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The article asserts that students benefit greatly from the use of calculators at the elementary school level. The research also explains that calculator use should be used in addition to traditional techniques from problem solving.
McAuliffe (2004) reiterates the aforementioned belief that the use of calculators at the elementary school level can be quite beneficial. The authors asserts that the majority of research has found that there are not any harmful effects that occur as a result of early calculator use. The author explains that the use of calculators simply serves as an enhancement to elementary school mathematics curriculum, when they are properly used. The author insists that this enhancement can be seen in the fact that students have more time to solve problems on a conceptual level. McAuliffe (2004) expounds upon this idea stating
"a simple four-function calculator will allow students to use whatever operation is…
"Allowable Accommodations." http://tennessee.gov/education/assessment/doc/tsallowaccin.pdf
Brown, E.T., et. Al. (March 2007) Crutch or Catalyst: Teachers' Beliefs and Practices
Regarding Calculator Use in Mathematics Instruction. School Science and Mathematics v. 107 no. 3 p. 102-16
Cavanagh, S. (2008). Use of Calculators. Education Week, Vol. 28 Issue 7, p5-5,
Elementary and Secondary Ed Act
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 as part of President Lyndon B. Johnson's "ar on Poverty." President Johnson believed that providing an education to children in low-income communities would enable them to become successful later in life, and that it would assist them in overcoming their poverty. The Elementary and Secondary Act of 1965 has helped to reform the American education system and has had a significant legislative impact in the United States.
Enacted on April 19, 1965, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 passed less than three months after the bill proposing this legislation was introduced to Congress. The bill intended to close the achievement gap created by race and poverty, and also sought to hold schools accountable for educational achievements -- or lack thereof -- and "increase education equality nationally" ("Elementary…
"Elementary and Secondary Education Act." Education. Laws.com. Web. 5 April 2013.
"Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965." The Social Welfare History Project. 5
The premise where the methods of instruction were carried out was a K-5 elementary school campus in Texas hosting 338 students. The other instrument was the portable mathematics and science lab, which provided the venue for methods course instruction. The adequacy of the data analysis procedures was captured. This is because the process of analyzing data involved all the stakeholders of the research. The use of diverse sources in data collection and analysis adds credibility in the analysis process. Effectiveness in analyzing content depends on the comparisons and contracts of the items analyzed. In this case, sufficient data was collected and subjected to a fair analysis.
Indeed, from the process of analyzing the data, much was learnt vis-a-vis the standards that address improvements in student learning and development. It also led to increased understanding of the need for professional development of teachers of mathematics and sciences. The standards established are…
Holt-Reynolds, D. (2000). What Does the Teacher Do: Constructivist Pedagogies and Prospective Teachers' Beliefs About the Role of a Teacher. Teaching and Teacher
Education, 16(1), 21-32
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Principles and Standards for the Teaching of School Mathematics. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
Unfortunately, the traditional textbook-based skills approach focuses on memorizing by rote measurement facts (e.g., equivalent measures such as 12 inches = 1 foot) and measurement procedures (e.g., how to use a ruler)" (1998, p. 15-9).
Absent hands-on exercises, though, many young learners will not have an opportunity to construct an understanding of the process of measurement or a concept of measurement unit which can frequently result in mechanical and inappropriate applications of measurement knowledge and tools. For instance, Baroody and Coslick point out that many elementary-level children tend to confuse area with perimeter and vice versa; some common types of errors that are made by these young learners when using a ruler, for example, include the following:
Counting the number of has marks starting with 0 rather than the units between the marks;
Treating the 1 hashmark as the starting point instead of the 0 hashmark and counting the 2…
Accountability manual. (2007, May). Texas Education Agency: Department of Assessment, Accountability, and Data Quality -- Division of Performance Reporting. Texas Education Agency. Retrieved December 6, 2007 at http://www.tea.state.tx.us/perfreport/account/2007/manual/body.html .
Baroody, a.J., & Coslick, R.T. (1998). Fostering children's mathematical power: An investigative approach to K-8 mathematics instruction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Chanter, C., & Welsh, L. (2000, December). Fifth-grade students experience careers that use mathematics. Teaching Children Mathematics, 7(4), 236.
Chapter 111. Texas essential knowledge and skills for mathematics: Subchapter a. Elementary. (2007). Texas Education Agency. Retrieved December 6, 2007 at http://www.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter111/ch111a.html .
Free games, quizzes, and teaching tools for K. through Grade 8, linked to McEL subject standards; site sponsored by Pearson Education.
Free instructional materials that can be downloaded and printed, including e-books, lesson plans, worksheets, and clip art.
Source: Koehler, 2007 at p. 286.
There are also a number of activities that can be used in an elementary school classroom that are specifically designed for online use. For example, Lacina (2004) reports that one such popular activity is a Web Quest, which is an "authentic Web-based environment that supports inquiry learning" (p. 113). Generally speaking, Web Quests contain the following elements:
An introduction or scenario;
task that is meaningful or doable;
process for completing the task, often in groups;
Information resources to support the task;
Guidance on how to organize the information acquired;
conclusion that brings closure and reflection (Lacina, p. 113).
In fact, the entire Web…
Brown, D. & Warschauer, M. (2006). From the university to the elementary classroom: Students' experiences in learning to integrate technology in instruction. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14(3), 599-601.
Koehler, L. (2007). 50 essential Web sites for teachers of students with mild or moderate disabilities. Intervention in School & Clinic, 42(5), 285-286.
Lacina, J. (2004). Promoting language acquisitions: Technology and English language learners. Childhood Education, 81(2), 113-114.
Smith, S.J. & Smith, S.B. (2002). On the right track: Technology for organizing and presenting digital information. Intervention in School & Clinic, 37(5), 304.
In all classrooms, teachers deal with at least three curricular elements: (1) content - input, what students learn; (2) process - how students go about making sense of ideas and information, and (3) product - output, how students demonstrate what they have learned." (Tomlinson, 2001, p. 4) Understanding these concepts on a macro level enables teachers to see the concepts that must be addressed. Additional techniques and approaches that are helpful in implementing a differentiated curriculum are included in Table 1.
Opportunity to learn
Specific benchmarks should be reviewed and adapted as necessary
Identify optimum levels of proficiency necessary to master content
Ensure that adequate materials and hands-on activities exist to support content
Opportunity to learn
Identify strategies that facilitate mastery and generalization of content
Consider compatibility between teaching and learning styles used
Hoover, John J. And Patton James R. (2004). Differentiating Standards-Based Education for Students with Diverse Needs. Remedial & Special Education 25: 74
Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed ability classrooms (2nd ed.).
Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
According to Copland (2001), although the following job description is a parody, it is not too far from the truth concerning the current set of responsibilities that confront the nation's elementary school principals:
Position Opening: Elementary School Principal, Anytown School District. Qualifications: Wisdom of a sage, vision of a CEO, intellect of a scholar, leadership of a point guard, compassion of a counselor, moral strength of a nun, courage of a firefighter, craft knowledge of a surgeon, political savvy of a senator, toughness of a soldier, listening skills of a blind man, humility of a saint, collaborative skills of an entrepreneur, certitude of a civil rights activist, charisma of a stage performer, and patience of Job. Salary lower than you might expect. Credential required. For application materials, contact... (Copland, 2001, p. 528).
While the above advertisement may be beyond the typical requirements, they are not too far off from reality.…
Aftermath: America's educators reflect on the impact of September 11, 2001. (2001, November). NEA Today, 20(3), 8.
Beamish, P.M., Belcastro, a.L., & Granello, DH (2002). Treatment of panic disorder: Practical guidelines. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 24(3), 224.
Boudreau, R.A., Golembiewski, R.T., Luo, H., & Sun, B.C. (1998). Estimates of burnout in public agencies: Worldwide, how many employees have which degrees of burnout, and with what consequences? Public Administration Review, 58(1), 59.
Brotherson, M.J., Milburn, P., Schertz, M., & Sheriff, G. (2001). Elementary school principals and their needs and issues for inclusive early childhood programs. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 21(1), 31.
