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The ole of Private Companies
Emergency preparedness refers to the process of preparing resources, both human, financial and equipments for action during times of emergency. It involves planning for disasters and equipping individuals with the capacity to use the available resources in reacting towards the occurrence of disasters. Nations need to put structures in place to prepare for disasters in the form of terrorist attacks and natural disasters among other dangers[footnoteef:2]. Entities prepare for such dangers institutions emergency structures for communication, implementing warning devices, establishment of potential shelter, rehearsing for evacuation, and establishing backup sustenance services among other things. Disaster preparedness, whether at the regional or local level, is the responsibility of a wide range of players and not just governments, as the society would ordinarily view it. All individual and parties, in whatever, society is vulnerable to potential disaster and so all entities are…
Alpert, Michael, E. Preparing for Catastrophic Events, Pennsylvania: Diane Publishers, 2009
Bascetta, Cynthia A. Emergency Preparedness: State Efforts to Plan for Medical Surge
Could Benefit from Shared Buidance for Allocating Scarce Medical Resources, Washington, D.C.: United States Government Accountability Office, 2010
Bradley, Arthur T. Disaster Preparedness Handbook: A Guide for Families. New York: Skyhorse Pub, 2011.
Emergency Preparedness Planning: Denver, Colorado
Emergency Preparedness: Denver
The City of Denver is located in the state of Colorado, on the western edge of the Great Plains and the eastern boundary of the ocky Mountains (City-Data.com, 2009). The city is 5,332 feet above sea level and covers 153 square miles. The climate is sunny, semiarid, and the mountains to the west protect it from most severe weather events.
The Denver-Aurora Metropolitan area is much larger, encompassing 8,387 square miles (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). The population has rapidly increased between 2000 and 2008 (30.7%) and the most recent estimate suggests 2.5 million people make the Denver Metropolitan area their home. By comparison, the City of Denver had close to 600,000 residents in 2010 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012). In terms of residents with special needs, close to 10% of the metropolitan population was over the age of 65 in 2008, 252,000 had…
City-Data.com. (2009). Denver: Geography and Climate. City-Data.com. Retrieved 22 Mar. 2013 from http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-West/Denver-Geography-and-Climate.html .
OEMHS (Office of Emergency Management and Homeland Security, City and County of Denver). (2010). Mayor's Office of Emergency Management and Homeland Security 2010 Recap Report: City and County of Denver. Office of Emergency Management and Homeland Security, City and County of Denver. Retrieved 22 Mar. 2013 from http://www.denvergov.org/Portals/428/documents/OEMHS_2010RecapReport.pdf .
FEMA (U.S. Federal Emergency Management Administration). (2010). Developing and Maintaining Emergency Operations Plans: Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 101, Version 2.0. U.S. Federal Emergency Management Administration. Retrieved 22 Mar. 2013 from http://www.fema.gov /library/viewRecord.do?=&id=5697.
U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2010, 7th Edition. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
epublicans are slightly more likely than Democrats to say the country's military is currently not strong enough; Democrats are much more inclined to feel the government spends too much on the military." (Carroll, 2007)
When young men and women died on Virginia Tech's campus in April this year, many people wondered where the government was and was it not federal responsibility to provided adequate security to vulnerable students. It is not an isolated incident. There has been a series of such attacks in recent times and each one was worse than the one preceding it. While the government may deny any responsibility in such matters, the fact remains that, if our administration would pay closer attention to important issues in the homeland, such ugly incidents can be averted to a large extent. For example, if we had taken this seriously when it happened the first time, we could have saved…
Joseph Carroll, "Perceptions of "Too Much" Military Spending at 15-Year High," Gallup News Service, 02 March 2007;
Patrick S. Roberts (2005) "What Katrina Means for Emergency Management," the Forum: Vol. 3:Issue. 3, Article 2 Available at http://www.bepress.com/forum/vol3/iss3/art2
Disaster Preparedness and Emergency esponse for Natural Disasters or Terrorists Attacks in Florida
Emergency management has been described regarding the phases by using words such as prepare. Mitigate, respond and recover. For this paper, we are going to examine the underlying concepts, variation, limitations, and implications of emergency management phases. Moreover, we are going to look at the various preparedness and response strategies applied by the State of Florida when dealing with natural disasters and terrorist attacks among others. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to show the preparedness and response put in place for these crises for both researchers and practitioners. The paper will also try to give definitions and descriptions of two components, preparedness and response, of emergency management, the temporal versus functional distinctions. Moreover, it is important to understand the interrelationships and responsibilities for each of the phases (mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery) and the diversity…
Adamski, T., Kline, B. & Tyrell, T. (2006). FEMA Reorganization and the Response to Hurricane Disaster Relief: FEMA Reorganization. Perspectives on Public Affairs, 3, 1-36.
Durmaz, H. (2007). Understanding and Responding to Terrorism. Washington, USA: IOS Press.
Edwards, F. L. & Steinhausler, F. (2007). NATO and Terrorism: On scene: New challenges for the first responders and civil protection. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
Elders Affairs. (June 2013). Disaster Preparedness: Guide for Elders. Elder Update -- Special Edition, 24(3), 1-24.
Community Emergency Preparedness and esponse
It is not only exams that require preparedness. More than a planned activity, preparedness is required for unplanned activities. In health care, emergencies may mean danger to life of self or the loved ones. The medical emergencies are often stressful even for the doctors not only the victims. Hence the more a society is prepared for an emergency, the less will be side effects and in the same way if a society is caught by an emergency unprepared, the loss will can be potentially much higher than otherwise. Therefore, as they say prevention is better than cure, a society should be always prepared for emergencies.
Events in Neighborhood
Like bad time never comes with an alarm, a fire incident took place in forest and spread to the neighborhood nearby. The fire could not be overcome due to the windy season and it brought irrevocable damage…
Looking for a Career in Public Health Program Management? (2013), Retrieved from:
Pfau, S., (2013), "Ten Essential Public Health Services," Retrieved from:
I coordinated the project's summer field internship program for graduate students seeking to work overseas as well as helped build database of non-governmental organizations (NGO)s that worked on issues of human rights and advocacy. I have also honed my legal expertise at the Law Offices of Lewis and Associates/Lewis Settlement Group in my work on loan processing.
My experience in research and coordination with international agencies and my detailed and methodological capacity, which has been sharpened through practical experience in quantitative and qualitative fact-finding and reviewing painstaking legal documentation, makes my preparation ideal for the Fellowship. The background I hope to receive in strategic planning, and specifically Emergency Planning, will be of invaluable aid to the work I hope to pursue after graduation in the international development sector. Emergency Planning is an area of critical knowledge I hope to add to my resume in addressing social inequities in East Asia,…
What are the existing resources on a micro, mezzo, and macro level that address the needs of this particular group?
On a micro level, health professionals and counselors can help elderly individuals live in a manner that honors their independence in a realistic fashion. eligious leaders can play a role in helping families engage in difficult discussions about an elderly person's transition into a new phase of life. On a mezzo level religious groups provide the individual with a community and opportunities to volunteer. On a macro level, people must become more aware of the complex needs of the elderly that must be honored, including elderly person's right to decent healthcare and assisted living, and protection through anti-discrimination laws. eligious communities can act as advocates for the needs of the elderly on a social and legislative level as well as on a micro level.
What are the gaps in services…
Harder, Arlene. (2005). The developmental stages of Erik Erickson. Learning Place. Retrieved May 10, 2011 at http://www.learningplaceonline.com/stages/organize/Erikson.htm
New research finds link between religion and health in the elderly. (1997). Yale University
School Of Medicine. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 10, 2011, from http://www.sciencedaily.com ? / releases/1997/11/971101093808.htm
Onken, Orrin R. (1999). Gerontology and the study of religion and health: A vital role for a social science melting pot. Portland State University. Retrieved May 10, 2011, from http://www.loris.net/thepaperweb.html
For communities and agencies alike, an emergency plan is the arrangement of dealing with a crisis that contains procedures on how to prevent injuries and fatalities, lessen damages and speed up the resumption of normal operations. It's important for these agencies and the community to have an emergency plan since it helps them to prevent multiple losses of resources and lives. Some of the major components to include in the emergency plan include possible emergencies, emergency preparedness procedures, lists of personnel and maps with evacuation routes ("Emergency Planning," 2005). This is because these elements provide the agency's staffs or the community with instructions of the possible emergencies and how to tackle them, their emergency duties and evacuation routes to enable them to handle the emergency effectively. To ensure that the agency or community is aware of the provisions in the emergency plan, community or agency awareness and education…
"Emergency Dispatch Service." (n.d.). Specialty Answering Service. Retrieved June 15, 2011,
"Emergency Planning." (2005, May 25). Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety.
