English Language Essays (Examples)

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English by Time

Words: 3444 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45578320

(60)

The Norman conquest had forever altered the face of history and the face of the English language.

Middle English

The period thought of as the Middle English period roughly from 1150-1500 is a period that is demonstrative of the massive changes associated with the Norman conquest. Though there is some evidence that French did not completely overtake English in common or official use the language had a great influence upon English via the Normans and the elasticity of the language at its source.

The Middle English period (1150-1500) was marked by momentous changes in the English language, changes more extensive and fundamental than those that have taken place at any time before or since. Some of them were the result of the Norman Conquest and the conditions which followed in the wake of that event. Others were a continuation of tendencies that had begun to manifest themselves in Old…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baugh, Albert C. A History of the English Language. 2nd ed. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1959.

Emerson, Oliver Farrar. The History of the English Language. New York: Macmillan, 1894.

McCrum, Robert & MacNeil, Robert. The Story of English: Third Revised Edition. New York: Penguin, 2003.

Spreading the Word; Restore VOA's English-Language Broadcast Funds." The Washington Times 15 Feb. 2006: A19.
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Language Is the Perfect Instrument

Words: 4854 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34736050

Consider the fact that the Iroquois are said not to have had a strong word for the singular "I," and that they subsequently developed what was arguably the longest lasting communal representative democracy the world has ever known. The Inuit, whose culture revolves around the arctic world, have dozens of words for snow - this sort of technical knowledge allows quick and accurate transmission of conditions and training in survival.

In Western terms, one remembers that Jesus Christ was said to be "The Word," yet in the original Greek this indicates not only a spoken word but also the Logos - the root term for intellectual reason, for Meaning within context (be that the context of a sentence, a life, a history, or a universe); logos was rational order. The difference between saying that a religious figure is the Word (which at its most profound seem to indicate a kind…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Atkins, J.D.C. (1887). Report of the commissioner of Indian affairs. House Exec. Doc. No. 1, Pt. 5, 50th Cong., 1st Sess. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Boston Language Institute. "TEFL FAQ http://teflcertificate.com/faq.html

Ethnologue. "English http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng

Macha, Freddy. "Tanzanian Independence Day Abroad.  http://www.unclesamofafrica.com/TanzaniaGuardian.htm
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Language Learning Acquisition My Language Learning Acquisition

Words: 1488 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45617951

Language Learning Acquisition

My Language Learning Acquisition

Learning languages that are not native to you is not easy, but it is something that can be done by people who are passionate and dedicated. The easiest way to learn a language is through immersion into that language, and the best time to learn is as a child. Children soak up so much of what they see and hear all around them, that they can pick up a new language almost without even trying to learn it. However, as they get older and move into adulthood, the acquisition of language becomes more difficult and complex. It is certainly not impossible to learn a language at any age, but there are times when it is more difficult and times when it is easier. Taking advantage of the easier times (such as childhood) is the best way to learn something new and retain it…… [Read More]

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Language as Gloria Anzaldua States in How

Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45400028

Language

As Gloria Anzaldua states in "How to Tame a ild Tongue" from Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza, "Chicano Spanish sprang out of Chicanos' need to identify ourselves as a distinct people," (447). Chicano Spanish is a "secret language" of cultural bonding and binding. This is true for the many "forked tongues" that have sprung up in communities of opposition: patios tongues that become crucial to identity formation and preservation (Anzaldua 447). The dominant culture finds "wild tongues" to be inherently frightening, evil, and subversive (Anzaldua 446). The dominant culture does all it can to stamp out, suppress, and "cut out" the wild tongues that threaten social hierarchy and preserve patterns of oppression in non-white, non-Anglo, communities (Anzaldua 446). Suppressing language is a means of oppressing people. Therefore, clinging to language diversity is a political move. hen Anzaldua corrected her teacher's pronunciation of her name, and was sent to the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

All readings from: Augenbraum, Harold and Olmos, Margarite Fernandez. The Latino Reader.. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1997.