("Science 21-Update Grade 6, Unit 4," 2009)
There is important background information in store for the teachers in this area. This particular activity concentrates on the notion that the natural system of the earth possesses a balance and the different components or members of any one system should react and work in close association in order to achieve and keep the balance. It is important to understand that an ecosystem functions in the best possible manner when every living factor as well as the non-living factors are able to live in harmony. This activity helps the students with a scope to build their independent balanced system. With gradual removal of one or two members of the system, it is going to affect but the system will not have any problem in functioning. But on the other hand, in case a lot of members are eliminated from the system, it loses…
Bassage, Sharon. (2008) "Kit-n-Kaboodle Summer 07" Wayne Finger Lakes Board of Co-operative Educational Services. Retrieved 23 April, 2009 from http://www.wflboces.org/files/filesystem/summer%202007.pdf
Editor, Putnam/Northern Westchester BOCES. (2003, Mar) "Science 21 Alert" News of the Science 21 community, vol. 1, no. 1, Retrieved 5 June, 2009 from http://www.pnwboces.org/Science21/ pdf/March2003.pdf
Eastern Suffolk BOCES. (2009) "Staff and Curriculum Development" Retrieved 5 June, 2009
The cycle of production, so to speak, is based around the school year, which runs from fall to spring. Students are organized by grades based on this cycle, and the teachers are organized on the basis of which grades they teach. This means that, for example, James will have a different teacher for each grade, and that the interaction between James and each teacher will be different. However, it also means that there should be several teachers in the school who have prior experience with James, from times when he was more successful. The organization is about educating children. In that sense, students are not to be discarded; the school is under obligation to try to work with all students to ensure that they are sufficiently educated to be passed to the next level. The counsellors and others higher up the organizational hierarchy also have direct roles that…
Mavrofides, T., Achilleas, K., Dimitris, P. & Antonios, L. (2011). On the entropy of social systems: A revision of the concepts of entropy and energy in the social context. Systems Research and Behavioral Science. Retrieved July 22, 2016 from http://eeyem.eap.gr/sites/default/files/17.On%20the%20Entropy%20of%20Social%20Systems%20A%20Revision%20of%20the%20Concepts%20of%20Entropy%20and%20Energy%20in%20the%20Social%20Context%20.pdf
Mele, C., Pels, J. & Polese, F. (2010). A brief review of systems theories and their managerial applications. Service Science. Vol. 2 (1-2) 126-135.
Morgaine, C.(2001). Family systems theory. Portland State University. Retrieved July 22, 2016 from http://web.pdx.edu/~cbcm/CFS410U/FamilySystemsTheory.pdf
No author (2016). Equifinality principle. Management Mania. Retrieved July 22, 2016 from https://managementmania.com/en/equifinality-principle
Student Achievement at the Elementary Level
Elementary education is one of the most important stages of schooling today. This is so because this level of education provides students with important basis points that they can use throughout their lives, not only during their secondary and tertiary education, but also in their adult lives and the workplace. Hence, ensuring a top level of achievement at the elementary level is highly important.
The challenge is, however, that research has not conclusively suggested strategies that can ensure a top level of student achievement at this level. Although much research has focused on student achievement in general, few have focused particularly on the elementary level. Literature investigated for this study suggests that various areas of focus can be investigated for their influence on student achievement at the elementary level. These include teacher qualifications, school size, teacher-student relationships, student-student relationships, and teacher relationships with school…
Bancroft, B.L. (2010, Apr. 13) Enhancing Student Achievement Through Cooperative Learning at the Elementary level. Retrieved from: http://www.nmu.edu/sites/DrupalEducation/files/UserFiles/Files/Pre-Drupal/SiteSections/Students/GradPapers/Projects/Bancroft_Briana_MP.pdf
Buddin, R. And Zamarro, G. (2009, May). Teacher Qualifications and Student Achievement in Urban Elementary Schools. Retrieved from: http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/reprints/2010/RAND_RP1410.pdf
Egalite, A.J. And Kisida, B. (2013, May). The Impact of School Size on Student Achievement: Evidence from Four States. University of Arkansas. Retrieved from: http://www.uaedreform.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Egalite-Kisida-13_Impact-of-School-Size-on-Student-Achievement_wp.pdf
Jones, K.R. And Ezeife, A.N. (2011, Oct. 31). School Size as a Factor in the Academic Achievement of Elementary School Students. Psychology 2(8). Retrieved from: http://www1.uwindsor.ca/education/system/files/PSYCH20110800007_34224480.pdf
In fact, as early as the 1989-1990 school years, school-based decision making was implemented in three elementary schools in the Memphis City School System (Smith, Valesky & Horgan, 1991). Based on this seminal initiative, improvements were cited in: (a) the coordination provided by the school councils; (b) school-based staff development activities; (c) support and services provided by the district central office; (d) data and reports provided to the individual schools; and (e) the value of the school improvement plans (Smith et al., 1991).
A relevant study of the school-based decision-making process in the State of Tennessee by Etheridge (1990) evaluated the impact of different leadership styles used by school principals on the effectiveness of the school-based decision-making process in seven local school councils in Memphis including their elementary schools following their first 15 months of operation. According to Etheridge, the composition of SBDM councils in Tennessee largely reflects those being…
California State Board of Education Policy #89-01. (2010). California State Board of Education.
Retrieved from http://www.cde.ca.gov/be/ms/po/policy89-01-sep1994.asp .
Contract for excellence. (2009, December 31). New York State Education Department. Retrieved from http://www.p12.nysed.gov/part100/pages/10013.html .
Cowart, C. (2009). The Louisiana awakening: Church as portal for the emergence of a sustainable social reality. Anglican Theological Review, 91(4), 607-609.
Details are provided in the primary accounts from men's experiences teaching as elementary school teachers- details that help answer the challenge at hand facing public perception and gender bias in the school system. Coulter and McNay, of the University of Western Ontario, help tease out the intimate details of "various issues these men confronted as they attempted to create for themselves in a work world traditional thought more suited for women" (Coulter and McNay, 1993). Through these male's personal accounts, as supplied in a primary source in the article, the "assumptions and stereotypes" about men are brought to the surface and discussed (Coulter and McNay, 1993). The individual nuances that these teachers discuss helps shed light on the problems at hand and how to overcome these gender stereotypes and public perception of who should be an elementary or primary school teacher.
Finally, given the definition and issues surrounding masculinity and…
Coulter, Rebecca P., & McNay, Margaret. (1993). Exploring men's experiences as elementary school teachers. Canadian Journal of Education, 18(4), 398-412.
Mills, Martin, Martino, Wayne, & Lingard, Bob. (2004). Attracting, recruiting, and retaining male teachers: policy issues in the male teacher debate. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 25(3), 355-369.
Montecinos, Carmen, & Nielsen, Lynn. (2004). Male elementary preservice teachers' gendering of teaching. Multicultural Perspective, 6(2), 3-9.
Skelton, Christine. (2003). Male primary teachers and perception of masculinity. Educational Review, 55(2).
Internet in Elementary ESL/EFL Classroom
Thanks to the technology, both teachers and students would find their learning sessions in class more enjoyable and more challenging than before. The Internet gives important experiences both for students and teachers, where they could advance their learning process very rapidly through the dynamic medium.
At the first place, Marco (2002) said, the using of Internet as a new medium with content-based approach in ESL and EFL classroom would:
Increase students' motivation and participation, give students more time to interact with language and content area, improve their reading and writing skills in meaningful contexts, and expose students to self-paced autonomous, learner controlled learning, rather than teacher controlled."
There are a lot of options to create classroom activities that include the using of web and e-mails. For elementary students in ESL and EFL classroom, it would give a breakthrough where not only they can learn English…
Ellinger, B., Sandler, S., Chayen, D., Goldfrad, K., and Yarosky, J. (2001). Weaving The Web Into an EAP Reading Program. English Teaching Forum Journal. Vol. 39 No. 2. pp. 22-25.
Ellis, B. Nov 1996. Integrating Science & Technology in the Elementary Classroom. Retrieved November 20, 2002 from Texas A&M University Commerce. Web site: http://faculty.tamu-commerce.edu/espinoza/s/ellis-b-657.html
Green, D.W., and O'Brien, T. Jun 2002. The Internet and the Upper Elementary Classroom: Making a Difference? Retrieved November 20, 2002 from: From Now On The Educational Technology Journal. Vol. 11 No. 9. Web site: http://www.fno.org/jun02/impact.html
Marco, M.J.L. (2002). Internet Content-based Activities for English for Specific Purposes. English Teaching Forum Journal. Vol. 40 No. 3. pp. 20-25.
High-Quality Elementary Education
hat ingredients go into a high quality education for elementary school children -- and what does the literature reveal? hat has been the impact of "No Child Left Behind" in terms of achieving that seemingly unachievable goal? These and other issues are covered in this paper.