Retrieved June 15, 2011, from http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/hsprograms/planning.html
There are a number of conditions that typically need to be met in order to receive assistance. Your property must not be covered under insurance benefits, you must be a U.S. citizen, your home must be in an area that has been declared a disaster area, this must be your home for the majority of the year and you are currently unable to live in your home.
In addition to aid, your financial needs may be met under the terms of your household or other insurance. Each insurance company has its own policies and procedures, and each policy has its own terms. Please refer to your insurance company for further details. If you intend to apply to FEMA for funding, your claim must first be rejected by your insurance company. If you refuse assistance from your insurance provider, FEMA may reject your application under IHP.
The Internal Revenue Service also…
FEMA. (2008). Help after a disaster: Applicant's guide to the individuals and households program. Federal Emergency Management Agency. Retrieved October 20, 2010 from http://www.fema.gov /pdf/assistance/process/help_after_disaster_english.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Emergency, Planning and Operations Methodology
The Department of Homeland Security is fully aware of the importance of local and state first responders. Currently managed under the Department of Justice, the Department of Health and Human Services, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency and other various offices, local firefighters, state and local law enforcement, and local emergency medical personnel would be subject to the Department of Homeland Security's authority (http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html).Moreover, the Department is prepared to "develop and manage a national training and evaluation system to design curriculums, set standards, evaluate, and reward performance in local, state, and federal training efforts" (http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html).Through FEMA, emergency supplies, food and shelter would be allocated to supplement the work of local agencies that are already providing such needs at the community level (http://www.fema.gov).Moreover, FEMA would coordinate "private industry, the insurance sector, mortgage lenders, the real estate industry, homebuilding associations, citizens, and others" in high-risk areas (http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html).…
American Red Cross." http://www.redcross.org/services/disaster/0,1082,0_319_,00.html accessed 11-17-2003).
The Department of Homeland Security." http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/sect4.html .
A accessed 11-17-2003).
Emergency Food and Shelter." Federal Emergency Management Agency. http://www.fema.gov .(accessed 11-17-2003).
emergency centers, I expect to find the response performance of trauma centers in Connecticut to be well intentioned in their endeavor to rapidly and effectually reach out to survivors, but to be incapacitated by a host of hindrances. I, further, expect these hindrances to consist of inappropriate and delayed response to emergency situations I also expect to witness the inability to effectively manage, control, and supervise multiple processes. Most significantly, it is quite likely that delivery service will be distracted from focusing on patient and be diverted by the enormous complexity of tasks and responsibilities that are involved in their service.
Superb emergency preparedness necessitates an interdisciplinary approach to knowledge so that all parts of the service can be effectively accomplished: not only duties that focus on prevention but also decision-making, and a commitment to improving the life of the survivors. It is more than likely, given my research and…
Breakwell, G.S., Hammond, S., & Fife-schaw, C. (2000). Research methods in psychology. London: SAGE.
Brewer, M.B., Brown, R..J., Gilbert, D.T., Fiske, S.T., & Lindzey, G. (2003). The handbook of social psychology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
In February of 2006 changes to the structure of FEMA were proposed. According to an article found in the Washington Post, the proposed changes would create a fulltime response force of 1,500 and expanding 10 regional offices (Hsu). The changes to the Agency bring into question whether or not the agency should remain a response agency with a small workforce that has the primary responsibility of processing disaster claims and providing assistance in times of emergency or should FEMA be expanded to an agency that has the capacity to take charge whenever it is required.
According to the article the proposed changes which also include improving vendor databases, adding reconnaissance teams, and strengthening claims management are only the beginning of what needs to be changed to ensure that the agency operates more efficiently (Hsu). The article also asserts that a cultural change must occur as it relates to the way…
Brown, Sharon P., Sandra L. Mason, and Richard B. Tiller. "The Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Employment and Unemployment: After BLS and Its State Partners Made Critical Modifications to Estimation Procedures, Local Area Data Show That Hurricane Katrina Depressed Employment Levels Sharply in Louisiana and Mississippi;" the Initial Effect on Unemployment, Though Also Strong, Was Temporary." Monthly Labor Review 129.8 (2006): 52+.
Clayton, Richard L., and James R. Spletzer. "Worker Mobility before and after Hurricane Katrina: A Substantial Number of Workers Were Displaced from the New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area after Hurricane Katrina; Those Who Quickly Found Jobs in Texas Experienced a Substantial Decline in Their Short-Term Earnings." Monthly Labor Review 129.8 (2006): 11+.
Hsu Spencer S. Experts Question Proposed FEMA Changes
Washington Post. Wednesday, February 15, 2006; Page A04
capabilities discussed on page 16 of the Government Accountability Office report from this unit's readings. In your view, why hasn't the federal government been able to fulfill those capabilities after the September 11, 2001 and Hurricane Katrina incidents?
Effective emergency preparedness and response requires coordination across many levels of governmental and nongovernmental institutions. Successful responses to such major disasters, whether the result of natural forces or terrorist acts, necessitate large-scale planning, management and collaboration among well-trained first responder organizations in a wide range of disciplines, including public safety, fire, public health, and social service personnel. Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, the federal government has endeavored to enhance our ability to handle cataclysmic events by investing at least $11 billion in financial support to state and local authorities for the purpose of improving their emergency preparedness and response systems. In spite of this increased financial investment, the Government Accountability Office…
Third, assessments of realistic rehearsals or exercises performed to test response systems revealed that many governmental agencies and personnel were uncertain as to their proper duties in responding to an emergency. For example, an assessment of the response training exercise, Hurricane PAM of 2004, noted that there was confusion regarding the distinct roles and responsibilities of the Principal Federal Officer (PFO) and the Federal Coordinating Officer (FCO). In addition, the response exercise showed a lack of guidance on training and certification standards for PFO support personnel.
Finally, another problem is the federal government's inability to monitor funding for emergency response. Although the federal government has provided at least $11 billion in grants to federal, state, and local authorities to improve their emergency preparedness and response programs, there is no effective data collection system in place that enables the federal government to track who receives grant funds and how those funds are used. The federal government lacks knowledge on how specifically various authorities are actually financing their emergency response efforts, how they have used federal funds, and how they are measuring the effectiveness of their programs. This fragmentation of grants available to multiple levels of first responders makes it more difficult to coordinate various agencies and to achieve goals and objectives.
In conclusion, the federal government has not been able to fulfill the six capabilities for successful emergency preparedness and response due to an overall lack of proper focus and coordination among a wide variety of entities. However, recognition of these problems in the GAO report should lead to improvements in these areas.
Federal disaster recovery assistance has long been taken for granted in the United States, embedded in federal laws such as the Stafford Act and the Flood Insurance Act. Federal disaster recovery efforts have been further supported by key organizations including those directly involved in crisis scenarios, such as FEMA. Moreover, a number of ancillary national organizations directly or indirectly provide disaster relief assistance, including the United States Department of Transportation, and most notably the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, which offers Community Development Block Grants for Disaster ecovery (Schwab, 2014). If the federal government should one day determine that its role no longer supported disaster relief services, then a number of regional, state, and local organizations would step up to fill the void in resources and management. Some of those organizations would be from the private sector and others from the public sector. In fact, a situation in…
Anderson, M.B. & Woodrow, P.J. (1998). Rising from the Ashes. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner.
Partnership for Disaster Resilience (2007). Post-Disaster recovery planning forum: How-to guide. Retrieved online: http://www.crew.org/sites/default/files/Post-Disaster-Recovery-Planning-Forum_UO-CSC.pdf
Rodriguez, H., Quarantelli, E.L., et al. (2007). Handbook of Disaster Research. Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research. New York: Springer Science
Schwab, J.C. (2014). Planning for post-disaster recovery: Next generation. American Planning Association.
