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ell-Rounded Emotional Development as the Key Towards Cultivating a Healthy Self- Esteem
In the study of psychology, Erik Erikson is one of the major proponents who helped develop the domain of socio-emotional development among humans. His studies generated the model of human socio-emotional development, where he proposed the Eight Stages of Development. These stages are enumerated as follows:
Trust vs. Mistrust
Autonomy vs. Shame
Initiative vs. Guilt
Industry vs. Inferiority
Identity vs. Identity Confusion
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Generativity vs. Self-Absorption
Integrity vs. Despair
These stages of socio-emotional development characterize the dichotomous nature that humans undergo during their socio-emotional development. The primary goal that these stages of development depict was that an individual undergoing socio-emotional development learns to reconcile these opposing natures of each stage. That is, as the individual grows older, s/he socio-emotionally develops in the normative pattern proposed by Erikson: an individual who has learned to trust,…
Branden, N. (2000). The Psychology of Self-Esteem: A Revolutionary Approach to Self-Understanding that Launched a New Era in Modern Psychology. CA: Jossey Bass.
Emotion Development in Early Adulthood
Emotional and psychological development is a life-long process tat extends beyond childhood and adolescence into early adulthood, adulthood, and old age. Young adulthood is an important developmental stage in which individuals gain an understanding of who they really are. An important aspect of this stage is the development of relationships with the opposite sex and experiences of love and intimacy. The experiences of mate selection and love are crucial elements of emotional development in young adulthood. In this discussion, emotional and psychological development in early adulthood will be investigated. The relationship between emotional development during early adulthood and the experiences of love and mate selection will also be examined. Also, the role that emotional development plays in lifestyle choices and changes that occur in adulthood will be addressed.
Development in young adulthood
One of the most comprehensive theories of emotional development in early adulthood was…
Carver, C. & Scheier, M. (1996). Perspectives on Personality: Third Edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Geher, G. (2000). Perceived and actual characteristics of parents and partners: A test of a Freudian model of mate selection. Current Psychology, 19(3), 194-214.
Herridge, K., Shaw, S., Mannell, R. (2003). An exploration of women's leisure within heterosexual romantic relationships. Journal of Leisure Research, 35(3), 274-292.
Hook, M., Gerstein, L., Detterich, L., Gridley, B. (2003). How close are we? Measuring intimacy and examining gender differences. Journal of Counseling and Development, 81(4), 462-473.
Early childhood abuse affects Emotional development paper Child Psychology utilizing American Psychological Association (APA) format writing Articles research scholarly journal articles references include textbook research articles.
Early childhood abuse and the effects on emotional development
The present research is aimed at providing an account of early childhood abuse and its effects on further emotional development. A first focus falls on outlining the psychological stages of emotional development and the notion of emotional response, followed by a thorough analysis of the child abuse spectrum together with effects, both early and belated, of general and most notably socio-emotional nature.
Firstly, the meaning of emotional regulation and Erik Erikson's theory of eight stages of development are depicted, with special emphasis on early childhood. This is done for the purpose of underlining the importance of regular emotional development as opposed to one impaired by abuse.
Secondly, stress falls on describing and classifying child abuse…
Berger, K.S. (2005). The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence. New York: Worth Publishers
Chalk, R., Gibbons, A., & Scarupa, H.J. (2002). The multiple dimensions of child abuse and neglect: New insights into an old problem. Washington, DC: Child Trends.
English, D.J., Widom, C.S., & Brandford, C. (2004). Another look at the effects of child abuse. NIJ journal, 251, 23-24
Golden, J.A., Prather, W. (2009). A behavioral perspective of childhood trauma and attachment issues: toward alternative treatment approaches for children with a history of abuse. International Journal of Behavioral and Consultation Therapy, V.5, 56-74
Children have amazing learning potential. In school and at home, children absorb information at rates faster than adults do. However, does the emotional development of a child give children a higher development potential than thinking does? Articles have noted that emotional development has become an increasingly important topic of interest in recent years. The emotional capacity of a child could be just as important as the thinking capacity.
"Children's Emotional Development Is Built into the Architecture of Their Brains" is a research article focusing on early childhood development. Although some aspects of it point to theoretical, it seems most likely research-based because of the amount of information derived from research rather than theory. The article uses information to generate statements vs. creating a statement on its own. A section titled "What Science Tells Us" clearly shows that assumptions are garnered from research instead of mainly theory.
The purpose of…
Shonkoff, J.P., Boyce, W.T., Cameron, J., Duncan, G.J., Fox, N.A., & Greenough, W.T. (2004). Children's emotional development is built into the architecture of their brains (National Scientific Council on the Developing Child)[PDF Document].
Media Violence on Children's Social and Emotional Development
The past century has been characterized by a proliferation of media types, beginning with newspapers and tabloids in the late 19th century, to the introduction of other print media, radio, motion pictures, television and, of course, the Internet and numerous violent-themed video games at the end of the 20th century. An unfortunate concomitant of this growth in media types and their accessibility by every-larger numbers of average consumers has been the use of violence as theme to generate interest that will increase audiences and therefore profitability in this increasingly competitive environment. To gain some fresh insights concerning these trends and their effects on young people's social and emotional development, this paper reviews the relevant juried literature, followed by a summary of the research and a discussion concerning the significance and implications of the findings that emerged.
THE EFFECTS OF MEDIA VIOLENCE OF…
Escobar-Chaves, S.L. & Anderson, C.A. (2008). Media and risky behaviors. The Future of Children, 18(1), 147-149.
Garbardino, J., Bradshaw, C.P. & Vorrasi, J.A. (2002). Mitigating the effects of gun violence on children and youth. The Future of Children, 12(2), 73-74.
Levin, D.E. & Carlsson-Paige, N. (2003). Marketing violence: the special toll on young children of color. The Journal of Negro Education, 72(4), 427-429.
Raising Well-Socialized Children
It could be argued that the goal of raising children is to produce adults who function well in society. However, a quick look at the evening news or a newspaper tells us that some children turn into productive adults who function well while others, even as children have great difficulty conforming to society's most minimal standards. Some people even as children act with aggression and hostility; for instance, researchers report in instance of two ten-year-old children recently convicted of murder (Scott, 1998). We know how to raise well-socialized children in theory. The reality, however, is that in addition to whatever innate qualities a child is born with,
As children grow up, they are exposed to a variety of environments. The first environment is within themselves: even as babies, humans possess individual traits. Some are more easy-going, and some more easily irritated. Some disorders that can negatively affect…
Conger, Rand D. 2003. "Angry and aggressive behavior across three generations: a prospective, longitudinal study of parents and children." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, April.
Lorber, Michael F. 2003. "Mothers' overreactive discipline and their encoding and appraisals of toddler behavior." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Oct.
Schiff, Miriam. 2003. "Urban youth disruptive behavioral difficulties: exploring association with parenting and gender." Family Process, Winter.
Scott, Stephen. 1998. "Aggressive behavior in childhood." British Medical Journal, Jan 17.
Cultural Differences Related to Emotion Socialization among Children
Emotional socialization among children is determined to a large extent by the cultural environment in which the child is raised (Raval & Walker, 2019). The most common agents of socialization to which individuals are exposed from a young age include family (mother, father, brothers, sisters, grandparents, cousins, uncles, aunts) and peers (neighbors, teachers, friends at school or church or daycare) and media representations (kids’ shows, cartoons, movies). As Chen, Zhou, Main and Lee (2015 show, socialization agents include people in one’s environment, people in media and people in one’s family. The media can be especially important because even if they are just make-believe cartoon characters, they still represent a socialization agent for the child. Over time these socialization agents will change, of course. The individual child will stop relying so much on family and start focusing more on technology or mass media…
The luxury brands in this age of fierce and intense competition perceive and believe that the conventional methods of advertising and promotion are only an itinerary that creates the knowledge and awareness amongst the consumers. Nevertheless, targeted marketing (that represents the emotional driving force) is becoming the primary and fundamental aspect of concern that many of the brands are focusing in order to create emotional engagement with the consumers that can provide them lasting relationships and loyalty from the consumers (Buckingham 2008).