Improving Elementary School Quality: Social-Emotional / Character Development
A research study in the peer-reviewed Journal of School Health reveals that a school-wide program involving a "social-emotional and character development education program" can "significantly improve" the quality of the education experience for elementary school children (Snyder, 2012, 11). The program, called "Positive Action," was conducted involving 20 elementary schools in Hawaii -- racially and ethnically diverse schools -- between the 2002-2003 school years and 2005-2006 school years.
In brief, the six-unit Positive Action (PA) program utilized in Hawaii involved 140 sessions -- lasting 15 to 20 minutes each -- per elementary grade…
Berk, L.B. (2013). Development Through the Lifespan. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Snyder, F.J., Vuchinich, S., Acock, A., Washburn, I.J., and Flay, B.R. (2012). Improving
Elementary School Quality through the Use of a Social-Emotional and Character
Evolution of RTI and Its Purpose
The response to intervention (RTI) initiative is a multi-tiered program that is designed to facilitate the early identification of students with special educational and behavioral needs (What is RTI?, 2016). The purpose of the RTI initiative is two-fold, with the first being the provision of high-quality educational services and the second being the screening of all young learners in general education classrooms (What is RTI?, 2016). The evolution of the RTI initiative was based on early experiences with differentiated instruction as an alternative to conventional practices. In this regard, Fisher and Frey (2010) report that, "In many schools, instruction and time are constant -- they do not vary on a student-by-student basis. RTI was designed as a way to encourage teachers to vary instruction and time to create a constant level of learning" (2010, p. 15). The RTI program also includes the key assumption…
As a result, there is greater flexibility in creating individualized learning plans and isolating the contribution this specific interactive technology allows for increasing student retention and long-term learning. The bottom line is that interactive technologies such as the smart board can deliver statistically significant increases in student performance when their scores are compared before and after the introduction of scaffolding and interactive instruction (Halden, 258, 259).
At the intersection of process improvement and teaching technologies is the definition of solutions which are significantly increasing the effectiveness of teaching. The reliance on scaffolding strategies both in small groups and individually, when combined with technologies, shows significant potential to re-order the productivity of teaching elementary school students.
Butler, Kyle a., and Andrew Lumpe. "Student Use of Scaffolding Software: elationships with Motivation and Conceptual Understanding." Journal of Science Education and Technology 17.5 (01 Oct. 2008): 427-436. EIC. EBSCO.5 Mar. 2009
Butler, Kyle a., and Andrew Lumpe. "Student Use of Scaffolding Software: Relationships with Motivation and Conceptual Understanding." Journal of Science Education and Technology 17.5 (01 Oct. 2008): 427-436. ERIC. EBSCO.5 Mar. 2009
Campbell, Monica L., and Linda C. Mechling "Small Group Computer-Assisted Instruction with SMART Board Technology: An Investigation of Observational and Incidental Learning of Nontarget Information." Remedial and Special Education 30.1 (01 Jan. 2009): 47-57. ERIC. EBSCO.]. 5 Mar. 2009
Haldane, Maureen. "Interactivity and the Digital Whiteboard: Weaving the Fabric of Learning." Learning, Media and Technology 32.3 (01 Sep. 2007): 257-270. ERIC. EBSCO.5 Mar. 2009
Katherine Lawrence.. "Fostering Learning in the Networked World. " EDUCAUSE Review 43.6 (2008): 90. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest, 5 Mar. 2009
Additionally, teachers provide information on upcoming math topics so tutors can come more fully prepared" (Baker, Riet & Clendaniel, 2006: 1).
The program demonstrates how an elementary school's mathematics education can be enhanced by a good tutoring program. The program helped inject fun into the discipline of mathematics, provided personalized attention to struggling students, featured 'previewing' critical material to be covered the next day in class, had less structured break/snack time so students had time to 'digest' new material (no pun intended), and the tutors worked closely with the student's regular teachers. The tutors also said that they learned a great deal that would serve them well in their own classrooms while working with the teachers, and also from their students. Supervising university observers of the tutors noted they had fewer absences in their classes than non-participants. Finally, the program made effective use of community outreach, as it merged the…
I never used to like math but now it is my favorite subject since I have been going to math tutoring. Now I understand it" (Baker, Riet & Clendaniel, 2006: 1). Few words could more delightful to the ears of an elementary math school teacher. But what prompted this student's enthusiasm? The student became excited about math because of a program created by a rural school district that was seeking to raise its students' standardized test scores. The district took proactive action and created a partnership with the local university to formulate an after-school tutoring program, staffed by university volunteers from the elementary education program at the university.
Elementary children in grades 3-6 were chosen to participate who had math scores below the 30th percentile on the standardized test used by the state of Pennsylvania, the results of their Stanford 9 Achievement Tests, and classroom teachers' recommendations. The ratio of elementary students to university tutors was two students to each tutor. Sessions included individual meetings with tutors, snack time during which tutors 'previewed' upcoming math lessons, homework assistance, and games. "Each child has a folder that contains an information sheet for classroom teachers to guide tutoring with assigned homework and skill areas to be practiced. Additionally, teachers provide information on upcoming math topics so tutors can come more fully prepared" (Baker, Riet & Clendaniel, 2006: 1).
The program demonstrates how an elementary school's mathematics education can be enhanced by a good tutoring program. The program helped inject fun into the discipline of mathematics, provided personalized attention to struggling students, featured 'previewing' critical material to be covered the next day in class, had less structured break/snack time so students had time to 'digest' new material (no pun intended), and the tutors worked closely with the student's regular teachers. The tutors also said that they learned a great deal that would serve them well in their own classrooms while working with the teachers, and also from their students. Supervising university observers of the tutors noted they had fewer absences in their classes than non-participants. Finally, the program made effective use of community outreach, as it merged the resources of the local university and solicited the input of school and district administrators to create an effective program. Despite the occasional logistical and emotional problems created by the difficulties of using the same tutor for individual students from grade to grade, the program was deemed a success.
Cairo Egypt.... I elementary
Egypt is largely considered to be one of the cradles of civilization when considering its history, its culture, and the numerous notable figures that it is responsible for holding throughout history. Even with this, its current capital, Cairo, does not have a significant connection to Ancient Egypt. Cairo's greatest connection to the area it is located in when considering the context of Ancient Egypt is the fact that it is located in the vicinity of the ancient of Memphis, an Egyptian inhabitance built by the first Pharaoh, Menes. The city's name originates from the Arabic expression Al-Q-hirah, which means the triumphant or the victorious. Cairo is the largest city on the African continent and is largely a center of cultural life and politics when considering the African region it is located in as a whole.
It would be safe to say that Cairo is both a…
Beattie, A. (2005). Cairo: A Cultural and Literary History. Signal Books.
Korany, B. & El-Mahdi, R. (2012). Arab Spring in Egypt: Revolution and Beyond. American University in Cairo Press.
"Destination Cairo," Retrieved September 17, 2013, from http://www.egypt.travel/city/index/cairo
For the purposes of this review, Web-based instruction is considered to be any educational or training program distributed over the Internet or an intranet and conveyed through a browser, such as Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. Java applet-based instruction is a special form of Web-based instruction.
Although there is very little research on comparing the effectiveness of Java applet-based instruction to the traditional face-to-face offering. However Web-based instruction has received enough attention that many studies are now available in the research literature.
Comparing the learning effects of Web-based learning with traditional face-to-face teaching and learning is emphasized in the research on the Internet as a medium in higher education. However, these research studies always produce conflicting results. esearchers found significant differences, positive or negative, in using different Internet-based approaches to facilitate teaching and learning.
This literature review explores three dominant themes: impact on student performance, student attitude, and student satisfaction.…
Rajshree Agarwal, a Edward Day. (1998). The impact of the Internet on economic education. Journal of Economic Education, 29(2), 99. Retrieved November 14, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 28501331).
Al-Jarf, a. & Sado, R. (2002). Effect of online learning on struggling ESL college writers. San Antonio, TX: National Educational Computing Conference Proceedings. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 475-920).
Anthony Basile, Jill M. D'Aquila. (2002). An experimental analysis of computer-mediated instruction and student attitudes in a principles of financial accounting course. Journal of Education for Business, 77(3), 137-143. Retrieved November 17, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 115217377).
Carey, J. (2001). Effective student outcomes: A comparison of online and face-to-face delivery modes. Retrieved November 14, 2008, at http://www.ed.psu.edu/acsde/deos/deosnews/deosnews11_9.asp
Low math scores of American elementary students has been a major issue in education for some time. The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMMS) conducted in 1995 showed the extent of the problem. The TIMMS study compared students in 42 countries, allowing American students to be compared with international students. The study rated the math ability of American students as adequate in fourth grade and poor in twelfth grade compared to other countries. This study was not the first time that concerns had been raised about American students achieving poorly in science and math. It was however, the largest and most comprehensive look at the real extent of the problem. The study made people realize the significance of the issue and resulted in the awareness of the public, the government and education and mathematics researchers. The major question that needs answering is why the low math scores occur, and…
Ma, L. Knowing and Teaching Elementary Mathematics: Teachers' Understanding of Fundamental Mathematics in China and the United States. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999.
Mokros, J., Russell, S.J., and Economopoulos, K. Beyond Arithmetic: Changing Mathematics in the Elementary Classroom. Palo Alto, CA: Dale Seymour Publications, 1995.
teacher instructional technology literacy instruction improve elementary (K-5) student achievement reading vocabulary? Create a qualitative research scenario phenomenology approach.
Does the use of instructional technology improve elementary (K-5) student reading vocabulary?
In the era of high-stakes testing, student performance on reading has become increasingly important in determining school evaluations. eading is a fundamental skill necessary for future success in life. Students are reading in a paper-based format less frequently, at younger ages. This research study will attempt to asses the impact of using technology within the classroom to enhance vocabulary recognition. Previous research indicates that "teacher-made online learning resources provide course content anchored resources that focus on specific real world tasks in class, and a supportive authentic learning environment to learners" (Li 2011).
Using technology to teach reading has several apparent advantages. First of all, it can deploy a multimedia strategy to enhance student engagement. Students are often…
Introna, Lucas. (2011). Phenomenological approaches to ethics and information technology.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2011/entries/ethics-it-phenomenology
Li, S., Price, D., & Fu, Y. (2011). The impact of the teacher-made online learning resources.
The Business Review, Cambridge, 18(1), 35-40.
Calcium Promotion to Elementary Students
Calcium consumption is critical for proper nourishment and bone development in elementary school age children. Promotion of calcium consumption in early elementary years is critical; school nutrition programs and parents are the most likely authoritative figures that influence children's nutritional habits at the elementary level. ecause child nutrition programs are already in place during this time of development in school environments, schools are an ideal environment to promote a positive and beneficial view of milk consumption. Elementary school students are a good target audience because nutrition programs are typically in full force during the school period between 4th through 6th grades. Elementary school students are also more likely to be accepting of the advice of their parents and model healthy behaviors during this period of time.
In a national survey of managers that was conducted to assess social learning factors affecting milk drinking, many environmental…
American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. (1999). Calcium Requirements of Infants, Children and Adolescents. Journal of Pediatrics, 104, 1152-1158
American School Food Service Association. (1989). Chapter IV: Child Nutrition Programs: A Legislative History. School Food Service Journal, 37 (6), 62-72.
Connors, P., Bednar, C., and Kammer, S. (2001). Cafeteria Factors That Influence Milk-Drinking Behaviors of Elementary Schoolchildren. Journal of Nutritional Education, 33, 31-36
Connors, P., Bendar, C., Imhran, V., and Czajka-Narins, D.M. (1999). Milk Use and Handling in Elementary School child Nutrition Programs. The Journal of Child Nutrition & Management, 22, 96-100.
grain of sand, hold infinity in an hour, - lines I read in a book of poetry, lines that play at the back of my mind as I begin to lay the outlines if this thesis for a Master's degree.
I see the wonder in a child's eyes as he imagines a world unfolding in a grain of sand as I read a story to him; an hour reading in a class of children translates into infinity as the children in that class become readers themselves, changing the hours into infinity as they develop the habit of infinite reading.
Voluntary in-school free reading program - elementary level" is the subject of this thesis proposal, and the objective is to prove that voluntary in-school free reading programs result in positive effects on elementary students' attitudes toward reading.
Statement of the Problem
To be able to identify the strengths and…
Durrell, Donald. D. Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty (New Edition).
Kottmeyer, William. Evaluation Handbook: Levels in English. Webster.
Kottmeyer, William. Guide for Remedial Reading. Webster Strang, Ruth, et. al. The Improvement of Reading. New York: Mc GrawHill.
Steiger, Ralph. New Directions in Reading. New York: Bantam Books.
treatment of any victim of trauma can be circuitous and nebulous at times due to the many factors, implications and issues involved. Even with that being the case, there are ways to do it, with time and directed effort being the key item to focus on. hen it comes to the subject of children, however, a good amount of care, diligence and alternative methods, at least as compared to adults, is necessary to heal and address the aftereffects and results of trauma. hat follows in this document is a summary of fifteen different sources that all focus on cognitive therapy for children after the latter has been exposed and subjected to trauma, whether it be acute or prolonged.
Chae, Y., Goodman, G. S., Eisen, M. L., & Qin, J. (2011). Event Memory and Suggestibility in Abused and Neglected Children: Trauma-Related Psychopathology and Cognitive
Functioning. Journal Of Experimental Child…
Walker, D. F., Reese, J. B., Hughes, J. P., & Troskie, M. J. (2010). Addressing Religious and Spiritual Issues in Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Children and Adolescents. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 41(2), 174-180.
• One thing that becomes when working in counseling, psychology and with treatment of children is that adherence to procedure and guidelines is important. Even if there is the need for variation and customization along the way, it is still also important to follow the proper patterns and steps. Indeed, there is a step-by-step guideline for the treatment of children that have faced trauma and this absolutely pertains to cognitive behavioral therapy in particular. There are differing cultural and other cues that can be part of the process and one of those things is religion and spirituality. In some cases, the abuse itself centers on religion for one reason or another, such as when a clergy person is the abuser. Even when that is the case, a focus on and use of the pre-existing religious and/or spiritual facets of the child's psyche can be used to assist in recover and treatment in a cognitive behavioral realm.
Address Any Town USA
Reason for Referral:
Jane Doe, a nine-year-old Caucasian female in fourth grade, was brought for testing by her parents, Tom and Kate Doe. The parents report uneven performance in school. Jane seems to know something one day and then perform it poorly on the next. They report that Jane struggled to learn both printing and cursive and that she still makes occasional reversals when writing numbers. She is struggling to learn multiplication and division facts, which is making problems for her in arithmetic. Parents also report that the classroom teacher, Mrs. Brown, also has concerns. Parents state that Mrs. Brown says that Jane is often off-task and that Jane requires what the teacher thinks is more help than typical for children her age to get on task and stay on task. Jane often fails to bring homework done or…
Is forgetful at home
Jane shows few signs of hyperactivity, but does show impulsivity, and talks a lot in class. Based on this evaluation, Jane meets the criteria for a diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive Type.
Source for DSM-IV: http://www.mentalhealth.com/dis1/p21-ch01.html
teacher instructional technology literacy instruction improve elementary (K-5) student achievement reading vocabulary? Create a qualitative research scenario phenomenology approach.
Coca-Cola is one of the largest companies in the world. It employs 146, 200 employees worldwide and sells beverages in more than 200 countries. Coca-Cola has given its shareholders increasing dividends for 50 consecutive years (Coca-Cola company information, 2012, Coca-Cola). Coca-Cola's flagship brand is the soda Coca-Cola, and it dominates the traditional soda market. However, its main competitor Pepsi-Cola dominates many other facets of the bottled drink industry, such as Gatorade (versus Coke's PowerAde) and Mountain Dew (versus Coke's Mellow Yellow). Cadbury-Schweppes currently produces two other popular soda brands, Dr. Pepper and 7-UP. Coke's rival product Sprite has yet to secure equal market advantage. Cadbury-Schweppes also owns the Snapple line of beverages, some of which have a slightly 'healthier' image than that of much-demonized soda.
Coke has international brand…
Berk, Christiana Cheddar. (2011). Why Diet Coke's victory is bittersweet for Coca-Cola.
Brooker, Katrina. (2006). The Pepsi Machine. Fortune Magazine. Retrieved:
Raising Children in a Socially Toxic Environment by Dr. James Garbarino is a book for anyone interesting in studying the social environment of children. It's a book for educators who want to study the results of a poor environment and recognize the signs of it; it's for parents who want to know what's good and what's not so good for their children to see. And finally, it's for students like myself who are interested in learning just how much a child's environment affects a child's psyche and what they will grow up to be.