It is no secret that the emergency management response of the city needs to improve, especially when it comes to winter snowstorms and related issues. With that in mind, it becomes necessary to focus on how to help both businesses and residences who may have people trapped in them. Additionally, people can easily become trapped in their cars, and without food or water they can be at serious risk. With the freezing temperatures, the danger in which these people find themselves is extremely significant, and not something they can easily ignore or extricate themselves from. Of course, there is more than just people to consider. The safety of structures, the clearing of roadways, and the proper functioning of city services are all issues that can come about when snowstorms and other natural disasters hit a city (Howitt & Leonard, 2009). Individuals who work for city agencies need the…
Buchanan, . (2000). Emergency preparedness. In Banks, P. & Pilette, R. Preservation Issues and Planning. Chicago: American Library Association.
Drabek, T. (1991). Emergency management: Principles and practice for local government. Washington D.C.: International City Management Association.
Howitt, A.M. & Leonard, H.B. (2009). Managing crises: Responses to large-scale emergencies. NY: CQ Press.
Suttmeier, R.P. (2011).China's management of environmental crises: Risks, recreancy, and response. In Jae Ho Chung (ed.). China's Crisis Management. London: Routledge.
Emergency Readiness Annotated Bibliography
Biochemical terrorism, nuclear or other terrorism is everyone's nightmare since the anthrax scares in Washington D.C. In September of 2001 and the Al-Qaeda attacks on September 11, 2001. The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to document the effectiveness of emergency management and readiness in Connecticut. It has been more than 5 years since the TOPOFF 3 emergency exercises in 2006 and literature published since then needs to be annotated and review for homeland security studies.
Petersen, R.E., Lindsay, B.R., Kapp, L., Liu, E.C., & Peterman, D.R. Congressional Reporting
Service, United States Congress. (2008). Homeland emergency preparedness and the national exercise program: Background, policy implications, and issues for congress. Washington, D.C.:
Government Printing Office.
In the CRS report, the series of ongoing TOPOFF exercises is documented in detail, including the 2006 exercise in Connecticut as well as other exercises are documented in detail. The…
Emergency Planning and the LAUSD
Los Angeles, California is not a stranger to emergency situations. The city has faced major natural disasters, as well as intense social unrest, all of which have affected education. As one of the largest districts in the state of California, the Los Angeles Unified School District has some serious challenges related to effective emergency planning and execution of emergency strategies when they are needed. As budget issues continue to reduce resources required for effective emergency preparedness, the district has some serious issues to face before other major emergency surfaces in order to ensure that the students and staff within the education system remain safe and can continue their part in the education system after the emergency has subsided.
The district covers a huge portion of the city, with hundreds of thousands of children attending LAUSD schools. As a central headquarters for emergency operations, the district…
Sinclair, M. (2004). Planning Education in and after Emergency. Fundamentals of Education Planning. Institute for International Educational Planning, 2002. Retrieved April 21, 2010 from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001293/129356e.pdf
Los Angeles Unified School District. (2010). Emergency Operations Plan. Retrieved October 18, 2015 from http://notebook.lausd.net/pls/ptl/docs/PAGE/CA_LAUSD/LAUSDNET/OFFICES/SCHOOL_OPS/SCHOOL_OPERATIONS_DIVISION/EMERGENCY_SERVICES/EMERGENCY_SERVICES_EMERGENCY_OPERATIONS_CENTER/LAUSD%20EOP%202010%20UPDATE.PDF
U.S. Office of Safe and Drug-free Schools, U.S. Department of Education (2007). Practical Information on Crisis Planning: A guidebook for schools and community. The Office of Safe and Drug-free Schools. Retrieved February 2008 from http://www.ed.gov/admins/lead/safety/emergencyplan/crisisplanning.pdf
Zach, L., & McKnight, M.. (2010). Innovative Services Improvised During Disasters: Evidence-Based Education Modules to Prepare Students and Practitioners for Shifts in Community Information Needs. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, 51(2), 76-85. Retrieved November 10, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 2012698591).
Emergency Terror Response
Roles and Responsibilities of Terror Response Incident Commander
In the event of an emergency incident such as the terrorist attack described in the case scenario, the National Response System (NRS) is immediately invoked. This places a previously designated Incident Commander at the helm of all efforts to control, contain and respond to a terrorist attack. In the present case, as the Incident Commander, it is incumbent upon me to employ the NRS and the resources which it has placed under my control in order to bring order to the chaos of a terror attack.
ith the initiation of the incident, my first priority is to gather together an assembly of delegates and representatives from concerned agencies. This would include personnel from local law enforcement (police, municipal personnel, HAZMAT teams), the Department of Defense (NORAD, NORTHCOM, etc.), Homeland Security and various affiliated and subordinated intelligence agencies as…
Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR). (2012). Emergency Management and the Incident Command System. Public Health Emergency.
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (NCTAUUS). (2004). The 9/11 Commission Report. 9-11commission.gov.
Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA). (2011). Incident Commander. United States Department of Labor.
The exercises and training divisions work with similar divisions in Delaware, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, a Continuity of Operations department designed to work with the federal Department of Homeland Security, and an Office of Domestic Preparedness and Law Enforcement Liaison work with local and federal authorities to coordinate comprehensive disaster planning efforts. (Maryland Emergency Management Homepage, 2006, Official Website)
Different organizations that are involved, how the organizations interact with or are apart of the EOC/What is the responsibilities of each member to the EOC
The federal government, including FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Authority), the Department of Homeland Security, and the state Emergency Management offices of Delaware, Virginia, and Pennsylvania are all involved, as is the National Guard. These organizations do not have specifically delineated legal responsibilities to the state of Maryland's EOC, other than to serve the citizens of the U.S. In the case of the federal government. (Maryland Emergency Management…
Droneburg, John. (2006) "Letter from the Director: John Droneburg III." Maryland
Emergency Management. Retrieved 3 Nov 2006 at http://www.mema.state.md.us/MEMA/content_page.jsp?TOPICID=domprepare#
Florida State Warning Point." (2006). Florida Division of Emergency Management. Retrieved 3 Nov 2006 at http://www.floridadisaster.org/bpr/Response/Operations/swp.htm
Maryland Emergency Management Homepage. (2006) Official Website. Retrieved 3 Nov 2006 at http://www.mema.state.md.us/MEMA/index.jsp
It is the policy of the hotel that the guest, employees of the hotel and their families will be the first consideration in the event of an attack, threat of attack or disaster.
It is the policy of the hotel that this document does not imply a guarantee. The hotel can only endeavor to make every possible and reasonable attempt to provide response based on the specifics of the situation, available resources as well as information available at the time.
In the event of a bomb threat it will be imperative that the heating/cooling unit in the hotel be shut off as well as all kitchen appliances, laundry facilities, and all systems attached to the swimming complex. Evacuation of guests and employees is a foremost consideration as well as shutting down of the hotel computer system. A team should be trained and assigned to evacuation in the event…
Basics of Vulnerability Analysis (2004) Chapter 2 [Online] Highbeam Research
Emergency Planning H2
An emergency and disaster preparedness plan and program is an important aspect for an organization due to its significance in promoting workplace safety. The preparedness program helps in enhancing safety in the workplace through inclusion of initiatives for lessening injuries and loss of lives, minimizing insurance claims, lessening property damage, and improving employee morale. While emergencies still happen despite of measures to prevent them, an organization's preparedness plan is critical in preventing the frequency of their occurrences, minimizing injury and property damage, and establishing ways for mitigating their impacts. This is largely because the plan consists of basic procedures to handle emergencies in the workplace. In most cases, organizations use preparedness plans and programs to protect workers from fire incidents and other emergencies.
Threats and Vulnerabilities in the Workplace:
Since an organization's workplace involves several employees, threats and vulnerabilities are likely to occur both from within and outside the…
Ball, J.L. (2001). Employee Fire and Life Safety: Developing a Preparedness Plan and Conducting Emergency Evacuation Drills. Retrieved May 25, 2012, from http://www.nfpa.org/assets/files/pdf/evacuation.pdf
"Fire Preparedness & Response: What the OHS Laws Require." (n.d.). Labor Tek Safety
Training Inc. Retrieved May 25, 2012, from http://www.labortek.com/images/articles/24.pdf
"Fire Prevention Plan." (2009, April 21). JSRCC Fire Prevention Plan. Retrieved from J.
