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Special Education in Miami Dade

Words: 4705 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51285949

Elementary Special Education Teachers Place Value in the use of Technology Resources for Students?

Technology is an integral part of society. People share and communicate ideas using emails, Skype, and public/private forums. For numerous organizations and businesses technology is a must to increase productivity. This is why schools have begun the process of creating an environment that immerses staff and students in technology, with school administrators taking on the technological transition (Garland & Tadeja, 2013). Technology investment within schools not only enables varied learning opportunities for students, but it also helps students discover or improve their own ability to research and analyze information, collaborate and communicate, and solve problems (Lim, Zhao, Tondeur, Chai, & Tsai, 2013). Comment by Tarae Terry: Citation? How do we know this is true? Who is the source-Also the opening/introduction needs to be a little bit stronger an attention grabber. Introducing the issue up front is…… [Read More]

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Benefits of Knowing the Bible Well

Words: 652 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92228225

Elementary Student Achievement

Study Selection

Elementary School Achievement Study Selection

The creation and sustaining of achievement at the elementary school level is one of the most important and pivotal things that can be done to create and sustain lifelong success. As such, the factors and facets that make or break such achievement are sought out, analyzed and heavily focused on by scholars, teachers and parents alike. One way in which this paradigm is analyzed and looked at is the trajectory of lesser-achieving students and how they fare as they age and progress. Specifically, it is assessed how "holding back" a student in a grade for another year is damaging or helpful in the long run. While having a student repeat a grade can be damaging to self-esteem, pushing on a student that is not prepared for the next level just hurts that student as well as everyone else. The applicability…… [Read More]


APA. (2014, June 9). Journal of Educational Psychology®.

Retrieved June 9, 2014, from

Moser, S.E., West, S.G., & Hughes, J.N. (2012). Trajectories of Math and Reading

Achievement in Low-Achieving Children in Elementary School: Effects of Early
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New Classroom Rules to Promote

Words: 595 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99061251

They are basically an "overhaul of mathematics instruction," (611).

The major points Alsup discusses in his article include the background information as to why traditional instruction falls short of the ideal, and includes the seven new rules for preservice elementary teachers' mathematics instruction. These seven rules are based on the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and on what Alsup calls a "constructivist view of mathematics learning." According to the constructivist view, the teacher does not directly "transmit" mathematical knowledge and facts to the students; rather, students construct their own set of mathematical knowledge through active and creative problem solving (611).

Alsup suggests that the progressive, constructivist approach to teaching preservice elementary school teachers will lead to a "learning community." Students interact with one another and with the instructor, rather than having the instructor always stand before the class in a lecture format. The new rules enhance "confidence and independent…… [Read More]

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Education for Hispanic Students in

Words: 1774 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66130596

3. Hispanic, White Communities Forge Ties in Alabama (2003) a UA Center for Public Television and Radi9o Production. Online available at:

4. McDade, Sharon a. (2002) Definition of a Case Study. Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning - North Carolina State. Online available at http://www.ncsu.Edu/fctl/Programs/Instructional- Development/Teaching _Materials / CaseStudies/Materials / Case studyDefintion.pdf# search =%22 CASE%20STUDY % 3A%20DEFINIT ION%20OF %22.

5. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at

6. English Language Development and Multicultural Education (2005) University of Alabama. Berkeley University Online available at

7. English as a Second Language (ESL) (2004) Baldwin County Public Schools; Bay Minette, Alabama. Online available at'824'&DepartmentID='958'.

8. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at

9. Alabama (2006) KYTESOL Newsletter Vol.…… [Read More]

11. Alabama: Featured Facts (2005) From the SREB Factbook on Higher Education. Online available at 

12. Alabama Education Policy Primer: Chapter 2 Achievement (2005) Education Foundation - Online available at;

Education for Hispanic Students in the Elementary Schools of Alabama
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Globalization and the Structures of

Words: 1054 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28982792

Use the appropriate representations to model problems in the physical and social sciences (Ibid.)

Numeration Systems and Number Theory -- Number theory is a basis for all areas of mathematics. Number theory and sense are precludes to computation, to estimate, and to have an understanding of the ways numbers are represented and interrelated. Fluency of also understanding the way positive and negative numbers can be visually represented on a line, or how numerical values interrelate, are essential prior to moving toward higher level concepts (Kane, 2002).

Algebraic Thinking and Problem Solving -- ather than viewing the subject of algebra as certain sets of problems, the appropriate way to introduce it into elementary levels is as the relationship among quantities, the use of symbols, the modeling of phenomena, and the study of change. Students should be able to understand patterns, relations, and functions and how numbers may be represented in different…… [Read More]


Askey, R. (1999). "Knowing and Teaching Elementary Mathematics." American

Educator. Fall 1999, Cited in: 

Blanton, M. (2008). Algebra and the Elementary Classroom. Heinemann.
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Leadership in a Global Society

Words: 1383 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31806736

educational change in regard to the need for curriculum change aimed at addressing curriculum inadequacy that affects our elementary schools. In this paper, the concept of transformational, situational and distributive leadership are discussed in line with instilling positive change to the curriculum development process.

The concept of educational change is one which is often misunderstood by many people (Fullan,2007,p.29).Educational change is either imposed involuntarily or voluntarily accepted by the relevant person or authority. Its meaning too is accepted with a lot of ambivalence as indicated by Fullan.In this paper, we discuss how the concept of educational change is enacted in order to improve student learning through the development of an updated curriculum that is aligned with the state standards for an elementary school. Students often state assessment outcomes as (not met) on the school report card for years. It would therefore require good leadership to instill the necessary change to…… [Read More]


Bondi, J. & wiles, J., (1998) Curriculum Development; A Guide to Practice (5TH Edition).

Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River New Jersey.

Burns, J.M. (1978), Leadership, New York: Harper and Row, Publishers

Bryman, A. (1992), Charisma and Leadership in Organisations, Newbury Park, CA: Sage
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Integrating Literature Into the Math

Words: 1826 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 99745040

It enlivens what many people see as the isolating abstractness of mathematics

Lipsey and Pasternack).

A study of the literature on this issue brings clearly to the fore the realization of the importance of the integration and intersection between various subjects that were in the past seen to be separate and even in opposition to one another. There are an increasing number of cogent and well researched books and articles which suggest ways and means of linking mathematics and literature to the benefit and advantage of both subjects.


Books by Marilyn Burns. etrieved February 8, 2009 from: (

Clement, . (1990) Counting on Frank. Sydney: Williams Collins.

Grossman, F.J., Smith, B, & Miller, C. (1993). Did you say write in mathematics class? Journal of Developmental Education, 17, pp. 2-4.

Hutchins, P. (1986). The doorbell rang. New York: Greenwillow Books.

Kolstad, ., Briggs, L., & Whalen, K. (1996). Incorporating…… [Read More]


Books by Marilyn Burns. Retrieved February 8, 2009 from: (

Clement, R. (1990) Counting on Frank. Sydney: Williams Collins.

Grossman, F.J., Smith, B, & Miller, C. (1993). Did you say write in mathematics class? Journal of Developmental Education, 17, pp. 2-4.

Hutchins, P. (1986). The doorbell rang. New York: Greenwillow Books.
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Teacher Instructional Technology With New Literacy Instruction

Words: 1140 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4005931

teacher instructional technology with new literacy instruction to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary?

The alternative hypothesis would be that new literacy instruction does have th potential to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary. In other words that significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.

The null hypothesis would be that no significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.

The study will choose 2 different schools in a certain district with classes k-5 where one school has introduced new literacy techniques (namely technological strategies), and the other school is still employing traditional instruction.

The schools would be as closely matched as possible with students coming from a similar socio-economic background and with their parents generally sharing a similar educational niche (i.e. either…… [Read More]


Babchuk, W. (1996). Glaser or Strauss? Grounded theory and adult education. Presented at the Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, October 17-19, 1996.

Glaser, B. (1993). Examples of grounded theory: a reader. Mill Valley, CA:

Sociology Press.

Glaser, B. (1998). Doing grounded theory. Mill Valley: Sociology Press.
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Servicing Children in Need and

Words: 1266 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17052970

I expect to find a pattern where as Lee (1992) might suggest, a hierarchical ethical theory exists, where the concept of "serving the needs of others" in need correlates directly to one's status, race, ethnicity and other factors.

This suggests some level of discrimination may exist especially amongst young children and adolescents who grow up in communities where they lack encouragement, support and family to shower them with love and affection. Indeed my initial responses included a feeling that I was obliged to provide each neglected child something to help fill the emotional void that must exist in the absence of proper parenting or family support.

A also feel it urgent that educators and community members consider their ethical and moral obligations to service those who might not otherwise be able to help themselves. In the face of such tragedy, such young children are more likely to grow into adults…… [Read More]


Lee, Donald C. Toward a sound world order: A multidimensional hierarchical ethical theory. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1992.
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Notations for Books or Periodicals

Words: 342 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81377470



Hativa, N. (19, Fall). Computer-based drill and practice in arithmetic: Widening the gap between high and low achieving students. American Education Research Journal 35(3) pp. 366-397.


Sapp, M.E. (19). In the best interest of children: returning play to its pace. In Dimidjian, V.J. (Ed.), Play's pace in public education of young children. (pp49-61).


Mean Mood Scores Before and After Physical Aactivity

Figure 1. Record ofweekly truancy behavior


Williams and Jensen (1992) demonstrated the same effect. Neither of the books was available in the library. The team achieved improvement in its scores after undergoing training. The team achieved a 3% improvement in its scores after undergoing training. Successful problem solvers were both more adept at representing the problem and using heuristics.

The participants were introduced to each of the following trainers but were not allowed to…… [Read More]


Williams and Jensen (1992) demonstrated the same effect. Neither of the books was available in the library. The team achieved improvement in its scores after undergoing training. The team achieved a 38% improvement in its scores after undergoing training. Successful problem solvers were both more adept at representing the problem and using heuristics.

The participants were introduced to each of the following trainers but were not allowed to choose their own trainers. Post tests were administered to the third grade students. Of the schools that participated, twelve were elementary, six were middle schools, and four were high school.
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Speece Deborah L Et Al Identifying Children

Words: 1186 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29322738

Speece, Deborah L, et al., Identifying Children in Middle Childhood Who are at Risk for Reading Problems: New evidence and to analyze and access an appropriate tool for reading in elementary students using a response to intervention model, School Psychology Review 2010, Volume 39, No.2


Page 258 and 259, introductory section: The authors did an excellent job in reviewing relevant literature on reading disabilities as went ahead to state approximate figures of the number of students having reading disabilities. The numbers of students who perform below average are also provided (as a percentage).The authors also did a good job in indicating the research gaps when it comes to the issue of learning disabilities in children. This provided them with an opportunity of justifying their research aims and objectives. The authors noted towards the end of page 258 that even though there have been several advances in the early identification…… [Read More]

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Still a Man's World

Words: 1032 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90532353

Man's orld

omen have been able to infiltrate career paths which, until recently had been impossible for them. Females have been able to get more college degrees than ever before which have increased their training and their job opportunities. Despite the significant progress that women have made, it is still very much a man's world as illustrated by Christine illiams in a series of interviews where she studied males have started taking jobs in positions traditionally held by women, including nursing, librarians, social work, and teaching in the elementary school setting.

In all occupations, there is a definitive advantage to being male. This is seen in both traditionally male occupations as well as the jobs which used to be female territory but have now become open to both genders. Males almost always make more money and have a great deal more power than females who work in the same occupation.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Williams, Christine L. "Still a Man's World: Men Who Do 'Women's Work.'" Social Structure,

Institutions, and Everday Life,1995. 304-12.Print.
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Promoting Activity in Children

Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89345617

School Physical Activity

The evidence seems pretty clear that there are many reasons that physical activity is an important component to health in people of all ages and demographic characteristics. However, one of the most important groups that could benefit the most from learning good physical activity (PA) habits would be elementary aged children. This group not only has increasing rates of obesity and related diseases, but the habits that form early in life are more likely to continue throughout the individual's lifetime. Therefore, if children are taught good habits early in life, then they could benefit from these habits for a lifetime. Furthermore, a child spends a significant portion of their time in elementary school which represents a key opportunity to begin to developing these habits.

There is evidence that there is need for greater physical activity in elementary schools. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has…… [Read More]


Kulik, N., Somers, C., Thomas, E., Martin, J., Centeio, E., Garn, A., . . . McCaughtry, N. (2015). Source and Type of Support for In-School Physical Activity: Differential Patterns for Demographic Subgroups. American Journal of Health Education, 301-309.
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1st and 2nd Grade Observations

Words: 1549 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26216974

Elementary School ESL Teacher

Befitting the United States of America's unique status as a cultural melting pot, the nation's educational system has learned to adapt its traditional method of English language instruction to suit students who primarily speak another language at home. The concept of English as Second Language (ESL) learners has emerged during the last few decades to recognize the need for teachers to customize their lesson plans, becoming more inclusive in terms of accessibility to ESL students. In light of the fact that ESL students are far more likely to absorb English during their earliest years, many school districts have elected to integrate ESL instruction within the 1st and 2nd grade levels, in the hope that this proverbial head start will enable the majority of ESL students to effectively utilize English in the educational setting. Recently, I was fortunate enough to have an opportunity to observe a 1st…… [Read More]

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Prediction African-American Parents' and Guardians'

Words: 527 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 80096106

Dissatisfaction with elementary school teachers and the educational environment usually meant that the same parents remained dissatisfied with the high school teachers and high school environment. he researcher suggests that the research gathered in the current study be used to improve community relations and more importantly, to improve the one-on-one relationships between all public school professionals and all parents. he author also notes that elementary school education provides a strong foundation for student math and literacy competency. hose competencies will carry over into middle and high school. herefore, African-American students who did not receive an adequate early childhood education are less likely to thrive in later grades.

African-American parents varied with regard to the factors that influence their perceptions about public schools and their staff. Course materials and caliber of homework was one factor that impacted African-American parent perspectives. Some parents, however, attributed their children's success or failure to personal…… [Read More]

Thompson's research is highly relevant to school administrators and counselors throughout the country. Most schools in the United States will have a substantial number of African-American students. Their needs and those of their parents are not being addressed well enough. Establishing solid ties between schools and their communities will help improve pubic relations and may also help raise the academic performance standards for African-American children. School administrators, teachers, and counselors should be able to satisfy the needs of all parents and children.

The researcher used a questionnaire to gather data about perceptions of public schools. All participants were self-described as African-Americans. A high number of participants were dissatisfied with their children's high school teachers: a greater number than those dissatisfied only with their children's elementary school teachers. Thompson (2003) also found that the participants' perceptions of elementary school teachers was positively correlated with perceptions of high school teachers. Dissatisfaction with elementary school teachers and the educational environment usually meant that the same parents remained dissatisfied with the high school teachers and high school environment. The researcher suggests that the research gathered in the current study be used to improve community relations and more importantly, to improve the one-on-one relationships between all public school professionals and all parents. The author also notes that elementary school education provides a strong foundation for student math and literacy competency. Those competencies will carry over into middle and high school. Therefore, African-American students who did not receive an adequate early childhood education are less likely to thrive in later grades.

African-American parents varied with regard to the factors that influence their perceptions about public schools and their staff. Course materials and caliber of homework was one factor that impacted African-American parent perspectives. Some parents, however, attributed their children's success or failure to personal effort. Ohters noted that racism and race awareness might affect school performance. Regardless of perceived reasons for African-American student performance in school, the system must respond to the persistent achievement gap between black and white students. Thompson's (2003) research emphasizes the need to establish relationships with African-American parents early: before high school. Although the author does not offer any specific suggestions for policy change, some can be inferred. For example, African-American parents expressed a preference for educational materials that they deemed relevant and meaningful for their children (p. 10). Consulting with African-American parents when their children are still in elementary school might help those parents trust that the system is responsive to their needs and the needs of their children.
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Function of This Study Is

Words: 3518 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84974468

In other words, when the total number of people characterized by each variable (or stratum) oscillates within the population, to the researcher would choose the size of each sample for each stratum according to the research requirements. uch a choice is prejudiced by the probability of obtaining an adequate number of sampling units from each stratum within the final sample. As a rule, disproportionate stratified samples are used either to compare two or more particular strata or to analyze one stratum intensively (Creswell, 1994). Therefore, when researchers use a disproportionate stratified sample, we have to weight the estimates of the population's parameters by the number of units belonging to each stratum. In this sample, weighting strategies were not performed in the original data.

Once researchers have defined the population of interest, they draw a sample that adequately represents that population. The actual procedure involves selecting a sample from a sampling…… [Read More]

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Tall Buddies Peer-Assisted Learning Initiative

Words: 6521 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34945821

Methods for evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of peer-assisted learning programs are discussed as well, followed by a summary of the literature review.

Background and Overview.

The growing body of scholarly evidence concerning peer tutoring has been consistent in emphasizing the powerful effects that children can exert on the academic and interpersonal development of their classmates and/or other students (Ehly & Topping, 1998). For example, Bloom (1984) reported early on that one-on-one tutoring by a fully skilled peer was more effective than both conventional (i.e., teachers' lecturing) and mastery learning (i.e., student- regulated) methods of teaching. Across several replications of academic content and student age levels, Bloom (1984) reported that peer tutoring programs produced effect sizes on the order of 2 standard deviations above the mean of the control group (i.e., students receiving conventional lecture-based instruction), compared with 1.3 standard deviations for mastery learning (effect sizes larger than.25 of 1…… [Read More]


Adelgais, a., King, a., & Staffieri, a. (1998). Mutual peer tutoring: Effects of structuring tutorial interaction to scaffold peer learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 134.

Afflerbach, P., Baumann, J.F., Duffy-Hester, a.M., Hoffman, J.V., McCarthey, S.J. & Ro, J.M. (2000). Balancing principles for teaching elementary reading. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Arreaga-Mayer, C., Gavin, K.M., Greenwood, C.R., Terry, B.T., & Utley, C.A. (2001). Classwide peer tutoring learning management system. Remedial and Special Education, 22(1), 34.

Bloom, B.S. (1984). The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher, 13, 4-16.
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Education Teachers Take the Most

Words: 1043 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51945051

" Having said man's very nature to associate himself with other people all the more gives but rational explanation to why it is very important for the children, even during their elementary years in school, to develop their interpersonal skills. In different settings, excellent interpersonal skills have always led to excellent dyadic relationships and team dynamics, and therefore generating excellent outputs. As Hogan (2004) also articulated, our personalities determine how we can be leaders in our own right within the teams we belong to.

The elementary students - because of their young minds and fresh ideas - may need to be instructed how to deal with their personal needs as well as the needs of the people around them. they must learn how to interact people in a positive way. They must learn to understand the value of giving and sharing in the same way that they should learn how…… [Read More]


Aristotle. 2006. 

Barry, David. (1991). Managing the Bossless Team: Lessons in Distributed Leadership.

Butler, Timothy and James Waldroop. (2004). Leveraging Your Team's Interpersonal Skills. 

Dewey, J. (1897). My pedagogic creed. The School Journal (65), 3.
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Improving Reading Comprehension Education Is

Words: 4005 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30914450

ecent reviews of research on summer school show that high quality programs can make a difference in student learning (Harrington-Lueker, 2000). esults of the research point to programs that focus on corrective or accelerated learning have a positive consequence on student learning. There is significant evidence that summer school can help bring many struggling students up to grade level and prevents loss of learning with many others (Denton, 2001; Harrington-Lueker, 2000). While additional time is important, what is more important is what teachers accomplish with that time.

High-quality research-based curriculum and instruction

With a 90 minute block of time for reading instruction, teachers need to focus on the five essential elements of reading identified by The National eading Panel, (2001) as critical to successful reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. It is vital to define each of these important processes of reading using definitions from eading ockets…… [Read More]

Reference List

Allington, R. 2002.What I've Learned About Effective Reading Instruction from a Decade of Studying Exemplary Elementary Classroom Teachers (Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 83, No. 10 (June 2002): 740-747)

Bond, Linda A. (1996). Norm- and criterion-referenced testing. Practical Assessment, Research

Evaluation, 5(2). Retrieved at

Bruner, J. (1996). The Culture of Education, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
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Acing the Praxis Science as

Words: 1991 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44790024

Similar to Physical Science and Life Science, Earth Science will contain multiple choice and constructed response questions. A sample constructed response question from the Earth Science test is:

ased on the chart, explain various agricultural practices and how it affects the success of a yearly harvest.

This is a sample constructed response question. The student should carefully read and answer this question in essay form. Upon reading the question, the student should note that the question is requesting two separate answers

Praxis 7 because the question is a two-part question. Therefore, it is very important that the student reads the entire question and determine what information it is requesting before writing out his/her response. (Edge)


In conclusion, in most states, all students who wish to become teachers in the areas of Science or any other discipline will have to complete the Praxis test. The Praxis II test, code 0014…… [Read More]


Educational Testing Service General Information. Retrieved October 13, 2006 from

Educational Testing Service (2006) General Information and Study Tips.

Fitzer, Penelope and Bristor, Valerie (2005) Prentice Hall Publishing, New Jersey.

Burdette, Laurel, (2005) Study Notes for the Middle School Science Praxis II Exam, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
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Culturally Sensitive Special Education

Words: 2682 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86248730

education and the usual plight of special education students, both identified and yet-to-be identified, the role of the educational diagnostician is one of great import and significance. Known by several different names, the educational diagnostician is charged with the diagnosing and identification of leaning problems. The focus of this report will be the work of the educational diagnostician in the elementary school system and framework. In addition to the educational diagnostician himself or herself, there is also the involvement and partnership of other employees in the elementary school framework including teachers at the elementary school and other school employees such as counselors and administrators. While some may hold that the role of the educational diagnostician is not all that complicated, this could not be further from the truth as the identification of problems as well as dealing with and working with the same alongside other school employees, the parents of…… [Read More]


Aceves, T. C. (2014). Supporting Latino Families in Special Education through Community

Agency-School Partnerships. Multicultural Education, 21(3-4), 45-50.

Caputo, A., & Langher, V. (2015). Validation of the Collaboration and Support for Inclusive

Teaching Scale in Special Education Teachers. Journal Of Psychoeducational Assessment,
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Steady Increase in the Hispanic

Words: 2489 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 46218878

Why do Most ESL students struggle with reading and literacy and what can be done to improve this? Strategies teachers can use?

It is indeed the case that many ESL students have difficulty with reading and literacy but there are things that can be done to deal with this issue. According to an article found in the Journal of College eading and Learning, it common knowledge that the second language reading process, like the first language process, must be recognized as a "top-down/bottom-up" relationship amid the graphic display located with in the text, several echelons of linguistic knowledge and processes, and several cognitive activities (Weber; Upton). In addition

-up processing -- the recognition of letters and words, the accurate representation of temporal and order information, and the efficient coding of verbal information in short-term memory -- ensures that readers will be sensitive to information that is novel or that does…… [Read More]


Aebersold, J.A. & Field, M.L. (1997). From reader to reading teacher: Issues and strategies for second language classrooms. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Criteria for Evaluating Cultural Content of Reading Material"

Cummins. The acquisition of English as a Second Language.

Curriculum Repository Glossary.
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Developing and Implementing an Educational Action Research Study

Words: 2183 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 71739434

Leading Action esearch in an Elementary School Setting

One of the risks that is routinely encountered classroom teachers is the potential to become mired in a set of educational practices that may or may not be suitable for their students at any given point in time. ather than remaining in a teaching rut, though, a growing number of reading teachers have recognized the value of action research to inform and improve their classroom practices. In order for this method of inquiry to be effective, though, all stakeholders must be educated concerning the tenets of action research, what areas of interest are most appropriate for study and their respective roles in the process. To determine the facts about these issues, this paper reviews the relevant literature concerning leading action research in an elementary school setting, including an assessment of the current degree of comfort that exists at the author's school and…… [Read More]


Brkich, K. L. & Shumbera, K. (2010, Summer). Action research: How to create your own professional development experience. Science and Children, 47(9), 47-51.

Cooper, K. & White, R. E. (2012, October). The recursive process in and of critical literacy: Action research in an urban elementary school. Canadian Journal of Education, 35(2), 41-45.

Eisner, E. W. & Day, M. D. (2004). Handbook of research and policy in art education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Gruenert, S. & Whitaker, T. (2015). School culture rewired: How to define, assess, and transform it. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
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No Child Left Behind NCLB

Words: 4495 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52605949

e. ELL students in public schools. Data provided in the literature demonstrates that by 2030, more than half of all students in American public schools will speak a language other than English (Devoe, 35). In some schools the total number of students whose first language is not English is much higher. Specifically, Devoe reports that in Lawrence, Massachusetts more than 90% of all children enrolled in public schools are ELLs. Devoe argues that in these districts, a catch-22 has developed which makes it difficult for schools to provide educational services to ELLs. Specifically, ELL students that do not pass reading and math competence tests are labeled as "in need of improvement." Although efforts have been made to improve outcomes for these students, basic English competency remains a significant challenge limiting the progress of the students and the school on standardized tests. As ELL students fail to meet standards, schools that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

2006-07 APR glossary." California Department of Education. [2007]. Accessed November 19, 2007 at .

Agazie, Maxine. "Makeover needed for No Child Left Behind." Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 23(24), (2007): 39.

Devoe, Jeanne. "ELL testing: A state of flux." District Administration, 43(10), (2007): 35-40.

Facts and terms every parent should know about NCLB." U.S. Department of Education. [2005]. Accessed November 19, 2007 at .
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Elearning the Impact of E-Learning

Words: 5767 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41706994

Carrington's (2001) study focuses on a diversity of learning strategy potentials that is constructed not by way of race or ethnicity, but by individualized media preferences and sensory strategies for learning. Carrington presents the conclusion that such methods of literacy development which occur in one's formative stages before school will reveal learning dispositions. For example, her examination recognizes that early exposure to the internet bears a positive correlation to one's media literacy, cognitive proficiency and capacity to identify and locate content suited to their individual learning strategies and needs. The underpinning of this study, as it pertains to our larger purpose, is that one means through which to help include all cultural backgrounds in literacy instruction appears to be to diversify the media used in class and to largely incorporate computing advancements at every level. In addition to the benefits discussed here throughout, we can see that the present challenges…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Anderson, T. (2003). E-Learning in the 21st Century. Routledge.

Bates, A.W. & Bates, T. (2005). Technology, e-learning and distance education. Routledge.

Berson, M.J. (1996). Effectiveness of Computer Technology in the Social Studies: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 28(4), 486-499.

Carrington, V. (2001). Emergent Home Literacies: A Challenge for Educators. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 24.
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Individual Skills and Strength Individual Skills and

Words: 2211 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83845319

Individual Skills and Strength


Listening skills, communication skills, problem-solving skills and organizational skills are very critical to succeed in life. Communication and listening skills are the essential life skills required to excel in the professional career. Individual with good listening and communication skills are not only generally better informed, the person is perceived as being pleasant with colleagues in the job place. Communication skills are important in all facet of life, and communication skills are the key to achieve a bright career. People within the organization spend 75% of their daily time engaging in communication through writing, speaking, listening and inter-debate. Communication skill is the system of expressing information concisely and effectively in an oral and written mode as well as sharing information with others in order to facilitate exchange of ideas and information. On the other hand, problem-solving skills are the set-skills that allow an…… [Read More]


De Meuse, K.P. Dai, G. & Wu, J.(2011). A Closer Examination: Leadership Skills across Organizational Levels. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 14: 120 -- 139.

Lee, W. (2008). Speech, Language and Communication Needs and Primary School-aged Children. Royal Mail, London.

Omeroglu, E. Buyukozturk, S. Aydogan, Y. et al. (2009). Development of a Problem Solving Scale for Children Attending Class 1-5 of Primary Education and Norm Study for Turkey. International Journal of Learning. 16 ( 8): 117-123.

Sakofsky, M. (2009). The Impact of Empathy Skills Training on Middle School Children. Master's thesis. The College at Brockport: State University of New York.
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Pbis Lit Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support

Words: 2347 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43563621


Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support (PBIS) in Elementary Schools and in Impoverished Settings

Extensive research has been carried out examining the design and implementation of Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports (PBIS) programs in schools, districts, and on even larger state scales. The research is highly consistent in finding positive effects on behavior and learning through the successful implementation of PBIS programs, however there are significant variations found in implementation schemes and in the environmental effects on the success of PBIS programs and interventions. Less research specifically pertaining to the implementation of PBIS on Title I elementary schools is available, however the literature that has been produced in this area clearly suggests difficulties in implementation but some measure of success when programs can be successfully designed and carried out.

There are currently approximately ten-thousand or more schools that have implemented PBIS programs (based on the latest data available and…… [Read More]


Barnes, C. (2002). Standards reform in high-poverty schools. New York: Teacher's College Press.

Barrett, S., Bradshaw, C. & Lewis-Palmer, T. (2008). Maryland Statewide PBIS Initiative: Systems, Evaluation, and Next Steps. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 10(2): 105-14.

Bradshaw, C., Koth, C., Bevans, K.,, Ialongo, N. & Leaf, P. (2008). The impact of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly 23(4): 462-73.

Bradshaw, C., Reinke, W., Brown, L., Bevans, K. & Leaf, P. (2008a). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: observations from a randomized trial. Education and Treatment of Children 31(1).
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Chlamydia Trachomatis

Words: 1117 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83474203

Chlamydia Trachomatis

Chlamydia is the most common and frequently occurring sexually transmitted disease in the United States. According to a recent CDC report there are more than 2.8 million persons infected every year. [CDC] The disease is caused by a bacterium known as Chlamydia trachomatis which is also found to exist as 15 different serotypes. The estimated annual treatment costs for Chlamydia is around $2 billion. The asymptotic nature of the disease presents a big problem in the early diagnosis and a substantial number of infected persons are unaware of their condition. Though totally curable, this 'silent disease' can cause trachoma, infertility, tubal pregnancy and other urinogenital disorders if left untreated. A brief overview of the disease, treatment options and preventive strategies would give a better insight of this medical condition.

Chlamydia trachomatis (Life Cycle)

Chlamydia trachomatis is a parasitic bacterium that cannot produce its own ATP and hence depends…… [Read More]


1) Andrea DeMets, "Chlamydia Trachomatis," Accessed on 5th November 2004, 

2) CDC, "Chlamydia Fact Sheet," Accessed on 5th November,
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Education Technology the Following Is

Words: 2067 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 236575

That leads to some problems with the new software.

We don't purchase some of the neat things that you can get. Fortunately, a number of us pressed for projectors a few years ago, and we have them in each classroom. That makes it easier for us to use the computer to teach the whole class. We don't use smart boards or other tools, other than the computers and the projectors.

What is the set up in the elementary school setting regarding labs and stations?

We generally have one or two computers per class in the elementary schools. Sometimes the teachers use it to do internet research, or to play a DVD for their class. The teachers sometimes assign remedial work to some students, who work on the computer doing exercises during school hours.

A understand from my elementary school teaching friends that there are no computer labs, and that they…… [Read More]

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Forget the Tremendous Impact That Governmental Cutbacks

Words: 767 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71304861

forget the tremendous impact that governmental cutbacks and recessionary times have on certain populations. For instance, in the wake of the recent recession, more and more families face poverty and lack of job and housing stability, which impacts family life in a relative negative manner. Too, investment in insurance, food, and other social programs for children is often cut during recessionary times as a line item budget -- not necessarily realizing the impact this has on the lives of millions of children. Finally, educational cuts that may see quick fixes to state and federal budgetary concerns have a marked negative effect upon children and youth -- many who are never able to recover and thus increases unskilled workers and the eventual possibility of unemployment (Children in the ecession, 2011).

Part 2 -- The data show an interesting set of circumstances regarding the school district in question:

Funding -- From local…… [Read More]


Children in the Recession. (June 2011). Action for Children North Carolina. Retrieved from:
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Moral Reasoning Is it Taught Through Children Literature

Words: 3473 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30688923

Charlotte's eb: Field Research, Psycho-Social Research, and a Textual Summary and Analysis

Introduction and Field Research Background

My niece Ariel, age 11, agreed to read Charlotte's eb by E.B. hite with me, and to be my informant on this project (Shapiro, "Personal Interview"). Ariel is extremely bright (IQ over 140), and has already finished the 7th grade, having skipped second grade in elementary school (I bring this up not so much to brag about her, but because she may in fact be more advanced in her thinking and vocabulary skills than some of the other 9-11-year-old informants: arguably somewhere between Piaget's third (ages 7-11) and fourth (ages 11-15) concrete operational and formal operational stages of development). Ariel told me this was actually her second exposure to Charlotte's eb, though her first time reading the book on her own. Her third grade teacher had read it to her class, but Ariel…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brynildssen, Shawna. "Character Education through Children's Literature."

ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading English and Communication. Bloomington,

IN: Family Learning Association Bloomington IN. March 2003. ED469929.

Hartman, Holly. "Charlotte's Web: Spotlight on a Children's Classic." Fact