Most of us know that today's social environment is a danger to children. Without reading this book, we can figure out that today's world of violence, sex, pop, television, and gangster rap is not the best teachers to children. Dr. Garbarino obviously agrees about the danger of this environment but goes on to tell us why…
Informational book 1: Everything Horse: hat kids really want to know about horses
The book Everything Horse: hat kids really want to know about horses is designed to be a basic, introductory text for horse-crazy kids. The book is also useful, from an adult's perspective, because it introduces children to ideas and concepts that better enable children to understand history and the natural world. The horse has played an important role in how the land was settled and also is a very unique animal. The book is structured along the lines of a series of questions that children are likely to have about horses such as "hy are horses mounted from the left?" "Do horses think?," "hy do horses wear shoes?," and "hat was the Pony Express?"
By approaching the subject matter from this point-of-view, the book is able to 'hook' the young reader into reading further. The…
Crisp, Marty. Everything Horse: What kids really want to know about horses.
Hill, Cherry. Cherry Hill's Horse Care for Kids. Storey Publishing, 2002.
Elementary Special Education Teachers Place Value in the use of Technology Resources for Students?
Technology is an integral part of society. People share and communicate ideas using emails, Skype, and public/private forums. For numerous organizations and businesses technology is a must to increase productivity. This is why schools have begun the process of creating an environment that immerses staff and students in technology, with school administrators taking on the technological transition (Garland & Tadeja, 2013). Technology investment within schools not only enables varied learning opportunities for students, but it also helps students discover or improve their own ability to research and analyze information, collaborate and communicate, and solve problems (Lim, Zhao, Tondeur, Chai, & Tsai, 2013). Comment by Tarae Terry: Citation? How do we know this is true? Who is the source-Also the opening/introduction needs to be a little bit stronger an attention grabber. Introducing the issue up front is…
Elementary Student Achievement
Elementary School Achievement Study Selection
The creation and sustaining of achievement at the elementary school level is one of the most important and pivotal things that can be done to create and sustain lifelong success. As such, the factors and facets that make or break such achievement are sought out, analyzed and heavily focused on by scholars, teachers and parents alike. One way in which this paradigm is analyzed and looked at is the trajectory of lesser-achieving students and how they fare as they age and progress. Specifically, it is assessed how "holding back" a student in a grade for another year is damaging or helpful in the long run. While having a student repeat a grade can be damaging to self-esteem, pushing on a student that is not prepared for the next level just hurts that student as well as everyone else. The applicability…
APA. (2014, June 9). Journal of Educational Psychology®. http://www.apa.org.
Retrieved June 9, 2014, from http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/edu/index.aspx?tab=4
Moser, S.E., West, S.G., & Hughes, J.N. (2012). Trajectories of Math and Reading
Achievement in Low-Achieving Children in Elementary School: Effects of Early
teacher influence the reading-writing program at his/Her school?
An enthusiastic teacher with a strong voice who is excellent at classroom structure can create students' interest in stories -- even before a reading lesson begins. First, there is no substitute for a good relationship with your students. Let them know you genuinely care about them that you're not just up there because you're getting paid to be up there. This sounds very basic and fundamental, but by empowering them, they know you're listening and that you care. "If kids like you, they'll perform for you," according to teacher Charlene Christopher in Norfolk, Virginia (nea.org). "I'm respectful to my students, and in turn, they know that if they're disrespectful, I'll call them it," said teacher Jim McNeil in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. "Also, I use a lot of humor -- that works for me" (nea.org).
hat is one strategy or activity that you could…
National Education Association (2009). How To Motivate Your Kids To Learn. Retrieved March 22, 2014, from http://www.nea.org .
University of North Carolina. (2008). Reading to Write. Retrieved March 22, 2014, from https://writingcenter.unc.edu .
They are basically an "overhaul of mathematics instruction," (611).
The major points Alsup discusses in his article include the background information as to why traditional instruction falls short of the ideal, and includes the seven new rules for preservice elementary teachers' mathematics instruction. These seven rules are based on the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and on what Alsup calls a "constructivist view of mathematics learning." According to the constructivist view, the teacher does not directly "transmit" mathematical knowledge and facts to the students; rather, students construct their own set of mathematical knowledge through active and creative problem solving (611).
Alsup suggests that the progressive, constructivist approach to teaching preservice elementary school teachers will lead to a "learning community." Students interact with one another and with the instructor, rather than having the instructor always stand before the class in a lecture format. The new rules enhance "confidence and independent…
3. Hispanic, White Communities Forge Ties in Alabama (2003) a UA Center for Public Television and Radi9o Production. Online available at:
4. McDade, Sharon a. (2002) Definition of a Case Study. Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning - North Carolina State. Online available at http://www.ncsu.Edu/fctl/Programs/Instructional- Development/Teaching _Materials / CaseStudies/Materials / Case studyDefintion.pdf# search =%22 CASE%20STUDY % 3A%20DEFINIT ION%20OF %22.
5. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
6. English Language Development and Multicultural Education (2005) University of Alabama. Berkeley University Online available at http://crede.berkeley.edu/tools/directory2-/PDF/esl.pdf#search=%22Alabama%3A%20Elementary%20ESL%20SERVICES%22.
7. English as a Second Language (ESL) (2004) Baldwin County Public Schools; Bay Minette, Alabama. Online available at http://www.bcbe.org/Default.asp?DivisionID='824'&DepartmentID='958'.
8. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
9. Alabama (2006) KYTESOL Newsletter Vol.…
11. Alabama: Featured Facts (2005) From the SREB Factbook on Higher Education. Online available at http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:Mb3MWbM-0b4J:www.sreb.org/main/EdData/FactBook/2005StateReports/Alabama05.pdf+Alabama+Hispanic+education&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=6
12. Alabama Education Policy Primer: Chapter 2 Achievement (2005) Education Foundation - Online available at; http://www.aplusala.org/primer/ch2.asp
Education for Hispanic Students in the Elementary Schools of Alabama
Use the appropriate representations to model problems in the physical and social sciences (Ibid.)
Numeration Systems and Number Theory -- Number theory is a basis for all areas of mathematics. Number theory and sense are precludes to computation, to estimate, and to have an understanding of the ways numbers are represented and interrelated. Fluency of also understanding the way positive and negative numbers can be visually represented on a line, or how numerical values interrelate, are essential prior to moving toward higher level concepts (Kane, 2002).
Algebraic Thinking and Problem Solving -- ather than viewing the subject of algebra as certain sets of problems, the appropriate way to introduce it into elementary levels is as the relationship among quantities, the use of symbols, the modeling of phenomena, and the study of change. Students should be able to understand patterns, relations, and functions and how numbers may be represented in different…
Askey, R. (1999). "Knowing and Teaching Elementary Mathematics." American
Educator. Fall 1999, Cited in:
Blanton, M. (2008). Algebra and the Elementary Classroom. Heinemann.
educational change in regard to the need for curriculum change aimed at addressing curriculum inadequacy that affects our elementary schools. In this paper, the concept of transformational, situational and distributive leadership are discussed in line with instilling positive change to the curriculum development process.
The concept of educational change is one which is often misunderstood by many people (Fullan,2007,p.29).Educational change is either imposed involuntarily or voluntarily accepted by the relevant person or authority. Its meaning too is accepted with a lot of ambivalence as indicated by Fullan.In this paper, we discuss how the concept of educational change is enacted in order to improve student learning through the development of an updated curriculum that is aligned with the state standards for an elementary school. Students often state assessment outcomes as (not met) on the school report card for years. It would therefore require good leadership to instill the necessary change to…
Bondi, J. & wiles, J., (1998) Curriculum Development; A Guide to Practice (5TH Edition).
Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River New Jersey.
Burns, J.M. (1978), Leadership, New York: Harper and Row, Publishers
Bryman, A. (1992), Charisma and Leadership in Organisations, Newbury Park, CA: Sage
It enlivens what many people see as the isolating abstractness of mathematics
Lipsey and Pasternack).
A study of the literature on this issue brings clearly to the fore the realization of the importance of the integration and intersection between various subjects that were in the past seen to be separate and even in opposition to one another. There are an increasing number of cogent and well researched books and articles which suggest ways and means of linking mathematics and literature to the benefit and advantage of both subjects.
Books by Marilyn Burns. etrieved February 8, 2009 from: (http://home.avvanta.com/~math/burnsbooks.htm)
Clement, . (1990) Counting on Frank. Sydney: Williams Collins.
Grossman, F.J., Smith, B, & Miller, C. (1993). Did you say write in mathematics class? Journal of Developmental Education, 17, pp. 2-4.
Hutchins, P. (1986). The doorbell rang. New York: Greenwillow Books. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000367948
Kolstad, ., Briggs, L., & Whalen, K. (1996). Incorporating…
Books by Marilyn Burns. Retrieved February 8, 2009 from: (http://home.avvanta.com/~math/burnsbooks.htm)
Clement, R. (1990) Counting on Frank. Sydney: Williams Collins.