Department of Homeland Security Grants
The HSGP (Homeland Security Grant Program) for the fiscal year 2017 contributes significantly to NPS (National Preparedness System) implementation through promoting the creation, delivery and sustenance of key capabilities vital to the achievement of America’s NPG (National Preparedness Goal) geared at improving its security and resilience. The provision of key capabilities necessitates integrated community-wide efforts and not the sole, independent endeavors of a particular governmental level or agency. HSGP’s allowable expenses foster attempts at developing and sustaining key capabilities over the Protection, Prevention, Mitigation, Recovery and Response mission domains, with the following prioritized:
· Development and Maintenance of Terrorism Prevention Competences by Law Enforcers
· Development and Upgradation of Key Urban Area and State Fusion Centers
FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency)
This Homeland Security agency was first established under the 1978 Presidential Reorganization Plan III, and put into service under a couple of Executive Orders…
Disaster Preparedness Plan:
Georgia has been an area threatened by some of form of natural disaster that has a huge negative impact on the well-being of its residents and the personnel and financial resources of the emergency response agencies. The most common natural disaster that occurs in this area is tornadoes that have terrorized both the rural and urban areas while making everyone in danger of their perils. In the recent years, Georgia experienced deadly tornadoes that caused harm, damages, and deaths in approximately 15 counties within the state. Give the nature of these tragedies, residents of this state need to be prepared and planned on how to respond to such emergencies.
Tornadoes in Georgia:
Tornadoes are regarded as nature's most violent storms since they can generate wind speeds of over 250 mph and appear from nowhere with little warning ("March Marks Start of Active Tornado," n.d.). These natural disasters…
"Defining the Need." (2002). Georgia Amateur Radio Emergency Service. Retrieved January 31,
2012, from http://www.gaares.org/ARESPlan/potential_disasters_in_georgia.html#tornadoes
"Georgia Emergency Operations Plan." (2010, August). GEMA / Homeland Security.
Retrieved from Georgia Emergency Management Agency / Homeland Security website: http://www.gema.ga.gov/content/atts/prepare/Plans%20and%20Maps/Plan%20Library/GEOP2010.pdf
Coordinating community-wide efforts with representatives and respected leaders from each of the constituent sub-communities and populations will ensure the development of effective strategies.
Specifically, each sub-community needs to be apprised of the likelihood and risks of various types of events, including natural disasters and different terrorist attacks. Care must be taken not to cause undue alarm, but also to provide realistic and relevant information that objectively and directly assesses the situation. Providing such information without causing unnecessary fear is a delicate process even when one is familiar with the culture one is dealing with, and it is near impossible if the culture is foreign to the preparer. This is why coordination with community leaders is essential in the planning and education phases of emergency and disaster preparedness; no emergency management team could hope to develop the proper materials and information without consultation.
Coming to an understanding of the cultural and…
Eisenman et al. (2009); Schnirring (2008); National Resource Center (2009); American Red Cross (2004)
National Resource Center (2009), pp. 4-5.
James et al. (2007).
Hazard Mitigation and Preparedness (U.S. Federal Programs: Advantages and Disadvantages)
The confrontations and prospects for the reduction of hazards/disasters have never been greater than in the current period. In theory, the challenge is to do away with all disasters that cause the loss of life or injury to people along with the property and environment damage. On the other hand, such a goal is not possible to achieve practically. Although it is possible to avoid certain risks but the elimination of environmental hazards seems to be an idealistic task (Smith, 2004, p. 268).
The evidence signals that there is a need to do more today for tomorrow. Though investment in hazard mitigation has increased, there are few signs that show the effectiveness of the sustainability plans. In United States of America, several plans are outlined that have lessened the number of casualties and scale of destruction (Smith, 2004, p. 268).…
About FEMA. (2011, November 14). In FEMA. Retrieved November 28, 2011, from http://www.fema.gov /about/index.shtm
"About the National Dam Safety Program." (2010, August 11). Retrieved December 09, 2011 from
Military Emergency Management/Terrorism Preparedness
It is reported in the work of Prelas, et al. (2009) entitled "Science and Technology of Terrorism and Counterterrorism" that the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) became part of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security on March 1, 2003, and is charged with the reduction of the "loss of life and property and protect the national from all hazards" including acts of terrorism. FEMA is to accomplish this through providing leadership and support to the national in a "risk-based, comprehensive emergency management system of preparedness, protection, response, recovery, and mitigation." (Prelas, et al., 2009, p.539) DHA/FEMA is reported to be under the leadership of the secretary and to coordinate "with the Commandment of the Coast Guard, the Commissioner of Customs, and Border Protection, the Assistant Secretary of Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the NOC and other agencies and offices in the department to take full advantage of…
Department of Defense Report to Congress Volume I: Preparedness Program in the Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction (nd) DOD Retrieved from: http://www.fas.org/spp/starwars/program/domestic/toc.html
Keefer, Philip and Loayza, Norman (2008) Terrorism, Economic Development and Political Openness. Cambridge University Press. 2008.
Prelas, Mark A., et al. (2009) Science and Technology of Terrorism and Counterterrorism. CRC Press 2009.
Stopa, Peter J., et al. (2004) Technology for Combating WMD Terrorism. Springer 2004.
Governmental healthcare centers concentrate on providing primary care to individuals and to control and manage the spread of infectious diseases and to manage natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs from one country to another. This can be specifically applied in developed nations, where social, economic and political factors are most likely to influence public health policies and centers and their accessibility and availability (Christian et al., 2008). This research proposal concentrates on presenting an overview and detailed background of health centers in English-speaking countries. The countries selected are Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Governmental health care centers concentrate on the provision of primary care to individuals and on controlling and managing the spread of infectious diseases and managing responses to natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs --…
About NHS hospital services. (2013). National Health Service. Retrieved from http://www.
Christian MD, Devereaux AV, Dichter JR, et al. (2008). Definitive care for the critically ill during a disaster: current capabilities and limitations: from a Task Force for Mass Critical
Care summit meeting, January 26 -- 27 2007 Chicago, IL. Chest. Vol. 133(Suppl):8S -- 17S.
Public Health Preparedness
The concept of 'public health preparedness' (PHP) has been garnering recognition worldwide, given the global-scale threats which are constantly encountered by professional healthcare organizations, including bioterrorism, Ebola, the West Nile Virus, and influenza. Preparedness approaches have brought about improvements in the overall healthcare system, by enabling swifter responses to diverse kinds of hazards across the globe. A majority of PHP measures adopted in America are government-judged; this gives rise to concerns pertaining to militarization. Still, preparedness programs in other country-level settings don't essentially indicate comparable implications. The global significance of health sector preparedness has served to increase governmental need of resolving the concern by means of financing, advances, and maintenance approaches which aid speedy response to every kind of crisis. However, akin to all other ideas, the PHP concept is also accompanied by certain major challenges, like the threat of public health militarization. Yet the associated advantages…
Eisenstein, R., Finnegan, J. R., & Curran, J. W. (2014). Contributions of Academia to Public Health Preparedness Research. Public Health Reports, 129(Suppl 4), 5 -- 7.
Khan, Y., Fazli, G., Henry, B., de Villa, E., Tsamis, C., Grant, M., & Schwartz, B. (2015). The Evidence Base of Primary Research in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Scoping Review and Stakeholder Consultation. BMC Public Health, 15, 432. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1750-1
Moore, S., Mawji, A., Shiell, A., & Noseworthy, T. (2007). Public Health Preparedness: A Systems-Level Approach. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61(4), 282 -- 286. http://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2004.030783
Nelson, C., Lurie, N., Wasserman, J., & Zakowski, S. (2007). Conceptualizing and Defining Public Health Emergency Preparedness. American Journal of Public Health, 97(Suppl 1), S9 -- S11. http://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2007.114496
National Preparedness Goal
National Preparedness, the Presidential Policy Directive #8 (PPD-8), gives a description of the approach of the United States (U.S.) in the area of being prepared for threats and hazards posing the highest risk to American security. The whole national community shares the responsibility of national preparedness. Contribution and participation is required from every person including communities, individuals, faith-based organizations, and local, state and federal governments. The society will be described based on the core capabilities required in dealing with great risk. An integrated and layered approach shall be the foundation of the description. Success is used to mean a resilient and secure nation having the capabilities needed to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and ensure recovery from the most devastating of hazards.
The National Preparedness Goals shall be achieved by use of core capabilities in the following ways:
Prevention, avoidance, and halting threats or real terrorism…
Bea, K. (2005, March). The national preparedness system: Issues in the 109th Congress. Library of Congress Washington Dc Congressional Research Service
FEMA. (n.d.) Federal Emergency Management Agency. Retrieved June 10, 2015, from http://fema.ideascale.com/a/ideas/tag/campaign-filter/byids/campaigns/58561
Homeland security, (First Edition September 2011) National Preparedness Goal retrieved on June 10, 2015
National Preparedness Goal FEMA.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved June 10, 2015, from https://www.fema.gov/national-preparedness-goal
Effectiveness of Emergency Management and the eadiness of Trauma Centers
Emergency Management and the eadiness of Trauma Centers are fundamental facilities in any given State and country. These facilities come in handy in times of disasters and traumatic events. Most traumatic centers are health care facilities or departments, which offer immediate response in such times of emergency. Emergency management and trauma centers handle mitigation, response, preparedness, and recovery. Emergency management includes activities such as evacuation, decontamination, disaster recovery, and integration with other community emergency groups. These facilities play a key role in providing care to both natural and man-made disasters (Premier, 2012).
The phenomenon, issue, or condition to be researched
In order to create a safe surrounding in the community, emergency management and traumatic centers have to be established (Trunkey & Potter, 2006). Often, disastrous situations call for urgent and high demand for patient care. For instance, the traumatic…
Premier (2012). Emergency preparedness for healthcare facilities. Premier: Transforming Healthcare Together. Retrieved July 12, 2012, from https://www.premierinc.com/safety/topics/disaster_readiness/#top
Trunkey, D.D., & Potter, C.J. (2006). U.S. trauma center preparedness for a terrorist attack in the community. National Foundation for Trauma care, 1-43.
Hospital Emergency Plan
According to a study, about 99% of hospitals have plans to cope with disaster, and 95% of them even had committees for that purpose. There were reports from 90% or more of the hospitals which showed that they were in collaboration with emergency treatment services (96%), emergency agencies for management (94%), agencies for law enforcement (95%), fire sectors (95%), along with health sectors (92%). 96% of the respondents sated that there were plans to cope with disaster throughout the hospital, and that they were accessible easily (Higgins et al., 2004, p. 328). Meridian Health has made it its responsibility to better the welfare and health of New Jersey residents. They do this by giving the best quality health services in the community, homes and hospitals, which put their focus on patients, and also by conducting clinical research and education for the enhancement of medicine (Meridian Health, 2016).…
GOI-UNDP. (2002-2008). Guidelines for Hospital Emergency Preparedness Planning. Government of India --United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 22 July 2016 from http://asdma.gov.in/pdf/publication/undp/guidelines_hospital_emergency.pdf
Higgins, W., Wainright III, C., Lu, N. & Carrico, R. (Oct. 2004). Assessing Hospital Preparedness Using an Instrument Based on the Mass Casualty Disaster Plan Checklist: Results of a State-wide Survey. Department of Public Health, 32(6), 327-332. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2004.03.006
Meridian Health. (2016). Meridian Health: New Jersey's Leader in Integrated Care.Retrieved 22 July 2016 from https://www.meridianhealth.com/about-meridian/index.aspx
Merrill, M. (Jun 2011). Top 5 Security Threats in Healthcare. Healthcare IT News.Retrieved 22 July 2016 from http://www.healthcareitnews.com/news/top-5-security-threats-healthcare
Our study is however geared towards the assessment of applicability of the universal triage system in emergency clinical work. The current triage systems are somehow one-sized-fits it all in their design (Veenema,2007).He points out that the main problem with the existing triage methodologies is the fact that they are not tailored for all situations such as weapons victims but are just normal pediatric scenarios. This therefore means that some of the components of the various triage systems are most likely to fail under certain circumstances as a result of the disparity in the physiological baselines used in coining the various triage systems.Veenema then ponders if the solution tom these dilemmas are held in the coining and adoption of a universal triage system.
The research questions that are to be used as the basis of forming hypothesis for the research they are:
Hypothesis 1: Does the use a universal triage…
Australasian College for Emergency Medicine.( 1993a) Triage (policy document).
Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (1993b)). A National Triage Scale for Australian Emergency Departments (position paper).
Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians. (1999) Canadian Emergency Department Triage and Acuity Scale. Journal of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, 1, 1-24
George, J.E. (1995) Triage protocols. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 21, 65-66
Seaside Tsunami Awareness Program
Saving an indefinite and undeterminable number of lives has proven to depend on effective education and emergency management in tsunami events in the U.S. -- and likely, everywhere else (NAS, 2011). Safety and survival ultimately depend on communities and individuals at risk with the precise knowledge and capability to decide correctly and act promptly and preferably before the event. This knowledge and this capability can only be gained and developed through education before the event. Prolonged shaking of the ground and the drawing down of the shoreline are the natural indications, especially in local communities. These are hints of arriving waves within minutes. No assistance is likely in the early moments or even days, so knowledge and capability are the only things to rely on. There are better opportunities for those communities and individuals at risk to distant tsunamis. Official warnings may be able to…
Connor, D. (2005). The city of seaide's tsunami awareness program. Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries. Retrieved on October 29, 2015 from http://www.oregongeology.org/pubs/ofr/o-95=10_onscreen.pdf
FEMA (2015) FEMA federal emergency management agency. Retrieved on October 29, 2015
---------- -- -- . Chapter 12: Standards and Evaluation. Federal Emergency Management Agency.
The United States is a large, complex nation and requires a sophisticated and multifaceted response The National Response Framework (2016) is a guide, released by the Federal Emergency Management Association (FEMA) that offer direction in responding to national disasters to state, county, and local agencies as well as to individuals and non-government organizations which strive to assist in disaster relief. Scalability and flexibility is a critical concern of the model. Either part or all of its structures can be implemented, depending upon the nature of the event. For example, some areas of the nation are more likely to be impacted by natural disasters such as hurricanes or tornadoes, and concentrating resources and planning with knowledge of the specific circumstances of such likely areas of impact are ideal.
Even regarding human-generated disasters like terrorism requires advance planning to some degree, and areas of likely targets may be more apt to be…
Every individual in this community will face an emergency or disaster that may result in the loss of life, property, or business. Being prepared to react and respond to a natural disaster or emergency is in everyone's interest and that of their community. Emergency management distinguishes the two. Emergencies are " 'routine' adverse events that do not have communitywide impact or do not require extraordinary use of resources…to bring conditions back to normal….what constitutes a disaster depends on…the jurisdiction's size, its resource base, and its experience with a particular hazard….a precept of emergency management that each community establish distinct levels…that define the progression from an emergency to a disaster" (Drabek, xviii). Different disasters have different impacts upon people's responses to them. The "death and devastation of disaster represent the worst of human fears….many costs involved in the various stages of disaster response: the preparatory and preventative, counterdisaster, rescue…
Drabek, Thomas E. Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government. Washington, D.C.: International City Management Association. 1991.
Raphael, Beverly. When Disaster Strikes: How Individuals and Communities Cope with Catastrophe. New York: Basic Books, Inc. 1986.
Sylves, Richard T., and Waugh, William L., Jr. Disaster Management in the U.S. And Canada. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Ltd. 1990.
"Community Emergency Response Team." Online Posting. 25 January 2002. http://www.fema.gov .
Crisis management refers to the process of comprehensive risk assessment and strategic planning. A Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) provides proactive strategies for mitigating risk and managing crises through effective mobilization of human, financial, and technological resources, coordination of different support agencies and allies, and the implementation of recovery and response missions. There is no one central crisis management protocol, for each organization or community will have its own specific risks and resources (“Crisis Management and Emergency Response Plans,” n.d.). The CERT team works within the parameters of its community contingencies.
Emergency management refers to specific plans for responding to specific emergencies. While not all emergencies can be fully planned for, and unexpected situations will arise, CERT teams are trained and equipped to provide emergency management services for preventing fatalities, minimizing injuries, reducing loss and damage to property, reducing the environmental hazards resulting from an emergency, and…
Role of National Strategies in Emergency Operations Plan
Emergency and disaster planning is a process that entails development of a cooperative, coordinated process of dealing with urgent situations using available resources. Generally, this process is exploratory in nature and culminates in development of a plan that offers general procedures for management of unforeseen impacts. According to Alexander (2015), emergency planning basically entails preparing systematically for probable contingencies in the future such as major disasters and incidents. When creating emergency operation plans (EOPs), national strategies like the National Response Framework (NRF) and National Incident Management System (NIMS) should be taken into consideration. These national strategies provide guidance and a framework for creation of emergency operations plan. This paper reviews the NRF, NIMS and NECP in terms of their most useful elements for the county’s emergency management plan.
Brief Review of the NRF, NIMS and NECP
The National Response Framework (NRF) is…
training in the field of emergency management is particularly complicated. The reason for the complication is the astonishingly broad latitude of situations for which emergency services and personnel might ultimately be required. Now obviously there are certain limitations that are based on simple geography: emergency management personnel in California may be called upon to deal with mudslides or earthquakes, and emergency management personnel in Kansas will be summoned for tornados. But a large-scale terrorist incident could conceivably occur anywhere that is populated. Meanwhile certain types of disaster almost perfectly defy any attempt at preparation altogether -- the example of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, which killed over two hundred thousand people, is particularly pertinent, because there existed no detection system for such an event. Tsunamis are rare events, but common enough in the Pacific Ocean that a detection system existed there -- but they are so rare in the Indian…
Canton, L.G. (2006). Emergency management: Concepts and strategies for effective programs. New York: Wiley.
Haddow, G.D., Bullock, J.A., Coppola, C.P. (2013). Introduction to emergency management. Fifth edition. New York: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Perry, RW, Lindell, MK. (2006) Emergency planning. New York: Wiley.
There is no doubt that the U.S. is a super-power in the world of sports, development, technology, governance, name them; however, there also is no doubt that with regard to disaster management, ours is a picture that is far from the ideal. The catastrophic events of 9/11 and Hurricane Katrina showed only too well why we need to start giving the topic of disaster management the attention it deserves. With the oil spill in the gulf threatening to pose a bigger problem than we all thought originally, the nation's leaders will have to act fast to ensure that, at least this time, we get things right. The fact that we have somehow been able to predict this particular one should not get us chest-thumping and closing our eyes to the reality that disasters are most times non-predictable. How well we can deal with terrorist threats, floods, hurricanes, or…
Emergency Management: Hurricane Katrina and Lessons Learned
In late August, 2005, Hurricane Katrina became the 11th named storm of the Atlantic hurricane season and was its most deadly and destructive. The federal and state governments' responses to this natural disaster have been heavily criticized in the mainstream media as well as by the hundreds of thousands of victims of this disaster in the years that followed. Although it is far too late for the victims of Hurricane Katrina, there were some valuable lessons learned from the disaster that have been used to help formulate improved responses in the future. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the emergency management of Hurricane Katrina, followed by an assessment of the various lessons that were learned. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these lesson learned are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Birkland, T.A. (2006). Lessons of disaster: Policy change after catastrophic events. Washington,
DC: Georgetown University Press.
Bitto, A. (2007, January-February). Say what? Who? Me? Right here in the trenches?
Collaborate on what? Seeking common ground in regional all-hazards preparedness training. Journal of Environmental Health, 69(6), 28-31.
Homeland Security and Preparedness, esponse, Activities and Programs in Disaster esponse or Disaster ecovery
The focus of this study is the homeland security issue as it relates to the preparedness of the U.S.A. government and citizens in response to the emergencies that may emerge.
The research question in this study is one that asks in light of the past disasters experienced by the United States such as the events of September 11, 2001, and Hurricane Katrina among others, are the emergency response agencies and the law enforcement agencies in a better position to handle disasters from preparation to response and ultimately recovery effectively in the event of disasters or terrorist attacks?
The significance of the research in this study is that the effectiveness of the preparedness of Homeland Security initiatives should be addressed as it is not possible to know where and when disaster will next strike and the…
Bowman, M.E. (2007) Law Enforcement Technology Intelligence, and the War on Terror. JFQ. Issue 46, 3rd Quarter 2007. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=9dfc7c9b-537f-44b9-a461-ed45b8fa1a76%40sessionmgr12&vid=1&hid=11
Central Intelligence Agency, (2011). About CIA. Retrieved June 30, 2012 from Cowper, TJ and Buerger, ME (nd) Improving Our View of the World: Police and Augmented Reality Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/police-augmented-reality-technology-pdf
Edwards, John B. (2012) Intelligence Led Policing Connecting Urban and Rural Operations. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=1afefbff-3d5c-4282-bcda-00e357218031%40sessionmgr11&vid=1&hid=12
Emergency preparedness is an important topic in civic planning both in the medical care industry and in community planning. Significant negative effects can occur when a department, institution, city or region fails to respond to an emergency in a manner that has the highest rate of success with regard to loss of life as well as loss of infrastructure and/or important public services. Due in large part to the fact that emergency preparedness is associated with immediate and what by many is seen as a singular event in a time and place much of the research regarding emergency preparedness has to do with immediate response and research is reflective of that. Cross-sectional research is often the result of such research and the research questions that ensue when one is dealing with emergency preparedness issues. This brief work will explore a question regarding emergency preparedness that would be better…
Felton, C.J. (2004). Lessons Learned Since September 11th 2001 Concerning the Mental Health Impact of Terrorism, Appropriate Response Strategies and Future Preparedness. Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes, 67(2), 147-152.
Reissman, D.B. (2004). New Roles for Mental and Behavioral Health Experts to Enhance Emergency Preparedness and Response Readiness. Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes, 67(2), 118-122.
Nurses during Emergency
During the tackling of disasters, teams from varied fields, experiences expertise and education come together; these group present broad spectrums of capabilities and qualification; essential for assistance in situations of public health emergency. This article looks at the regulations, ethical practice, limitations and guidelines for regulating of nursing practices in cases of public health emergencies (Couig, Johnson & ick, 2011). The regulations in the legal authority of action by nurses are done through education, licensure, and discipline which define the scope of practice for nurses practicing during health emergencies. Limitations to preparedness in the nursing practice brought about by burnout, depression, self-esteem, personal accomplishment, and emotional exhaustion and depersonalization problems. The environment in, which nurses practice, determines their preparedness in tackling of emergencies. Promoting the emotional well-being of nurses then becomes a beneficial aspect for the carrying out of nursing practice. It is important to provide nurses…
Couig, M., Johnson, K.A., & Rick, S. (2011). Nursing Scope of Practice Issues in Public Health
Emergencies. Journal Of Nursing Regulation, 2(3), 13.
EDDINS, E.E., JIE, H., & HUAPING, L. (2011). Baccalaureate Nursing Education in CHINA:
Issues and Challenges. Nursing Education Perspectives, 32(1), 30-33.
In the second hypothesis of the proposed research project, disaster management and emergency response are critical areas which can be explored further in terms of the United States' current performance in this area, applied in the context of national security. he second hypothesis of the study states that, there is a significant relationship between performance/competence in disaster preparedness and emergency response capabilities and the successful implementation of homeland security in the United States.
o test this hypothesis, the important variables that must be taken into consideration are (1) performance or competence in terms of disaster management and emergency response and (2) successful implementation of homeland security in the U.S. o measure performance or competence in terms of disaster management and emergency response, specific measures that could help determine this variable are the following: competency of individuals in agencies and departments responsible for disaster management and emergency response (on…
This journal article explores the disaster preparedness of the government in terms of a medical emergency response in the event that a disaster or attack (such as the September 11 attack) occurs in U.S. territory. One of the identified issues in medical emergency response is the lack of resources (staff and capacity in hospitals) necessary for an effective emergency response to be implemented in hospitals (i.e., from a medical perspective).
Waeckerle, J. (2000). "Domestic preparedness for events involving weapons of mass destruction." Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 293, No. 2.
The article discusses the importance of frequent and intensive trainings as an effective mitigation plan in disaster management and emergency response planning. The discussion centers on preparedness in terms of responding to emergencies related to attacks with weapons of mass destruction or WMDs. The model introduced by the author proposed subsistence to the following steps in curtailing or preventing a WMD attack from escalating, such as: establishment of a surveillance system; specific training for health care personnel; and a central federal coordinating office responsible for spearheading an effective emergency response program, which would include the state and local representatives of law enforcement, fire services, emergency managers, and healthcare professionals.
National Preparedness (PPD-8) examines how the nation should approach preparing for threats and hazards that pose the greatest risk to U.S. security. It is the view of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security that "national preparedness is the shared responsibility of our whole community. Ever member contributes, including individuals, communities, the private and nonprofit sectors, faith-based organizations, and Federal, state, and local governments" (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2011). Therefore, the Department of Homeland Security feels that increasing preparedness across all sectors, public and private, better enables the entire society to deal with potential disasters. Moreover, one of the Department's goals is to increase resiliency; they are aware that not all disasters can be avoided, but want to make sure the country is well-prepared to weather a disaster.
One of the recurring issues with homeland security-geared legislation is that it is seen by many as being somewhat overbroad and unconstitutional.…
Clovis, S. (2006). Federalism, homeland security and national preparedness: A case study in the development of public policy. Homeland Security Affairs, 2(3), Article 4. Retrieved from: http://www.hsaj.org/?fullarticle=2.3.4
Clovis, S. (2008). Promises unfulfilled: The sub-optimization of homeland security national preparedness. Homeland Security Affairs, 4(3), Article 3. Retrieved from: http://www.hsaj.org/?fullarticle=4.3.3
Hardenbrook, B.J. (2005). The need for a policy framework to develop disaster resilient regions. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 2(3), Article 2. doi: 10.2202/1547-7355.1133
Tierney, K. (2007). Recent developments in U.S. homeland security policies and their implications for the management of extreme events. Handbook of Disaster Research, 405-412.
Function #1: Mitigation
At this stage, gradual and long-term steps are taken to ensure that disasters do not occur, or that, when they do, they cause minimal damage. Actions at this stage include the identification of hazards, the research of the causes which generate the disaster, the creation of means in which to modify the causes of the disasters, the development of means which reduce the community's vulnerability to the disaster, the efforts to better consolidate old buildings, the construction of disaster-resistant buildings, the education of the population or the provision of insurance.
At this stage, the responsibilities of the central government include:
The identification of hazards and the research of their causes
The research as to how the causes of the disaster can be modified
The offering of research and development grants to local projects
The promulgation of buildings safety standards
elative to the competencies of the local governments…
Arnstein, S.R., 1969, A Ladder of Citizen Participation, AIP Journal
Boyce, W., 2002, A Seat at the Table: Persons with Disabilities and Policy Making, McGill-Queen's Press -- MQUP, ISBN 077352181X
Branigan, T., 2009, More than 500 dead in Typhoon Morakot, The Guardian, Edition of August, 14
Canton, L.G., 2007, Emergency Management: Concepts and Strategies for Effective Programs, Wiley-Interscience, ISBN 047173487X
Since September 11, 2001, the United States has made a significant progress guiding against terrorist attacks using terrorism preparedness to forestall further terrorism attacks in the United States. Terrorism preparedness exercise is a broad range of response and preparedness program to support communities that might be affected by the terrorist attack. (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks, 2004).
Typically, the U.S. government has implemented a range of program for terrorism preparedness and one of the policies employed is the use of wide range of intelligence to investigate the imminent terrorism that might have occurred in the United States. Typically, the U.S. intelligence has collaborated with other intelligences globally to prevent act of terrorism in the United States. For example, the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) has collaborated with Pakistan intelligence to locate the hideout of Ben Laden and killed him.
Moreover, the United States has implemented various military exercises for…
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks. (2004). 9-11 Commission Report. USA.
Stenner, R.D. Kirk, J.L. Stanton, J.R. (2006).National Incident Management System (NIMS) Standards Review Panel Workshop Summary Report. U.S. Department of Energy.
Department of Homeland Security. (2012).National Response Plan. USA.
Natural disasters have the potential to dramatically alter life in local communities. The loss of human life reverberates through the generations, as does the loss of local businesses and the generalized economic and psychosocial strain. Yet there are also larger impacts from localized events, such as changes to public policy and political philosophies resulting from major natural disasters. One of the most impactful natural disasters in recent American history is undoubtedly Hurricane Katrina. Hurricane Katrina showed Americans the many shortcomings of federal disaster relief response programs like the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which was restructured after the event (Zimmerman, 2015). In addition to the political ramifications from Katrina, the storm revealed weaknesses in local, state, and federal infrastructure: showing that public spending patterns need to change in order to make American communities more resilient in the future. Another reason why Katrina remains one of the most important and impactful…
Slide 9: Technological innovations in emergency management
The starting point in the creation of a plan on how to improve our program from a technological standpoint has been constituted by the review of the it industry. The scope of this research has been that of identifying the innovations in the field and their relevance for our agency and its mission. The results of the research endeavor are briefly presented below:
GIS is an important tool to use in the collection of data necessary and its usage is credited with overall successful emergency operations as it allows the intervention teams to gather data pivotal at all stages of the emergency management process.
emote sensing technology is enhancing the quality of the emergency management act at the stages of mitigation and preparedness and it has proven efficient in the management of both natural hazards as well as man made disasters.
Bea, K., 2006, Federal emergency management policy changes after Hurricane Katrina: a summary of statutory provisions, Federation of American Scientists, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL33729.pdf last accessed on December 7, 2010
Durmaz, H., 2007, Understanding and responding to terrorism, IOS Press
Freitag, B., How can emergency managers address our warming climate? University of Washington, http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=8&sqi=2&ved=0CE8QFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Ftraining.fema.gov%2FEMIWeb%2Fedu%2Fdocs%2FFreitag%2520-%2520How%2520can%2520emergency%2520managers%2520address%2520our%2520warming%2520cli.doc&rct=j&q=global%20warming%20and%20emergency%20management&ei=iK0ATY7aIc7xsgaxxKDzDg&usg=AFQjCNEz6tI4T6-ThuYIsw1_oXTxhx2SoQ&cad=rja last accessed on December 9, 2010
Goodman, a., 2007, Global warming link to natural disasters, Seattle PI, http://www.seattlepi.com/opinion/336682_amy25.html last accessed on December 9, 2010
Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA is primarily charged with ensuring that the Americans are all safe in case of any emergency. This is the basis of all their engagements and departments that exist therein. The range of emergencies that are included in the FEMA field of operation are natural disasters like floods, hurricanes, wild fires, earthquakes and man made (both internal and external aggression) disasters that can adversely affect the lives of the Americans.
The roles of FEMA in a situation of emergency are conventionally grouped into the following categories as indicated by FEMA (2010a);
Life safety: this is usually the first and most important priority of FEMA since it is the sole reason for the existence of the agency and the agenda for their response to any emergency situation.
ecovery and restoration; this involves ensuring that the businesses run normally and that the population is employed once again after…
Church World Service, (2011). Responding to Emergencies-Our Approach. Retrieved August 1,
2011 from http://www.churchworldservice.org/site/PageServer?pagename=action_what_emerg_approach
FEMA (2010a). Emergency Management Guide. Retrieved August 1, 2011 from http://www.fema.gov /business/guide/section2g.shtm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
XYZ Hamburger Havens
ince our restaurants are situated along the East Coast, every year some or our franchises run the risk of being in the path of a hurricane. These are your instructions for preparing your location for a hurricane. Please use these instructions to create a "Hurricane Preparations" notebook for easy reference if a hurricane should threaten your locale.
First, walk around the building looking for items that might become dangerous if propelled by strong winds (taff writers, 2004). uch items could include trashcans, benches not solidly anchored to the ground, umbrella tables, and even some shrubbery: in a hurricane, a flying coconut can do a lot of damage. Make a list of these hazards and place it in your Hurricane Preparations notebook.
Then meet with the fire department or building inspector of your city to make sure you have identified all hazards. Make a note…
NUI. DATE. "Hurricane Safety." City Gas Company Of Florida. Accessed via the Internet April 9, 2004. http://www.nui.com/content.cfm?cid=380
Staff writers. 2004. "Taking Care of Business." South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Accessed via the Internet April 9, 2004. http://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/weather/hurricane/sns-hc-prep-business,0,5902211.story
Loss of local control in emergency management is a legitimate concern. Yet access to state and federal resources is critical for effective emergency response. The most effective emergency response involves carefully coordinated roles between local, state, and federal agencies. Local agencies are always first responders, and therefore have a great deal of authority and responsibility in emergency management. States may have significant resources and distinct responsibilities to work with local officials. Yet the primary role of state agencies is “to supplement local efforts before, during, and after incidents,” (United States Department of Homeland Security, 2008, p. 6). States in many ways play the least visible role in emergency management, often working as liaisons between local governments requesting additional support and the federal government needing more information about the situation. Not all incidents require state or federal intervention and assistance, and city councils should not be concerned about losing control. Compliance…
As Nielsen and Lidstone (1998) note,
It is ironic that the public demands safety yet a number of cost-effective and feasible measures to mitigate disasters are not adopted by many... Such a failure of the public to adopt disaster mitigation measures has a long record in Australia
(Nielsen and Lidstone 1998)
This attitude is one of the reasons given for the greater emphasis on public education. In theoretical terms, the view is put forward that an educated public will be able to deal with emergencies and disasters more effectively and that this should form an integral part of emergency and disaster management and planning. This in turn has resulted in a "...renewal of focus, at both a national and global level, upon public education as a means to disaster mitigation" (Nielsen and Lidstone 1998). To this end the Federal Emergency Management Agency of the United States (FEMA) has collected data…
Asghar S. et al. Dynamic integrated model for decision support systems. I. j. Of simulation 6. (http://www.ema.gov.au/agd/EMA/rwpattach.nsf/viewasattachmentpersonal/(85FE07930A2BB4482E194CD03685A8EB)~Public_education_and_disaster_management.pdf/$file/Public_education_and_disaster_management.pdf. (Accessed July 15, 2008).
