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Empirical evidence on the consequences of schizophrenia on individuals' lives expose an alarming trend. Essentially, peer reviewed research, like the study conducted by aha, Chant, and McGarth (2007) show the extreme consequences of schizophrenia on the mortality rates of individuals who suffer from the disease. In a study that examined data from other peer reviewed studies, aha, Chant, and McGarth (2007) discerned that individuals with schizophrenia tend to have a much higher mortality rate than individuals without the condition, and that this gap in mortality trends in only further increasing.
aha, Chant, and McGarth (2007) conducted a study that reviewed mortality rates and typical patterns with individuals suffering from schizophrenia as a way to compare them to general mortality patterns of individuals who did not suffer from the condition. The overall goal of the study was to understand how standardized mortality ratios (MRs) changed depending on whether or…
Saha, Chant, and McGarth (2007) conducted a study that reviewed mortality rates and typical patterns with individuals suffering from schizophrenia as a way to compare them to general mortality patterns of individuals who did not suffer from the condition. The overall goal of the study was to understand how standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) changed depending on whether or not the condition of schizophrenia was present. The research aimed to augment the existing discourse regarding the nature of schizophrenia, which has increased dramatically over the past few decades. Still, with limited biological understanding of the condition, there are still issues regarding understanding who it affects and how it impacts that individual's life over the long-term haul (). Thus, this research aimed to help fill in gaps regarding the nature of how schizophrenia impacted overall mortality rates for those who were affected by it. The researchers hypothesized that there would be a statistically significant gap between the patterns of SMRs of individuals with the condition vs. without. This gap would show negative trends for individuals who have the condition, as they would have higher mortality rates that were expected vs. unexpected in a population of individuals affected by schizophrenia. There were also other hypotheses presented in the research, one including that SMR information would not be significantly different between male and female sufferers. The other major hypothesis here was that individuals from developing nations would have an even higher rate of mortality when compared to individuals suffering from schizophrenia in more developed nations, like the United States.
These hypotheses were tested with a survey methodology. Essentially, the research utilized data from previous studies to compile a throughout survey of death rates over a substantially long period of time. Data was collected from studies conducted from dates ranging from January 1, 1980 to January 31, 2006 (Saha, Chant, & McGrath, 2007). These sources were retrieved using scholarly search engines, such as MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and Google Scholar. According to the study, "once a study was included, data were extracted and entered into a 3-level, normalized database that included study level variables (eg. Authors, year of publication, and site), middle-level variables (eg. age group, recruitment duration, case-finding method, males or females), and estimate-level variables (eg. general and specific-cause of SMRs for all persons, males or females)" (Saha, Chant, & McGrath, 2007). Data was then statistically analyzed using regression analysis. The research found that there is a significant gap between SMRs between individuals suffering from schizophrenia and individuals without the condition. The results also verified that there was not a significant difference between the sexes.
Moreover, the research found that SMRs associated with schizophrenia have actually been increasing over the past few decades, despite the logical assumption that they would be decreasing because of advances in medical science and treatments for the condition. The survey found that the gap is actually increasing, showing that the problem is only getting worse. This study
2009; Correia et al. 2009). Identified methods of intervening and factors of mitigating the effects of bullying will also be examined, with long-term prognoses for these mitigations and for the effects of bullying in general reviewed (Bowes et al. 2010). Through a comprehensive review of available literature on the subject, recommendations for future research and possibly for addressing bullying situations in institutions and regions where such behaviors are especially prevalent and/or egregious can be made, and the knowledge base in this field clarified and advanced.
Bowes, L.; Maughan, B.; Caspi, a.; Mofitt, T. & Arsenault, L. (2010). "Families promote emotional and behavioural resilience to bullying: evidence of an environmental effect." Journal of child psychology and psychiatry 51(7), pp. 809-17.
Correia, I.; Kamble, S. & Dalbert, C. (2009). "Belief in a just world and well-being of bullies, victims and defenders: a study with Portuguese and Indian students." Anxiety, stress, and…
Bowes, L.; Maughan, B.; Caspi, a.; Mofitt, T. & Arsenault, L. (2010). "Families promote emotional and behavioural resilience to bullying: evidence of an environmental effect." Journal of child psychology and psychiatry 51(7), pp. 809-17.
Correia, I.; Kamble, S. & Dalbert, C. (2009). "Belief in a just world and well-being of bullies, victims and defenders: a study with Portuguese and Indian students." Anxiety, stress, and coping 22(5), pp. 497-508.
Due, P.; Damsgaard, M.; Lund, R. & Holstein, B. (2009). "Is bullying equally harmful for rich and poor children?: a study of bullying and depression from age 15 to 27." European Journal of Public Health 19(5), pp. 464-9.
The main findings, are related to the reactivation of newly acquired memory representations in hippocampal networks that stimulates a transfer and integration of these representations into neocortical neuronal networks as the most important mechanism of memory consolidation. However, the authors give an account of these findings in the article discussed as well.
A more comprehensive review is offered by Frank Marcos and Benington Joel in an article called "The Role of Sleep in Memory Consolidation and Brain Plasticity: Dream or Reality?" published in the Neuroscientist (12/2006). The authors make reference to current evidence for and against the hypothesis that sleep facilitates memory consolidation and promotes plastic changes in the brain. The findings of the study refer to the fact that despite recent accumulation of positive outcomes the precise role of sleep in memory and brain plasticity remains uncertain. They suggest the employment of more integrated approaches that combine behavioral and…
Born, Jan, Rasch, Bjrn, Gais, Steffen "Sleep to Remember" Neuroscientist 2006; 12; 410 Retrieved at http://nro.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/12/5/410
Gais, Steffen, Born, Jan "Declarative memory consolidation: Mechanisms acting during human sleep" Learning Memory 2004 11: 679-685
Marcos, Frank, Benington, Joel "The Role of Sleep in Memory Consolidation and Brain Plasticity: Dream or Reality?" Neuroscientist 2006, 12(6):477-488.
Stickgold, Robert, Fosse, Roar, Walker, Matthew "Linking brain and behavior in sleep-dependent learning and memory consolidation" PNAS 2002, December 24, vol. 99 no. 26 16519 -16521
In principle, the EBP concept relies on fundamental areas of focus within a total-process approach to delivering the highest quality healthcare services (Hardcastle, Usher, & Holmes, 2006; Williamson, 2009). In clinical medicine, that begins with the formulation of the most relevant clinical questions, and continues with the use of the skill to identify the best current evidence, appraise it systematically, and optimally applied to specific situations. Meanwhile, throughout that process, clinical healthcare practitioners simultaneously incorporate their entire knowledge base and clinical experience with their understanding of the needs, values, and expectations of patients and other stakeholders. Finally, the EBP approach to nursing and healthcare includes the ongoing empirical evaluation of clinical procedures within a continuing process whose most important purpose is to improve the future of healthcare delivery by applying the data describing previous experience (Hamric, Spross, & Hanson, 2009).
Hamric, A.B., Spross, J.A., and Hanson, C.M. (2009). Advanced…
Hamric, A.B., Spross, J.A., and Hanson, C.M. (2009). Advanced Practice Nursing: An
Integrative Approach. St. Louis, MO: Saunders.
Hardcastle, M., Usher, K., and Holmes, C. "Carspecken's five-stage critical qualitative research method: An application to nursing research." Qualitative Health
Research, Vol. 16, No. 1 (2006): 151 -- 161.
Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) is the assimilation of the best research evidence with clinical proficiency and patient values. This takes into account placing equal emphasis on the situation of the patient, his or her goals, objectives, values and aspirations, the best accessible research evidence and the clinical proficiency and expertise of the practitioner. Evidence-based practice in psychology can be defined as the incorporation and assimilation of the best accessible research with clinical knowledge and expertise in the context of patient features, culture, and preferences. In psychology, the main purpose of evidence-based practice encompasses the promotion of efficacious psychological practice, improvement of public health by making use of empirically supported principles of psychological evaluation, case formulation, therapeutic association, and intervention (Drisko, 2012).
Therefore, taking this into consideration, evidence-based practice can be delineated as a wider notion that account for not only knowledge and understanding but also action in three fundamental components of…
American Psychological Association. (2016). Policy Statement on Evidence-Based Practice in Psychology. Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/practice/guidelines/evidence-based-statement.aspx
Bauer, R. M. (2007). Evidence-based practice in psychology: Implications for research and research training. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 63(7), 685-694.
Davey, G. (2011). Applied Psychology. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Drisko, J. (2012). Evidence-Based Practice. Retrieved from: https://sophia.smith.edu/~jdrisko/evidence_based_practice.htm
deductive and empirical strategies used in the construction of structured personality instruments, it is important to denote just what the terms deductive and empirical mean and how they relate to tests specific to psychological purposes. Empirical evidence is that which can be demonstrated or proven, and which ultimately exists in the world. Deductive reasoning is a form of logic wherein individuals establish a basic premise or truth, combine it with others for which there is empirical evidence to validate, and then draw conclusions. This type of reasoning determines conclusions based on a top-down approach to reasoning. These respective strategies, then, which frequently are applied in congruence with one another, are highly important for the makeup of structured personality tests. One may even posit the viewpoint that without such strategies, the results of personality instruments would be virtually useless or inconclusive at best.
Define and Describe Deductive
Therefore, when examining the…
Frisby, C.L. (2000). Handbook of multicultural assessment. Suzuki, L.A., Ponterotto, J.G. (Ed.). Hoboken: Jossey-Bass.
Kwan, K.-L. K., Maestas, M.L. (2000). Handbook of multicultural assessment. Suzuki, L.A., Ponterotto, J.G. (Ed.). Hoboken: Jossey-Bass.
McCrae, R.R., Costa Jr., P.T. (1989). Rotation to maximize the construct validity factors in the NEO personality inventory. Multivariate Behavioral Research. 24: 107 -- 124.
Suzuki, L.A., Prevost, L., Short, E.L. (2000). Handbook of multicultural assessment. Suzuki, L.A., Ponterotto, J.G. (Ed.). Hoboken: Jossey-Bass.
empirically-based evidence and how it applies to nursing. The definition of the word "evidence" is a core concept in law and can be used in different ways to either corroborate or refute a particular issue. Given this understanding of what evidence is I then concluded that a complete understanding of what evidence actually is rarely if ever occurs in the legal realm, whereas in the healthcare realm the notion of evidence has been interpreted to mean some type of proof that is independently verified. However, even in the healthcare realm so-called "evidence" is rarely absolute. The point is that given my understanding of the word evidence there is no one form of evidence that is inherently superior to another, even though historically notions of empirically -- based evidence in healthcare has taken a different attitude.
With respect to empirically-based evidence, the healthcare industry initially placed greater value quantitative evidence (research)…
The preceding evidence lends itself to a number of specific nursing implications that are very likely to improve the conditions of a variety of patients affected with the miasma of symptoms that encompass dementia. The specific care for each individual patient will vary based on whether the data used to assess a particular symptom applies to that patient or not. In the case of the latter circumstance, the patient will merely forego the recommendation (which solely applies to patients suffering from that particular manifestation of dementia) in favor of one that coincides with the specific needs of that patient.
The empirical evidence of Vance and Cowen (2010) indicates that the deployment of light therapy yields positive affects for those suffering from Alzheimer's disease. The administration of light therapy from a light box generating between 1500 and 2500 lux will be used for one to two hours both in…
During normal waking hours, music therapy in the form of clock radios that serve as alarms throughout various points in the day (and which play music of the patient's choice) will be utilized, as well as aroma therapeutic practices in which lavender scents (in the form of candles and scented oils) will be used, since the study of Lin et al. (2007) has compiled empirical data to support lavender's alleviation of agitated behaviors. Based on Vance and Cowan's 2010 research that discourages inactivity and daytime napping, residents will be offered a variety of diurnal activities revolving around the outdoors, such as hiking, walking, and other forms of exercise agreeable to the patient.
Paragraph in the Introduction
The term Sundowning Syndrome (reviewed by Bachman & Rabins, 2006) has been used to describe the increased agitation of Alzheimer's patients during the late afternoon and early evening, and has been observed for more than 60 years. Volicer et al. (2001) helped confirm this tendency by monitoring circadian rhythms in dementia patients (with a mean age of 71) through the usage of body temperatures. The studies were extremely effective in producing statistical documentation that indicated a three hour lapse in the peak core of body temperatures for Sundowning patients as opposed to controls, as well as a five hour lapse in the peak motor activity between the same two groups. The strength of these research methods can be determined by the fact that they were able to quantify such information in immediately comparable forms. The fact that these results brought forth a conclusion that circadian control mechanisms were not in optimal operations for such patients is somewhat vague, and could be strengthened by expositions to determine why this is the case. The conclusion of these studies, however, is supported by the work of Serniczuk, Dyck, LaFerla, and Antle (2010) which found frequent SCN atrophy and optic nerve damage in post mortem dementia patients.
Translation Evidence Into Nursing Health Care Practice. Chapter 6, "Translation Evidence Leadership" Article: Bakke, C.K. (2010). Clinical cost effectiveness guidelines prevent intravascular catheter-related infections patients' hemodialysis.
Briefly summarize your selected issue and propose new evidence-based practice strategies.
Pressure ulcers, commonly known as bedsores, are frequently observed in otherwise healthy bed-ridden patients in nursing homes. To promote wellness amongst this patient population, it has been suggested that regular turning and positioning of the patients by caregivers should be used to reduce their occurrence. Turning and positioning has long been used amongst healthcare practitioners for a variety of bed-ridden patients, usually at regimented intervals spanning 4-2 hours (Thomas 2001). Based upon the previous research conducted upon this population, the suggested shortened interval is 1-11/2 hours for repositioning of the patient (Thomas 2001).
Q2. Describe the theoretical basis for your strategies.
The theoretical basis for this initiative lies in the idea that passive…
Bluestein, D. & Javaheri, A. (2008). Pressure ulcers: Prevention, evaluation, and management.
American Family Physician, 78(10):1186-1194. Retrieved from:
Krapil, L.A. & Gray, M. (2008). Does regular repositioning prevent pressure ulcers?
This is one of the most common forms of research and, for some research questions is clearly a strong design (Ethics in Critical Care Nursing Research, 2005).
The research that was done in this article would be considered a non-experimental type. There were two types of observation that were conducted. The first type was that of focus groups and the second being the file audit, both of which are observational in nature. In this case this was the most appropriate type of research design to use. Since they were simply trying to see what was actually going on in this area and how that was affecting patients the only real way to tot this was by observation. From this article a nursing care issue that can be raised is that of how palliative care nurses manage family involvement with end of life issues. Are there any standard procedures that are…
Criminological Theory and Statistical Data
Criminological theory is not always based on evidence—that is, on statistical evidence. Sometimes it is based on ideas that seem logical at the time. Theorists will notice correlations in the ways in which crime emerges in certain communities and they will base their theories of crime on these observances, though no statistical evidence is actually accumulated to verify the theory. The theory simply makes sense from a logical or rational point of view and in this manner it can be promoted. Its basis of evidence is qualitative (i.e., content-related, conceptual or thematic) rather than statistical and empirical (i.e., data that can be measured, quantified and verified through testing). Broken Windows Theory is one example of criminological theory that was based on qualitative assessments rather than on statistical data (Jean, 2008). While the theory has been embraced over the years since it was first developed,…
Thus, the relationship between investigative psychology and forensic psychology is fairly lucid. Investigative psychology largely provides the means of identifying suspects and eventually indicting them. The mechanics of investigative psychology are multi-fold. For instance, in the case of the so-called "D.C. Sniper" in 2002, investigators were able to gain forensic evidence regarding ballistics and fingerprints. The former enabled them to identify the type of weapon that was repeatedly used during the attacks; the latter was used to procure a suspect in this particular case (Federal, 2007).
However, the true value of this sort of methodology becomes manifest in court during subsequent trials. In the previously mentioned sniper case, two suspects were convicted largely due to the evidence gathered against them. It is important to note that this sort of evidence is empirically based and confirms to scientific methodology. Without such convincing evidence, of course, there could have been a greater…
Knox, D., Limbacher, J., & McMahan, K. (1993). "Thomas Dillon, hunter of humans." Akron Beacon Journal.
Retrieved from http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/767482/posts
Federal Bureau of Investigations: Headline Archives: A Byte Out of History: "The Beltway Snipers, Part 1." Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2007/october/snipers_102207
Trauma-elated Disorders and ecommended Treatment
Clinical Presentation of Trauma-elated Disorders and ecommended Treatments
On January 13, 2015, Andrew Brannan, a 66-year-old Vietnam veteran was executed in Georgia for killing police officer Kyle Dinkheller in 1998 (Hoffman, 2015). At the time, Brannan had been living in a bunker on his mother's property without water or electricity and had stopped taking his medications. According to the Veterans Administration (VA), he was 100% disabled due to combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). He also suffered from bipolar disorder, had lost two brothers to a military plane crash and suicide, and lost a father to cancer. Veterans groups, death penalty critics, and mental health advocates, all petitioned the Georgia Supreme Court for a stay of execution unsuccessfully. The veterans groups were particularly interested in preventing the death of yet another veteran who developed severe psychiatric problems while serving his or her country.
Trauma in general…
APA (American Psychiatric Association). (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association.
Cook, J.M., Dinnen, S., Simiola, V., Bernardy, N., Rosenheck, R., & Hoff, R. (2014). Residential treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in the Department of Veterans Affairs: A national perspective on perceived effective ingredients. Traumatology, 20(1), 43-9.
Dursa, E.K., Reinhard, M.J., Barth, S.K., & Schneiderman, A.I. (2014). Prevalence of a positive screen for PTSD among OEF/OIF and OEF/OIF-era veterans in a large population-based cohort. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27, 542-549.
Ehring, T., Welboren, R., Morina, N., Wicherts, J.M., Freitag, J., & Emmelkamp, P.M. (2014). Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Clinical Psychology Review, 34(8), 645-57.
The condition was shown to be the second-most common cause of older adults being institutionalized because of the inordinately demanding nature of caring for them that is typically beyond the ability of many spouses or other family members. In the final analysis, the chances of older adults suffering from urinary incontinence are fairly high given that the population will increasingly include older adults, many of whom will be among the very old.
Beling, J. (2004). Impact of service learning on physical therapist students' knowledge of and attitudes toward older adults and on their critical thinking ability. Journal of Physical
Therapy Education, 18(1), 13-14.
Burke, M. & Laramie, J.A. (2000). Primary care of the older adult: A multidisciplinary approach. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Ebersole, P. & Hess, P. (1999). Toward healthy aging: Human needs and nursing response.
St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Fantl, J.A., Newman, D.K., Colling, J. et al. (1996).…
Beling, J. (2004). Impact of service learning on physical therapist students' knowledge of and attitudes toward older adults and on their critical thinking ability. Journal of Physical
Therapy Education, 18(1), 13-14.
Burke, M. & Laramie, J.A. (2000). Primary care of the older adult: A multidisciplinary approach. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Ebersole, P. & Hess, P. (1999). Toward healthy aging: Human needs and nursing response.
By using a review technique, evidence from many different studies and types of research could be compared and analyzed, leading to the result of a higher grade. The few guidelines that were reviewed were the most clear in their recommendations, yet because the direct evidence that led to the formation of these guidelines was not fully provided the recommendations received a lower score. This is not to suggest that these guidelines, when produced by reputable organizations, are not worthy of implementation or consideration, but rather that further investigation into the guideline areas, such that primary research data is found that supports the recommendations in the guidelines published. Having this data directly available will enable the guidelines to be viewed with a higher score of validity and reliability.
The majority of the experimental or observational studies in this set of research received low grades for their recommendation for a variety of…
.. If one of the goals of the healthcare system is to promote health and prevent illness and injury, it may be logical to start with those who work in the system." (Yassi, Ostry, Spiegel, and Walsh, 2002, p.1)
Presently the healthcare environment is characterized by nurse shortages of 25% of the entire nursing force. It is held that the working conditions along with job stress negatively impact the nursing force and its turnover rate. Injuries are also reported by nursing staff. It is likely that the nursing shortage is the number one challenge in today's healthcare provision. The negative work environment negatively impacts the nursing professional and their decision to either leave or to potentially fail altogether to enter the profession.
Naturally when there is a shortage of any type of professional worker some area suffers their absence and when this concept is applied in the field of healthcare…
Institute of Medicine. Performance Measurement: Accelerating Improvement. Washington DC: National Academy Press; 2006.
Institute of Medicine. Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. Washington DC: National Academy Press; 2001.
Lewis Patricia S. And Latney, Cynthia (2003) Achieve Best Practice With an Evidence-Based Approach. Critical Care Nurse. Vol. 23. No. 6 December 2003. Online available at: http://ccn.aacnjournals.org/cgi/reprint/23/6/67.pdf
Rundall, K. (2002) Evidence-Based Management in Healthcare: Lessons from Clinical Practice. Academy for Health Services Research and Health Policy. Meeting. Abstr Acad Health Serv Res Health Policy Meet. 2002; 19: 20. Manchester Centre for Healthcare Management, Manchester Business School University of Manchester, Devonshire House, University Precinct Centre, Oxford Road,, Manchester,
posteriori, justification is a phenomenon to which a great number of philosophical directions can be applied. After defining the issue of justification, foundationalism and phenomenalism will be expounded for their strengths and weaknesses in terms of a posteriori justification.
A Posteriori Justification
The phrase "a posteriori" refers to propositions that are knowable on the basis of experience. Experience is thus used to justify the knowledge of the proposition. Experience therefore forms the basis of knowledge, which makes this kind of justification empirical. The knowledge can be proven by the experiences beforehand. This past experience then forms the basis of a posteriori justification, and for thinking that propositions of this kind are true. Things that can be proven by the experiences of oneself can be classified as a posteriori. The research done by natural sciences for example are experiences upon which to base justification.
In terms of a posteriori justification,…
Laura Polk's theory of resilience holds that an individual has the ability to rise above adversity. There are a number of factors that contribute to how this occurs -- dispositional, relational, situational and philosophical factors all play into this ability to be resilient (Jackson, 2015). This theory has significant implications for nursing practice, and can be evaluated through the lens of evidence-based practice.
Polk's Theory of esilience
Individuals rise above adversity
Dispositional, relational, situational, philosophical
Can be evaluated through evidence-based practice
Nurses can influence the different factors that contribute to resilience. The theory was developed on the basis of Polk's own real-life experience. She recognized that nurses can put themselves in the position of the patient, at least to some extent, and by doing this can empathize with the patient. This empathy allows the nurse to see the treatment through the eyes of the patient. Nurses can then…
Jackson, J. (2015). Nursing paradigms and theories: A primer. Athabasca University. Retrieved July 23, 2015 from https://www.nursinglibrary.org/vhl/bitstream/10755/338888/1/Nursing%20Paradigms%20and%20Theories,%20A%20Primer.pdf
Polk, L. (1997). Toward a middle-range theory of resilience. Advances in Nursing Science. Vol. 19 (3) 1-13.
Rule: Any out-of-court statement offered to prove the truth of the matter asserted is generally inadmissible as hearsay. (801-802) However, hearsay may be admitted, in a prosecution for homicide or in a civil case, if the declarant, while believing the declarant's death to be imminent, made the statement about its cause or circumstances. (804(b)(2).
Application: Here, the defense attorney's objection is premised on the fact that the deceased Sam's statements are I inadmissible as hearsay, as an out-of-court statement by a person unavailable for trial, offered to prove that the other driver was driving on the wrong side of the road. However, Trooper Jones may offer this statement because it falls under the (804(b)(2) hearsay exception, as a statement in a civil case that the declarant made while his death was imminent.
Conclusion: The basis for the defense attorney's objection is hearsay because the deceased Sam's statement is an out-of-court…
For example, although many nurses were taught to place infants in the prone sleeping position to prevent aspiration, there is now persuasive evidence that supine (back) sleeping position decreases the risk for sudden infant death syndrome." (p. 28)
This also implicates the practice dimensions of nursing. According to the primary text, evidence-based practice is particularly important as a way to dissuade against poorly informed or assumption-driven decision-making. here non-evidence-based practice is in place, the risk is higher that error or unwanted health consequences may result from treatment approaches. By contrast, the use of evidence-base practice provides the nurse with a set of empirically formed guidelines on how to approach each patient. Instinct such as that often relied upon so heavily in non-evidence-based practice, should be integrated with the understanding afforded by comprehensive research. Only then can the practicing nurse apply practical treatment decisions without falling into otherwise discredited customs or…
Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2008). Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice, (8th ed.).
Are Fingerprint Identifications Such that Can be Considered Valid Evidence
Fingerprint identification is a means of personal identification that is infallible and this is the reason that fingerprints have replaced other methods of identification of criminals. The science of fingerprint identification is stated to stand out among all other forensic sciences for the following reasons: (1) fingerprint identification has served governments across the globe for more than 100 years in the provision of accurate identification of criminals. In billions of human and automated computer, comparisons there are no two fingerprints found to be alike. Fingerprints are the basis for criminal history in every law enforcement agency worldwide; (2) the first forensic professional organization, the International Association for Identification (IAI) was established in 1915; (3) the first professional certification program for forensic scientists was established in 1977; (3) fingerprint identification is the most commonly used of all forensic evidence…
Cherry, Michael and Imwinkelreid, Edward (2006) How we can improve the reliability of fingerprint identification. Judicature. Vol. 90, No.2. September-October 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.ajs.org/ajs/publications/Judicature_PDFs/902/Cherry_902.pdf
Fingerprint Identification (2012) FBI. Retrieved from: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/fingerprints_biometrics/fingerprint-overview
Leo, William (2005) What are the Effects of the Daubert Decision on Fingerprint Identification? e Southern California Association of Fingerprint Officers, The Print, July/August 2005, Vol. 21, #4
William Daubert, et Ux., Etc., et Al., Petitioners V. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 509 U.S. 579; 113 S. Ct. 2786; 125 L. Ed. 2d 469; 1993 U.S. LEXIS 4408; 61 U.S.L.W. 4805; 27 U.S.P.Q.2D (BNA) 1200; CCH Prod. Liab. Rep. P13,494; 93 Cal. Daily Op. Service 4825; 93 Daily Journal DAR 8148; 23 ELR 20979; 7 Fla. L. Weekly Fed. S 632.
57. The Deterrent Effects of Arrest for Domestic Assault (Lawrence . Sherman and Richard A. Berk)
Types of data/methods: Sherman and Berk found that arresting batterers reduced by half the rate of subsequent offenses against the same victim within a 6-month followup period. However, in follow-up studies, sometimes offenders assigned to the arrest group had higher levels of (recidivism) while others showed a reduction in repeat cases.
Advantages/Disadvantages: Although the repeat nature of the offenses in a series of trials shows thoroughness, the inconsistent findings about whether mandatory arrest reduces domestic violence suggests more information about the different cases might be necessary to show if arrest helps in some cases but not in others.
Summarize the overall prevalence and incidence of the crime problem in the 1960s as portrayed by the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice (pg.361) and by the National Commission on…
Crime Statistics." (2006) Bureau of Justice. Retrieved 11 Jun 2006 at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/cvict.htm
Jacoby, Joseph E. (2004) Classics of Criminology. New York: Waveland Press.
nurses deliver evidence-Based care?
Define main ideas within the title supported from the literature
Nurse instructors confront many hurdles in the present healthcare environment. Educational methods, philosophies, and the content of curricula is required to reviewed to cater to the requirements of the professional nurses who would practice in the coming millennium. (Kessenich; Guyatt; DiCenso, 25) Evidence-based practice or EBP has currently emerged to be a remarkable attribute in nursing literature along with a key impetus in restructuring nursing practice. (Elizabeth; Pyle, 64) Evidence-Based Nursing or EBN is the strategy by which the nurses formulate clinical conclusions applying the best available research evidence, their clinical skill and patient prioritization. (Evidence-Based Nursing: University of Minnesota) It could be narrated as the meticulous, unequivocal and judicious application of the current best evidences in formulating decisions about the care of individual patients. When clinicians formulate health care conclusions for a population or group…
Asking Clinical Questions: Introduction. Retrieved from http://www.poems.msu.edu/InfoMastery/Questions/Questions.htm Accessed on 18 June, 2005
Beyers, Marjorie. About Evidence-Based Nursing Practice. Nursing Management. October, 1999. Vol: 11; No: 1; pp: 103-105
Code of professional Conduct. Retrieved from http://www.nmc-uk.org/nmc/main/publications/reqForPre-regNursing.pdf Accessed on 17 June, 2005
Cronenwett, L. Research, Practice and Policy: Issues in Evidence-Based Care. Journal of Issues in Nursing. February 19, 2002. Vol: 7; No.2; pp: 57-61
The Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice
Evidence-based practice is a cornerstone of effective patient care (Mateo & Kirchhoff, 2009). The robustness of any existing body of evidence is only as useful as the ability of advance practice nurses to access, retrieve, and implement that knowledge in the practice environment. Therefore, nurses need systematic and comprehensive strategies for making information available to colleagues. Nurses also need their administrators to invest in the latest tools and technologies that promote evidence-based practice including networks and information systems. Policies and procedures should not only uphold the tenets of evidence-based practice but also make it easier for nurses to find and share knowledge specific to developing practice behaviors in their care environments. Methods of finding knowledge specific to developing practice behaviors include utilizing proprietary databases, interviewing experts in the field, and utilizing online digital resources. Combining these three methods of knowledge acquisition can make research more…
Third, lack of attention to evidence-based practice can lead to inconsistent delivery of care services.
Evidence-based practice relates to almost every aspect of health care at every stage of a client's relationship with the institution. For example, evidence-based practice informs the types of questions asked during the diagnostic procedures and might even impact the diagnosis itself (Bennett & Bennett, 2000). Evidence-based practice impacts the methods by which infections are prevented (Cantrell, 2009). Evidence-based practices impact the extent to which nurses are empowered to make sound, safe, and effective decisions (Scott & Pollock 2008). Evidence-based practice has the potential to transform the structure of a health care organization like MMH. This is because evidence-based practice changes the hierarchical structure in the organization due to the increased responsibility of nurses for conducting their own research. Alternatively, evidence-based practice can be an extension of organizational change. Health care organizations reducing the hierarchical nature…
Artinian, B.M., West, K.S., & Conger, M.M. (2011). The Artinian Intersystem Model. New York: Springer.
Bennett, S. & Bennett, J. (2000). The process of evidence-based practice in occupational therapy: Informing clinical decisions. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal (2000), 47, 171-180.
Burns, N. & Grove, S.K. (2009). The Practice of Nursing Research. St. Louis, MO: Saunders.
Cantrell, S. (2009). Performing under pressure: Caring for decubitus ulcers. Healthcare Purchasing News. Aug 2009.
philosopher Rene Descartes can be regarded as the supreme rationalist. Descartes believed that only through our rational minds could we fully know God and find evidence of God. Empirical knowledge was not sufficient justification to prove the existence of God because our senses could delude us or be faulty (such as through madness or blindness). In contrast, through rational inquiry we could first demonstrate our own existence on a mental plane: even if all is a delusion regarding the body there must be some 'mind' doing the thinking, rationalized Descartes. And, as the human mind can conceive of a greater intelligence known as God, a level of perfection human beings cannot approach, then within the very structure of our mind lies the evidence of God.
David Hume's Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, however, takes the opposite, empiricist point-of-view. In the dialogue, three figures known as Demea, Cleanthes, and Philo engage in…
.." And "The probability that my peers would undertake the same action is...." It is the difference in the responses given to these two questions, as captured on a seven point Likert scale, that is the measure of the social desirability response bias. (Tyson: 1992; Cohen et al.: 1995, 1996, 2001).
Many studies have been done on the role and correlation between moral development and ethical decision making as it applies to various professionals. A majority of these research studies have found that such things as gender, education, age and taking ethics courses in school have some affect on one's moral reasoning developments (Armstrong: 1993; Elm, Kennedy & Lawton: 2001; Jones & Hiltebeitel: 1995; Ponemon & Glazer: 1990; Shaub: 1994). However, many studies have also found exactly the opposite, in that no significant relationship exists. (Ma & Chan: 1987; Rogers & Smith: 2001; Thorne, Massey & Magnan: 2003).
Weber, J., & Glyptis, S.M. (2000). Measuring the impact of a business ethics course and community service experience on students' values and opinions. Teaching Business Ethics, 4, 341-358.
Weber, J., & Green, S. (1991). Principled Moral Reasoning: Is it a Viable Approach to Promote Ethical Integrity? Journal of Business Ethics, 10(5), 325-333.
Wynd, W.R., & Mager, J. (1989). The business and society course: Does it change student attitudes? Journal of Business Ethics, 8(6), 486-491.
Eileen Gale Kugler, the Evidence is in: Diversity Helps Students.
Kugler's article is a brief account of evidences describing that diversity of race in school is beneficial to students. The content of the article, which basically enumerates studies and researches that support the hypothesis that racial diversity in a classroom is favorable in the cognitive and social learning of students, was written to assert the author's opinion in contrast to James Metcalf's contention that a diverse study body is not helpful to public interest. This belief of Metcalf makes him to disagree on Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology's goal of increasing diversity in its campus.
Kugler presented several findings of different researches regarding racial diversity in schools. One finding, based on Patricia Gurin's empirical studies, and as indicated by Kugler, states that all students, non-minority and minority alike, learn better in a setting where they are confronted…
Kugler, Eileen G. The Evidence is In: Diversity Helps Students.
2003. Washingtonpost.com. 28 May 2004. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&contentId=A63524-2003Oct8¬Found=true
Programs for Parents of Infants and Toddlers: ecent Evidence From andomized Trials
My initial thoughts and feelings were:
Infancy is a very important stage in children's development. It is at this stage that children are most receptive to both mental and physical change and they are at greater risk of potentially harmful influences than their older counterparts. Infants also get affected much more by parental disruptions than older kids. It has been shown that parent-child interactions during the early stages are great predictors of several late and early developmental outcomes. Lending parents support in coming up and implementing good parenting skills can lead to great child development (Pontoppidan, Klest & Sandov, 2016). Since the child is most malleable during infancy, experiences at this stage shape the child's behavior, wellbeing and brain development and so the effects can last for the entire life of the infant. Parenting interventions given to newborn…
Olds, D. L., Sadler, L., & Kitzman, H. (2007). Programs for parents of infants and toddlers: recent evidence from randomized trials. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 48(3-4), 355-391.
Pontoppidan, M. (2015). The effectiveness of the Incredible Years™ Parents and Babies Program as a universal prevention intervention for parents of infants in Denmark: study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial. Trials, 16(1), 386.
Pontoppidan, M., Klest, S. K., & Sandoy, T. M. (2016). The Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. PloS one, 11(12), e0167592.
Sadler, L. S., Slade, A., Close, N., Webb, D. L., Simpson, T., Fennie, K., & Mayes, L. C. (2013). Minding the baby: Enhancing reflectiveness to improve early health and relationship outcomes in an interdisciplinary home-visiting program. Infant mental health journal, 34(5), 391-405.
proponents of evidence based instruction represent one end of the methods of teaching continuum where practices that have been tested empirically using rigorous research designs are considered to be the only valid method of instruction (Odom et al., 2005). On the other end of the spectrum are methods that may be have some basis for use such an intuition, theory, etc. But have not been subject to empirical scrutiny are considered valid to use. Evidence based instruction or scientific research-based instruction consists of instructional practices or programs for which empirical data have been collected to determine the effectiveness of the program (Odom et al., 2005). In these types of practices/programs rigorous research designs have been conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the practices. Such research designs can include randomized, controlled trials; quasi-experiments; single subject designs; correlational methods, and/or qualitative research. The most empirically sound designs, randomized controlled experiments, are used…
August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Executive summary. Developing literacy in second- language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Condelli, L., & Wrigley, H.S. (2004). Identifying promising interventions for adult ESL literacy students: A review of the literature. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences.
Foorman, B.R., & Torgesen, J. (2001). Critical elements of classroom and small-group instruction promote reading success in all children. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 16, 203 -- 213.
Odom, S.L., Brantlinger, E., Gersten, R., Homer, R.H., Thompson, B., & Harris, K.R. (2005). Research in special education: Scientific methods and evidence-based practices. Exceptional Children, 71, 137-149.
One area of discussion that has had little research despite growing concerns within the field is the absence of empirical research on the regulation of voluntary disclosure, which remains virtually non-existent in today's economic financial atmosphere. However, extensive research has been done in order to determine the true factors that push corporations and management into utilizing voluntary disclosure, and the six top results have been widely utilized in varying circumstances in order to gauge motive and success.
The first result has been labeled the capital markets transactions hypothesis, which suggests that investors' perceptions of a firm are important to corporate managers expecting to issue public debt or equity or to acquire another company in a stock transaction (Healy and Palepu 2008, pp.405). Therefore, in order to avoid asymmetry, managers instead anticipate making capital market transactions have an additional incentive to provide voluntary disclosure in order to reduce the information asymmetry…
Adams, C. And Frost, G. 2007. "Managing social and environmental performance: do companies have adequate information?" In Australian Accounting Review, 17(3): pp. 2-11. Retrieved from: JSTOR Database.
Apostolou, A. And Nanopoulos, K. 2009. "Voluntary accounting disclosure and corporate governance," in The International Journal of Accounting and Finance, 1(4): pp. 395-414. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Baek, H., Johnson, D., and Kim, J. 2009. Managerial ownership, corporate governance, and voluntary disclosure," in The Journal of Business and Economic Studies, 15(2): pp. 44-65. Retrieved from: Science Direct Database.
Bushman, R. And Smith, A. 2007. "Transparency, financial accounting information and corporate governance," in FRBNY Economic Policy Review, 9(1): pp. 65-87. Retrieved from ProQuest Database.
Ali Gunay Balim's journal article, "The effects of discovery learning on students' success and inquiry learning skills" provides empirical evidence that attest to the virtue of guided discovery learning. The research performed in this article divided 57 seventh graders into science classes in which one group was taught using guided discovery learning techniques and the other was taught using conventional methods for instruction. The primary basis for the data was the usage of a pretest and a post-test; each group took the pretest without having any exposure to guided discovery learning. During the posttest, the control group still had no experience with this method of instruction, whereas the other group had four weeks' worth of this type of instruction. The statistical data overwhelmingly supported the virtues of guided discovery-based instruction. With a t-value of 9.76, the experimental group -- taught using discovery instruction that was guided -- consistently performed higher…
Alfieri, L., Brooks, P.B., Aldrich, N.J., Tenenbaum, H.R. (2011). "Does discovery-based instruction enhance learning?." American Psychological Association. 103 (1): 1-18. Retrieved from http://www.societyforqualityeducation.org/parents/constructivism.pdf
Balim, a.G. (2009). "The Effects of discovery learning on students' success and inquiry learning skills." Eurasian Journal of Education and Research. 35, 1-20.
Flores, M.M., & Kaylor, M. (2009). "The effects of a direct instruction program on the fraction performance of middle school students at-risk for failure in mathematics."
Journal of Instructional Psychology, 34(2), 84-94.
Unconscious acism in Psychology
Unconsciousness acism in Psychology
This essay is aimed at exploring whether unconscious racism exists through analyzing both sides of the arguments. The paper will briefly review the research evidences that validate the existence of implicit racial behavior that many individuals have unconscious negative perceptions and stereotypical beliefs about minority groups that often leads to understated bias without conscious awareness. It will be followed by criticisms of the concept of unconscious prejudice and the evidences presented in opposition.
Empirical Studies Supporting Unconscious acism
acism in today's modern world is both inconsistently normal and irrational. According to the study by ichard Delgado (1997, p.29), racism varies significantly with the common public ideology and exists in every member of the society, even though at unconscious levels. This irrationality and inconsistency is an integral part of the reason for the unconscious nature of bias. Delgado further explains that when our…
Blanton, H. & Jaccard, J. (2008). Unconscious racism: A concept in pursuit of measure. The Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 34, pp. 277-97.
Delgado, R. (1997). Critical white studies. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Gawronski, B. (2002). What does the implicit association test measure? A test of the convergent and discriminant validity of prejudice-related IATs. Experimental Psychology, Vol. 49 (3), pp. 171-180.
Greenwald, a.G., Uhlmann, E.L., Poehlman, T.A. & Banaji, M.R. (2009). Understanding and using the implicit test association: III meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 97 (1), pp. 17-41.
Learning & Memory
The Accuracy of Memory
The research I completed for this assignment was fairly straightforward. Upstairs in my living room on a day in which I had yet to leave the house, I tried to imagine my front door. I did so without having looked at it for at least 14 hours -- since I had arrived at home the evening before. Once I was able to visualize the door, I then wrote down all of the details that I could conceive of related to its physical appearance. My annotations on this subject included the fact that the door is white and is at the base of approximately 20 steps which lead to the main unit of the domicile. In this tall foyer, the white of the door stands out against the creme color of the walls around it (I was able to see this same color on…
Baars, B. (1997). In the Theater of Consciousness: the Workspace of the Mind. San Diego: Oxford University Press.
Dehon, H., Laroi, F. "Affective valence influences participant's susceptibility to False Memories and Illusory Recollection." Emotion. 10 (5): 627-639.
Gallo, D.A. (2010). "False memories and fantastic beliefs: 15 years of DRM illusion." Memory & Cognition. 38 (7): 833-848.
Lindsay, D.F., Read, D.J. (1994). "Psychotherapy and memories of childhood sexual abuse: a cognitive perspective." Applied Cognitive Psychology. 8: 281-338.
Toxcio's experts, on the other hand, believe that evidence is incomplete and that further, costly studies need to be implemented to show the connection.
It seems to me that (a) if the biophysicist is indeed as credentialed and qualified as said and (b) if her studies are as empirical as stated from peer-reviewed scientific journals, bearing reliable evidence, than the families do, indeed have a case. This is because even thoguh further research may need to be conducted (as per Toxico's scientists) to assess strength of the research, the evidence that exists at the moment seems to show an almost undisputed association between the children's cancer and the toxic emission.
econdly, the biophysicist also reinforces her case with other empirical evidence -- and empirical evidence is that which is required by the courts - of the significant statistical incidence of this rare cancer in the neighborhood. In both cases, her…
WILLIAM DAUBERT, et ux., etc., et al., PETITIONERS v. MERRELL DOW PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. 1993
The People of the State of New York, Respondent, v. George Wesley, Appellant, Court of Appeals of the State of New York., 1994.
56th President of the United States which has represents an unprecedented race in the American Democratic Party between Senators Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton. he relationship of Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton's leadership styles from the perspective of four distinct variables: gender, culture, trust and likelihood of voting. he author believes that the perception of fairness is the single most essential leadership trait which leaders should acquire in order to garner trust and commitment among voters. Consequently, the author also believes that this also applies to leadership in the business world.
he article conducts a literature review that focuses on different aspects of leadership. here is some controversy in the study of leadership as the author alludes to. here are several research studies that show that there is empirical evidence to suggest that leaders play a critical part in an organization working toward organizational goals. However, some of works have…
The article continues to illustrate various components of leadership and how they are presented in the literature with Obama's and Clinton's leadership styles and campaign messages as the focal point. For example, the article mentions that Barack Obama's winning Democratic Party Nominee Elections campaign, his change message in particular, was far superior in 2008 from an ethical standpoint. This seems to be a fairly loaded assumption that is difficult to test empirically.
He contrasts Clinton's campaign as a more top down approach based on her political life that allowed her to mingle constantly with the political elite. By contrast, Obama's career formed from a more bottom up approach in he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. It is noted that transformational leadership can be facilitated by the level of trust in the leader. Therefore, based on these criteria, it is assumed that Obama's level of trust based on his bottom up career development would be higher and more legitimate among the populace. Although this seems like a reasonable statement, it is still highly speculative without any empirical analysis being conducted on the two candidates.
The actual experiment works to test some of the hypotheses that were generated in the literature review. The independent and dependent variables were measured with a survey that used the Likert Scale to measure responses. The study concludes that the leadership styles of Obama and Clinton are striking different. Barack Obama was perceived as a transformational leader while Clinton was perceived more as a transactional leader. Although I intuitively agree with the study's findings, the evidence that is presented is subject to some skepticism. There are a plethora of limitations that the study had to overcome to be able to test the hypothesis. One obvious one was the sample size. Another limitation that the author alludes to is the cultural variables of the sample which oversimplifies culture into either East or West categories as opposed to more specific geographies. Although I found the article interesting, I'm not sure that it adds significant value to the study of leadership.
psychiatrist, Viktor Frankl, while suffering numerous hardships in his life as a prisoner of war in a Nazi work camp that included being isolated from the rest of the world including his family along with the prospect of facing at the hands of his captors death every day began to question the meaning of his own existence and the meaning of life in general. Frankl eventually came to the conclusion that people derive meaning from their lives as either as result of their suffering, their ability to love another, and their work (Frankl, 1985). A person's work helps them to define a sense of themselves, contributes to their feeling that they are useful, and helps to keep them active (Frankl, 1985; Shacklock, 2006; Waddell & Burton, 2006). These benefits occur at any age; therefore, by continuing to remain in the workforce elderly people can both produce benefits to their community…
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2006). Retirement and retirement intentions. Canberra: Author.
Beier, M.E., & Kanfer, R. (2013). Work performance and the older worker. Sage Handbook on Aging, Work, and Society, 16, 65-97.
Center for Disease Control. (2012). Older employees in the workplace. In National Center for chronic disease prevention and health promotion. Retrieved September 25, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/nationalhealthyworksite/docs/issue_brief_no_1_older_employees_in_the_workplace_7-12-2012_final508.pdf .
Cummings, T., & Worley, C. (2014). Organization development and change. Stanford, CT:
The Center for Disease Control (CDC) endorsed the policy of replacing peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVC) within 48 hours following insertion in order to prevent and decrease local catheter infections. The institution that this author is employed at also made a policy to establish such a procedure based on the CDC's actions. However, there is a large body of empirical research that indicates that the length of the time that the PIVC remains in a patient does not appear to be a major factor that results and infections and/or phlebitis. Thus, this policy of changing the PIVC with 48 hours may be unnecessary.
For instance Zarate, Mandleco, Wilshaw, and avert (2008) studied emergency room trauma patients who received a PIVC. The mean number of days before there were indications of phlebitis in these patients was 3.14 days with the range of 1 to 6 days. Phlebitis rates did not…
Lee, W.L., Chen, H.L., Tsai, T.Y., Lai, I.C., Chang, W.C., Huang, C.H., & Fang, C.T.
(2009). Risk factors for peripheral intravenous catheter infection in hospitalized patients:
A prospective study of 3165 patients. American Journal of Infection Control, 37, 683
Lee, W.L., Liao, S.F., Huang, C.H., & Fang, C.T. (2010). Soft tissue infections related to peripheral intravenous catheters in hospitalized patients: A case control study. Journal of Hospital Infection, 76, 124 -- 129.
Climate Change -- Cause and Mitigation
There are several ways to look at climate change because there are natural causes and there are also human-influenced causes for the global climate to change. This paper defines anthropogenic climate change and it defines natural climate change and the historic record of the earth's changing climate over the millennia. This paper also provides strategies for mitigating global climate change and speculates as to the possible stabilization of climate change vis-a-vis the business and economic fields.
hat is Anthropogenic Climate Change?
The Merriam-ebster Dictionary defines anthropogenic as "…relating to, or resulting from, the influence of human beings on nature"; the first use of this team was in 1923.
Meanwhile, the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research lists three ways in which the evidence points toward humans having influence over the rising temperatures on earth. The "…concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) is rising," which is…
Institute of Physics. (2013). Study reveals scientific consensus on anthropogenic climate change.
Retrieved September 1, 2013, from http://www.iop.org .
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2007). Climate Change 2007: Working Group I:
The Physical Science Basis. Retrieved September 1, 2013, from http://www.ipcc.ch .
That is, until an infant ealizes that she is looking at heself in the mio athe than anothe baby, the concept of self cannot begin to fom (Johnston, 1996). As childen matue, the link between cognition and self-concept becomes moe illuminated. In olde childen, pat of the matuation pocess is the ability to solve poblems and pocess infomation (Siegle and Alibali, 2004). The fact that childen use a vaiety of stategies and behave diffeently when ovecoming obstacles to each a common goal eflects diffeences not only in thei cognitive abilities but also how they see themselves -- "I don't give up easily; I always ty my best; I lean well; I don't like myself," etc. (Measelle et al., 2005).
If, as ealie suggested, by five to seven yeas of age, childen ae able to give accuate self-desciptions of themselves, then the pecusos of self-concept clealy evolve aound the toddle and…
references, discussing negative emotions, engaging children in conversations, discovering unique attributes, and the like all have Western upbringing tones. In other cultures, these norms may not be norms at all and hence the psychometric procedures used to generate traditionally Western self-description may not apply, say among Chinese or Asian children (Wang, 2004). The Chinese, as opposed to the autonomy-oriented European-Americans, are interdependent and put value in kinship such that a person's identity is often tied to his social responsibilities. Social rules exist in the Chinese culture that promotes humility and self-criticism for the sake of social harmony (Chin, 1988, in Wang, 2004). This, of course, is in contrast to Western culture that promotes self-enhancement.
A recent study on the comparative autobiographical memories and self-description in 3- to 8-year-old American and Chinese children considered the following differences and used a relatively novel, open-ended narrative method to examine the development of self-constructs. The results of the study are consistent with the cultural outlines above. American children tend to describe themselves in terms of their personal attributes and inner disposition in a generally light tone. Chinese children, on the other hand, focused on specific relationships, social roles, observable behavior, and situation bound features in a modest tone (Wang, 2004). The implication of this study is that self-concept is culture-specific and that the early emergence of cultural self-constructs may prepare children to become competent members of their respective societies (Wang, 2004).
In summary, this paper illustrates that the development of self is a product of cognitive achievement, everyday experiences, and cultural values. The role of child-parent interactions and differing cultural beliefs are emphasized as crucial in shaping self-concept among children.
Most of the victims are innocent and most are poor. Worsening social and economic conditions draw more people into criminality, a vicious circle that reinforces poverty.
Working Capital traps: Micro-entrepreneurs can only afford a tiny inventory, so their sales are so meager that they are unable to purchase a larger inventory the next day, and secondly they do not find any feasible borrowing scheme from government. (Stephen C. Smith. Poverty Traps and Global Development. The Globalist. May 15, 2006)
Poverty trap is more psychological impact as well and can be changed with changes in the culture and advertising, which will attract and turn the people hopeful.
Eighty percent of poor people become poorer when they gamble, but when wining seems the only hope, many poor people are prepared to take that risk, dazzled by the opulence of the rich. Poverty is increased when money-wealth is accumulated by means that do…
United Nation Economic Forum. Population Growth and Economic Development. United Nations. 2004.
Stephen C. Smith. Poverty Traps and Global Development. The Globalist. May 15, 2006.
Costas Azariadis, John Stachurski. Poverty Traps. Handbook of Economic Growth. Department of Economic, the University of Melbourne.
socal and cultural mpacts of establshng an eco-Toursm enterprse n Joao Pessoa, Brazl. The man focus of the dssertaton s on the followng areas:
An analyss of eco-toursm development
An assessment of the opportuntes - regonal, domestc, nternatonal
An evaluaton of the projects feasblty
An examnaton of the socal-cultural mpact of the eco-toursm
Brazl has a sanctuary of the fnest natural resources ("fauna & flora") n the world, and therefore toursm s n ascendence, and demands for md-class hotels are on the ncrease. The development of eco-toursm n specfc areas s antcpated due to partnershp wth local bankng ntutons; local government nterest and regulatons; and a general growth of awareness of the tenson between the tourst dollar, the envronment and local cultures.
Prmary research (ntervews and questonnares) wll be conducted to analyze the feasblty of the project. Secondary research wll be carred out, n the form of a…
i) Adventurers set out to discover other lands (e.g., Captain Cook) ii) People traveled for scientific research (e.g., Darwin) iii) People traveled for business (trade) iv) People traveled in order to visit friends and family (social), v) People traveled for leisure (relaxation) vi) People travel as Eco-Travelers (learners).
The development of tourism has influenced people and society, and has created thousands of organizations, at many levels: national and international, governmental or non- governmental. Tourism has thus led to the creation of million of jobs worldwide, in what is today is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. Tourism has led people to confront different attitudes and to admire eclectic cultures. In addition, to be able to understand these cultures, society at large has had to adapt to the pluralism of cultures by learning languages other than their own, different types of gastronomy and music, and also by adopting a greater tolerance of different religions.
Accordingly to Kaluf (2001), the development of tourism has been worldwide, and has been sustaining a growth of 20% over last five years: 5% in mass tourism and an incredible 15% in
Where the hypotheses were well-followed throughout the text, the conclusion ignores the relevance of these factors to the delay experienced by patients in seeking treatment. Instead of developing a correlation between the identified behavior and the subject matter, importance of creating awareness among the general public was the highly emphasized. Furthermore, the responsibility of nurses and government authorities in this regard, was also discussed.
The study itself had a rather limited scope. Selection of convenience sample along with a particular racial background and non-inclusion of patients who died within hours of reporting AMI acted as major drawbacks. Secondly, a selection of considerably small sample also raised questions on the reliability of the sample.
The evaluation of this research does not lead to a confident and reliable conclusion. The limited scope of the sample, controlled questionnaires, neglect of other factors and the comparative analysis instead of individual examination of…
Lesneski, Lisa. (2010). Factors Influencing Tretment Delay for Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction. Applied Nursing Research. 23, pg- 185-190.
Karl Popper's Proposed Solution To The Demarcation Problem:
Popper vs. Kuhn
According to the philosopher Karl Popper, "the central problem in the philosophy of science is that of demarcation, i.e., of distinguishing between science and what he terms 'non-science'" (Thornton 2009). Colloquially, of course, all of us think we know what science is -- it is the scientific method, or the proving of a hypothesis. But even here there is confusion, given that what constitutes a scientific 'theory' is not what is meant by 'theory' when a layperson speaks. And much of what we intuitively believe to be science may not be science at all, given that it may be based more upon observed correlations and observed, personal experiences than the proving and disproving of hypotheses. According to Popper, what we call science is largely a web of hypotheses, rather than 'truth.'
Popper called the problem of distinguishing between science…
Beisecker, Dave. "Induction." Philosophy 101. [30 Jan 2011]
Bird, Alexander. "Thomas Kuhn." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2011.
Attitude Object Evaluations
Current Influences of Attitude Object Evaluations
Objects can elicit a variety of emotional and cognitive responses from an individual (reviewed by Giner-Sorolla, 2004). The emotional and cognitive components of a response together define the summary attitude taken towards the object. The degree to which an object can influence behavior appears to be linked to the 'rate' with which an individual develops a summary attitude, such that faster appraisals are more influential because they elicited a stronger attitude. Strack and Deutsch (2004) attempt to merge numerous dualistic models in an effort to delineate the elements that influence an evaluative process. Based on their reflective-impulsive model, motivation is the primary driver of behavior, but the interval between the sighting of an attitude object and the resulting behavior varies depending on whether a person reacts primarily in a reflective (cognitive) or impulsive (emotional) manner.
Findings by Giner-Sorolla (2004) suggest that…
Giner-Sorolla, Roger. (2004). Is affective material in attitudes more accessible than cognitive material? The moderating role of attitude basis. European Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 761-780.
Rannazzisi, Danielle Marie. (2009). Appraisal processes and emotion: An examination of the influence of relative standards on the evaluation of negative situations. (Doctoral dissertation). ProQuest Dissertations and Thesis. (Accession 2009-99220-267).
Strack, Fritz and Deutsch, Roland. (2004). Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8(3), 220-247.
Educator's Perception Of Tenure
Introduction to the concepts
According to the purpose statement, the purpose of the designed study is to use a mixed-methods approach to investigate the underlying perceptions of university professors with particular emphasis on three areas of analysis as follows: (1) Issues related to tenure and post-tenure review; (2) Cultural resistance or enthusiasm towards various implementations; and (3) Organizational effectiveness in current strategies for handling tenure and post-tenure reviews. Ultimately the researcher's goal is to gather empirical evidence related to perceptions of tenure and organizational effectiveness in order to inform policy makers and others important to making decisions about tenure and post-tenure review for an institution.
Academic tenure is offered typically to only those faculty or associate faculty in the most senior positions with strong track records in teaching, research, and/or administrative/executive roles (Joughlin, 1969). Generally, tenure is offered only when rigorous criteria are met as defined…
Amacher, Ryan. (2004). Faculty Towers: Tenure and the structure of higher education. Oakland, CA: Independent Institute.
Joughlin, Louis (Ed.). (1969). Academic freedom and tenure. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
Modica, Jonathon, & Mamiseishvili, Ketevan. (2010). Black faculty at research universities: Has significant progress occurred? Negro Educational Review, 61 (1-4), 107-122.
Rudd, Elizabeth, et al. (2008). Equality and illusion: Gender and tenure in art history careers. Journal of Marriage and Family, 70(1), 228-235.
It falls on savers, not spenders;
3) Early and naive advocates of death taxes thought that such taxes would not distort behavior because they fell only on wealth that decedents left behind by accident. Now very strong evidence supports the common-sense idea that people are strongly motivated to leave wealth to their heirs. Death taxes distort the behavior and investment decisions of this important class of "intergenerational" savers;
Not only does the income tax not need a "backstop," the income tax is actually a bad tax precisely because it falls on savings, in effect double taxing saving as opposed to immediate consumption. Death taxes compound the error by adding a third tax on savings. A fair tax system should consistently tax spending, not work or savings, and should use progressive rates to meet whatever liberal or redistributive objectives it has;
Death taxes have not contributed to greater equality in America.…
The Effects on Government Revenues from Repealing the Federal Estate Tax and Limiting the Step-up in Basis for Taxing Capital Gains (2003) CONSAD Research Corporation, Pittsburg Pennsylvania. Online available at http://www.sirote.com/Menus/BioLinks/HIA-Estate-Tax-Final-Report-Consad%5B1%5D.pdf
Kamin, David (2004) New CBO Study Finds that Estate Tax Repeal would Substantially Reduce Charitable Giving. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities. 3 Aug 2004. Online available at http://www.cbpp.org/8-3-04tax.htm
Herman, Tom and Silverman, Rachel Emma (2005) Republications Consider Keeping Estate Tax Alive for the Very Rich. Wall Street Journal 19 Jan 2005. Responsible Wealth Project. Online available at http://www.responsiblewealth.org/press/rwnews/2005/EstateTax_WSJ.html
McCaffery, Edward J. (1999) Grave Robbers: The Moral Case Against the Death Tax. CATO Policy Analysis 4 Oct 1999. Online available at http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa353.pdf
Rahm Emmanuel, the son of an Israeli immigrant, fits the elite 'profile' less well but was highly prominent in the Clinton Administration, thus reflecting a 'hold over' of power rather than a radical break with the previous Republican administration. Emmanuel also has an MA from Northwestern University. Obama senior advisor David Axelrod was a prominent member of the Chicago media and has a degree from the University of Chicago. Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner is a career civil servant. Geithner is also the former President of the Fed of New York State, where the financial industry of the nation is based (Pijanowski 2010).
hile members of the current Democratic-lead cabinet may have more public policy and legal expertise than corporate experience, overall Domhoff's thesis seems to receive at least some support, given their biographies. Additionally, while recent Latina Supreme Court appointee Sonya Sotomayor might seem to be a deviation from an…
"Barak Obama: Biography." Biography.com. June 2, 2010.
Domhoff, G. William Who Rules America? New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.
Pijanowski, Jeff. (2009, February 5). "List and Bios of Obama's Key White House Staff
Any degree of comprehensive analysis of Nannerl Keohane's non-fiction book, Thinking About Leadership, reveals that the author had a number of eminent reasons for writing this manuscript. The overarching theme which this work of literature is based upon, however, is what sort of qualities, traits, and tendencies are necessary to produce the most efficacious form of leadership possible. To that end, the author rarely strays from this task while utilizing a varied methodology that exposes different facets of leadership that are ultimately responsible for success. Thinking About Leadership is partially biographical, partly theoretical case study, and partly analytical of varying historical figures and contexts. The author relies upon her own experience in leadership (which is fairly significant considering that she was the first female president of Duke and a former president of Wellesley University) as well as examples of others to elucidate a number of relevant ideas related to…
Keohane, N.O. (2010). Thinking About Leadership. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Karl Popper and Falsification
Karl Popper's Nontraditional Views on Science: Is Falsification Correct?
Falsification, also called refutability, is the logical possibility that an assertion, hypothesis, or theory can be contradicted by an observation made or by the outcome of a physical experiment. Made popular by philosopher of science, Karl Popper, falsification provided a method in which scientists start with a current scientific theory and use the usual methods of deductive reasoning to derive specific conclusions, some of which are "predictions" (Kenyon 1). This prediction could then become falsifiable if some observation or experiment had the ability to produce a result that would consistently reproduce a result in conflict with that earlier prediction. For example, the notion that "all birds can fly" is falsifiable, as empirical evidence has been found to disprove this notion. In essence, such a scientific standpoint appears not only valid but logical at first glance. However, in…
Dutch, Steven. "What Pseudoscience Tells us About Science" University of Wisconsin at Green Bay. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs / pseudosc/badmodl.htm [Accessed on 26 March 2012].
Jeffrey, Richard. "Probability and Falsification: Critique of the Popper Program," in Synthese, 30(2): pp. 95-117. Web. Retrieved from: http://dc262. 4shared.com/doc/uYXd4gZE/preview.html [Accessed on 26 March 2012].
Kenyon, Ralph. "Falsification." Popper's Philosophy of Science. 1984. Web. Retrieved
from: http://www.xenodochy.org/article/popper.html [Accessed on 26 March 2012].
Private Sector Investment and Economic Development
Investment and economic development
The ole of Private Sector investment in Economic Development
In the past few decades there has been overwhelming support for growth and development rooted in private investments and market-oriented strategies. A move from public sector driven growth has come as result of the need to reduce the widening gap in the balance of payment account, increasing public debt, rising inflation rate, growing foreign debt fundamentally falling living standards. There has been a shift from the need for large public corporations undertaking productive activities in an economy owing to the realized inefficiency in resource allocation. Corruption and misappropriation of public funds is observable owing to the lacking need to optimally reap benefit from the investment. Unlike in the public sector, private sector investment guarantees optimal productive activities, efficient allocation of productive resource, technological advancements to reduce cost and increase productivity (Dao,…
DAO, M.Q. 2008. The Impact of Investment Climate Indicators on Gross Capital Formation in Developing Countries. The Journal of Developing Areas, 42, 155-163.
GROSSMAN, G.M. & HELPMAN, E. 1994. Endogenous innovation in the theory of growth. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 8, 23-44.
HARRISON JR., W., HORNGREN, C.T. & WILLIAM, C.T. 2012. Financial accounting 9th edition., U.S.A., Prentice Hall
JORGENSON, D. 1971. Econometric Studies of Investment Behavior: A Survey. Journal of Economic Literature, 9, 1111.
Cut is a young adult novel by Patricia McCormick. Like Girl, Interrupted, Cut addresses issues related to the psychiatric treatment of adolescents as well as to adolescent psychiatric issues. Therefore, the novel offers young readers insight into their conditions, how and why certain treatments are used, and how systems of treatment might help them. Most importantly, the book helps young readers with psychiatric problems feel less alone and more willing to open up about their problems. However, it is important to evaluate novels like Cut in light of relevant empirical evidence. How well a novel reflects reality is essentially how important the novel is from an educational standpoint; otherwise the book is a complete work of fiction and has no relevance for meaningful study.
Cut addresses a whole gamut of psychiatric issues that impact girls. Therefore, the gender variable is critical to discuss within the framework of adolescent psychology. Several…
Biering, P. (2009). Child and adolescent experience of and satisfaction with psychiatric care: a critical review of the research literature. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 17(1): 65-72.
Biering, P. & Jensen, V.H. (2009). The Concept of Patient Satisfaction in Adolescent Psychiatric Care: A Qualitative Study. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing 24(1): 3-10.
Claes, L., Houben, A., Vandereycken, W., Bijttebier, P. & Muehlenkamp, J. (2010). Brief report: The association between non-suicidal self-injury, self-concept and acquaintance with self-injurious peers in a sample of adolescents. Journal of Adolescence 33(5): 775-778.
Claes, L., Jimenez-Murcia, S., Aguera, Z., Castro, R., Sanchez, I., Menchon, J.M. & Fernandez-Aranda, F. (2011). Male Eating Disorder Patients With and Without Non-suicidal Self-injury: A Comparison of Psychopathological and Personality Features. European Eating Disorders Review 20(4): 335-338.
Path Diagrams of Research Models
This current research developed and tested a model of work engagement contagion in which the organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and competitive behaviors of coworkers influence employees' engagement with their jobs. In a sample of 1,422 departments of an insurance firm, multilevel analysis revealed that coworkers' OCBs and competitive behaviors explain variance in individual work engagement over and above that explained by other individual and group-level predictors. Broadly speaking, these results suggest that coworkers' OCBs and competitive behaviors play critical roles in explaining why people are more engaged with their work. Implications are discussed.
Hypothesis 1: Coworkers' OCB is positively related to work engagement.
Hypothesis 2: Coworkers' competitive behaviors mediate the positive relationship between coworkers' OCBs and focal employee work engagement.
OCB (+1) WORK ENGAGEMENT
OCB (+2) COMPETITVE BEHAVIORS WORK ENGAGEMENT
The OCB's are the independent variables. The employees' competitive behaviors are the mediators. The…
children, television and American values. The writer collects and reviews empirical evidence about the way television affects American values in the children of the nation. The writer uses a survey approach and conducts a study of children age 5- to 10-year-old and combines the results in this paper.
American values are as American as apple pie. When one has children one of the things they hope for is that they can raise those children to have strong American values, which might include respect for others, hard work and the ability to accept diversity. Often times the lack of American values is blamed on the things that children watch on television. Experts claim that the television shows that are popular today with children send a message to the children that they do not have to have values to be well liked and successful in life. Research is firmly divided on the…
Environmental management system is an important element in the modern business environment in light of the increased demands for environmental protection. The increases demands are fueled by the considerable effects that manufacturing processes have had on the environment and ecosystems across the globe. This paper provides a report of the need for an environmental management system for a small, growing manufacturing company that produces lithium-ion battery for aviation and automotive industries. The discussion examines what an EMS is, its goals, how it will help the firm comply with environmental laws, and how it will assist the organization to decrease its liability exposures. An explanation of additional benefits of the EMS for the organization and why the company should pursue its certification by ISO 1400 standards is also provided.
Environmental Management System (EMS) in an Organization
A small, growing manufacturing company that focuses on manufacturing lithium-ion battery for the automotive and…
Christini, G., Fetsko, M. & Hendrickson, C. (2004, June). Environmental Management Systems
and ISO 14001 Certification for Construction Firms. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 130(3), 330-336.
Environmental Protection Agency. (2013, April 10). Environmental Management System (EMS).
Retrieved from The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency website: http://www.epa.gov/ems/
Traditional Crime Policy
Over the last several decades, the policy approach that is used in enforcing the law has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because there has been a sharp rise in the crime rates around the world since the end of World War II. At first, these increases were believed to be a part of the adverse changes from the war and its impact on society. (Gilling)
However, by the 1950s it was obvious that society was facing tremendous challenges with these rates. In response, a series of studies were conducted to effectively deal with the root causes of criminal activity (by focusing on the pathology of the individual). This created heated debates between traditional and evidence based advocates, who believed that the current approach can address these issues (by serving as a deterrent for everyone). (Gilling)
As a result, tough sentences were handed down to…
"Key Facts at a Glance." BLS, 2011. Web. 5 Sept. 2012
Gilling, Daniel. Crime Prevention. New York: Routledge, 1997. Print.
Walker, Samuel. Sense and Nonsense about Drugs. Belmont: Wadsworth, 2011. Print.
However, with the current world social trends co-educational institutions provide a holistic body to the social development of a student. To break the barriers of race and gender inequality, any form of segregation will be hypocritical especially in the education sector. In countries and institutions where they advocate for single-sex education, it has been noted that their doctrine is aimed at controlling morality but on the other hand it ends up leading to the objectification of a specific gender, especially the women. It thus clear to see that co-educational schooling is the best approach to follow for our society to achieve its goal of integration of all peoples (Sullivan et al., 2010).
Chrisler, J.C., & McCreary, D.. (2010). Handbook of Gender esearch in Psychology. Berlin: Springer.
Covington, P. (2008). Success in Sociology as Student Book: Aqa. Dublin: Folens Publishers.
Education., U.S.D. o. (2005). Single-sex vs. coeducational schooling: A systematic…
Chrisler, J.C., & McCreary, D.R. (2010). Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology. Berlin: Springer.
Covington, P. (2008). Success in Sociology as Student Book: Aqa. Dublin: Folens Publishers.
Education., U.S.D. o. (2005). Single-sex vs. coeducational schooling: A systematic review. Washington, DC: Department of Education.
Park, H., Behrman, J., & Choi, J. (2012). Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania, PSC Working Paper Series.
Myth 5 is that patients will never be able to stop taking medication even though studies have found that patients were able to function without medication later on in their illnesses. The challenge to Myth 5, schizophrenics are either unable to work or can only achieve at a low level of function, is poorly disputed. The authors present evidence that work is good for mental health patients, but lack empirical evidence of schizophrenics functioning at a high level. Myth 7 is that families cause schizophrenia. However, studies have failed to show that family factors are necessary and sufficient causes of schizophrenia.
In challenging myths about schizophrenia, Harding and Zahniser do a better job at showings some myths to be false than they do for others. Still, their work is valuable across evaluating the merits of all myths because it encourages mental health professionals to challenge commonly held assumptions and to…
Harding, C.M. And Zahniser J.H. (1994). Empirical correction of seven myths about schizophrenia with implications for treatment. Acta Psychiatr Scand 90(Suppl 384): 140.
In the previous section, Estabrooks raised the question of the ability of the EP framework to provide the "best evidence" in nursing practice and the danger of excluding nurses in decision-making tasks as a result of EP prevalence and dominance.
Rolfe, while he analyzed the empirical foundations of EP, also looked at it from a practical perspective, or how EP is applied in the current practice of nursing. Identifying the problem of EP as the question of its "technical rationality," Rolfe uncovered an important issue that best describes also Estabrooks' contentions in her article: the "theory-practice" gap in nursing practice.
In thoroughly discussing this phenomenon in nursing, Rolfe illustrated how theory-practice gap occurs in the practice scenario (39):
First, that nurses rarely read research reports; second, that when they do read them, they rarely understand them; and third, even when they do read and understand research reports, they are reluctant…
Avis, M. (Oct 2006). "Evidence for practice, epistemology, and critical reflection." Nursing Philosophy, Vol. 7, Issue 4.
Estabrooks, C. (1998). "Will evidence-based nursing practice make practice perfect?" Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, Vol. 30, No. 1.
McCormack, B. (2006). "Evidence-based practice and the potential for transformation." Journal of Research in Nursing, Vol. 11, No. 2.
Rolfe, G. (Jan 2006). "Nursing praxis and the science of the unique." Nursing Science, Vol. 19, No. 1.
This also implies inadequacies in fiscal sustainability, which influences investments in private sectors.
The second channel happens through the level, composition and quality involved within the public investment, which shows the level at which the public investment replaces the private investments (Schmidt- Hebbel, Serven, & Solimano, 1996).
The final channel regards the level of taxation on the corporate earnings and the rules applicable in depreciations.
There have been arguments that fiscal policy and public expenditure reduces the private investments in two different manners. These include increasing the interest rates or lowering the private funds involved in financing the investments.
According to the neoclassical theory, the interest rate is also an imperative variable in finding the level of investment. Consequently, it results into a negative effect because it upsurges the interest payable in investments. Concurrently, McKinnon and Shaw, contends that this is likely to cause a positive relationship between the investment…
Shrestha, M.B. (2005), "ARDL Modelling Aproach to Cointegration Test," Proceedings of the 46th Annual Conference of New Zealand Association of Economists, Paper
No. 13, Wellington, July 2005.
Keynes, J.M. (1936). General Theory on Employment, Interest and Money., London,