However, looking at the perspective of the brand of Swarovski, it has been monitored that they have created a consumer-based pyramid in order to keep closely connected to the consumers' emotions and feelings. In this regard, they ensure high quality with proper detailing of the product during the manufacturing process and make the product a perfect one that can easily catch the attention of the consumers. They very…
American Birding Association 1998, Winging it: newsletter of the American Birding Association, Inc., Volumes 10-11, the Association, USA.
Baker, R 2012, 'Swarovski targets teens with new brand', MarketingWeek News, viewed September 05, 2012: http://www.marketingweek.co.uk/news/swarovski-targets-teens-with-new-brand/4000078.article
Becker, V & Taylor, JB 1995, Swarovski: the magic of crystal, H.N. Abram, Michigan
Becker, V, Langes-Swarovski, M & Le Gallais, R 2005, Daniel Swarovski: A World of Beauty, Thames & Hudson, Limited, USA.
" (2001) Atkins-urnett relates that a "key index of competence in childhood and adolescence" is 'peer competence'. Stated is that: "Relationships with peers, as measured by sociometric indicators are strong indicators of both concurrent and future adaptive functioning." (2001) Longitudinal studies all show that there are similar characteristics "among resilient children: strong sense of competence and self-efficacy, well-liked by peers and adults, reflective rather than impulsive, use of flexible coping strategies, internal locus of control and good intellectual skills" (urnett-Atkins, 2001)
The work of Qualter, Gardner and Whiteley (2007) entitled: "Emotional Intelligence: Review of Research and Educational Implications" states that there is: "...continuing controversy over how to define and measure EI, and how significant the concept of EI is in predicting various aspects of life success. Two predominant perspectives are those adopting an Ability EI and a Trait EI approach." (Qualter, Gardner, and Whiteley, 2007) Emotional Intelligence has been portrayed…
Bar-on, R. (in press). Emotional and Social Intelligence: Insights from the Emotional
Berry, D.J.; Bridges, L.J.; and Zaslow, M.J. (2004) Early Childhood Measures Profiles. Prepared by Child Trends: Washington DC. www.childtrends.org.
Boyatzis, R.E. (1994). Stimulating self-directed learning thought the Managerial Assessment and Development Course, Journal of Management Eduaction,18(3), 304-323.
Chapman, B.P. And Hayslip, B. (2005) Incremental Validity of a Measure of Emotional Intelligence. Journal of Personality Assessment. Vol. 85 No. 2. 2005.
Early Childhood: Play Years
Early childhood is a time of rapid mental, physical and emotional growth. As children move past infancy, they begin to explore their surroundings and to build relationships with other children. Four areas of early childhood will be explored; the differences between male and female brain development, pretend play in early childhood, conflict negotiation, and the male and female approaches to relationships and problem solving.
Biology and Language
Scientists have been aware for many years that there are physical differences between the physiology of male and female brains, especially in the way that language is processed. Experts generally tend to agree that women are superior at language skills, while men are stronger in spatial skills. The reason women are better at language is because females have a larger and thicker corpus callosum, which is a bundle of neurons that connects the two hemispheres of the brain and…
Bergen, D. (2002). The role of pretend play in children's cognitive development. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 4(1), 193-483.
Block, C. (2003). Literacy difficulties: diagnosis and instruction for reading specialists and classroom teachers. (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Church, E. (n.d.) The importance of pretend play. Scholastic Parents. Retrieved January 30, 2010 from http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=10175
Slavin, R. (2009). Education psychology: theory and practice. New Jersey: Pearson.
Implications on a Call Centre
During the last two decades Contact or call centers have emerged as the answer to cost effectiveness for all sort of businesses that require back end customer services (Boreham et al., 2007). These call centers hailing from different countries are very similar with respect to markets, offered services, structure of the organization and type of workforce. This industry has flourished very quickly but usually these call centers are about ten to twelve years old hence still in infancy. Despite the similarities that exist across the globe in standards, processes and customers; are these call centers actually catering to the emotional side of this work.
Being a repetitive task with only a set of responses most of the time with no creativity and innovation in the services process added with long hours and no formal education on the subject, do these call centers affect…
Ashforth, B.E., & Humphery, R.H. (1993). Emotional Labor in Service Roles: The influence of Identity. The Academy of Management Review, 18(1), 88-115.
Blau, P. (1989) Exchange and Power in Social Life, New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
Chu, K.H. -L. (2002) The Effects on Emotional Labor on Employee Work Outcomes. Unpublished Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.
Hochschild, A.R. (1983) The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Los Angeles, California, United States of America; University of California Press.
Emotional Drivers Swarovski
The motives behind consumer decisions to purchase luxury brands like Swarovski have been studied in a number of researches. The general findings of these studies have been that these motives are largely emotional, and that they are evolving as the composition of the luxury market segment changes. De Mooij (2005) defines emotion as an "interaction between cognition and physiology." The characteristics of emotion that or of greater concern to luxury brand managers are that emotions are learned and that they vary from culture to culture.
The mode of expression of emotion also varies by culture. In capitalistic societies, consumption has evolved into a unique mode of expression of self-satisfaction, self-esteem and self-pleasures. These buying motives shape the perceptions of various brands among consumers, along with brand loyalty and brand image. De Mooij (2005, p. 116) explains luxury brand buying motives in terms of collectivism/individualism and masculinity/feminism. Conformance…
Chevalier, M., & Mazzalovo, G. 2008. Luxury Brand Management. John Wiley & Sons.
De Mooij, M. 2005. Global Marketing and Advertising. Sage Publications, Inc.
Fionda, A.M., & Moore, C.M. 2009. The Anatomy of the Luxury Fashion Brand. Journal of Brand Management, 16(5/6), 347-363. doi.10.1057/bm.2008.45.
Fog, K., Budtz, C., Munch, P., & Blanchette, S. 2010. Storytelling: Branding in Practice. 2nd ed. Springer.
In a more professional setting, emotional intelligence could be stimulated through specific training programs, focused on the following:
The understanding of emotional intelligence at a deeper level
The cores of emotional intelligence, namely the development of abilities to identify, leverage, understand and manage emotions
The generation of an ability to connect emotions and messages received and to integrate them in the context of human interactions
The ability to leverage emotions, coupled with the development of skills to be used from emotional intelligence
The development of an emotional intelligence vocabulary
The development of the ability to understand and meet the emotional needs of others, or The ability to manage one's emotions in an efficient manner (American Management Association).
The implementation of such a plan to foster and develop emotional intelligence would have multifold benefits for both the employees as well as the employers. In other words, the measurements conducted at the…
Developing your emotional intelligence, American Management Association, http://www.amanet.org/training/seminars/Developing-Your-Emotional-Intelligence.aspx last accessed on November 9, 2011
What is EQ? Institute for Health and Human Potential, http://www.ihhp.com/what_is_eq.htm last accessed on November 9, 2011
motional labor is an important aspect of what people do in their jobs, as Grandey rightly points out. Also considered, though, is the regulation of emotion within the workplace, because there have been workplace shootings, cases of rage, rapes, killings, and all kinds of problems. These are rare, but they do happen, and it is believed that they will become more common in the future because society is going more global and workers are under increasing pressures today.
Grandey, a., Fisk, G.M., & Steiner, D.D. (2005). Must "service with a smile" be stressful? The moderating role of personal control for American and French employees. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 893-904.
Having control is an important concept in the business world. People must be able to maintain control over themselves when they deal with other employees and with customers that may or may not be happy. As Grandey, Fisk, and…
Emotional labor and the discomfort that it can bring are discussed by Tracy. The idea of emotional labor is a relatively new one, and a lot of people still try to overlook or ignore it. However, it is not something that can be wished away. It is important to understand this discomfort so that people who need help with the work that they do and the way that they feel about that work can get some assistance. Without getting help, individuals can spiral out of control emotionally, which is an unfortunate consequence of too much dissonance and discord in a person's life. It was originally thought that these kinds of dissonance problems only happened in social and personal lives, but the business world has changed so much that these issues are starting to appear there, as well.
Tracy, S.J., & Tretheway, a. (2005). Fracturing the real-self, fake-self dichotomy: Moving toward "crystallized" discourses and identities. Communications Theory, 15, 168-195.
