. The Los Angeles Times (March 18, 2007) reports that Senator Clinton is running as "the female-warrior" candidate and Barak Obama is running as the "black-white-immigrant" candidate. And the Washington Post reports on March 18, 2007 that the excellence of the speechwriters for Democratic Senator Chris Dodd is evident; Dodd has received "rave reviews" from a speech he gave to the International Association of Fire Fighters.
role of government in the current debates surrounding the enactment of universal healthcare and the illicit drug war along the Mexican border, it is critical to look to the powers granted by the Constitution. Yet, the Constitution has always meant different things to different people throughout American history. As any law student will tell you, one of the major conflicts surrounding the Constitution is the concept of Originalism. This legal understanding holds that if the Constitution is to mean anything, the courts must interpret it through the lens of the men who put the ink to the paper and established the government (calia, 1998). Yet, significant flaws exist in this theory as the Founders themselves were not of one mind but were a diverse and politically combative group to the point of fighting duels with one another (e.g. Hamilton's murder at the hands of Burr). To return to these modern…
Baker, P. 2010. Obama Making Plans to Use Executive Power. New York Times. 12 Feb 2010.
Fiegerman, S. 2011. Congress Approval Rating Hits All Time Low. The Street. 21 Dec 2011.
Immigration Policy Center, 2009. Enforcing Immigration Laws. American Immigration Council. Last Accessed 12 Jan 2012. URL: http://www.immigrationpolicy.org/just-facts/enforcing-immigration-laws-repairing-our-broken-immigration-system
Matthews, M. 2012. How Obama Sucker Punched Republicans on the Budget. Forbes. 12 Jan 2012. URL: http://www.forbes.com/sites/merrillmatthews/2012/01/12/how-obama-sucker-punched-republicans-on-the-budget/
Solutions for the Future
Even a quick look at budget documents for the next few decades indicate a system burdened with exploding costs of Social Security, Medicaid, and Medicare; the latter the powder keg of the debt explosion. A reform of Medicare in which there is "only $1 in Medicare taxes for every $3 in benefits likely to be received in retirement" (Appelbaum & Gebeloff 6) must be a Congressional and Presidential priority. eturning the program to a role of insurance rather than a direct coverage program would be a start; Paul yan's proposal of premium support is a working model. Social Security must also be strengthened with common sense adjustments in payroll tax collection and age eligibility.
Those are the entitlement reforms however; these changes also forego the numerous tax expenditures which increase the government tab. The earned income tax credit, home mortgage deduction, and education credits are tax…
Appelbaum, B. & Gebeloff, Robert. "Even Critics of Safety Net Increasingly Depend on it." The New York Times. The New York Times, February 11, 2012. Retrieved February 14, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/12/us/even-critics-of-safety-net-increasingly-depend-on-it.html
Analysis of the Results of the California Recall Election
Although the general issues pertaining to the current California crisis, such as the hated car tax and the fear of yet another electricity crisis, no doubt affected all voters across the state, in general, Caucasians were more apt to vote to recall Governor Davis than were Black and Latino voters. This may be attributed to the fact that these, and other hot-button issues of recent date, negatively impacted whites in such a fashion that they were likely to vote for the recall. This does not mean that all Californians were not affected, but that Whites and affluent individuals in general were more likely to experience these negative issues as recent events.
Because affluent suburban whites were more apt to see such events as negatively impacting their lifestyle quite recently, these Caucasians were more apt to blame Governor Davis as…
Standard Outline of Presentation
The purpose of this presentation is to inform the audience about why voters are angry in today's political climate so that they might better understand their choices at the polls this November. The central idea of this presentation is that voters are angry because they perceive the Establishment to be against them, the system to be "rigged," and the wars in the Middle East to be unending and dangerous to global security.
The ideal audience for this presentation would be anyone attempting to understand why this election is seeing two unpopular candidates in a presidential contest -- on the one hand, a political insider and polished member of the Washington Establishment, and on the other hand an unpolished outsider who seeks to represent Middle America. The audience could be broad and include all genders, races, and ages.
This topic is important for the audience because an…
Altheide, D. (2007). The mass media and terrorism. Discourse and Communication,
Bakker, B., Rooduijn, M., Schumacher, G. (2016). The psychological roots of populist
voting. European Journal of Political Research, 55(2): 302-320
The 2016 Election
The Research Question
My question regarding the 2016 election is this: why did Americans vote for Donald Trump? This is a decidedly open-ended question, which means it would involve exploratory research rather than the testing of a hypothesis. The research could consist of a mixed-methods design with both qualitative and quantitative research conducted. Individuals could be asked both open-ended questions and closed-questions (with Likert-scale measures in place).
How I Would Answer This Question
A good means of collecting data for exploratory research is the interview method or the survey method (Leonard, Noelle et al.). First, I would break up the voting sample into demographics: (a) gender, (b) age, (c) voting history (Party affiliation), (d) region of the country, (e) religion, (f) ethnicity/race, and (g) ideology (ex., conservative, liberal, libertarian, reform, etc.). Then I would seek to obtain a sample of participants that could provide me with a…
Young, African-American men
Despite the election of an African-American man to the presidency, young African-American men still suffer disproportionately from a number of social ills. This is most strikingly manifest in the disproportionate number of young black men in the nation's prisons, the evident disparities between the performance of African-Americans and whites manifest within the educational system, and the disproportionate difficulties young African-American males experience in finding gainful employment.
Although only 13% of the nation is African-American, 49% of prison inmates nationally are African -American. A black male born in 1991 has a 29% chance of spending time in prison at some point in his life, while the chance for a white male is less than one percent. The chance for a Hispanic man is 16% (Mauer 2011). The reasons for this are debatable: a culture of criminality within urban enclaves that normalize delinquent behavior may be partially the cause…
ACA Code of Ethics. (2005). Retrieved July 22, 2011 at http://www.txca.org/Images/tca/Documents/ACA%20Code%20of%20Ethics.pdf
Barbarin, Oscar. (2011). Ready or not: African-American males in kindergarden. UNC-Chapel
Hill. Retrieved July 22, 2011 at http://ssw.unc.edu/rti/presentation/PDFs/aa_males_kindergarten3.pdf
Fellner, Jamie. (2009). Decades of disparity: Drug arrests and race in the United States.
striking aspects of the current election season is the extent to which both parties claim to be the defenders of the American middle class. This is a fairly consistent theme in most American political campaigns. Neither party wants to be seen as the party of the elites, but nor does either party wish to be seen as the party of the poor. Even though America as a whole is suffering in terms of a lack of jobs, a lack of affordable healthcare, and other issues directly pertaining to a worsening economy and the great divide between the haves and the have-nots, Americans still like to see themselves as middle class.
I wonder if this is because Americans as a whole associate success with being morally worthy, and being poor with being unworthy. While there is some sense that having rich parents can give people a greater material advantage in life…
About teen pregnancy. (2012). Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Retrieved:
Correlation between obesity and poverty. (2008). Science Blog. Retrieved: