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Empirical research is necessarily designed to provide a workable framework through which a researcher may test a hypothesized explanation for observable phenomena, but the two primary branches of scientific inquiry differ greatly in terms of the analytical scope and style employed throughout an experiment. While quantitative research is capable of recording, sorting and analyzing voluminous amounts of numerical data, from credit card usage rates for various tax brackets to the pace of population acceleration within a given demographic, this methodology is left lacking when researchers seek to explain the trends and configurations they have identified. In order to develop informed explanations of behavioral patterns, emotional capacity, artistic inclination, and any number of similarly intangible phenomena, the use of qualitative research must be employed to ascertain the motivational processes used to determine basic decision making. Although the traditional quantitative method of research is more widely known by laymen, with surveys,…
Berg, B.L. & Lune, H. (2011). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (8th ed).
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Cegielski, C.G., Jones-Farmer, L.A., Wu, Y., Hazen, B.T. (2012). Adoption of cloud computing technologies in supply chains: An organizational information processing theory approach. The International Journal of Logistics Management, 23(2), 184 -- 211.
Kvale, S., & Brinkmann, S. (2009). Interviews: Learning the craft of qualitative research interviewing. Sage Publications, Incorporated.
Sampling and Empirical esearch Studies
Quantitative scientific studies typically require sample sizes that are sufficiently large enough to produce valid interpretable data, and using a questionnaire-based survey to poll a large group of respondents is a traditionally accepted methodology within the realm of scholarly research. The objective of any survey-based sampling experiment is to translate raw statistical data on a testable subject of interest, obtained from a sizable sample of relevant respondents, into a viable theory. The strength of this approach lies in the fact that social phenomena are most effectively studied through a systematic empirical investigation of statistical data. Because surveys are generally designed to include an array of multiple choice, yes-or-no, and essay questions, the varied level of detail provided in each recorded answer is expected to provide substantial data. Statistical sampling is used within the field of nursing to identify patient acuity rates, trends concerning mortality during…
Henriques, J.B. (2011, February 11). Power analysis. Retrieved from http://psych.wisc.edu/henriques/power.html
Pelletier, D., & Duffield, C. (2003). Work sampling: valuable methodology to define nursing practice patterns. Nursing & health sciences, 5(1), 31-38.
Even when they are presented with more information related to their condition, people who embrace the S1 model can refuse to change their option.
In certain circumstances, individuals who apparently employ analytical thinking are actually using intuition. It seems that they are using investigative judgment because they are aware that surface data should not be accepted without comprehensive examination. In this situation, intuition can be practical, since it assists the individual in devising methods of solving the dilemma.
Using S2 with the purpose of finding answers to impasses is in most cases beneficial for the individual, even with the fact that this technique consumes time and resources. When someone is approach matters from an analytical standpoint, that respective person is not absolved from employing intuition in their everyday lives. Also, intuitive thinking can be induced to people who use analytical thinking through a series of methods. When they are assisted…
A summary of findings regarding sexual orientation and its impact on life-span development
Considering that transformations within the society profoundly change the life course of people identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender, it comes to be increasingly ostensible that sexual orientation is a significant index of human identity is historically and aesthetically (Hammack, 2005). In accordance to Fuller-Iglesias et al. (2010), perspectives for life span and life course increase the level of understanding in changeability with respect to timing and classification of sexual orientation identity development. With respect to life span, the categorization of sexual orientation identity development might rely on maturation influences, and the developmental phase in which identity development comes about. The inception and series of sexual orientation identity progress might also be influenced by the past framework in which development is experienced. According to the research study by Floyd and Bakeman (2006), there were palpable gender…
Criminal justice researchers are usually faced with numerous anecdotal data that is supported with relatively little to no empirical support. In order to effectively explore nuances of the issues that face the society with regards to law enforcement, criminal justice researchers tend to rely on empirical data, which is considered useful. The dependence on empirical data in criminal justice is evident in the fact that most of the existing criminology journals are quantitative as compared to qualitative studies (Jacques, 2014). Empirical research data is data obtained from direct and indirect observation of a complex social issue whereas anecdotal data is data obtained from someone else's observation or experience of an issue. In the criminal justice field, empirical research data is used to inform evidence-based practices in this field because it's based on well-designed analytical approaches and studies. In some cases, empirical research evidence is used to confirm anecdotal data as…
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
According to Lopez-Alvarado (2017) and Muijs (n.d.), research design decisions are linked to ontology and epistemology. Ontology refers to the researcher’s beliefs about whether reality is absolute or contextual, universal or relative. Whether the researcher is a realist or a relativist determines research questions and designs, with an increased tendency for relativists to focus on phenomenological and qualitative methods and a realist to use quantitative methods. Muijs (n.d.) describes quantitative research as using numerical data and mathematical methods, showing how a realist will use these types of methods to seek for an objective truth. Likewise, epistemology refers to how the researcher acquires knowledge, or what sources of knowledge are deemed valid. A researcher who believes in absolutism and realism will veer towards quantitative methods, which yield absolute and generalizable results. On the other hand, a researcher who values subjectivity would take a phenomenological and qualitative approach.…
H3: Credit historical data is prevalent in the available IB systems for SMEs.
Additionally, we find that the primary concern for banks is the trend of SME's short-term lines of credit.
H4: Among the SME credit history, the usage level of their short-term lines of credit represents their main determinant.
The financial structure as well as its effects is never the only determinants of the default probability as measured by rating systems. The profitability performances plays a relevant role in the credit evaluation process of a given (Edmister, 1972, Pagliacci,2006). This statement is then verified by the 5th hypothesis:
H5: An increase in profitability of an SME improves its rating.
The variables that plays a role in the failure prediction
The failure prediction models are based on a standard set of variables/indicators. Extant literature indicates that these variables can be divided into there main categories (Altman,1968; Caouette et al., 1998;…
Altman, E.I. (1968). Financial ratios, discriminant analysis and the prediction of corporate bankruptcy. Journal of Finance 23, 589-609.
Berger, a.N., & Udell, G.F. (1995). Relationship lending and lines of credit in small firm finance. Journal of Business 68, 351-382.
Beaver, W.H. (1967). Financial ratios as predictors of failure. Empirical research in accounting: Selected studies. Supplement to Journal of Accounting Research 4, 71-111.
Berry, a., & Robertson, J. (2006). Overseas bankers in the UK and their use of information for making lending decisions: Changes from 1985. The British Accounting Review 38, 175-191.
However, more empirical studies have been published in recent years which have both reported outcomes but also have acknowledged the complexity of the interaction of the number of variables involved in predicting outcome effects on children whose parents are substance abusers (Dworkin & Hirsch, 2004). This literature is particularly important because of the large number of children affected by substance abuse of various kinds and the social policy directed toward substance abuse offenders including parents.
Although the empirical research base is growing on the relationship of parental disability to child outcome effects (Emerick & Zirpoli, 2000) there continues to be a need for research that methodologically addresses specific critical parental disability factors.
Implementing Culturally Sensitive Crisis
In conclusion, when faced with an individual who is recognizably from a culture different from the crisis worker, some modification in approach will be considered. However, there is sufficient cultural diversity present in our…
Colangelo, N. (2007). Counseling gifted students: Issues and practices. In N. Colangelo and G.A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of Gifted Education (2nd ed.), (pp. 353-381). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Colangelo, N., & Assouline, a. (1993). Families of gifted children. A research agenda. Quest, 4, 1-4.
Dworkin, M., & Hirsch, G. (2004). Responding to managed care: A roadmap for the therapist. Psychotherapy in Private Practice, 13, 1-21.
Emerick, L., & Zirpoli, T. (2000). Different concerns, different needs? Perceptions of gifted children and parents of children with disabilities. Paper presented at the conference of the American Association of Gifted and Talented, Little Rock, AR.
Experimental esearch Methods in Business
Experimental esearch Methods
The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.
The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…
Campbell, A. (2004). A quick guide to research methods, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 25(3), 163-165.
Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Demarco, T., Hruschka, P., Lister, T., Robertson, S., Robertson, J., and McMenamin, S. (2008). Adrenaline junkies and template zombies: Understanding patterns of project behavior. New York, NY: Dorset House Publishing Co., Inc.
Elliott F.F. (1929, October). Experimental method in economic research, Journal of Farm Economics, 11 (4) 594-596. [Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association]. Retrieved http://www.jstor.org/stable/1229899
cientific and empirical research take time, and therefore detracts from the timeliness of such research. However, the truth level in such research is higher than in research that takes less time and is therefore more timely. The author points out that these are not the only factors involved in the quality of a piece, and that the purpose of publication should also be kept in mind when assessing the quality of a work. A persuasive piece of literature will therefore entail a lower level of absolute truth than a piece that addresses more than one side of an issue without bias.
This is where increasing access to sources such as the Internet provides the researcher with a valuable tool for assessing believability. Materials can for example be broadly investigated and cross-checked against others for consistency in content regarding a specific issue.
Another valuable tool, according to Kmetz, is the elements…
Kmetz, John. A Consumer's Guide to the Business and Management Literature. University of Delaware
Oulton, Tony. Management research for information. Library Management, 1995. Vol.16, Iss. 5; pg. 75-81
The study methodology is predicated on a literature review of over two dozen previous studies, stratified across both the French and U.K.-based respondent populations. Of particular interest with regard to the methodology is the researcher's detailed work on defining variations in cultural differences, which is an area that Dr. Hofstede and the Model of Cultural Dimensions is specifically designed to take into account (Marieke, Hofstede, 2010). The study is highly qualitative in nature and uses academic databases as its primary research instrument (Gloria, Wulf, Mullen, 2013). The studies cited throughout the analysis indicate the potential to break out senior citizen segments by psychographics, an areas of emerging interest for Internet marketers. There is also a thorough analysis from numerous secondary studies of the correlation of income, gender, education and Internet usage. Demographics within the study are defined more in age-based terms when psychographic delineations create through primary research and factor…
Belal, H.M., Shirahada, K., & Kosaka, M. (2013). Value Co-Creation with Customers through recursive approach based on Japanese Omotenashi service. International Journal of Business Administration, 4(1), 28-28.
Kim-Shyan Fam, Waller, D.S., Ernest Cyril, d. R., & He, J. (2013). Advertising dislikeability in Asia. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 25(1), 144-161.
Gloria, a.M., Wulf, C., & Mullen, H. (2013). Internet marketing to 50+ generations in the UK and France. Journal of International Consumer Marketing, 25(1), 45.
Marieke, d. M., & Hofstede, G. (2010). The Hofstede model: Applications to global branding and advertising strategy and research. International Journal of Advertising, 29(1), 85.
57. The Deterrent Effects of Arrest for Domestic Assault (Lawrence . Sherman and Richard A. Berk)
Types of data/methods: Sherman and Berk found that arresting batterers reduced by half the rate of subsequent offenses against the same victim within a 6-month followup period. However, in follow-up studies, sometimes offenders assigned to the arrest group had higher levels of (recidivism) while others showed a reduction in repeat cases.
Advantages/Disadvantages: Although the repeat nature of the offenses in a series of trials shows thoroughness, the inconsistent findings about whether mandatory arrest reduces domestic violence suggests more information about the different cases might be necessary to show if arrest helps in some cases but not in others.
Summarize the overall prevalence and incidence of the crime problem in the 1960s as portrayed by the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice (pg.361) and by the National Commission on…
Crime Statistics." (2006) Bureau of Justice. Retrieved 11 Jun 2006 at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/cvict.htm
Jacoby, Joseph E. (2004) Classics of Criminology. New York: Waveland Press.
The empirical design and its results, not age, should determine the validity and relevance of a given educational theory. Too often, educational policy makers and the professional support system skip from level one research (theory and conjecture based on correlations) to policy. A shared knowledge base might be created from theory alone and as Grossen (nd) points out, it often is. "Most of the educational practices that become widely disseminated in our university teacher-training programs and across the nation do not even have level two research support, nevermind level three," (Grossen nd).
Greater gatekeeping is necessary to restore the integrity of the educational policy system and the professional networks that support it. Current gatekeepers do not draw their policies from science but from opinion. Almost all of the most popular educational theories touted today have little to no empirical support. Grossen lists a litany of common teaching methods and theories…
Grossen, B. (nd). What does it mean to be a research-based profession? Retrieved July 10, 2007 at http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~bgrossen/pubs/resprf.htm
In aaccounting research, the model used would be called analytical modeling, which consists of sstudies that use models with no specific underlying economic theory but use mathematical techniques. The mathematical formulas are applied to test and establish laws and accounting practices. Simulation, or the practice where the analysis is so complex that it requires a computer, is also an example of an inductive accounting practice research methodology.
Finally, pragmatic research utilizes pragmatic validity, which views research from a prescriptive-driven perspective. For example, solutions to problems that actually occur in the complex and high field of practice are developed in a way that, while valid for a specific situation, need to be adjusted according to the context in which they are to be applied. In the accounting area, general empirical research is a catchall that includes primarily descriptive empirical work. Another example of an accounting research methodology that consists of pragmatic…
Blaikie, N. (2007). Approaches to Social Inquiry. ISBN 0745634486.
Fleming, R., Graci, S. & Thompson, J. (2000). Dawning of the Age of Quantitative/Empirical Methods in Accounting Research. The Accounting Historians
Journal. (June 2000).
social science research are qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is believed to operate from a subjective, constructionist view of reality, whereas quantitative research operates from an objective, positivist viewpoint of the world. There has been quite a bit of debate over the merits of each of these approaches, often with one paradigm belittling the assumptions of the other. The current literature review explores the philosophical foundations of each paradigm, compares their practical differences, and discusses the strengths and weakness of both approaches as they relate to research in the social sciences and to human resources research. The rationale for mixed-methods research, where the two paradigms are combined, is also discussed.
In recent years there has been substantial interest concerning the role of specific paradigms and philosophical assumptions with regards to doing research. There has been a growing concern regarding the adequacy of research methods in social sciences and…
Anderson, V. (2004) Research methods in human resource management. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
Blalock, M. (1984). Basic dilemmas in the social sciences. New York: Sage/
Burrell, G. & Morgan G. (1979). Sociological paradigms and organization analysis. London, UK: Heinemann.
Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: How is it done? Qualitative Research, 6, 97-113.
oss et al. (2010) placed electrodes at specific points on participants' skulls that were used to apply small electrical charges at various times during the experiment, while no charge or "dummy charges" (a charge that provided the same sensation as a full charge, but that did not actually provide current to the brain) was given at other times in order to test and control for the real effect of an actual charge to the brain. This methodology is described in brief by Porter (2011), however the technical elements that are carefully detailed in the research publication of the methods used are not presented in this popular media article (oss et al., 2010). All of the information aside from the key findings of the article are left out also, although the basic limitations of the finding are described and there is evident care taken to not inflate the results or over-exaggerate…
Porter, J. (2011). A Genuine Jolt to the Memory. Miller-McCune. Accessed 1 March 2012. http://www.miller-mccune.com/culture/a-genuine-jolt-to-the-memory-28442/
Ross, S., McCoy, D., Woilk, D., Coslett, H. & Olson, I. (2010). Improved proper name recall by electrical stimulation of the anterior temporal lobes. Neuropsychologia 48(12): 3671-4.
This amount of flexibility helps to give them an edge, in adjusting with a host of challenges they are facing over the long-term. (Hanna, 2009, pp. 30 -- 53)
The article that was written by Gruber (2011) is showing how frontline employees play a vital role in addressing the needs of stakeholders. This is because they are directly working with customers, suppliers and third parties on a regular basis. Those firms that understand how to: address these requirements and motivate them will see an improvement in the way they are interacting with everyone. This is point that there will be a transformation in the operating environment of the firm (by addressing the specific needs of stakeholders). Over the course of time, this will have a positive impact on how they are interacting with everybody in achieving a host of objectives. The information from this source is useful, in highlighting how…
Barnes, B. (2010). Assessing the Contribution of Leading Mainstream Marketing Journals. International Marketing Review, 27 (5), 491 -- 518.
Brodie, R. (2008). Contemporary Marketing Practices. Journal of Business, 23 (2), 84 -- 94.
Brudan, a. (2011). Rediscovering Performance Management. Measuring Business Excellence, 14 (1), 109 -- 120.
Gruber, T. (2011). Analyzing the Preferred Characteristics. The TQM Journal, 23 (2), 128 -- 144.
Criminal Justice esearch
Torres, A.N., Boccaccini, M.T., and Miller, H.A. (2006). Perceptions of the validity and utility of criminal profiling among forensic psychologists and psychiatrists, American Psychological Association, 37 (1), 51-58.
Study purpose, research topic, and research questions. This research explores the perceptions of forensic psychologists and psychiatrists in regard to the utility and validity of criminal profiling. It is important to first establish a clear definition of the key term used in this research: Criminal profiling. The definition of criminal profiling in this research is not the same as in the vernacular. The authors discriminate forensic criminal profiling as the use of "behavioral evidence left at a crime scene to make inferences about the offender, including inferences about personality characteristics and psychopathology" (Torres, et al., 2006, p. 51). From the literature (Davis & Follette, 2002), the authors overly the simplest of definitions: "…profiling is simply the postdiction of behavior;…
Bartol, C.R. (1996). Police psychology: Then, now, and beyond. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 23, 70-89.
Cook, C., Heath, F., and Thompson, R.L. (2000). A meta-analysis of response rates in web- or Internet-based surveys. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 60, 821-836.
Davis, D. And Follette, W.C. (2002). Rethinking the probative value of evidence: Base rates, intuitive profiling, and the "postdiction" of behavior. Law and Human Behavior, 26, 133-158.
Douglas, J.H., and Olshaker, M. (1995). Mind hunter: Inside the FBI's elite serial crime unit. New York, NY: Mindhunters.
Counseling Master Questionnaire
A counseling session with an individual may qualify research as, putting together of information and understandings, followed by determination of validity of the conclusions and activities central on the shared knowledge (McLeod, 2003 p.4). A working definition of research is; an organized course of decisive investigation resulting to legitimate suggestions and conclusions, which are conveyed to other interested people. Based on this definition, there are several concepts that need evaluation. Critical inquiry is the drive whereby human beings are curious to know, learn and offer solutions to problems. As a process, research includes steps or stages, which further relies on observation, reflection and experimentation.
In the case of systematic, this means that research takes place within a theoretical system, and research includes application of principles aiming at achieving valid information. esults of research are propositions meaning that, after a research, there is a…
McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Crotty, M. (2005). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspectives in the research process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Thus, each counselor in training was exposed to identical client situations and cues. Their behavior and general strategy in reacting to those cues was then what was measured through quantitative analysis. Perceived rapport was then measured by the trained client replicate with a measurable scale of one to five. Such data was recorded with an electronic device which reported levels of rapport minute by minute during the context of the session. Out of the total fifty nine interviews, 2773 minutes were highlighted for analysis. The data collected from this time duration of interviews was then statistically analyzed using MANOVA based on the number of variables within counselor behavior that can affect the rapport with the client. This method effectively provided study designers with a reliable and measurable way to assess therapist behaviors and their effectiveness in building rapport.
What did the research claim to show?
Based on the data analysis,…
Christopher F. Sharpley, Emma Fairnie, E Tabary-Collins, Rebecca Bates, Priscilla Lee. Counseling Psychology Quarterly. Abingdon: Mar 2000. Vol. 13, Is. 1; pg. 99, 18 pages
theory-building, applied research is conducted to solve a problem. Action research is conducted to solve an immediate problem experienced by a practitioner; the problems that are addressed through action research exist in the context or environment in which they conduct their professional work. A construct is an abstraction -- an idea that exists in the mind; if an abstraction is based on something concrete or tangible, it is a concept, but if it is based on something hypothetical or inferential, then the abstraction is a construct. The most important difference between qualitative research and quantitative research is that quantitative research is deductive in relation to the hypothesis, which is determined before the research has actually begun. Quantitative research uses a deductive approach that moves from the general case to the specific. In this manner, the deductive approach considers the potential cause of some phenomenon and explores whether its effect can…
Lodico, M., Spaulding, D., & Voegtle, K. (2010). Methods in educational research: From theory to practice (2nd ed.) San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amount of rewards they receive for their efforts, but also with the relationship of this amount to what their peers receive (amlall, 2004). Adams (1963, 1965) posits that individuals are motivated by the perception of inequality, as measured by "input" and "outcome" ratios in comparison to others. Equity theory draws from multiple empirical theories and is utilized to make predictions about how individuals manage their relationships with others (Huseman, et al., 1987). If equity exists, the individual is at peace with the exchange and therefore not moved to action. If the individual perceives that his or her outcome/input ratio is less than that of a referent individual, then inequity exists, and motivation to restore equity arises (Chhokar et al., 2001).
Perception of inequity
Behavioral response (define)
Individuals may respond by choosing a behavioral response by reducing their inputs…
Byrne D.E., Lindgren H.C. 1971. Psychology: an Introduction to a Behavioral Science.
Wiley: New York.
Drillings M., O'Neil H.F. Jr.
Motivation: Theory and Research. Contributors: - editor,. - author. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Hillsdale, NJ. Publication Year: 1994. Page Number: 14.
Running Head: QUALITATIVE DOCTORAL BUSINESS RESEARCH ANALYSIS 1
QUALITATIVE DOCTORAL BUSINESS RESEARCH ANALYSIS 5
Analysis Role of Theory in Context of Qualitative Doctoral Business Research
Models and theories produce the basis upon which empirical inquiries are built. Empirical research is not only concerned with data variations (with respect to what is going on in the globe) but also with testing whether such data is in conformity with the theory or model (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007). It is also our intention to progress existing theories or even come up with new ones on the basis of existing ones and on the basis of freshly acquired empirical evidence. Generally two strategies for carrying out quantitative research exist. The first strategy involves formulation of hypotheses by researchers based on previous research information and testing those hypotheses against available empirical data through a process called confirmatory research. Confirmatory research is used to…
S. were "proficient in reading and math," Pytel explains. These statistics "loudly states that students entering high school" are simply not prepared, Pytel goes on. Moreover, U.S. students do not fare well on the international educational stage. At a time when globalization has brought much closer linkage between cultures, economies, and countries, American school children are lagging behind. The justification for focusing on strategies to keep children interested in school -- and to help them succeed in school -- is to be found in the fact that U.S. students' average scores are very poor in comparison to other students internationally.
To wit, according to the 2003 data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (in cooperation with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD), 15-year-old American students rank 24th out of 38 countries in science. U.S. students rank 12th of 38 countries in reading, and 26th of 38…
American School Counselor Association. (2010). Why Middle School Counselors. Retrieved January 20, 2011, from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=231 .
Barlow, Sally H., Fuhriman, Addie J., and Burlingame, Gary M. (2004). The History of Group
Counseling and Psychotherapy. In J.L. DeLucia-Waack (Ed), Handbook of Group
Counseling and Psychotherapy (pp. 4-18). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Ethics in Counseling
The research and empirically-derived conclusions in the article, So what do u want to work on 2 day? (Rummell, Joyce, 2010) illustrate just how much of an ethical quagmire online counseling is today. The article clearly shows how much of an urgent need there is today for greater compliance and oversight, with a call for the American Psychological Association (APA) needing to be involved. One of the most valuable insights gained from the analysis and empirical research is just how urgently the need is for a standardized set of guidelines and compliance frameworks. The researchers point out how the APA Ethics Code Standard 2.01 only goes so far in regulating online counseling and support (Rummell, Joyce, 2010). Across the wide spectrum of Internet counseling programs that include e-mail-based programs, private instant messaging, chat services, videoconferencing and most recently, Google+ chat rooms that are used for diagnosis and…
(Rummell, Joyce, 2010)
Rummell, C.M., & Joyce, N.R. (2010). "So what do u want to work on 2 day?": The ethical implications of online counseling. Ethics & Behavior, 20(6), 482.
namely, evaluating the structure of the research upon which scientific conclusion are drawn. More specifically, the function of a research report (article) is to inform readers about the problem being investigated, the methods used to solve the problem, the results of the investigation, and the conclusions being inferred from the results. The printed manuscript is to inform the reader, as expeditiously as possible, what was done, the outcome of the doing, and the investigator's conclusion.
In addition to the above, research reports must be succinct, objective, and crystalline. The ultimate test of an excellent research report is in its ability to be replicated by those who read it. If this criterion cannot be met, then the report is inadequate. The remainder of this review will be an analysis of a particular professional article wherein a group of nurses were interviewed and questioned with respect to their knowledge about promoting sun…
The Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice
Evidence-based practice is a cornerstone of effective patient care (Mateo & Kirchhoff, 2009). The robustness of any existing body of evidence is only as useful as the ability of advance practice nurses to access, retrieve, and implement that knowledge in the practice environment. Therefore, nurses need systematic and comprehensive strategies for making information available to colleagues. Nurses also need their administrators to invest in the latest tools and technologies that promote evidence-based practice including networks and information systems. Policies and procedures should not only uphold the tenets of evidence-based practice but also make it easier for nurses to find and share knowledge specific to developing practice behaviors in their care environments. Methods of finding knowledge specific to developing practice behaviors include utilizing proprietary databases, interviewing experts in the field, and utilizing online digital resources. Combining these three methods of knowledge acquisition can make research more…
Development Change Research Issue
Developmental change is a broad topic that incorporate several sub-topics relating to an individual's growth and development. The broad nature of this topic emerges from the fact that its an approach that is geared towards explaining how infants, children, and adults change over a period of time. The process of explaining individuals' developmental changes over time involves examining a wide range of theoretical areas including biological, cognitive, emotional, and social domains. Additionally, there are different research designs that are utilized in developmental research including longitudinal, sequential, and cross-sectional research approaches (Berk & Meyers, 2016). These different approaches are selected based on their effectiveness in exploring a particular issue or aspect of developmental change over time.
An example of a topic that could be examined using one of these research designs is masticatory performance in children across different age groups. This is an important topic of study…
posteriori, justification is a phenomenon to which a great number of philosophical directions can be applied. After defining the issue of justification, foundationalism and phenomenalism will be expounded for their strengths and weaknesses in terms of a posteriori justification.
A Posteriori Justification
The phrase "a posteriori" refers to propositions that are knowable on the basis of experience. Experience is thus used to justify the knowledge of the proposition. Experience therefore forms the basis of knowledge, which makes this kind of justification empirical. The knowledge can be proven by the experiences beforehand. This past experience then forms the basis of a posteriori justification, and for thinking that propositions of this kind are true. Things that can be proven by the experiences of oneself can be classified as a posteriori. The research done by natural sciences for example are experiences upon which to base justification.
In terms of a posteriori justification,…
ole Of Leadership And Employees In Organizational Innovation
Organizational success in the current global environment characterized with significant challenges is highly dependent on innovation and creativity. Innovation and creativity contribute to the success of organizational interventions, thereby, contributing to its competitiveness. The current global environment is characterized by rapid adoption of new technologies, reduction in the life cycle of products, and globalization. As such, it implies the need for the organizations to become creative and innovative to compete, survive, lead, and grow in the wake of these challenges. Similarly, significant evidence shows that leadership and the employees play an important role in driving innovation and creativity within the organization. For instance, studies have shown that leadership styles such as transformational and transactional leadership styles, influences innovation, and creativity within the organization positively. However, limited knowledge on the contextual factors under which the effect occurs exists.
Similarly, empirical evidence…
Eisenbeiβ, S.A., & Boerner, S. (2010). Transformational Leadership and R&D Innovation: Taking a Curvilinear Approach. Creativity and Innovation Management, 19(4), 364-372.
Gumusluoglu, L., & Ilsev, A. (2009). Transformational Leadership, Creativity, And Organizational Innovation. Journal of Business Research, 62(4), 461-473.
Hu, H., Gu, Q., & Chen, J. (2013). How and when does transformational leadership affect organizational creativity and innovation?: Critical review and future directions. Nankai Business Review International, 4(2), 147-166.
Liao, S., & Wu, C. (2010). System perspective of knowledge management, organizational learning, and organizational innovation. Expert Systems with Applications, 37(2), 1096-1103.
esearch Method and Design Proposal
A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).
Most importantly, qualitative data methods…
Bickman, L. (2008). Chapter 1 Applied research design: A practical approach. Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/23770_Ch1.pdf
Grimes, A.D., & Schulz, F.K. (2002). Descriptive studies: What they can do and cannot do.
Lancet, 359, 145-149.
Hofferth, S.L. (2005). Secondary data analysis in family research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 891 -- 907.
The behavior of both botnets and worms in peer-to-peer networks have been empirically examined and models or simulations of their behavior have been attempted, and the manner in which different nodes in peer-to-peer networks develop in and of themselves and in terms of their relationships with other nodes -- the very architecture of the network itself, in other words, which is necessarily dynamic in a peer-to-peer network -- makes it easier for these threats to spread and evolve undetected due to this architecture and to the patterns of information flow over such networks (Fan, 2011; Xu et al., 2011). When it comes to worms propagating in peer-to-eer networks, the activity of the worm itself has been demonstrated to be the most necessary knowledge in terms of tracking and preventing the continued spread and damage of such a threat, while botnets generally show more "robustness" an are better impacted by shifts…
Ahmad, N. & Habib, M. (2010). Analysis of Network Security Threats and Vulnerabilities by Development & Implementation of a Security Network Monitoring Solution. Blekinge Institute of Technology (thesis).
Barth, W. (2008). Nagios: System and Network Monitoring. San Francisco: Open Source Press.
Bejtlich, R. (2004). The Tao of Network Security Monitoring: Beyond Intrusion Detection. New York: Pearson.
Cao, J. & Liu, Z. (2012). A Distributed Trust Model in Unstructured P2P Networks. Recent Advances in Computer Science and Information Engineering 126: 635-41.
The locus in this study would be to take the concepts of what is perceived as the duties of the resource officers and using these to determine what it is they can do to alleviate some of the concerns that face middle schools today.
Both the focus and the locus help the researcher to formulate the questions that they hope to answer by doing the research that they are looking at. Devising good questions from the beginning will help ensure that the appropriate research is conducted and good results are obtained.
SUBJECT: Generating an analytic memo
A good analytic memo should focus on a single term or idea within the research that is being done. The memo should explore the concepts characteristics while exploring the ways in which these characteristics might vary within different contexts.
In the study regarding resource officers' perceptions of their duties in suburban middle schools one…
Conceptual. (n.d.). Retrieved May 9, 2009, from The Free Dictionary Web site:
Empirical. (n.d.). Retrieved May 9, 2009, from The Free Dictionary Web site:
attainment of a desired research goal is to develop a scientific approach toward the situation, event, occurrence, or phenomenon being investigated. As such no research question can be answered by way of gathering and analyzing data if first investigative issue is not stated in testable terms or form. Once a research investigator has established and properly formatted the specific research design to be used to investigate and test a desired phenomenon attention can be given to the required method of data collection. On the basis of the method chosen the researcher will be permitted to draw the necessary conclusions from the data statistically analyzed. Should a research investigator not choose the best-fit method of data collection then any inferences drawn from the data analysis are subject to a tremendous amount of error and inaccuracy. In order to avoid data error and inaccuracy the research investigator must give particular attention to…
Furguson, George A. (1966). Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education. New York:
Kerlinger, Fred (1964). Foundations of Behavioral Research. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.
Ohlson, E.L. (1998). Best-Fit Statistical Practices. Chicago: ACTS Testing Labs.
Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:
(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?
(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;
(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)
ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:
(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…
Bryman, Alan (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How Is It Done? Qualitative Research 2006. SAGE Publications, London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi Vol. 6(1). Online available at: http://www.socsci.uci.edu/ssarc/pcs/webdocs/W-Readings/IntegratingQualandQuant.pdf
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel and Way, Niobe (2008) Mixing Qualitative and Quanitative Research in Development Science: Uses and Methodological Choices. Developmental Psychology 2008. Vol. 44 No. 3. Online available at: http://prod.baruch.cuny.edu/facultyhandbook/documents/YoshikawaWeisnerKalilWay2008DP.pdf
Niglas, Katrin (2004) The Combined Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Educational Research. Tallinn Pedagogical University. Online available at: http://www.tlulib.ee/files/arts/95/nigla32417030233e06e8e5d471ec0aaa32e9.pdf
Weinreich, Nedra Kline (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Social Marketing Research. Weinreich Communications 2006. Online available at: http://www.social-marketing.com/research.html
Criminal Justice Research Review
Ricciardelli, R., Bell, J., & Clow, K. (2009). Student attitudes toward wrongful conviction, Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice, 51(3), 411-427.
There has been considerable research addressing the underlying factors regarding wrongful conviction; however, minimal research has been completed that investigates attitudes toward wrongful conviction. First and third year Canadian undergraduate students in criminal and non-criminal justice majors were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward various facets of wrongful conviction, the need to educate criminal justice personnel regarding contributing factors to wrongful conviction, the Blackstone ratio ("better that ten guilty persons escape than that one innocent suffer), and the question as to whether wrongful conviction causes individuals to lose faith in the criminal justice system.
The problem was sufficiently narrowed down into a researchable problem, and is certainly formidable enough to warrant formal research efforts. The authors complete a significant comparison to the most…
Hickle, K., & Roe-Sepowitz, D. (2010). Female juvenile arsonists: An exploratory look at characteristics and solo and group arson offences, Legal and Criminological Psychology, 15, 385-399.
The purpose of the study was to examine a sample of 114 female juveniles charged with arson in a large juvenile justice system, as there is limited descriptive literature about female juvenile arsonists. The methodology included looking into familial characteristics, abuse, neglect, school related issues, mental health, substance abuse, and crime characteristics. Individual and group offenders were explored in depth, and were followed over a five-year period of time.
The literature review was very detailed and provided comparative as well as empirical information that highlighted the current gap that this study was designed to address. T test and chi square tests were used to establish whether the 86 that were excluded from the study demonstrated any significant differences than those who participated in the study. The 114 females included represented 22 counties in the state of Florida. The supervision Risk Classification Instrument was completed by juvenile probation officers within 6 hours of custody. This is a standard tool used for all juvenile offenders. It was difficult to discern from the study whether or not the participants assented to participation in the study, or whether it was required. The study did indicate that permission for the study was granted by the Florida Juvenile Justice Review board. The research design is appropriate to address the research problem; and issues of internal and external validity are adequately addressed. Data collection instruments are adequately described and the statistical tests are correct for answering the questions posited by the hypothesis.
According to prior research studies, plagiarism is not just appearing in the academic environment. Now, plagiarism is being seen in corporate America as a way to "adjust" information that might otherwise seem unfavorable to stakeholders, higher-ups, or others who will be provided information regarding something to do with the company. Financial issues are often a part of the plagiarism issue, but there are other concerns that are not related to the company's finances. No matter what concerns a corporation has, it should be honest about those concerns and not attempt to cover them up with dishonesty of any kind. There are other dishonest practices other than plagiarism that are used in corporations today, but plagiarism is one of the more common problems that is discovered. It appears to be acceptable until it is discovered, and it is important that the researcher examines just how much plagiarism is permeating…
Aguilera, R., & Vadera, A. (2008). The dark side of authority: Antecedents, mechanisms, and outcomes of organizational corruption. Journal of Business Ethics, 77, 431-449.
Bailey, J. (2008, January). Whistleblowing: An international perspective. Internal Auditing, 23, 20-25.
Dewey, J. (1963). Experience and education. New York, NY: Collier Books.
Haggerty, J., & McKinnon, J. (2004, September 24). Fannie Mae ousters might come. Wall Street Journal, p. A12.
Research lan: Mobile Commerce (m-Commerce)
Outline of Research lan
The introduction of mobile commerce (or m-Commerce) demonstrates the invasiveness and interactivity of technologies today and the extension of the 'virtual self' through business transactions made through m-Commerce.
m-Commerce in the worldwide and national context
Characteristics of m-Commerce: Technical
As an information service
As an information technology
Applications of m-Commerce: Business and Social
Social Impact of m-Commerce technology in the U.S. And to the World
erceived benefits of m-Commerce
Risks and challenges associated with m-Commerce
Ngai, E. And Gunasekaran, A. (2007). "A review for mobile commerce research and applications." Decision Support Systems, Vol. 23, No. 3.
The authors provided an intensive review of current literature on the topic of m-Commerce, exploring the different concepts and dimensions in which it is associated as far as scholarly studies about it are concerned. Findings…
Provides a primer and detailed description of the advent of m-commerce, specifically focusing the discussion in the case of mobile banking (m-banking). As one kind of application of m-commerce, the article would be helpful in understanding the benefits, challenges and risks that accompany the use of m-commerce.
Tiwari, R. And S. Buse. (2007). The Mobile Commerce Prospects: A strategic analysis of opportunities in the banking sector. Hamburg: Hamburg University Press.
The book provides a comprehensive overview of m-commerce from the perspective of banking/financial services. It contains a detailed discussion of the technical, business and social dimensions of m-commerce, with suggestions for future directions in terms of policy-making (regulatory framework) and further research on its usage and receptivity as a new business technology.
Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research
Research is imperative to quality analysis and development of theories. In any science, no matter if it is a physical, psychological, or sociological, research is integral to formulation of working theories. ithout research, not only can problems not be solved but problems cannot even be properly determined. Having said that, it is important to understand that there are many different types of research methodology. Not all forms of research, and thus the data that they collect, are created equal. Some methods of research are far superior to others and the findings of researchers more influential and verifiable than research conducted in other methods. In The Research Methods Knowledge Base, authors Trochim and Donnelly (2008) discuss the importance of research and also explain the difference between types of research that can be conducted. Two types of research that they explore are experimental and quasi-experimental and in so…
Trochim, W & Donnelly, J. (2008). The Research Methods Knowledge Base. (3rd ed.) Mason,
deductive and empirical strategies used in the construction of structured personality instruments, it is important to denote just what the terms deductive and empirical mean and how they relate to tests specific to psychological purposes. Empirical evidence is that which can be demonstrated or proven, and which ultimately exists in the world. Deductive reasoning is a form of logic wherein individuals establish a basic premise or truth, combine it with others for which there is empirical evidence to validate, and then draw conclusions. This type of reasoning determines conclusions based on a top-down approach to reasoning. These respective strategies, then, which frequently are applied in congruence with one another, are highly important for the makeup of structured personality tests. One may even posit the viewpoint that without such strategies, the results of personality instruments would be virtually useless or inconclusive at best.
Define and Describe Deductive
Therefore, when examining the…
Frisby, C.L. (2000). Handbook of multicultural assessment. Suzuki, L.A., Ponterotto, J.G. (Ed.). Hoboken: Jossey-Bass.
Kwan, K.-L. K., Maestas, M.L. (2000). Handbook of multicultural assessment. Suzuki, L.A., Ponterotto, J.G. (Ed.). Hoboken: Jossey-Bass.
McCrae, R.R., Costa Jr., P.T. (1989). Rotation to maximize the construct validity factors in the NEO personality inventory. Multivariate Behavioral Research. 24: 107 -- 124.
Suzuki, L.A., Prevost, L., Short, E.L. (2000). Handbook of multicultural assessment. Suzuki, L.A., Ponterotto, J.G. (Ed.). Hoboken: Jossey-Bass.
Analysis of group collectivism and interaction in "Culture in Interaction" by Nina Eliasoph and Paul Lichterman
The journal article entitled, "Culture in Interaction," authored by Nina Eliasoph and Paul Lichterman, brought into fore the use of empirical studies in identifying, analyzing, and interpreting the group culture of organizations and civil groups in terms of their use of speech acts and group interaction. The study's general objective was to describe the culture of civil organizations through a qualitative analysis of their speech acts and styles. Using the method of ethnographic analysis, Eliasoph and Lichterman was able to analyze and interpret how these civil groups' cultures, i.e., through collective representations, are characterized by their use of specific kinds of speech acts and styles.
Through the literature gathered by the researchers/authors, the choice of the sample was to select a civil group that center on activities related to activism and volunteerism,…
Eliasoph, N. And P. Lichterman. (January 2002). "Culture in Interaction." American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 108, Number 4.
Cloud Computing esearch Question and Experimental Design
Develop a research question that addresses one of the unknowns you identified in Part I of the literature review and sketch a quantitative or qualitative study that can answer the question about what is unknown and contribute to theory. Draw on the additional resources for this course for guidance in understanding the concepts (e.g., internal validity, threats to validity, and operationalization) needed to address this question.
After a thorough review of the prevailing research and literature on the adoption and implementation of cloud computing technology, it is clear that the base of knowledge on this emerging field is continually expanding. A number of critical questions are still left unanswered, however, as is befitting an innovation which was only recently made available for public and private use. Namely, what are the implications for widespread adoption of cloud computing on the overall information security management…
Abbas, H., Magnusson, C., Yngstrom, L., & Hemani, A. (2011). Addressing dynamic issues in information security management. Information Management & Computer Security, 19(1), 5-24.
Cegielski, C.G., Jones-Farmer, L.A., Wu, Y., Hazen, B.T. (2012). Adoption of cloud computing technologies in supply chains: An organizational information processing theory approach. The International Journal of Logistics Management, 23(2), 184 -- 211.
Dhar, S. (2012). From outsourcing to cloud computing: Evolution of IT services. Management Research Review, 35(8), 664-675.
Lacey, D. (2010). Understanding and transforming organizational security culture. Information Management & Computer Security, 18(1), 4-13.
criminological research surpasses the mere act of searching and viewing material on a topic and writing an expressive paper. Before research is conducted, it is important to fully grasp and comprehend what it is that needs to be research, why it would be researched, why if it at all it has been researched, and how it may be performed. Types of research that can be performed are basic, multipurpose, or applied. The purpose for research is usually to gain information or knowledge. This information might be predictive, explanatory, intervening, or descriptive in nature.
All research follows basic steps. These steps can be interpreted in a variety ways, but normally follow the same structure, form hypothesis, state hypothesis, collect data, review and record results or conclusion. Fitzgerald, Cox, & Fitzgerald, 2002, p. 124). Different methods of inquiry help gather the data for the research. easoning, causal (observation), deduction, induction, and the…
Fitzgerald, J.D., Cox, S.M., & Fitzgerald, J.D. (2002). Research methods and statistics in criminal justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub.
Graziano, A.M., & Raulin, M.L. (2013). Research methods: A process of inquiry. Boston, Mass: Pearson.
Loans Envisioned Research Methodology
Association Loans: Association Loans Envisioned Research Methodology
Association Loans: Envisioned Research Methodology
Envisioned research Methodology and Design
Descriptive Research Methods
Research Designs Considered
Explanatory Sequential Design
Exploratory Sequential Design
The Embedded Design
Research Validity and Reliability
Strengths and weaknesses
Method of Data Collection
Primary Data Collection
Secondary Data Collection
Justifying Choice and Alternative methods/designs
The loan associations work on different grounds as compared with commercial bank loans. The commercial and saving bank loans and financing options are usually provided by the financial service providers are more focused to provide funds for business venture. The loan's security is also devised based on credit cards, business performance, and the likelihood of growth potential. However, the loan associations and building loans are more concerned about promoting land and building ownerships.…
Bryman, A., & Bell, E. (2007). Business research methods. USA: Oxford University Press.
Caprio Jr., G., & Vittas, D. (Eds.). (2007). Reforming financial systems: historical implications for policy. USA: Cambridge University Press.
Creswell, J. W & Clark, V.L.P (2010). Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. USA: SAGE Publications, Inc.
Dexter, S. (2009). A treatise on co-operative savings and loan associations. USA: BiblioLife, L.L.C.
On the part of his fellow scientists, Snow's research was resisted because it was conducted with intellectual 'leaps' of logic in his determination to find the cause, as opposed to Farr's more technical and methodological approach. Farr had the more comprehensive health surveillance program, but Snow's hypothesis and instincts were correct. Snow drew upon past studies involving smallpox, cowpox, and syphilis, to extrapolate parallel examples of how the disease was transmitted, while Farr clung to the airborne model of disease transmission popular at the time even after reviewing such studies. Farr stated that non-living or zymotic material was transmitted through the air, and hence the closer the quarters of the affected, the more apt the material would be transmitted through the air.
The commonly-held belief was that fecalized air and water were the primary conduits of the disease. Farr believed primarily that the transmission was "miasmatic" and the prevalence in…
Accordingly, the Lower Rio Grande Valley National ildlife Refuge, the former Sabal Palms Audubon Sanctuary, and the Nature Conservancy's Southmost Preserve would all be subjected to direct environmental auditing. Comparative figures measuring current findings against archived findings will provide a quantifiable understanding of the impact being levied by the wall in these specific areas. The sanctuaries have been selected for a number of reasons, specifically owing to the claim that these have been directly impacted by the construction of the Border all and based on the assumption that these sanctuaries will already possess a significant set of archived data on environmental features such air, soil and water quality, wildlife migration habits and the environmental safety of human habitation.
It is thus that the proposed study here seeks to support the claim that the border wall constructed in the LRGV is a both a poor response to the immigration crisis and…
Daily KOS. (2010). Walling off the Nature Conservancy. m.dailykos.com.
Mattei, E. (2009). Borderline: When it Comes to the Texas/Mexico Wall, No One's Sitting on the Fence. A Nation Divided. Online at http://blogs.swarthmore.edu/borderwall/?tag=rio-grande-valley
No Border Wall (NBW). (2010). Texas Politicians Ignoring the Danger That the Border Wall Poses to South Texas Levees. No Texas Border Wall. Online at
e., contemporary or historical issues (Eisenhardt 1989; in Naslund, 2005);
(3) the extent of control required over behavioral events in the research context (Yin 1994; as cited in Naslund, 2005); and (4) the researcher's philosophical stance, i.e., his/her understanding of the nature of social reality and how knowledge of that reality can be gained. (Naslund, 2005)
Naslund (2005) states that qualitative research methods "primarily create meanings and explanations to research phenomena" and include data collection methods such as:
(2) Fieldwork including interviews and questionnaires, diary methods, documents and texts, case studies; and (3) the researcher's impressions and reactions to observed phenomena. Quantitative research methods serve to make provision of a broad range of situations as well as being fast and economical.
Commonly utilized quantitative research methods include those of:
(1) Laboratory experiments;
(2) Formal methods; and (3) Numerical methods and techniques. (Naslund, 2005)
Naslund states that analysis identifies…
Experimental Research (2009) Experimental Resources. Online available at: http://www.experiment-resources.com/experimental-research.htm l' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
In other words, if the study is inordinately time-consuming for the purpose of doing something non-academic or otherwise beneficial, is it responsible research to ask young people to participate?
External validity concerns "whether results from experiments in one setting (time and place) will be obtained in other settings" (Maxfield and Babbie 122). One external concern is the use of a middle-class suburban neighborhood. If this study was done in an upper-class neighborhood, a rural neighborhood, an urban neighborhood, or a low-income neighborhood, the results might vary greatly. In terms of internal validity, the causality of aggressive video games for aggressive behavior might be difficult to prove given all the other stimuli that can potentially cause aggression in children (including violence in other media like music, television, and film, violent or aggressive living circumstances which may not be disclosed to the researcher, etc.).
If boys are found to be…
Maxfield, Michael G., and Earl R. Babbie. Basics of Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2009.
Every educational institution and population presents unique characteristics and requirements that make even the most comprehensive prior research incomplete in terms of the actual advisability of implementing changes in that educational environment (Lloyd, 2005).
Summative evaluation must begin from the moment of initial implementation (II, 2008). It should cover both the immediate apparent response of and effect on learners as well as the apparent efficacy and appropriateness of the operational approach implemented by teachers initially. The former allows teachers to gauge, in real time, the degree to which the new changes seem to be received by students and the degree to which they seem to benefit their teaching objectives and learning outcomes. Sometimes, that process allows educators to identify practical difficulties and complications in their chosen methods of delivery that might not have been anticipated prospectively. Other times, that process allows educators to identify problems, deficiencies, and complications…
Informal Reading Inventory (IRI): Assessment Procedures Manual Secondary (2008). St.
Paul Public Schools. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from:
Lascarides, V. And Hinitz, B. (2000). History of Early Childhood Education. New York:
gender discrepancies in regards to African-American education. There has been a noticeable, growing increase of the presence of African-American women in undergraduate and graduate education while the gap between African-American males and females has widened. The dissertation will use a mixed methods, grounded theory perspective to determine why this is the case. The overall theoretical perspective of the work will be rooted in critical race theory and poststructuralist concepts.
Quantitatively assessed questionnaires and coded qualitative interviews will attempt to answer the question of why African-American male participation in higher education lags behind that of African-American females. These trends will be contextualized in the overall, larger trend of increased female participation as a whole on the undergraduate and graduate levels, to the point that women are now graduating in greater numbers than their male colleagues.
As well as research questions specific to the dissertation, the relative merits of qualitative and quantitative…
Charmaz, Kathy. (2003). Grounded theory. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. Sage. Retrieved from:
The gender gap. (2012). Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Retrieved from:
Systematic esearch eview
It is extremely rare that a single patient is overseen by the same nurse throughout the duration of his or her care. Also, nurses must frequently communicate orders to patients and their families before the patient is released. Thus, nursing 'handoffs' or a shift in care-related responsibilities are a critical component of daily nursing practice. The purpose of the systematic research review, "Nursing Handoffs: A Systematic eview of the Literature" was to determine what are safe and effective practices regarding this aspect of nursing care based upon the evidence provided by existing empirical studies. Handoffs are not simply a change in personnel: they are critical junctures of care where information may be lost or important connections may be made which result in substantive improvements in patient health. In fact, handoffs are considered important enough that the Joint Commission on Nursing has a specific definition in…
Riesenberg, L, Leisch, J. & Cunningham, J. (2010). Nursing handoffs: A systematic review of the literature. AJN, 110 (4): 24-34. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingcenter.com/lnc/CEArticle?an=00000446-201004000-00026&Journal_ID=54030&Issue_ID=996031#sthash.NvzkZCbc.dpuf
Leading Action esearch in an Elementary School Setting
One of the risks that is routinely encountered classroom teachers is the potential to become mired in a set of educational practices that may or may not be suitable for their students at any given point in time. ather than remaining in a teaching rut, though, a growing number of reading teachers have recognized the value of action research to inform and improve their classroom practices. In order for this method of inquiry to be effective, though, all stakeholders must be educated concerning the tenets of action research, what areas of interest are most appropriate for study and their respective roles in the process. To determine the facts about these issues, this paper reviews the relevant literature concerning leading action research in an elementary school setting, including an assessment of the current degree of comfort that exists at the author's school and…
Brkich, K. L. & Shumbera, K. (2010, Summer). Action research: How to create your own professional development experience. Science and Children, 47(9), 47-51.
Cooper, K. & White, R. E. (2012, October). The recursive process in and of critical literacy: Action research in an urban elementary school. Canadian Journal of Education, 35(2), 41-45.
Eisner, E. W. & Day, M. D. (2004). Handbook of research and policy in art education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Gruenert, S. & Whitaker, T. (2015). School culture rewired: How to define, assess, and transform it. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
unequivocal (Coughlan, Cronin & yan, 2007). Also, it should ideally be 10-15 words long. The title of the quantitative article is "Work environment, job satisfaction, stress and burnout among haemodialysis nurses" (Hayes, Douglas & Bonner, 2015). The title clearly adheres to the recommended length of an article title. In addition, the title unambiguously identifies of the purpose of the study, which is to examine relationships between nurse characteristics, work environment attributes, job satisfaction, job stress, and burnout in nurses working in haemodialysis units.
The abstract should provide a succinct summary of the study, inclusive of the research problem, purpose of the research, methodology, sample size, findings, as well as conclusion and recommendations (Coughlan, Cronin & yan, 2007). The reader should judge from the abstract whether an article is worth further reading. Hayes, Douglas & Bonner's (2015) article provides a precise and straightforward overview of the study, clearly summing up the…
Ahanchian, M., Meshkinyazd, A., & Soudmand, P. (2015). Nurses burnout in psychiatric wards. Fundamentals of Mental Health, 260-264.
Coughlan, M., Cronin, P., & Ryan, F. (2007). Step-by-step guide to critiquing research. Part 1: quantitative research. British Journal of Nursing, 16(11), 658-663.
Hayes, B., Douglas, C., & Bonner, A. (2015). Work environment, job satisfaction, stress and burnout among haemodialysis nurses. Journal of Nursing Management, 23, 588-598.
Lee, P. (2006). Understanding and critiquing qualitative research articles. Nursing Times, 102(29), 30-32.
.." And "The probability that my peers would undertake the same action is...." It is the difference in the responses given to these two questions, as captured on a seven point Likert scale, that is the measure of the social desirability response bias. (Tyson: 1992; Cohen et al.: 1995, 1996, 2001).
Many studies have been done on the role and correlation between moral development and ethical decision making as it applies to various professionals. A majority of these research studies have found that such things as gender, education, age and taking ethics courses in school have some affect on one's moral reasoning developments (Armstrong: 1993; Elm, Kennedy & Lawton: 2001; Jones & Hiltebeitel: 1995; Ponemon & Glazer: 1990; Shaub: 1994). However, many studies have also found exactly the opposite, in that no significant relationship exists. (Ma & Chan: 1987; Rogers & Smith: 2001; Thorne, Massey & Magnan: 2003).
Weber, J., & Glyptis, S.M. (2000). Measuring the impact of a business ethics course and community service experience on students' values and opinions. Teaching Business Ethics, 4, 341-358.
Weber, J., & Green, S. (1991). Principled Moral Reasoning: Is it a Viable Approach to Promote Ethical Integrity? Journal of Business Ethics, 10(5), 325-333.
Wynd, W.R., & Mager, J. (1989). The business and society course: Does it change student attitudes? Journal of Business Ethics, 8(6), 486-491.
This underscores why hypotheses are so critical for a research design, because as can be seen from the above discussion, they have a direct bearing on the selection of variables, the selection of research strategies, and ultimately how the research is used. The selection of variables were based, in both studies, on those factors most controllable by either the online e-tailers themselves or in the case of organizations, measurable internally and susceptible to arbitrary standards. Notice that each set of variables, in each studies, does not look to an external evaluation of trustworthiness. The use of attitudinal variables, the collection of psychographic data both from online customers and it professionals to ascertain how they are grouping themselves, and a more precise set of hypotheses and research variables would yield a much more balanced and accurate assessment of the issues of online trust and it Professional performance as it relates to…
Krishnamurthy, Sandeep. An Empirical Study of the Causal Antecedents of Customer Confidence in E-Tailers by First Monday, volume 6, number 1 (January 2001),
Oz, Effy. Organizational commitment and ethical behavior: An empirical study of information system professionals. Journal of Business Ethics; Dordrecht; Nov 2001
Indeed, it may be argued that action research is uniquely suited to the conditions within the classroom. So reports the text by Ferrance, which indicates that "action research is a process in which participants examine their own educational practice systematically and carefully, using the techniques of research. It is based on the following assumption. . . teachers and principals work best on problems they have identified for themselves." (p. 1)
The implication here is that the constant state of flux revealed by day-to-day activities within a course and in interaction between professor, students, content and other entities justify the use of a research framework which is similarly mutable. As the source by Ferrance argues, the improvement of one's own practice of education may well be based on the ability of the instructor to evolve in harmony with an evolving understanding of the community systems, social networks, cultural inclinations and academic…
Dick, B. (2000). A Beginner's Guide to Action Research [Online]. Available at http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/guide.html
Ferrance, E. (2000). Action Research. Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory at Brown University.
This introduces another theoretical and practical difference between business proposals and formal research, and that is the evaluation of their results. Typically business proposals have specific revenue and cost objectives associated with them, yet lack the precision of results that formal research has. Business proposals' variability is not as easily quantified and measured, and therefore potentially overcome as the more planned approach of formal research. Formal research methodologies can take into account potential sampling errors, respondent biases and also control for specific errors in completing the study. The finite and highly measured result of formal research is in contrast to the business proposal's multitudinous effects on people and groups in the company it is meant for. Formal research also can be longitudinal or focused on comparing the implications of a given research methodology over time, with no specific payback except for the creation of knowledge. For business proposals it is…
Jeffrey Jablonski (1999). Teaching the complexity of business proposals. Business Communication Quarterly, 62(3), 108-111. Retrieved January 6, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 44309653)
Judd, Larry R. (1990). Importance and Use of Formal Research and Evaluation. Public Relations Review, 16(4), 17. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 9051599).
Luuk Lagerwerf, Ellis Bossers. (2002). Assessing business proposals: Genre conventions and audience response in document design. The Journal of Business Communication, 39(4), 437-460. Retrieved January 7, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 238607751).
For example, although many nurses were taught to place infants in the prone sleeping position to prevent aspiration, there is now persuasive evidence that supine (back) sleeping position decreases the risk for sudden infant death syndrome." (p. 28)
This also implicates the practice dimensions of nursing. According to the primary text, evidence-based practice is particularly important as a way to dissuade against poorly informed or assumption-driven decision-making. here non-evidence-based practice is in place, the risk is higher that error or unwanted health consequences may result from treatment approaches. By contrast, the use of evidence-base practice provides the nurse with a set of empirically formed guidelines on how to approach each patient. Instinct such as that often relied upon so heavily in non-evidence-based practice, should be integrated with the understanding afforded by comprehensive research. Only then can the practicing nurse apply practical treatment decisions without falling into otherwise discredited customs or…
Polit, D.F., & Beck, C.T. (2008). Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice, (8th ed.).
esearch activities, whether clinical trial based, experimentally designed, or product oriented, must exhibit and command interest, enthusiasm, and passionate commitment. To this end the researcher must catch the essential quality of the excitement of discovery that comes from research well done. The first step in the attainment of the desired research goal is to develop a scientific approach toward that which is being investigated. A requirement within the scientific approach best-fit format that is oftentimes misunderstood, and consequently wrongly applied, is that of sampling.
In a rather philosophical approach to sampling Ohlson (1998) states that sampling is " ... But part of the whole. Check to make sure I fairly represent my larger connection " (p. 27). With these words Ohlson is informing the research enthusiast that sampling alone can skew testing results, infuse uncontrollable error into statistical processes, and violate the empirical premise under which the research investigation…
Ferguson, Geroge A. 1966. Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education. New York:
McGraw-Hill Book Company
Ohlson, E.L 1998. Best-Fit Statistical Procedures, ACTS Testing Labs. Chicago Thompson, David M., Kozak, Sharon E. And Sheps, Sam (1999). Insulin adjustment by a diabetes nurse educator improves glucose control in insulin-requiring diabetic patients: A randomized trial. CMAJ, 161(8):959-62
Van Dalen, Debold B. (1966). Understanding educational research. New York: McGraw-Hill
In its purest definition, quantitative research focuses on a systematic and empirical approach to research based on statistical, mathematical and/or computational techniques. The overall objective of this type of research is to develop models, theories and hypotheses that consist of measurable and verifiable datum. The overall basis for quantitative research is within the process of measurement. This process establishes the necessary connection between empirical observation and the mathematical expression of the interrelationships of quantitative datum. Thus, the researcher must ask specific, rather narrow questions; collect samples of numerical data; analyze that data mathematically; and then develop an unbiased result that can be replicated as well as generalized to a larger population. This is in contrast to qualitative research, that tends to follow broader questions with verbiage-based datum; and focuses on themes to describe patterns within the research set; then extrapolates that information into a larger group (Given, 2008,…
Allingham, M. (2002). Choice Theory: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.
Creswell, J. (2013). Research Design (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Given, L. (2008). The Safe Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Goertz, G., & Mahoney, J. (2012). A Tale of Two Cultures: Qualitative and Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.