" (2001) Atkins-Burnett relates that a "key index of competence in childhood and adolescence" is 'peer competence'. Stated is that: "Relationships with peers, as measured by sociometric indicators are strong indicators of both concurrent and future adaptive functioning." (2001) Longitudinal studies all show that there are similar characteristics "among resilient children: strong sense of competence and self-efficacy, well-liked by peers and adults, reflective rather than impulsive, use of flexible coping strategies, internal locus of control and good intellectual skills" (Burnett-Atkins, 2001)
The work of Qualter, Gardner and Whiteley (2007) entitled: "Emotional Intelligence: Review of Research and Educational Implications" states that there is: "...continuing controversy over how to define and measure EI, and how significant the concept of EI is in predicting various aspects of life success. Two predominant perspectives are those adopting an Ability EI and a Trait EI approach." (Qualter, Gardner, and Whiteley, 2007) Emotional Intelligence has been portrayed as a: "cognitive ability involving the cognitive processing of emotional information." (Qualter, Gardner, and Whiteley, 2007) Within the framework of this model EI is a traditional intelligence that is able to be measure through use of testing for abilities.
A four-branch model of emotional intelligence was proposed in the work of Mayer et al. (2000) which includes the psychological processes of:
Awareness of needs of self and others with the ability to monitor emotions and appropriate express emotions;
Ability to use emotions for thought facilitation and for guiding attention selection;
Ability to understand emotions; and Ability to regulate emotions. (Qualter, Gardner, and Whiteley, 2007)
Additionally stated is the fact that: "The relationship between personality and ability EI measures such as the MSCEIT appears to be of much less concern, mainly because studies generally find low or non-significant correlations between the two." (Qualter, Gardner, and Whiteley, 2007) Furthermore, because of the lack of empirical evidence "for distinctiveness between trait EI and personality" it must be questions whether "ability EI, given that it is viewed as a psychometrically legitimate intelligence, is moderately correlating with other intelligences such as general intelligence." (Qualter, Gardner, and Whiteley, 2007) Trait EI has been found to correlate with measures of personality however, ability EI has not been found to correlate with measures of personality. (Qualter, Gardner, and Whiteley, 2007)
There are both biological and social influences that impact the emotional intelligence of the individual which include:
1) the maturation of the neurological inhibitory system (this facilitates emotion regulation development);
2) the influence of the child's temperament on vulnerability to emotional difficulties; and 3) the mediating influences of parental interaction on the development of emotional vocabulary and understanding of emotions." (Qualter, Gardner, and Whiteley, 2007)
The work of Mayer, Salovey, Caruso, and Sitarenios entitled: "Emotional Intelligence as a Standard Intelligence" states that a new scale of emotional intelligence specifically, the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS) measures performance on 12 diverse tasks. According to these authors emotional intelligence is divided into four skills areas which are those of:
1) Perceiving emotions;
2) Using emotions to facilitate thought;
3) Understanding emotions; and 4) Managing emotions in a way that enhances personal growth and social relations." (Ibid)
ASSESSING EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE in YOUNG CHILDREN BIRTH to TEN
I. Research Findings
The research on 'emotional intelligence' reveals that emotional intelligence involves several areas of intelligence on the part of the individual therefore it is not possible to...
The emotionally intelligent child is able to perceive their own emotions and to contemplate upon these emotions and to understand the emotions. Finally the child who is emotionally intelligence is able to manage their emotions in a way that effects success in their social relationships and furthers their own personal growth. The work Qualter, Gardner, and Whiteley (2007) holds that emotional intelligence involve a cognitive abilities related to cognitive processing of emotional information. (Qualter, Gardner, and Whiteley, 2007) the work of Denham (2006) identified five areas of social-emotional development which are those of: (1) Social Competence; (2) Attachment; (3) Emotional Competence; (4) Self-perceived Competence; and (5) Temperament/Personality." (2006)
Various tests have been developed for assessing the emotional intelligence of children and while none of these tests are without flaws, each of the tests has commonly identified areas of assessment in emotional or social intelligence. It is generally acknowledge all across the selection of literature relating to this subject that there is no sure method of assessment of the individuals emotional intelligence however, these studies do tend to agree upon certain inherent elements and characteristics that are known to be existent among those individuals who do possess emotional intelligence. Specifically the child who is emotionally intelligent will be able to perceive, contemplate and understand their own emotions. Emotional intelligence has been closely connected to cognitive intelligence by researchers. There is not one area, but several in which assessment must be conducted in relation to emotional intelligence assessment. Mayer et al. (2000) proposed a four-branch model for use in assessment of emotional intelligence which includes: (1) Awareness of needs of self and others with the ability to monitor emotions and appropriate express emotions; (2) Ability to use emotions for thought facilitation and for guiding attention selection; (3) Ability to understand emotions; and (4) Ability to regulate emotions. (Qualter, Gardner, and Whiteley, 2007)
Further study in this area in the manner of longitudinal studies should be undertaken for gaining a clearer understanding of precisely what constitutes emotional intelligence as well as for determining the optimal way of assessing emotional intelligence.
Bar-on, R. (in press). Emotional and Social Intelligence: Insights from the Emotional
Berry, D.J.; Bridges, L.J.; and Zaslow, M.J. (2004) Early Childhood Measures Profiles. Prepared by Child Trends: Washington DC. www.childtrends.org.
Boyatzis, R.E. (1994). Stimulating self-directed learning thought the Managerial Assessment and Development Course, Journal of Management Eduaction,18(3), 304-323.
Chapman, B.P. And Hayslip, B. (2005) Incremental Validity of a Measure of Emotional Intelligence. Journal of Personality Assessment. Vol. 85 No. 2. 2005.
Denham, Susanne a. (2005) Assessing Social-Emotional Development in Children From a Longitudinal Perspective for the National Children's Study. George Mason University. Spring 2005.
Early Childhood Education and School Readiness: Conceptual Models, Constructs, and Measures. 2002 June 17-18. Washington DC. Online available at http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/upload/school_readiness.pdf
Fish, B. (Winter,2004). Using the Multiple Intelligences within the emotional intelligence framework. Retrieved July 1, 2005, from Gold, Karen and Concar, David (nd) Emotional Intelligence - Theory of Knowledge: International Baccalaureate. Online available at http://amyscott.com/emotional_intelligence.htm
Goldenberg, I.; Matheson, K.; and Mantler, J. (2006) the Assessment of Emotional Intelligence: A Comparison of Performance-Based and Self-Report Methodologies Journal of Personality Assessment Vol. 86, No. 1.
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam. http://www.dr-rhythm.com/Emotional%20Intelligence/Using%2 0 the%20multiple
20 intelligences%20within%20the%20emotional%2 intelligence%20framework%20.pdf.
Hyson, M. (2004). The emotional development of young children: Building an emotion-centered curriculum. (2nd ed.). New York: Teachers College Press.
Mayer, J.D.; Salovey, P. Caruso, D.R. And Sitarenios, Gill (2001) Emotional Intelligence as Standard Intelligence. Emotion 2 232-242.
Qualter, P.; Gardner, K.J.; and Whiteley, H.E. (2007) Emotional Intelligence: Review of Research and Educational Implications. Online available at http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1468-0122.2007.00395.x?cookieSet=1.
Quotient Inventory. In R. Bar-on & J. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of emotional intelligence, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Self science: The emotional intelligence curriculum. (2nd ed.). San Mateo, CA: 6 Seconds.
Stone-McCown, K., Jensen, a.L., Freedman, J.M., & Rideout, M.C. (1998).
Taffel, R. & Blau, M. (1991).…
In other words Emotional Intelligence means that the individual is capable of: (1) Accurately perceiving emotions in oneself and others; (2) Uses emotions to facilitate thinking; (3) Understands emotional meanings; and (4) Manages emotions well. This model is referred to as the 'ability' model of emotional intelligence. (Mayer & Salovey, 1997) DANIEL GOLEMAN-PERSONAL & SOCIAL COMPETENCE Daniel Goleman proposed the model of emotional intelligence based on the Personal and Social competencies
This is however not entirely the case. Working in physical isolation does not mean that there is no need for effective communication. Indeed, communication in such a case becomes even more important, as the lack of a physical workplace creates extra reliance upon communication. Workers still have to communicate with supervisors and customers, even if this is only in the virtual environment. Providing services to human customers will then
These studies show that while EI is being integrated into the British educational policy, many concrete steps still have to be taken to make full use of EI skills. Evidence in favor of Emotional Literacy There is growing scholarly evidence that shows definitive links between higher emotional intelligence (EI) and overall success in life. For instance, Rubin (1999) in his study found that students with high EI skills are less likely
Multigenerational Workforce Motivation Leadership Style Talent management and human resource management personnel have, been aware of the commercial value of creating and leveraging an all-encompassing, diverse workforce for several years. Recruitment and employee retention programs have focused on gender, ethnicity, race, recruitment and career development of veterans, disabled persons, etc. One can observe increased demands among corporate personnel, to include multigenerational diversity in their organizations. Talent and human resource managers have
Intelligence Defining, Identifying and Cultivating Childhood Intelligence Intelligence is a complex and nuanced subject. Once evaluated under fairly rigid terms using standardized intelligence quotient (IQ) testing, intelligence is now understood in a far more varied and flexible way, with concepts such as emotional intelligence, technical intelligence and artistic intelligence undermining a singular perspective on that which defines the concept. As this subject has widened in its scope, so too have discussions about
The second includes verbal and emotional assaults including persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, and other nonphysical, but clearly hostile or rejecting behaviors, such as repeated threats of beatings, sexual assault, and abandonment. The third, residual, category includes other forms of emotional abuse such as attempted sexual or physical assaults; throwing something at a child but missing; withholding shelter, sleep, or other necessities as punishment, and economic exploitation (p.11). According