D'Ercole, R. 1994. "Les Vulnerabilites des Societes et des Espaces
Urbanises: Concepts, Typologies, Mode d'Analyse." Revue de
Geographie Alpine 32 (4): 87-96.
Disaster Preparedness Research: Proposed Methodology
Exploring the issue of disaster preparedness in emergency centers and trauma clinics require not only an understanding of the challenges that have been experienced in the past (i.e., lack of supplies and/or equipment, staff shortage, poor management, among many others) and through extant literature on the topic, but also an understanding of how these emergency centers and trauma clinics operate in the event of a disaster or an emergency.
It is only through understanding the operations of emergency centers and trauma clinics that the researcher would be able to fully explore, identify, and determine weak and strong points that is the current situation in emergency and disaster preparedness management. In order to do this, a research into the operations of emergency centers and trauma clinics must be conducted. In line with this requirement, the proposed methodology for the research study on determining points of improvement…
FEMA & obert T. Stafford Act of 1988
Disaster relief has been an issue of significant focus for the federal government through the Federal Emergency Management Agency was not created until 1978. The significance of disaster relief for the federal government is evident in the creation of the earliest piece of federal legislation in 1803. The federal government created the Congressional Act of 1803 as its earliest legislative attempt to address disaster relief. Since the enactment of this first piece of legislation, the federal government has prioritized disaster relief and management since the country has been characterized by increased incidents of natural and man-made disasters. Some of these efforts undertaken by the federal government include the enactment of obert T. Stafford Act of 1988 and the establishment of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
easons and Events that Lead to Creation of FEMA
The Federal Emergency Management Act was established in…
Bazan, E.B. (2005, September 16). Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act: Legal Requirements for Federal and State Roles in Declarations of an Emergency or a Major Disaster. Retrieved from U.S. Department of State -- Foreign Press Centers website: http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/53688.pdf
Emergency Management Institute. (n.d.). Chapter 1 -- Introduction to Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management Concepts. Retrieved from Department of Homeland Security - Federal Emergency Management Agency website: https://training.fema.gov/hiedu/docs/chapter%201%20-%20intro%20to%20crisis,%20disaster%20and%20risk%20mgmt%20concepts.doc
Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2015, January 31). About the Agency. Retrieved from Department of Homeland Security - Federal Emergency Management Agency website: http://www.fema.gov /about-agency
McCarthy, F.X. (2011, June 7). Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding. Retrieved December 10, 2015, from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL33053.pdf
DHS and the NP
The National Preparedness eport was structured in a strategic manner by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). There was a great deal of scrutiny and assessment which occurred when this report was put together as much of it represented the most recent work of DHS, their theories, objectives and recent discoveries. Thus, the structure of the report was incredibly important.
One aspect of the report appears to be structured around optimism. For instance, planning is a big aspect of where the attention of the report goes. The report indeed spends time looking at ways in which the foundation of the nation could be made stronger, particularly in emergencies and in ways to better enmesh the scaffolding which is in place so that its more comprehensive. This section of the report also discusses the partnerships present for finishing the National Planning Frameworks across the preparedness mission arenas…
DHS. (2013, March 30). National Preparedness Report. Retrieved from Fema.gov: http://www.fema.gov /library/viewRecord.do;jsessionid=E51F4DC339F8274EE953C277F08FAC12.Worker2Public2?action=back&id=7465
Fema.gov. (2013, May 30). National Preparedness Report. Retrieved from Fema.gov:
Role of Specific Air Monitoring and Detection Devices in Terrorist Related Hazardous Materials Incidents.
The term HAZMAT refers to the team that works with hazardous material. Hazardous material and terrorism are closely intertwined since most terrorist attacks obviously involve some form of hazardous material and therefore the HAZMAT team is inextricably involved in investigating, identifying, and dissembling this hazardous material. Their work, in fact, makes the HAZMAT member a crucial and invaluable part of our modern day lives. The following essay is a collection of sources that elaborates on the interconnections between HAZMAT and terrorism and the way that HAZMAT prepares and responds to terrorist incidents.
HAZMAT is an inextricable part of terrorism preparedness and response since terrorism inevitably deals with weapons of destruction that almost always constitute hazardous material. Examples of the hazardous material implicit in terrorist attacks are:
Radiological and nuclear materials
LARA Emergency Response to Terrorism: HazMat
http://www.michigan.gov/lara/0,4601,7-154-28077_42271_42325-17441 -- ,00.html
Tucker, JB. (1997) National Health and Medical Services Response to Incidents of Chemical and Biological Terrorism, JAMA, 278, 362-368
ASLP Planning Emergencies
Emergency management plan is the document that contains information on how the authorities, people and businesses can respond, prepare and mitigate the risks associated with hazards in the United States. The emergency plan also assists in identifying the magnitude of a disaster, and probability of its occurrence within a specific year. The information assists the government to put aside the adequate resource to manage the emergence. The paper identifies the Hail Storm, Tornadoes and Wildfire for the hazard and vulnerable analysis.
Hazard & Vulnerability Analysis Table
Speed of Onset
Likely to occur during the winter and spring
May last between one and two weeks
More than 24 hours' warning
Damage to properties. Shutdown of critical facilities
Likely to occur during the winter
May last for more than a week
More than 24 hours'…
Gebert, K.M.; Calkin, D.E.; Yoder, J. (2007). Estimating suppression expenditures for individual large wildland fires. Western Journal of Applied Forestry. 22: 188 -- 196.
Liang, J.; Calkin, D.E.; Gebert, K.M.et al. ( 2008). Factors influencing large wildland fire suppression expenditures. International Journal of Wildland Fire. 17: 650 -- 659.
National Association of Community Health Centers (2010). Essential Components of Emergency Management Plans at Community Health Centers Crosswalk of Plan Elements.USA.
Homeland Security and Emergency Management.
M7D1: Social Media and Risk Communications
According to Bullock (et al. 2013) the four methods of risk communication include mitigation or "to promote implementation of strategies, technologies, and actions that will reduce the loss of lives and property in future disasters; preparedness or "to communicate preparedness messages that encourage and educate the public in anticipation of disaster events;" response or "to provide to the public notification, warning, evacuation, and situation reports on an ongoing disaster and recovery or "to provide individuals and communities affected by a disaster with information on how to register for and receive disaster relief" (Bullock et al. 2013: 515). It is in the response phase which was critically lacking in the case of dealing with the threat posed by the D.C. sniper. There is always an element of fear in the case of spontaneous threats which emerge, as but a realistic…
Public Health Preparedness Policies
Accidents and disasters are unpredictable occurrences that may hardly be prevented from occurring. However, their effects can be minimized especially in a public health facility. These challenges are common many public places and many societies. It is the prerogative of all stakeholders to ensure that they have appropriate disaster preparedness mechanisms. Disaster preparedness is a systematic way of averting mishaps before they occur and ensuring that the entire program runs sustainably. It is the role of the management of any public health facility to secure a good place environment for the execution of any necessary precautionary measure that will avert disasters from happening. This is the fundamental rule of safety.
The responsibility of taking care of safety in any public health facility is a departmental head in charge of health safety. This department must be fully equipped with the personnel and the resources necessary for…
Hooke, W. (2010). Public Health Risks of Disasters Communication, Infrastructure, and Preparedness: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
Kapur, G. (2011). Emergency Public Health: Preparedness and Response. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.