For most people in the business world, there is a fake self and a real self. The real self is who a person is when he or she is completely alone. The fake self is who that same person is when he or she is out there in the world, trying to cope with work, other people, and the hustle and bustle of life that so many people both loathe and take for granted at the same time. There is a way, say Tracy and Tretheway, to take the fake self and the real self, and merge them into a self that is 'real' in the larger picture of things. By doing this, there is less of a problem with feeling fake around others or feeling as though he or she has to perform in a certain way, and this can help a person feel much more meaningful and real overall, both in the business world and in his or her personal life.
The emotional health of the patients is viewed to be important for their health. For nurses this is viewed to be part of the job. The emotional stress comes due to their attempt to benefit the patients. Yet there are differences in the quality of work at different times, and they have to maintain a cool outlook throughout. Sometimes there are interactions with angry, hostile or uncooperative patients and this causes them more problems. (Emotional vs. Physical Labor: The demand of using emotions as a job duty) Thus it can be said that interaction with other men or women lead to this emotional stress and it seems that it cannot be avoided.
Castro, a.B. Emotional vs. Physical Labor: The demand of using emotions as a job duty. American Journal of Nursing. March, 2004; Vol: 104, No: 03. etrieved at http://www.nursingworld.org/ajn/2004/mar/health.htm. Accessed on 22 May, 2005
Clinical Empathy as Emotional…
Castro, a.B. Emotional vs. Physical Labor: The demand of using emotions as a job duty. American Journal of Nursing. March, 2004; Vol: 104, No: 03. Retrieved at http://www.nursingworld.org/ajn/2004/mar/health.htm . Accessed on 22 May, 2005
Clinical Empathy as Emotional Labor in the Patient-Physician Relationship. JAMA. 2005; No: 293; pp: 1100-1106. Retrieved at http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/293/9/1100Accessed on 22 May, 2005
Emotional Labor Stresses Employees. January 7, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.psu.edu/ur/2000/emotioncontrol.html . Accessed on 22 May, 2005
Emotional Labor: Why Women May Have to Work Harder to Get to the Top at Law Firms. Spirituality & Health: The Soul/Body Connection. January/February 2005. Retrieved at http://www.spiritualityhealth.com/newsh/items/article/item_9586.html . Accessed on 22 May, 2005
Emotional Expression and Gender Influence
There has been increasing amount of research devoted to discerning the role of gender and its influence in the emotional response to a particular situation. These researches have added weight to the presumption that the structural differences of the cerebral cortex has a substantial influence in triggering emotional responses and the differing reactions in men and women to an external stimuli. Let us have a brief outlook of the psychological and biological effects that contribute to the differing emotional responses (in men and women) and the scientific explanation for the same.
Studies of the brain structure (neuroanotomy) have indicated a basic structural difference of the brain in men and women. We are now aware that boys tend to have a highly developed right brain whereas girls have a well-developed left brain. This notion explains the unique mental aptitude exhibited by men and women.…
Drass, Kriss A. 1986. "The Effect of Gender Identity on Conversation." Social Psychology Quarterly, 49(4): 294-301. http://www.manukau.ac.nz/SocSci/Conf/taylor.htm
Bate, Barbara. 1978. "Nonsexist Language Use in Transition." Journal of Communication, 28(1): 39-49. http://unisci.com/stories/20011/0216014.htm
Eckert, Penelope. 1989. "The Whole Woman: Sex and gender differences in variation." Language Variation and Change, 1: 245-67. http://www.aboutibs.org/Publications/stress.html http://www.mwsc.edu/psychology/research/psy302/spring97/faith_fritz.html http://www.vanderbilt.edu/News/news/june98/nr4.html http://www.schiffermd.com/research.html
James, Deborah, & Sandra Clarke. 1992. "Interruptions, Gender, and Power: A critical review of the literature." In K. Hall, M. Bucholtz, & B. Moonwomon (eds.) Locating Power, Volume I (proceedings of the Second Berkley Women and Language Conference). Berkeley: Berkeley Women and Language Group.
George's marriage to Ella is his second one; his first wife was from an arranged marriage in Pakistan that left him unhappy. Yet he was able to incorporate aspects of development theory within his own life to find a new wife who he is (mostly) pleased with in a Western environment, and even owns a successful fish and chips restaurant. In his romantic life and in his economic life, George is able to evince some of the best qualities of development theory and modernization by taking his best assets and (literally) marrying them with those from a Western society to update and contemporize his life and his source of income.
However, what George does not take account of is the fact that he must allow the same degree of leniency from his religion and tradition that he permitted himself in marrying Ella to his children. In this sense, East is…
However, seeking solution to conflicts is not an easy task. The conflict needs to be seen in a different perspective and it has to be accepted as not necessarily harmful and will actually help in the growth and development of a person. Contributing actions to the conflict also has to be recognized and weaknesses and imperfections have to be accepted. Awareness to these realities and acceptance of self and the other persons is also important.
yback, on the other hand, shared about Emotional Intelligence. He said that it is the ability to be aware and to become sensitive of feelings. He added that it is the ability to resist impulsive and thoughtless responses to other's actions. He explained that sensitivity to feelings helps let down emotional barriers and enables attentive listening and open communication. Again, becoming Emotionally Intelligent is not easy to achieve. yback said that it may necessitate change…
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition. (2000). Houghton Mifflin Company.
Ryback, David. (1998). Putting Emotional Intelligence to Work: Successful Leadership is more than IQ. Boston Butterworth-Heinemann.
Fisher, E., and Sharp, S. (2004). The Art of Managing Everyday Conflict: Understanding
Emotions and Power Struggles. Westport, Conn. Greenwood Publishing.
The Effects of Emotion on Cognition
It is not only academic performance that is influenced by emotions, however, but truly the entirety of an individual's cognitive experience. Emotions can be generated through attention, knowledge, and bodily responses -- all of which are conscious parts of an individual's life that are cognitively processed and analyzed (Koole 2009). The regulation of these emotions, which tends to focus on these emotion-generating aspects of an individual, is a major part of the mechanism by which emotional responses and emotional information is communicated to the cognitive mind. It also serves in the other direction, aiding in the translation of cognitive information into appropriate emotional responses (Koole 2009).
The causes that have been identified lying behind emotional regulation also provide some insight into its relationship to cognition. Satisfying simple pleasure impulses, aiding in the achievement of more long-term goals, and projecting a desired and beneficial personality…
Izard, C.; Stark, K.; Trentacosta, C. & Schulz, D. (2008). "Beyond Emotion Regulation: Emotion Utilization and Adaptive Functioning." Child development perspectives 2(3), pp. 156-63.
Koole, S. (2009). "The psychology of emotion regulation: An integrative review." Cognition & emotion 23(1), pp. 4-41.
Pekrun, R. & Stephens, E. (2009). "Goals, Emotions, and Emotion Regulation: Perspectives of the Control-Value Theory." Human Development 52(6), pp. 357-65.
& Severinsson, E. (2008). "Emotionally intelligent nurse leadership: a literature review study." Journal of nursing management 16(5), p. 565-77.
In an examination of other primary studies on the subject, these researchers found emotional intelligence to be a prominent feature of nurse leadership as judged by nurses. wide array of studies with highly varied aims reached similar conclusions in this general area.
shkanasy, N. & Dasborough, M. (2003). "Emotional wareness and Emotional Intelligence in Leadership Teaching." Journal of Education for Business 79(1), pp. 18-22.
study of the effect of adding emotional content to undergraduate leadership courses showed the benefits of such education on emotional intelligence levels as measured through direct tests. Individual emotional intelligence was predictive of individual success, whereas general interest in emotions was more predictive of team successes.
Barbuto, J. & burbach, M. (2006). "The Emotional Intelligence of Transformational Leaders: Field Study of Elected Officials." The Journal of Social…
A comparison of leadership styles in practical nursing situations in Finland shows how emotional intelligence compares to other leadership traits more clearly than the other studies included in this paper. The findings in regards to emotional intelligence, however, were remarkably similar, with increased motivation and cohesion the result of managerial emotional intelligence.
Wang, Y. & Huang, T. (2009). "The relationship of transformational leadership with group cohesiveness and emotional intelligence." Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 37(3), pp. 379-92.
The specific components of transformational leadership capabilities, with an emphasis on emotional intelligence, are discussed in this study. Effects on groups as well as individual performance made this study a unique inclusion.
Emotional regulation is the manner in which people adapt and/or adjust their feelings both knowingly and unconsciously to the changes or events in their experiences and surroundings. Emotional regulation has become an important topic in psychological models of psychopathology and in hypothesized treatment strategies for various types of mental disorders. There are several different aspects of emotional regulation that have been targeted as important explanatory factors or targets of intervention for psychopathology. In addition, these maladaptive emotional regulation strategies (or lack of a strategy) have also served as areas of focus for psychological interventions for disorders involving alterations of mood or anxiety. Three of these strategies are rumination, reappraisal, and response modulation.
Rumination, in its most basic sense is repetitive thinking. Rumination is most often thought of as the focus on distressing events that occurred in the past, whereas worrying is more focused on distress associated with potential future events.…
McCombe agrees, observing that Zeffirelli's film "links Hamlet's hesitancy to his unnaturally strong bond with his mother" (McCombe). Crowl believes that Gertrude is at the center of the film, or "at the center of Hamlet's fractured consciousness, rather than the ghost or Claudius. The film is much more about sons and mothers than fathers and uncles" (Crowl). hile this may be true, we should also consider how this interpretation is much more emotional this way. Hamlet's troubles are predominantly linked to his mother in one way or another. Zeffirelli captures the complexities of this relationship by making it complicated and a sensitive issue for Hamlet in the long run. In the final scene of the film, we see the depth of the emotions Hamlet feels for his mother. Ophelia is another woman that allows us to see the extremity of Hamlet's emotion. She is beautiful and seems quite innocent. hen…
John P. McCombe. "Toward an Objective Correlative: The Problem of Desire in Franco Zeffirelli's Hamlet." Literature/Film Quarterly. 1997. Gale Resource Database. Site December 02, 2008. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Crowl, Samuel. "Zeffirelli's Hamlet: The Golden Girl and a Fistful of Dust." Shakespeare in the Cinema. 1998. Gale Resource Database. Site Accessed December 02, 2008.
The first point addressed by Clark's review determines that a fundamental change in medical perspective had begun to transpire with the assumption of varying clinical research investigations on the subject.
This would contribute to what Clark identifies as a major shift in the way that physicians had begun to perceive and treat terminal illness. As opposed to a cut and dry preparation of the patient for the certainty of death, Clark points to a juncture in the mid to late 20th century at which medical professionals had begun to adopt "an active rather than a passive approach to the care of dying people was promoted in which the fatalistic resignation of the doctor ('there is nothing more we can do') was supplanted by a determination to find new and imaginative ways to continue caring up to the end of life." (Clark, 2002) In addition to serving as a fundamental motivation…
Clark, D. (2002). Between hope and acceptance: the medicalisation of dying. The British Medical Journal, 324, p. 905-907.
Eckholm, E. (1991). The price of hope: Medicine's Disputed Frontier. The New York
Times. Retrieved April 8th, 2008 from http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE6D6173AF93AA2575AC
The results of this failure to distinguish can be extremely problematic to the effectiveness with which emotional disturbance is addressed and can have broad sociological consequences. Rush reports some stunning figures, particularly that among emotionally disturbed students, "Fifty-five percent leave school before graduating. Of those students with severe emotional disturbance who drop out of school, 73% are arrested within five years of leaving school." (Rush, 1)
In spite of these facts, schools often fail to address the needs of the emotionally disturbed, blunting the impact which quality educators can have on their education and their development of positive patterns of behaviors. As the article by Greshem (2005) contends, there is an absence of proper identification and service to students with emotional disturbance, owing to a lack of resource and intuition on the part of administrators. As a result, Greshem reports that "historically, the U.S. Department of Education estimated the prevalence…
Greshem, F.M. (2005). Response to Intervention: An Alternative Means of Identifying Students as Emotionally Disturbed. Education and Treatment of Children, 28(4), 328-344.
Harris-Murri, N.; King, K. & Rostenberg, D. (2006). Reducing Disproportionate Minority Representation in Special Education Programs for Students with Emotional Disturbances: Toward a Culturally Responsive Response to Intervention Model. Education and Treatment of Children, 29(4), 779-799.
Ogonosky, a. (2009). Emotionally Disturbed Students. Association of Texas Professional Educators. Online at http://www.atpe.org/resources/Student&ParentIssues/emoDisturb.asp
Rush, S. (2005). Improving Education for Students with Emotional Disturbance. Knowability. Online at http://www.knowbility.org/research/?content=improve
Farris (1990) cites Glasser's Control Theory as a foundation for developing activities to motivate adolescent learners. Briefly this theory asserts humans have five basic needs: the need for survival, belonging, power, freedom and fun. Effective teachers recognize and respond to students' needs and a critical part of that response lies in helping students accept and maintain that essential control.
Farris (1990) proposes possible classroom responses designed to meet these needs. To satisfy the need to belong a teacher should create a classroom with an accepting atmosphere, create a sense of ownership, recognize student's attempts to be accepted, praise students' performance, teach using groups, and discipline or reprimand in private whenever possible to avoid humiliating students. The need for freedom can be addressed by involving students in rule making, providing opportunities for free expression, encouraging creativity in assignments, and possibly consider eliminating assigned seating. The need for power can be addressed…
Caissy, G. (1986, November/December). Early adolescence: The physical transition. FWTAO newsletter.
Caissy, G. (1987a, January). Early adolecscence: A time of stormy emotions. FWTAO newsletter.
Caissy, G. (1987b, February/March). Early adolecscence: The social demension. FWTAO newsletter.
Caissy, G. (1987c, June). Early adolecscence: The intellectual domain. FWTAO newsletter.
esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…
Cooper, Janice L. (2009). Social-emotional development in early childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_882.html
This publication explores the factors which influence a child's social development within the preschool years. It gives clear research findings regarding parental and caregiver influences along with social and neighborhood ones as well. It also outlines the potential hazards and issues of a child who develops within a problem area.
Lopes, Marilyn. (1995). Selecting books for children. National Network for Childcare. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nncc.org/Literacy/select.books.html
This site is a recommendation-based site which takes proven strategies and concepts developed by child psychologists at the University of Massachusetts. As part of the national network for child care, it aims to help parents make appropriate decisions for their children regarding books based on that child's age.
Childhood Development of Sexual Minorities
One might originally think it odd to approach a question about the experienced childhood development of minorities by opening a discussion of the children who will grow to be sexual and gender-identity minorities. Unlike most other minorities, these children are not generally being raised in a minority culture and family, and do not have the immediate support of their own race or culture about them to help prepare them for life as a minority. So in some ways, this is actually the ideal place to start such a discussion, because in this area one has unmitigated access to the experience of being a minority on the child's development, without the sheltering environment that surrounds other minorities. These children will, a majority of the time, emerge from the crucible of childhood as homosexual or possibly bisexual adults. A few more will go on to actually have…
ACPM. "Report XX of the Council on Scientific Affairs." American College of Preventive Medicine. http://www.acpm.org/pol_compNOTPOLICYbullying.htm
GENDER IDENTITY DISORDER IN YOUNG PEOPLE. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment (2000), vol.6,pp. 458-466, http://www.mermaids.freeuk.com/gidyp.html
Mermaids. "Newspaper Archive http://www.mermaids.freeuk.com/newarch.html
Language and Literacy Development of Head Start Children: A Study Using the Family and Child Experiences Survey Database." The report opens with a description of the Head Start program, established in 1965, and sums up their goal: to provide a comprehensive development program for low socioeconomic status (SES) children and their families.
In 1995 it was decided to evaluate the Head Start program's quality and effectiveness. To that end, the study defined a conceptual model that defined school readiness in terms of five developmental domains:
Physical well-being and motor development
Social and emotional development
Approaches to learning
Language usage and emerging literacy
Cognition and general knowledge
The Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) was then developed to provide information about Head Start children and their families, and to gather data about the program. The study included four cohorts for collection periods 1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006, with each cohort consisting…
There are multiple stages of development that all children go through. The depth and breadth of these developmental changes ebb and flow greatly as growing children move from one stage of development to the next. Overall, there are several major developmental stages in the life of a child. There are the toddler years, the prepubescent years and the adolescent/teenage years. The brief literature review that follows in this report shall focus on the last of those. To be complete with this analysis, adolescence is not the end of human development given that many suggest that development extends into the 20's and 30's. Even so, the adolescent years of development are hailed by many as being the most pivotal, at least in some regards. While many would debate the above, it is clear that the adolescent years are among the most important.
Regardless of the development or life stage that…
Management and Organizational Development
CHAPTE V - SUMMAY ESULTS
Fresno County Department of Children and Family Services emancipates twenty and thirty eighteen-year-old foster children each month. These children face many challenges as they work through a transition into the adult, working world. Children in a foster care setting have not had the stability needed for them to develop the life skills necessary to adjust to life on their own. Many of the emancipated youth have either not graduated from high school, nor hold a G.E.D. certificate. In addition, they do not have adequate basic living skills.. The youths typically do not have employment, nor have they built a history during their teen years of successful part time entry level jobs.
The housing experiences of these children, as they have moves from home to home, have not taught them the basic skills needed to keep a home, or apartment. These young…
director for this program, recommended by his or her peers from within the foster care system. This person should be someone who has demonstrated a high level of commitment to the foster care system, and has a track record of frequently going "above and beyond" the normal course of daily activities in order to benefit the well being of children in the system.
Funds for an additional training program to teach foster care workers about the benefits of mentoring relationships.
Standards, goals and objectives must be written for the Mentor, and for his or her case worker to follow and use as guidelines for the ongoing relationship
Connection event planning. Location, supplies, budget for event foods, decorations, and other ambiance.
family is, the stages in the development of a child into an adult, the benefits of early education for a child, and how he develop as a result of this program. Further the paper shall also deal with the eight stages of life as defined by famous psychologists, and how one pass through them; how can an adult feel empowered and in full control of himself; what has he learnt within an early education program, and how can this be coordinated with his family life as such.
'Family' is a social unit that lives together sometimes under one roof, sometimes under several different roofs, but all united by blood ties or familial ties. The primary social group of a family is a set of parents and their children. (Definition of family on the web) There are several issues that are related to the family as a unit, and primary among…
Definition of family on the web. Retrieved at http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&lr=&oi=defmore&q=define:familyAccessed on 28 January, 2005
Ollhoff, Laurie. Ages, Stages and Growth. Retrieved at http://www.afterschool.gov/docs/Ages_stages_and_planning.doc. Accessed on 28 January, 2005
Critical issue: Organizing for effective early childhood programs and practices. Retrieved at http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/earlycld/ea100.htm. Accessed on 28 January, 2005
Erikson's eight stages of human development. Retrieved at http://psychology.about.com/library/weekly/aa091500b.htm . Accessed on 28 January, 2005
Infancy is the stage between birth and two years of age. This stage is characterized by rapid physical growth than any other stage of life. Very interesting changes occur in this couple of years. Brain development also occurs rapidly at this stage. Prior to birth, the unborn baby has most of the brain cells, but not all. There is a very rapid development of the neural connections between the cells. Contrary to what most people think, the baby is not entirely helpless. It is capable of all the basic activities required to sustain life -- breathing, suckling, swallowing and excretion. By the first week, the newborns can identify the direction from which sound is coming, recognize the voice of the mother from other voices and is capable of simple imitating basic gestures such as opening the mouth and sticking out the tongue (Shaffer & Kipp, 2013).
Hospitalism is essentially the condition of infants becoming attached more to the routine of the hospital and its caregiving medical staff rather than to their mothers. As we now know, children subjected to this kind of a condition (intentionally or even through abuse or neglect) fare much worse than normal children who are tended to by their mothers. In Attachment Theory -- Why NOT to Baby Train (Steph, nd), the works of Spitz and others were recounted, showing how severely improper behaviors can hurt real babies. Spitz's documented how 91 babies in the Foundling Home were first given a taste of love and affection from their mothers. They were then effectively taken away from their mothers and put under the direction of nurses, whose focus was on meeting their medical needs alone. As we now might expect, the children soon deteriorated significantly, showing severe impediments to normal growth…
American Pregnancy (2011). First Year Development: Infant Development. American Pregnancy Association. http://www.americanpregnancy.org/firstyearoflife/firstyeardevelopment.html .
Lubit, R. et al., (2009). Child Abuse and Neglect: Reactive Attachment Disorder. Medscape Refernces. WebMD. Viewable at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/915447-overview .
Steph (n.d). Attachment Theory -- Why NOT to Baby Train.
The following images show certain disorders that result due to mutation. Children born from the same family members' shows higher similarity index regarding the genetic disorder number inclusive of the Indian community (Cummings, 2010, pg 333).
Curbing gene disorders
Stoppage of varying types of disorders is possible through learning in consideration of human development the number of genes contained in a single genome, their respective location and the establishment of functions or roles in the various genetic processes. This is achievable through strategized genetic mapping, where the establishment of specified genes having same linkage involved. The mapping establishes the respective linkages between genes and as a result of their location in the same gene, the crossing over frequency with the existing distance amid them is notable (Cummings, 2010, pg 333). esearch on the various risks factors involved can also be considerable as beneficial. This enables the development of certain preventive…
Benson, B. (2012). Advances in Child Development. London: Academic Press.
Bowden, V.G. (2009). Children and Their Families. Atlanta: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Cummings, M. (2010). Human Heridity; Principles and Issues. New York: Cengage Learning.
Riley's Behavior Analysis
Theories of moral and cognitive development can be used in understanding Riley's case and behavior. According to the Piaget's theory of development, children go through various stages in life. Theories of development reveal that when a student is in high school or the 10th grade, he or she undergoes through a period of personal development through the creation of identities. At this stage, individuals are preparing for adulthood and gaining more independence just as adolescents become experimenters in their lives. Piaget proposed a theory of development where moral reasoning for children develops from what he calls a naive understanding of morality. This naive understanding is usually based on behavior and outcomes. However, as they develop, they can have a more advanced understanding that is based on intentions. This means that Riley is using his independence in the wrong way. The identity crisis as described in the theories…
Integrating the Field of Developmental Psychology: A Review of the Literature
Developmental Stage/Age Group: Infancy and toddlerhood (0 - 3 years)
In the development stage of infancy to toddlerhood, the child is changing and responding to its environment and social setting. As Levinson (1986) notes, the home is the child’s immediate social and physical environment. The mother tends to be the child’s source of security and the child grows in confidence through connection to the mother. Between the ages of one and two the child is like a “young scientist,” according to Piaget in the sense that the child explores and demonstrates cognitive development (Thomas, Warner & Foster, 2000). According to Freud, the child is developing a sense of pleasure, first through oral stimulation which is connected to feeding initially but also through relief by way of bowel movements and urination. According to Erickson, the child is developing trust during…
Piaget’s Stages of Development
Few theorists have had as strong an impact on developmental psychology as Jean Piaget. While the theories of Lev Vygotsky have offered compelling counterpoints to Piaget’s theories, the stages of psychosocial development Piaget proposed remain salient. In fact, it is easy to combine emerging research on childhood development from infancy to adolescence in terms of Piaget’s stages. As Lightfoot, Cole & Cole (2009) point out, evolutionary theories, information processing theories, and systems theories can all be integrated within the staged concept of development that Piaget proposed. Piaget shows how children develop physically, socially, and cognitively. Likewise, theories of childhood development can demonstrate how children develop self-awareness, empathy, and complex use of language. The four main stages of development include the sensorimotor, the preoperational, the concrete operational, and the formal operational. While far from being discreet stages with strong demarcations between them, empirical research in cognitive, behavioral,…
life are in many ways the most exciting, as the newborn develops rapidly into a toddler. Changes in sensorimotor skills, in sheer physical growth, in behavior and brain development, language acquisition, and spiritual formation all comprise some of the key components of life during the first two years. Some of these changes are more noticeable than others. The ones to be most aware of include the following:
Body Changes (Biosocial Development)
Motor Skills Changes (Biosocial Development)
Sensorimotor Changes (Cognitive Development)
Language and Communications Changes (Cognitive Development)
Emotional Changes (Psychosocial Development)
These five are the most crucial areas in the baby's first two years of life because of how these changes will impact biological, psychological, and social development later in life. Many of these changes are plainly visible to the parents. For example, the physical size and body of the child will rapidly change over the two years. Likewise, the baby's…
Berger, K.S. (2009). Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence. 8th Edition. NY: Worth.