Grossman, F.J., Smith, B, & Miller, C. (1993). Did you say write in mathematics class? Journal of Developmental Education, 17, pp. 2-4.
Hutchins, P. (1986). The doorbell rang. New York: Greenwillow Books. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000367948
teacher instructional technology with new literacy instruction to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary?
The alternative hypothesis would be that new literacy instruction does have th potential to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary. In other words that significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.
The null hypothesis would be that no significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.
The study will choose 2 different schools in a certain district with classes k-5 where one school has introduced new literacy techniques (namely technological strategies), and the other school is still employing traditional instruction.
The schools would be as closely matched as possible with students coming from a similar socio-economic background and with their parents generally sharing a similar educational niche (i.e. either…
Babchuk, W. (1996). Glaser or Strauss? Grounded theory and adult education. Presented at the Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, October 17-19, 1996.
Glaser, B. (1993). Examples of grounded theory: a reader. Mill Valley, CA:
Glaser, B. (1998). Doing grounded theory. Mill Valley: Sociology Press.
I expect to find a pattern where as Lee (1992) might suggest, a hierarchical ethical theory exists, where the concept of "serving the needs of others" in need correlates directly to one's status, race, ethnicity and other factors.
This suggests some level of discrimination may exist especially amongst young children and adolescents who grow up in communities where they lack encouragement, support and family to shower them with love and affection. Indeed my initial responses included a feeling that I was obliged to provide each neglected child something to help fill the emotional void that must exist in the absence of proper parenting or family support.
A also feel it urgent that educators and community members consider their ethical and moral obligations to service those who might not otherwise be able to help themselves. In the face of such tragedy, such young children are more likely to grow into adults…
Lee, Donald C. Toward a sound world order: A multidimensional hierarchical ethical theory. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1992.
4. JOURNAL ARTICLE
Hativa, N. (19, Fall). Computer-based drill and practice in arithmetic: Widening the gap between high and low achieving students. American Education Research Journal 35(3) pp. 366-397.
5. CHAPTER IN A BOOK
Sapp, M.E. (19). In the best interest of children: returning play to its pace. In Dimidjian, V.J. (Ed.), Play's pace in public education of young children. (pp49-61).
6. TABLE AND FIGURE
Mean Mood Scores Before and After Physical Aactivity
Figure 1. Record ofweekly truancy behavior
Williams and Jensen (1992) demonstrated the same effect. Neither of the books was available in the library. The team achieved improvement in its scores after undergoing training. The team achieved a 3% improvement in its scores after undergoing training. Successful problem solvers were both more adept at representing the problem and using heuristics.
The participants were introduced to each of the following trainers but were not allowed to…
Williams and Jensen (1992) demonstrated the same effect. Neither of the books was available in the library. The team achieved improvement in its scores after undergoing training. The team achieved a 38% improvement in its scores after undergoing training. Successful problem solvers were both more adept at representing the problem and using heuristics.
The participants were introduced to each of the following trainers but were not allowed to choose their own trainers. Post tests were administered to the third grade students. Of the schools that participated, twelve were elementary, six were middle schools, and four were high school.
Speece, Deborah L, et al., Identifying Children in Middle Childhood Who are at Risk for Reading Problems: New evidence and to analyze and access an appropriate tool for reading in elementary students using a response to intervention model, School Psychology Review 2010, Volume 39, No.2
Page 258 and 259, introductory section: The authors did an excellent job in reviewing relevant literature on reading disabilities as went ahead to state approximate figures of the number of students having reading disabilities. The numbers of students who perform below average are also provided (as a percentage).The authors also did a good job in indicating the research gaps when it comes to the issue of learning disabilities in children. This provided them with an opportunity of justifying their research aims and objectives. The authors noted towards the end of page 258 that even though there have been several advances in the early identification…
omen have been able to infiltrate career paths which, until recently had been impossible for them. Females have been able to get more college degrees than ever before which have increased their training and their job opportunities. Despite the significant progress that women have made, it is still very much a man's world as illustrated by Christine illiams in a series of interviews where she studied males have started taking jobs in positions traditionally held by women, including nursing, librarians, social work, and teaching in the elementary school setting.
In all occupations, there is a definitive advantage to being male. This is seen in both traditionally male occupations as well as the jobs which used to be female territory but have now become open to both genders. Males almost always make more money and have a great deal more power than females who work in the same occupation.…
Williams, Christine L. "Still a Man's World: Men Who Do 'Women's Work.'" Social Structure,
Institutions, and Everday Life,1995. 304-12.Print.
School Physical Activity
The evidence seems pretty clear that there are many reasons that physical activity is an important component to health in people of all ages and demographic characteristics. However, one of the most important groups that could benefit the most from learning good physical activity (PA) habits would be elementary aged children. This group not only has increasing rates of obesity and related diseases, but the habits that form early in life are more likely to continue throughout the individual's lifetime. Therefore, if children are taught good habits early in life, then they could benefit from these habits for a lifetime. Furthermore, a child spends a significant portion of their time in elementary school which represents a key opportunity to begin to developing these habits.
There is evidence that there is need for greater physical activity in elementary schools. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children has…
Kulik, N., Somers, C., Thomas, E., Martin, J., Centeio, E., Garn, A., . . . McCaughtry, N. (2015). Source and Type of Support for In-School Physical Activity: Differential Patterns for Demographic Subgroups. American Journal of Health Education, 301-309.
Elementary School ESL Teacher
Befitting the United States of America's unique status as a cultural melting pot, the nation's educational system has learned to adapt its traditional method of English language instruction to suit students who primarily speak another language at home. The concept of English as Second Language (ESL) learners has emerged during the last few decades to recognize the need for teachers to customize their lesson plans, becoming more inclusive in terms of accessibility to ESL students. In light of the fact that ESL students are far more likely to absorb English during their earliest years, many school districts have elected to integrate ESL instruction within the 1st and 2nd grade levels, in the hope that this proverbial head start will enable the majority of ESL students to effectively utilize English in the educational setting. Recently, I was fortunate enough to have an opportunity to observe a 1st…
Dissatisfaction with elementary school teachers and the educational environment usually meant that the same parents remained dissatisfied with the high school teachers and high school environment. he researcher suggests that the research gathered in the current study be used to improve community relations and more importantly, to improve the one-on-one relationships between all public school professionals and all parents. he author also notes that elementary school education provides a strong foundation for student math and literacy competency. hose competencies will carry over into middle and high school. herefore, African-American students who did not receive an adequate early childhood education are less likely to thrive in later grades.
African-American parents varied with regard to the factors that influence their perceptions about public schools and their staff. Course materials and caliber of homework was one factor that impacted African-American parent perspectives. Some parents, however, attributed their children's success or failure to personal…
Thompson's research is highly relevant to school administrators and counselors throughout the country. Most schools in the United States will have a substantial number of African-American students. Their needs and those of their parents are not being addressed well enough. Establishing solid ties between schools and their communities will help improve pubic relations and may also help raise the academic performance standards for African-American children. School administrators, teachers, and counselors should be able to satisfy the needs of all parents and children.
The researcher used a questionnaire to gather data about perceptions of public schools. All participants were self-described as African-Americans. A high number of participants were dissatisfied with their children's high school teachers: a greater number than those dissatisfied only with their children's elementary school teachers. Thompson (2003) also found that the participants' perceptions of elementary school teachers was positively correlated with perceptions of high school teachers. Dissatisfaction with elementary school teachers and the educational environment usually meant that the same parents remained dissatisfied with the high school teachers and high school environment. The researcher suggests that the research gathered in the current study be used to improve community relations and more importantly, to improve the one-on-one relationships between all public school professionals and all parents. The author also notes that elementary school education provides a strong foundation for student math and literacy competency. Those competencies will carry over into middle and high school. Therefore, African-American students who did not receive an adequate early childhood education are less likely to thrive in later grades.
African-American parents varied with regard to the factors that influence their perceptions about public schools and their staff. Course materials and caliber of homework was one factor that impacted African-American parent perspectives. Some parents, however, attributed their children's success or failure to personal effort. Ohters noted that racism and race awareness might affect school performance. Regardless of perceived reasons for African-American student performance in school, the system must respond to the persistent achievement gap between black and white students. Thompson's (2003) research emphasizes the need to establish relationships with African-American parents early: before high school. Although the author does not offer any specific suggestions for policy change, some can be inferred. For example, African-American parents expressed a preference for educational materials that they deemed relevant and meaningful for their children (p. 10). Consulting with African-American parents when their children are still in elementary school might help those parents trust that the system is responsive to their needs and the needs of their children.
In other words, when the total number of people characterized by each variable (or stratum) oscillates within the population, to the researcher would choose the size of each sample for each stratum according to the research requirements. uch a choice is prejudiced by the probability of obtaining an adequate number of sampling units from each stratum within the final sample. As a rule, disproportionate stratified samples are used either to compare two or more particular strata or to analyze one stratum intensively (Creswell, 1994). Therefore, when researchers use a disproportionate stratified sample, we have to weight the estimates of the population's parameters by the number of units belonging to each stratum. In this sample, weighting strategies were not performed in the original data.
Once researchers have defined the population of interest, they draw a sample that adequately represents that population. The actual procedure involves selecting a sample from a sampling…
Sources of information . nd. http://www.fao.org/docrep/W3241E/w3241e03.htm#the%problems%20of%20secondary%20sources
Methods for evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of peer-assisted learning programs are discussed as well, followed by a summary of the literature review.
Background and Overview.
The growing body of scholarly evidence concerning peer tutoring has been consistent in emphasizing the powerful effects that children can exert on the academic and interpersonal development of their classmates and/or other students (Ehly & Topping, 1998). For example, Bloom (1984) reported early on that one-on-one tutoring by a fully skilled peer was more effective than both conventional (i.e., teachers' lecturing) and mastery learning (i.e., student- regulated) methods of teaching. Across several replications of academic content and student age levels, Bloom (1984) reported that peer tutoring programs produced effect sizes on the order of 2 standard deviations above the mean of the control group (i.e., students receiving conventional lecture-based instruction), compared with 1.3 standard deviations for mastery learning (effect sizes larger than.25 of 1…
Adelgais, a., King, a., & Staffieri, a. (1998). Mutual peer tutoring: Effects of structuring tutorial interaction to scaffold peer learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 134.
Afflerbach, P., Baumann, J.F., Duffy-Hester, a.M., Hoffman, J.V., McCarthey, S.J. & Ro, J.M. (2000). Balancing principles for teaching elementary reading. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Arreaga-Mayer, C., Gavin, K.M., Greenwood, C.R., Terry, B.T., & Utley, C.A. (2001). Classwide peer tutoring learning management system. Remedial and Special Education, 22(1), 34.
Bloom, B.S. (1984). The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher, 13, 4-16.
" Having said man's very nature to associate himself with other people all the more gives but rational explanation to why it is very important for the children, even during their elementary years in school, to develop their interpersonal skills. In different settings, excellent interpersonal skills have always led to excellent dyadic relationships and team dynamics, and therefore generating excellent outputs. As Hogan (2004) also articulated, our personalities determine how we can be leaders in our own right within the teams we belong to.
The elementary students - because of their young minds and fresh ideas - may need to be instructed how to deal with their personal needs as well as the needs of the people around them. they must learn how to interact people in a positive way. They must learn to understand the value of giving and sharing in the same way that they should learn how…
Aristotle. 2006. http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-arist.html
Barry, David. (1991). Managing the Bossless Team: Lessons in Distributed Leadership. http://www.geocities.com/drdavidbarry/DistributedLeadership.doc
Butler, Timothy and James Waldroop. (2004). Leveraging Your Team's Interpersonal Skills. http://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/4187.html
Dewey, J. (1897). My pedagogic creed. The School Journal (65), 3.
ecent reviews of research on summer school show that high quality programs can make a difference in student learning (Harrington-Lueker, 2000). esults of the research point to programs that focus on corrective or accelerated learning have a positive consequence on student learning. There is significant evidence that summer school can help bring many struggling students up to grade level and prevents loss of learning with many others (Denton, 2001; Harrington-Lueker, 2000). While additional time is important, what is more important is what teachers accomplish with that time.
High-quality research-based curriculum and instruction
With a 90 minute block of time for reading instruction, teachers need to focus on the five essential elements of reading identified by The National eading Panel, (2001) as critical to successful reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. It is vital to define each of these important processes of reading using definitions from eading ockets…
Allington, R. 2002.What I've Learned About Effective Reading Instruction from a Decade of Studying Exemplary Elementary Classroom Teachers (Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 83, No. 10 (June 2002): 740-747)
Bond, Linda A. (1996). Norm- and criterion-referenced testing. Practical Assessment, Research
Evaluation, 5(2). Retrieved at http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=5&n=2.
Bruner, J. (1996). The Culture of Education, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Similar to Physical Science and Life Science, Earth Science will contain multiple choice and constructed response questions. A sample constructed response question from the Earth Science test is:
ased on the chart, explain various agricultural practices and how it affects the success of a yearly harvest.
This is a sample constructed response question. The student should carefully read and answer this question in essay form. Upon reading the question, the student should note that the question is requesting two separate answers
Praxis 7 because the question is a two-part question. Therefore, it is very important that the student reads the entire question and determine what information it is requesting before writing out his/her response. (Edge)
In conclusion, in most states, all students who wish to become teachers in the areas of Science or any other discipline will have to complete the Praxis test. The Praxis II test, code 0014…
Educational Testing Service General Information. Retrieved October 13, 2006 from www.ets.gov
Educational Testing Service (2006) General Information and Study Tips.
Fitzer, Penelope and Bristor, Valerie (2005) Prentice Hall Publishing, New Jersey.
Burdette, Laurel, (2005) Study Notes for the Middle School Science Praxis II Exam, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
education and the usual plight of special education students, both identified and yet-to-be identified, the role of the educational diagnostician is one of great import and significance. Known by several different names, the educational diagnostician is charged with the diagnosing and identification of leaning problems. The focus of this report will be the work of the educational diagnostician in the elementary school system and framework. In addition to the educational diagnostician himself or herself, there is also the involvement and partnership of other employees in the elementary school framework including teachers at the elementary school and other school employees such as counselors and administrators. While some may hold that the role of the educational diagnostician is not all that complicated, this could not be further from the truth as the identification of problems as well as dealing with and working with the same alongside other school employees, the parents of…
Aceves, T. C. (2014). Supporting Latino Families in Special Education through Community
Agency-School Partnerships. Multicultural Education, 21(3-4), 45-50.
Caputo, A., & Langher, V. (2015). Validation of the Collaboration and Support for Inclusive
Teaching Scale in Special Education Teachers. Journal Of Psychoeducational Assessment,
Why do Most ESL students struggle with reading and literacy and what can be done to improve this? Strategies teachers can use?
It is indeed the case that many ESL students have difficulty with reading and literacy but there are things that can be done to deal with this issue. According to an article found in the Journal of College eading and Learning, it common knowledge that the second language reading process, like the first language process, must be recognized as a "top-down/bottom-up" relationship amid the graphic display located with in the text, several echelons of linguistic knowledge and processes, and several cognitive activities (Weber; Upton). In addition
-up processing -- the recognition of letters and words, the accurate representation of temporal and order information, and the efficient coding of verbal information in short-term memory -- ensures that readers will be sensitive to information that is novel or that does…
Aebersold, J.A. & Field, M.L. (1997). From reader to reading teacher: Issues and strategies for second language classrooms. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Criteria for Evaluating Cultural Content of Reading Material"
Cummins. The acquisition of English as a Second Language.
Curriculum Repository Glossary. http://www.msdnaacr.net/curriculum/glossary.aspx
Leading Action esearch in an Elementary School Setting
One of the risks that is routinely encountered classroom teachers is the potential to become mired in a set of educational practices that may or may not be suitable for their students at any given point in time. ather than remaining in a teaching rut, though, a growing number of reading teachers have recognized the value of action research to inform and improve their classroom practices. In order for this method of inquiry to be effective, though, all stakeholders must be educated concerning the tenets of action research, what areas of interest are most appropriate for study and their respective roles in the process. To determine the facts about these issues, this paper reviews the relevant literature concerning leading action research in an elementary school setting, including an assessment of the current degree of comfort that exists at the author's school and…
Brkich, K. L. & Shumbera, K. (2010, Summer). Action research: How to create your own professional development experience. Science and Children, 47(9), 47-51.
Cooper, K. & White, R. E. (2012, October). The recursive process in and of critical literacy: Action research in an urban elementary school. Canadian Journal of Education, 35(2), 41-45.
Eisner, E. W. & Day, M. D. (2004). Handbook of research and policy in art education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Gruenert, S. & Whitaker, T. (2015). School culture rewired: How to define, assess, and transform it. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
e. ELL students in public schools. Data provided in the literature demonstrates that by 2030, more than half of all students in American public schools will speak a language other than English (Devoe, 35). In some schools the total number of students whose first language is not English is much higher. Specifically, Devoe reports that in Lawrence, Massachusetts more than 90% of all children enrolled in public schools are ELLs. Devoe argues that in these districts, a catch-22 has developed which makes it difficult for schools to provide educational services to ELLs. Specifically, ELL students that do not pass reading and math competence tests are labeled as "in need of improvement." Although efforts have been made to improve outcomes for these students, basic English competency remains a significant challenge limiting the progress of the students and the school on standardized tests. As ELL students fail to meet standards, schools that…
2006-07 APR glossary." California Department of Education. . Accessed November 19, 2007 at http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/ac/ap/glossary07e.asp#gg1 .
Agazie, Maxine. "Makeover needed for No Child Left Behind." Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 23(24), (2007): 39.
Devoe, Jeanne. "ELL testing: A state of flux." District Administration, 43(10), (2007): 35-40.
Facts and terms every parent should know about NCLB." U.S. Department of Education. . Accessed November 19, 2007 at http://www.ed.gov/nclb/overview/intro/parents/parentfacts.html .
Carrington's (2001) study focuses on a diversity of learning strategy potentials that is constructed not by way of race or ethnicity, but by individualized media preferences and sensory strategies for learning. Carrington presents the conclusion that such methods of literacy development which occur in one's formative stages before school will reveal learning dispositions. For example, her examination recognizes that early exposure to the internet bears a positive correlation to one's media literacy, cognitive proficiency and capacity to identify and locate content suited to their individual learning strategies and needs. The underpinning of this study, as it pertains to our larger purpose, is that one means through which to help include all cultural backgrounds in literacy instruction appears to be to diversify the media used in class and to largely incorporate computing advancements at every level. In addition to the benefits discussed here throughout, we can see that the present challenges…
Anderson, T. (2003). E-Learning in the 21st Century. Routledge.
Bates, A.W. & Bates, T. (2005). Technology, e-learning and distance education. Routledge.
Berson, M.J. (1996). Effectiveness of Computer Technology in the Social Studies: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 28(4), 486-499.
Carrington, V. (2001). Emergent Home Literacies: A Challenge for Educators. Australian Journal of Language and Literacy, 24.
Individual Skills and Strength
INDIVIDUAL SKILLS AND STENGHT
Listening skills, communication skills, problem-solving skills and organizational skills are very critical to succeed in life. Communication and listening skills are the essential life skills required to excel in the professional career. Individual with good listening and communication skills are not only generally better informed, the person is perceived as being pleasant with colleagues in the job place. Communication skills are important in all facet of life, and communication skills are the key to achieve a bright career. People within the organization spend 75% of their daily time engaging in communication through writing, speaking, listening and inter-debate. Communication skill is the system of expressing information concisely and effectively in an oral and written mode as well as sharing information with others in order to facilitate exchange of ideas and information. On the other hand, problem-solving skills are the set-skills that allow an…
De Meuse, K.P. Dai, G. & Wu, J.(2011). A Closer Examination: Leadership Skills across Organizational Levels. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 14: 120 -- 139.
Lee, W. (2008). Speech, Language and Communication Needs and Primary School-aged Children. Royal Mail, London.
Omeroglu, E. Buyukozturk, S. Aydogan, Y. et al. (2009). Development of a Problem Solving Scale for Children Attending Class 1-5 of Primary Education and Norm Study for Turkey. International Journal of Learning. 16 ( 8): 117-123.
Sakofsky, M. (2009). The Impact of Empathy Skills Training on Middle School Children. Master's thesis. The College at Brockport: State University of New York.
Positive Behavioral Intervention and Support (PBIS) in Elementary Schools and in Impoverished Settings
Extensive research has been carried out examining the design and implementation of Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports (PBIS) programs in schools, districts, and on even larger state scales. The research is highly consistent in finding positive effects on behavior and learning through the successful implementation of PBIS programs, however there are significant variations found in implementation schemes and in the environmental effects on the success of PBIS programs and interventions. Less research specifically pertaining to the implementation of PBIS on Title I elementary schools is available, however the literature that has been produced in this area clearly suggests difficulties in implementation but some measure of success when programs can be successfully designed and carried out.
There are currently approximately ten-thousand or more schools that have implemented PBIS programs (based on the latest data available and…
Barnes, C. (2002). Standards reform in high-poverty schools. New York: Teacher's College Press.
Barrett, S., Bradshaw, C. & Lewis-Palmer, T. (2008). Maryland Statewide PBIS Initiative: Systems, Evaluation, and Next Steps. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions 10(2): 105-14.
Bradshaw, C., Koth, C., Bevans, K.,, Ialongo, N. & Leaf, P. (2008). The impact of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) on the organizational health of elementary schools. School Psychology Quarterly 23(4): 462-73.
Bradshaw, C., Reinke, W., Brown, L., Bevans, K. & Leaf, P. (2008a). Implementation of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) in elementary schools: observations from a randomized trial. Education and Treatment of Children 31(1).
Chlamydia is the most common and frequently occurring sexually transmitted disease in the United States. According to a recent CDC report there are more than 2.8 million persons infected every year. [CDC] The disease is caused by a bacterium known as Chlamydia trachomatis which is also found to exist as 15 different serotypes. The estimated annual treatment costs for Chlamydia is around $2 billion. The asymptotic nature of the disease presents a big problem in the early diagnosis and a substantial number of infected persons are unaware of their condition. Though totally curable, this 'silent disease' can cause trachoma, infertility, tubal pregnancy and other urinogenital disorders if left untreated. A brief overview of the disease, treatment options and preventive strategies would give a better insight of this medical condition.
Chlamydia trachomatis (Life Cycle)
Chlamydia trachomatis is a parasitic bacterium that cannot produce its own ATP and hence depends…
1) Andrea DeMets, "Chlamydia Trachomatis," Accessed on 5th November 2004,
2) CDC, "Chlamydia Fact Sheet," Accessed on 5th November,
That leads to some problems with the new software.
We don't purchase some of the neat things that you can get. Fortunately, a number of us pressed for projectors a few years ago, and we have them in each classroom. That makes it easier for us to use the computer to teach the whole class. We don't use smart boards or other tools, other than the computers and the projectors.
What is the set up in the elementary school setting regarding labs and stations?
We generally have one or two computers per class in the elementary schools. Sometimes the teachers use it to do internet research, or to play a DVD for their class. The teachers sometimes assign remedial work to some students, who work on the computer doing exercises during school hours.
A understand from my elementary school teaching friends that there are no computer labs, and that they…
forget the tremendous impact that governmental cutbacks and recessionary times have on certain populations. For instance, in the wake of the recent recession, more and more families face poverty and lack of job and housing stability, which impacts family life in a relative negative manner. Too, investment in insurance, food, and other social programs for children is often cut during recessionary times as a line item budget -- not necessarily realizing the impact this has on the lives of millions of children. Finally, educational cuts that may see quick fixes to state and federal budgetary concerns have a marked negative effect upon children and youth -- many who are never able to recover and thus increases unskilled workers and the eventual possibility of unemployment (Children in the ecession, 2011).
Part 2 -- The data show an interesting set of circumstances regarding the school district in question:
Funding -- From local…
Children in the Recession. (June 2011). Action for Children North Carolina. Retrieved from:
Charlotte's eb: Field Research, Psycho-Social Research, and a Textual Summary and Analysis
Introduction and Field Research Background
My niece Ariel, age 11, agreed to read Charlotte's eb by E.B. hite with me, and to be my informant on this project (Shapiro, "Personal Interview"). Ariel is extremely bright (IQ over 140), and has already finished the 7th grade, having skipped second grade in elementary school (I bring this up not so much to brag about her, but because she may in fact be more advanced in her thinking and vocabulary skills than some of the other 9-11-year-old informants: arguably somewhere between Piaget's third (ages 7-11) and fourth (ages 11-15) concrete operational and formal operational stages of development). Ariel told me this was actually her second exposure to Charlotte's eb, though her first time reading the book on her own. Her third grade teacher had read it to her class, but Ariel…
Brynildssen, Shawna. "Character Education through Children's Literature."
ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading English and Communication. Bloomington,
IN: Family Learning Association Bloomington IN. March 2003. ED469929.
Hartman, Holly. "Charlotte's Web: Spotlight on a Children's Classic." Fact