Children's Hospital of Richmond at VCU (2015). Fine motor skills: Birth to 2 years. Retrieved online: http://www.chrichmond.org/Resource-Library/Fine-Motor-Skills-Birth-to-2-years.htm
Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar disorder can be observed across the patients social and occupational functioning. Often the patient is left isolated from work, friends, and family. Medications have become the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder; however, psychotherapy can offer additional benefits in the ongoing treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. This paper discusses the symptoms and treatment of bipolar disorder focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion focused therapy.
Description and differentiation
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition -- Text evision (DSM-IV-T) one's mood is an all-encompassing and sustained feeling tone experienced internally by the person and influences the person's behavior and perception of the world. Affect is the external or outward expression of this inner…
Alloy, L.B., Abramson, L.Y., Walshaw, P.D., Keyser, J., & Gerstein, R.K. (2006). A cognitive vulnerability-stress perspective on bipolar spectrum disorders in a normative adolescence brain, cognitive, and emotional development context. Developmental Psychopathology, 18(4), 1057-1103.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.
Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 17-31
These studies show that while EI is being integrated into the British educational policy, many concrete steps still have to be taken to make full use of EI skills.
Evidence in favor of Emotional Literacy
There is growing scholarly evidence that shows definitive links between higher emotional intelligence (EI) and overall success in life. For instance, ubin (1999) in his study found that students with high EI skills are less likely to indulge in violent and aggressive acts and more likely to be social. Similarly, Ciarrochi, Chan and Chaputi (2000) in their study found that adolescents with high EI skills show empathy and understanding. In the same way, other scholars too have found positive relationships between high EI and disengagement with use of alcohol and tobacco (Trinidad and Johnson, 2002; Trinidad, Unger, Chou and Anderson Johnson, 2004). Furnham and Petrides (2003) found that students with high EI are generally happy…
Antidote. 2008. Campaign for Emotional Literacy. Available at http://www.antidote.org.uk
Bastian, V.A., Burns, N.R. And Nettelbeck, T. 2005. Emotional Intelligence Predicts Life Skills, but not as well as Personality and Cognitive Abilities. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, pp. 1135-45.
Ciarrochi, J.V., Chan, a.Y.C. And Caputi, P. 2000. A Critical Evaluation of the Emotional Intelligence Construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, pp. 1101-13.
Ciarrochi, J.V., Deane, F.P. And Anderson, S. 2002. Emotional Intelligence Moderates the Relationship Between Stress and Mental Health. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, pp. 197-209.
Intelligence in Infancy
The child shows many signs of normal cognitive behavior. He seems to understand that when he bangs the blocks together that they will make sound and also seems proud of this activity. He also understood that when the blocks fell that something was wrong and said "uh oh." This is a sign of cognitive understanding of what the blocks are supposed to do.
The social and emotional skills are primarily illustrated by the connection and interactions with the child's mother. The child looks completely comfortable around the mother and interacts naturally. The child is able to understand the mothers questions like "where is the banana" and responds appropriately.
The child shows advanced ability to sit and stand as he wishes with minimal balance issues. The child also shows advanced visual and spatial skills that can be illustrated by his ability to work…
AllPsych. (N.d.). Psychology 101. Retrieved from AllPsych: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/development.html
CA Dept. Of Educatoin. (N.d.). Cognitive Development Domain. Retrieved from CA Dept. Of Educatoin: http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/itf09cogdev.asp
Cherry, K. (N.d.). Communication Milestones. Retrieved from Psychology: http://psychology.about.com/od/early-child-development/a/communication-milestones.htm
Feranld, A., Marchman, V., & Weisleder, A. (2012). SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental Science, 234-248.
Although the content of the article is positioned for management Harmon very effectively presents the reader with a historical perspective on the concept of emotional intelligence and explains to the reader that this particular psychological trait begins in infancy. She concludes the historical presentation with the thought that emotional intelligence is clearly based on well-developed communication patterns through out a person's lifetime. In other words, emotional intelligence is not bio-neurological trait, rather that which is learned through effective communication - a life-long process.
Harmon carries her thesis over to management style by informing the reader that all too often managers pride themselves on possessing a level of knowledge that employees do not have and are, therefore, reluctant to accept the idea that emotional intelligence is a way in which to coach, mentor, and guide employees with respect to performing better. Harmon goes on to report that emotional intelligence is extremely…
Patricia, Harmon. "Emotional Intelligence: Another Management Fad, or a Skill of Leverage?"
Center for Quality of
.....leadership outlines a number of different hypotheses regarding leadership style that have emerged over the years. At the intersection of traits and more progressive views of leadership style is the idea that emotional intelligence is a significant contributor to leadership success. Similarly, it has become leadership orthodoxy that transformational leaders are more successful than transactional ones. Given that transformational leadership requires the leader to inspire and motivate followers, and that a high degree of emotional intelligence would reasonably be thought to aid in this, the hypothesis can be formed that leaders with emotional intelligence are more likely to be transformational leaders, and more successful ones as well.
Several studies have explored the link between emotional intelligence and the transformational leadership style. Quader (2011) notes that emotional leadership can be subdivided into five different areas. Of these, three are more associated with transactional leadership: self-awareness, self-motivation and emotional mentoring). As such,…
Once each student graduates from the various colleges and training institutions, it is their expectations that they will be able to either get gainful employment that is equivalent to their academic and training levels and one that is sustainable. If the graduates will not be able to get the gainful employment, then it is hoped that they should be able to create employment as the contemporary trends are. There are however some other intervening factors that can help in achieving this, some of them are the emotional intelligence of that particular graduate or job seeker and the academic achievement of that particular candidate. These three factors, employability, emotional intelligence and the academic achievement interact in specific manner to shape the ultimate quality of employability of a given candidate. They have a symbiotic relationship particularly in the current competitive environment where education and innovation has influenced change and in…
Read the case study-Finding the Emotional Intelligence
hat are the differences between leaders and managers? Can anyone be a leader? hich would you prefer to work for and why?
Leaders are typically thought to be more visionary, inspiring, and often humble while managers are frequently assumed to be more administrative and organized. Each role has value to the organization and can move the organization towards the achievement of its strategic goals in the right circumstances. Management is aimed at monitoring, controlling, and motivating employees through economic incentives and other exchange incentives (Bass, 1985).
Share an example from your work or school experience with working through the five stages of team development.
Figure 1-5 Stages (UIC, N.d.)
One of the classes in business I had last semester had a group project. The groups were formed by the professor and many of the people in my group did not know…
Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
i Six Sigma. (N.d.). What is Six Sigma? Retrieved from I Six Sigma: http://www.isixsigma.com/new-to-six-sigma/getting-started/what-six-sigma/
UIC. (N.d.). 4-Stages of Team Development. Retrieved from UIC: https://uic.blackboard.com/bbcswebdav/institution/classes/dhd547/Katie/Week10C-LB-TeamCommunication/Week10C-LB-TeamCommunication4.html
For me personally, however, the empathy that I develop is directed by my spirituality and inclination to see beyond what is obvious. This combination has been most beneficial for me as a social worker (obbins, Chatterjee and Canda, 2006; Lesser and Pope, 2007).
Furthermore, the level of loyalty and dedication that I bring to my work is something I am very proud of. As I mentioned earlier, loyalty and dedication are some of the important traits that I look for in my friends and the main reason for this is the fact that these are the traits that I personally vibe-out as well. I feel that as a social worker, perhaps the most important aspect that an individual can bring to work is dedication; as part of this world, u have to truly have a passion for it to be able to withstand the constant setbacks, financial instability and lack…
Correll, D. (2005). News and Views…from ICSW. International Social Work. 48:5, 688-691.
Hofer B.K. And Pintrich, P.R. (1997). The Development of Epistemological Theories: Beliefs About Knowledge and Knowing and Their Relation to Learning. Review of Educational Research, Vol. 67, No. 1, 88-140.
Long, D.D. And Holle, M.C. (2007) Macro Systems in the Social Environment (2nd edition). Belmont, CA: Thompson, Brooks/Cole.
Lesser, J.C. And Pope, D.S. (2007). Human Behavior and the Social Environment: Theory and practice. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
Young adults are on the threshold between youthful behaviors and the adult world. Humans in their late teens begin to accept responsibilities for their own lives and learn to depend upon themselves financially, socially, and psychologically. This is also the time when they make life choices which will ultimately shape their futures and the people they eventually become. Renowned theorist Daniel Levinson defines adult development in the age between 17 and 33 as the novice phase, because this is the point where the young person takes on new responsibilities in the same way as an amateur or novice in a specific occupational field. According to theorist Erik Erikson:
In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. Intimacy refers to one's ability to relate to another human being on a deep, personal level. An individual who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship…
Advocates for Youth. (2008). Growth and development, ages 18 and over -- what parents need to know. Retrieved from http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/parents/157?task=view
Beaty, L. (2002). Developmental counseling: the young adult period. Critical Issues in Young
Beck, M. (2012). Delayed development: 20-somethings blame the brain. The Wall Street
Emotions can be linked to everything a person does. When students enter school, they often have trouble with learning and may develop negative emotions to education. The aim of this study was to discover and highlight what emotional regulation techniques work best with students and getting them ready for learning. The study involved 3 focus groups from two schools picked from across the country. Two were public schools. The second was a private school.
Each focus group represented an age group. The first focus group had 2 children ages 5 and 12 years old. The second group had 2 children ages 14 and 17 years old. The group from the private school had a focus group of 4 children ranging in ages from 5-17 years of age.
The results derived from the qualitative data analyses demonstrate three kinds of classroom experiences participants feel work best for motivating them to learn…
J. Davidson, R., Dunne, J., Eccles, J., Engle, A., Greenberg, M., & Jennings, P. et al. (2012). Contemplative Practices and Mental Training: Prospects for American Education. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 146-153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2012.00240.x
Jennings, P., Frank, J., Snowberg, K., Coccia, M., & Greenberg, M. (2013). Improving classroom learning environments by Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE): Results of a randomized controlled trial.School Psychology Quarterly, 28(4), 374-390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/spq0000035
Meiklejohn, J., Phillips, C., Freedman, M., Griffin, M., Biegel, G., & Roach, A. et al. (2012). Integrating Mindfulness Training into K-12 Education: Fostering the Resilience of Teachers and Students. Mindfulness, 3(4), 291-307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12671-012-0094-5
Pekrun, R. (2016). Using Self-Report to Assess Emotions in Education.Methodological Advances In Research On Emotion And Education, 43-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-29049-2_4
Guidance and Counseling Program for a school or a community Agency
Comprehensive School Counseling Program Guide of the - Public School
Guidance and counseling has been included as a professional course by the Higher Education Commission document publicized in 2010. The teachers must have a basic know how about the school guidance and counseling techniques in order to tackle the personal and social issues which students face within the classroom as per Higher Education Commission (2012). Comprehensive School Counseling Program Guide of the - Public School is a brief explanation of design, application and assessment of SPS school counseling program (Dahir, 2009).
Objectives of the model:
The basic aims of this model are as follows:
Outlining school counseling and transitioning of conventional practice into transformed practice (Dahir, 2009).
Comprehending the different roles the guidance and counseling system entails for backing the students in their future goals and social challenges
Connecticut State Department of Education (2008).Comprehensive School Counseling. Retrieved from http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/lib/sde/PDF/DEPS/Special/counseling.pdf
Dahir, C. (2009).Comprehensive School Counseling Program Guide. Working Document. Retrieved from http://www.sps.springfield.ma.us/webContent/Policies/Comprehensive%20School%20Counseling%20Program%20Guide%20&%20Appendix.pdf
Higher Education Commission (2012).Introduction to Guidance and Counseling. Retrieved from http://www.hec.gov.pk/InsideHEC/Divisions/AECA/CurriculumRevision/Documents/GuidanceCounseling_Sept13.pdf
Gysbers, N.C., & Henderson, P. (2001). Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programs: A Rich History and a Bright Future. Professional School Counseling, 4 (4), 246-259. Retrieved from http://fcett.nu.edu/sites/default/files/file_file/gysbers_history.pdf
Canine Behavior: Genetics vs. Environment
The debate over nature vs. nurture as it applies to learning dates back over a hundred years. Certainly, during much of the 20th century, the distinction between learned and inherited behavior appeared much clearer than it does today. The concept that any type of behavior was either learned or merely developed without learning seemed a rationale and straightforward belief. esearch based on these expectations caused some scientists to conclude that rat-killing behavior among cats, for example, is a learned behavior rather than an instinctive one, that human fears are all acquired, or that intelligence is completely the result of experience. Learning theorists were arguing at this point that most behavior is learned and that biological factors are of little or no importance. The behaviorist position that human behavior could be explained entirely in terms of reflexes, stimulus-response associations, and the effects of reinforcers upon them…
Ader, R., Baum, A., & Weiner, H. (1988). Experimental foundations of behavioral medicines: Conditioning approaches. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Black, A.H., Solomon, R.L., & Whiting, J.W.M. (1954, April). Resistance to temptation as a function of antecedent dependency relationships in puppies. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association meeting, New York. In American Psychologist, 9, 579.
Brush, F.R., Overmier, J.B., & Solomon, R.L. (1985). Affect, conditioning, and cognition: Essays on the determinants of behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dogs and People: The History and Psychology of a Relationship. (1996). Journal of Business Administration and Policy Analysis, 24-26, 54.
Old Boy at a Children's Museum Play Area
Soren is a 4-year-old boy. He has light blonde hair that is cut short on the sides and is longer on the top. He is a generally smiley child. He likes to interact with his surroundings and likes to run and hop, crouch and spring into action with a cry of delight as though he were taking great amusement in catching the world by surprise.
He is viewed at a play area in a children's museum. The observation begins just before noon and continues until a quarter past 1 pm.
The play area is very crowded and full of children around his own age, with parents standing nearby watching their children. Most of the children are playing on their own, looking at the environment around them, engaging with the activities (puzzles, blocks, interactive equipment, play sets, scooters, and jungle gym equipment). Soren's…
Emotional intelligence is what makes people effective in social situations, or in any situation requiring self-control or calm responses to stress. In fact, a large component of what people used to call "street smarts" is related to emotional intelligence, because emotional intelligence refers to the ability to read other people, read situations, and react in ways that are conducive to desirable results. Emotional intelligence is easily as important as intellectual intelligence in predicting overall success and happiness. Depending on one's career field, emotional intelligence may even be more important than intellectual intelligence or "book smarts." For example, in fields like sales or public relations, emotional intelligence is going to be far more useful than the intelligence measured by IQ. Emotional intelligence is an essential component in my self-development because the lack of emotional intelligence impedes my ability to achieve personal and career goals.
As a self-development goal, emotional intelligence is…
Emotional Behavior Disorder
The learning environment has been characterized by the presence of students with emotional problems and behavior disorders. This trend contributes to considerable challenges in the educational system and for teachers. Consequently, there are various strategies and programs that have been developed and implemented in the education system to help students with disabilities. Some of these measures include the development of educational programs for students with emotional problems and behavior disorders. One of the most commonly used ways in these educational programs is the establishment of an IEP goal, which guides the delivery of instructions and ways of evaluating student's progress.
Case Study for a Student with Emotional Behavioral Disorder
Franklin was seemingly reserved and quite shy when he entered the second-grade classroom. He would not initiate any interactions with teachers and his fellow students and was usually passive only responding to things when directly prompted. As the…
Laden, M. & Gromisch, E.S. (2012, October 17). IEP Goals for Writing -- With Samples.
Retrieved March 11, 2015, from http://www.brighthubeducation.com/special-ed-law/116896-sample-iep-goals-for-writing/
"Special Education Mathematics Standards, Benchmarks and Goal Stems for the Students with Moderate to Severe Disabilities." (n.d.). IEP4U. Retrieved March 11, 2015, from http://www.iep4u.com/math.htm
Owing to the ever-changing subjective judgments and life pursuits of young people, the transition to adult hood "has become so delayed and prolonged that it has spawned a new transitional period, extending from the late teens to the mid-twenties, called emerging adulthood" (Zanden, Crandell & Crandell, 2003, p. 366). Emerging adulthood is a fundamental stage in human development, incorporating a range of emotional changes. I personally have experienced a number of significant emotion-related changes since joining college a few months back.
Of particular significance is that I am beginning to find it relatively easy to manage the experiences of negative emotion. Back in high school, I found it extremely difficult to prevent the occurrence of such emotion. I always felt the urge to provoke feelings of sadness, fear, or anger in my colleagues, especially those that I did not get along with. It was almost impossible for me…
Goddings, A., Heyes, S.B., Bird, G., Viner, R.M. & Blakemore, S. (2012). The Relationship between Puberty and Social Emotion Processing. Development Science, 15(6), 801-811.
Williams, P. & Drolet, A. (2005). Age-Related Differences in Response to Emotional Advertisements. Journal of Consumer Research,32(4), 343-354.
Zanden, V., Crandell, T. & Crandell, C. (2003). Human Development (7th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill
Mothering and Development
The presence of a sensitive mother throughout a child's developmental period is an essential determinant of healthy growth and maturation. The establishment of a solid social and emotional foundation during a child's formative years can not only aid in preparing one's youngster for life in the outside world, it can also instill a beneficial groundwork in the basic concepts of the self (Cassidy, 1990). In order to achieve such noble maternal goals a good mother needs to possess a plethora of fostering characteristics. The most important of such qualities include love, responsiveness, consistency, an eye to encourage and the ability to provide the child with a sense of security. Successful implementation of the aforementioned traits will allow the child to develop a healthy attachment to the mother. This attachment is most often constructed in the stages of infancy. Through the informative and enlightening work of John owlby…
Caldji, C., Tannenbaum, B., Sharma, S., Francis, D., Plotsky, P.M., & Meaney, M.J. (1998, February 24). Maternal Care During Infancy Regulates the Development of Neural Systems Mediating the Expression of Fearfulness in the Rat. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC20261/
Cassidy, J. (1990). Theoretical and Methodological Considerations in the Study of Attachment and the Self in Young Children. In M.T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & E.M. Cummings, Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory, Research and Intervention (pp. 87-119). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Cherry, K. (2011). Attachment Theory. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com/od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htm
Bretherton, I. (1992). The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28 (5), 759-775.
younger brother's development since he was born in 1985, I would not have been able to until the beginning of this century. Until the early 1900s, no one was studying the changes that occurred in individuals from childhood to adulthood.
Now psychologists and other social scientists recognize that children go through similar behavioral, intellectual and mental, and physical steps while growing up. By using these theoretical steps as a guide, I can keep track of the development of my brother and any other child. It should always be remembered, however, that the time frames presented are averages and some children may achieve various developmental milestones earlier or later than the average but still be within the normal range. This information is presented to help interested parties understand what to expect from a child.
The idea that specific development stages exist for adults as well as children began with the initial…
Healy, Jane. Your child's growing mind. Galena, IL: Main Street Books, 1994.
Murray, Thomas. Human development theories. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999.
Singer, Dorothy. A Piaget primer: How a child thinks. New York: Plume, 1996.
Medelein N. Moody, (2013). A Relational Aggression Intervention in Early Childhood. University of Nebraska. ProQuest LLC.
The paper was aimed at interrogating the relational aggression in early childhood and if there are interventions within the school setting that can act to reduce the aggression. This intervention is referred to as the Early Childhood Friendship Project and entailed taking stock of the changes in the behavior of the children as they undergo the study and the project. The preliminaries within the article indicates that there is usually a significant differences between the relational aggression between the boys and girls in school with the later recording a higher rate of aggression.
The study was conducted through a survey method and formal testing as the children went through the project and the teachers concerned recorded the results and any noticeable changes over time.
The results that were observed showed…
Sebastian H. Scharf, (2013). Chronic social stress during adolescence: Interplay of paroxetine treatment and ageing. Neuropharmacology 72 (2013) 38e46
The research is centered on the effect of exposure to chronic stress during development especialy at the adolescent and the possibility of developing psychiatric disorders. This was motivated by the fact that little is known about the long lasting effects of the exposures to stress and their relation to age.
The study was focused on the direct and long-lasting impact of chronic social stress during adolescence as well as the chronic treatment of SSRI. Adult and aged animals were used since the experiment could potentially harm human subjects. There was use of CD1 mice at the age of 28 days and these were subjected to a chronic social stress for 7 weeks among other treatments with chemicals. It was observed that the chronic stress as well as the antidepressant treatment at the end of the development period could have a significant and long-lasting impact which is very relevant to healthy ageing.
Emotional Intelligence (EQ) Impacts Business Today
The article discusses how emotional intelligence (EQ) impacts business today in light of its increased use in the modern business environment. The discussion begins with an evaluation of the concept of emotional intelligence and the reasons it was introduced by Daniel Goleman in 1998. This is followed by an evaluation of the difference between emotional intelligence and intelligence quotient and the use of the concept of emotional intelligence in business today. The last two sections examine the effect of the use of emotional intelligence on business today and the reason for the increased demand for employees with high emotional intelligence.
Companies once believed that hiring individuals with high Intelligence Quotients (IQs) was a reflection of a sound recruiting strategy until the concept of Emotional Intelligence (EQ) emerged. Emotional Intelligence introduces a new way of looking at the root cause of the successes and failures…
Chastukhina, N. (2002). On the Role of Emotional Intelligence in Organizations. Retrieved November 29, 2013, from http://www.osra.org/2002/chastukhina.pdf
Goleman, D. (2004, January). What Makes a Leader? Best of HBR 1998. Harvard Business
Maddocks, J. (2013, August 6). IQ vs. EQ in the Digital Age is Emotional Intelligence More
Raising Cain: Protecting the Emotional Life of Boys
Dan Kindlon, Michael Thompson
The Raising Cain: Protecting the Emotional Life of Boys by Dan Kindlon, a researcher and psychology professor at Harvard who is also practicing psychotherapist specializing in boys and Michael Thompson, a child psychologist, workshop leader, and staff psychologist of an all-boys school. Both are Ph.Ds and two of the country's foremost child psychologists. In this book they have very successfully shared the experience of what they have learned in more than thirty-five years of mutual experience working with boys and their families.
The book is an important and a fascinating read to all boys and their families. Both authors have been convincing in their argument that for boys it would be good if they become more 'emotionally literate,' in order to comprehend their own feelings as well as of others. The valuable and insightful proposal given by these…
Raising Cain: Protecting the Emotional Life of Boys by Dan Ph.d Kindlon, Michael Ph.d
Thompson. Ballantine Reader's Circle. www.enotalone.com
Raising Cain: Protecting the Emotional Life of Boys by Dan Ph.d Kindlon, Michael Ph.d
Thompson. The Canadian Centres for Teaching Peace. www.peace.ca
During these meetings, it is necessary to align my coaching objectives with both the business and the career goals of the employees. I can directly address the challenge of solving problems for employees without allowing them to do so first by utilizing appreciative questions that requires them to search for applicable solutions. In the event that they cannot I can provide solutions for them. I can directly address the challenge of my avoiding conflict by farming conflict in a beneficial manner which reinforces the positives in the situation, both internally and externally. I can also actively promote the virtues of emotional intelligence from an internal and external perspective to actively reduce the incidence and severity of conflict.
Ashkanasy, N., Hartel, C., Zerbe, W. (2000). Emotions in the Workplace: esearch, Theory and Practice. Westport: Quorum Books.
Cram, F. (2010). "Appreciative inquiry." MAI eview. 3 (1): 1-13.
Jalongo, M.J. (1995). "Promoting…
Ashkanasy, N., Hartel, C., Zerbe, W. (2000). Emotions in the Workplace: Research, Theory and Practice. Westport: Quorum Books.
Cram, F. (2010). "Appreciative inquiry." MAI Review. 3 (1): 1-13.
Jalongo, M.J. (1995). "Promoting active listening in the classroom." Childhood Education. 72 (1): 13-18.
Kahneman, D, Tversky, a. (1981). "The framing of decisions and the psychological choice." Science. 211 (4481): 453-458.