Thomas, Piri. Down these Mean Streets. Vintage, 1997.
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Language Teaching and Learning Methods

Words: 3071 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98946947

Further, it is in this stage that instructors have the ability to widen the instruction significantly to incorporate many activities that allow students to practice their new knowledge in a variety of different ways and with focus on a variety of different subject matters.

In viewing the basic theoretical and practical-use background of the Natural Approach of Language Teaching and Learning, one can understand that basic functions that allow students the ability to hone new skills in a non-threatening environment. However, despite significant praise in the teaching community regarding the success of the Natural Approach, the method's critics still exist. Due to this, it is crucial to understand the advantages as well as the disadvantages that exist when the Natural Approach is employed in a language learning environment, especially in dealing with English as a second language.

Advantages and Disadvantages

In beginning to understand the overall value of the Natural…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Canale, Michael and Swain, Merrill. 2002. "Theoretical Basis of Communicative

Approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing," Applied Linguistics: 1(1): pp. 1-47. Retrieved from: https://segue.atlas.uiuc.edu/uploads/nppm / CanaleSwain.80.pdf [Accessed on 17 February 2012].

Clandfield, Lindsay and Meldrum, Nicola. 2012. "One-to-one methodology: advantages and disadvantages for students." Retrieved from: http://www.onestopenglish .com/business/teaching-approaches/teaching-one-to-one/methodology/one-to-one-methodology-advantages-and-disadvantages-for-students/144655.article [Accessed on 19 February 2012].

Gebhard, J., Gaitan, S. And Oprandy, R. 1990. "Beyond Prescription: The Student
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English Only Legislation Is 'English

Words: 1359 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25669338

Language continually reminds one (or not), and underscores and reinforces (or not) one's roots, identity, and authentic self. That is, I believe, the real reluctance of those who would cling, too stubbornly, it has been argued by Hayakawa and others, to their first, original tongue. That is also why much of the intimacy, energy, comfortableness, and fun instantly evaporated from the Rodriguez family atmosphere the afternoon one of Richard's teachers suggested to the children's parents that the family speak more English, and less Spanish, at home.

Along with one's language of birth (whatever it is) come feelings of being understood and accepted; and from those spring a sense of one's own selfhood and identity. In my opinion, that is the main, underlying, reason why 'English Only' Legislation is not a particularly practical solution to multilingualism in the United States (if multilingualism needs a "solution"). This is not because such legislation…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crawford, James. "Introduction." Language Loyalties: A Source Book on the Official English Controversy. James Crawford (Ed.). Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1992. 1.

Hayakawa, S.I. "The Case for Official English." In A Meeting of Minds: A Brief Rhetoric for Writers and Readers. Patsy Callaghan and Ann Dobyns

Eds.). New York: Pearson Longman, 2004. 446-452.

Headden, Susan, et al. "One Nation One Language: Only English Spoken
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Language and Literacy Every Workplace Without Exception

Words: 1463 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6884949

Language and Literacy

Every workplace without exception relies on language as a primary means of communication. Therefore, all types of literacy are required in order for an organization to function properly. The different types of literacy range from multicultural awareness to written language to public speaking. For the purposes of this project, I examined and analyzed several different workplace environments for their usage of language and their different literacy demands. My personal workplace environment is a high-stress, hustle-and-bustle office. Phones are ringing constantly throughout the day, memos are being circulated on a near-daily basis, and most employees need to be familiar with company literature including quarterly financial reports. In addition to the rigors of interpersonal communication, which entails informal as well as formal conversations, we deal with inter-office communications with those who work at remote office locations, with offices located abroad, with clients, and with various others with which we…… [Read More]

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English in Thailand Teaching English

Words: 4751 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54473182

2002, 108)." By 1996 the teaching of English in Thailand was compulsory for all primary children from the first grade.

Teaching English as a Second Language in Thailand

Although the teaching of English as a second language has been present in Thailand for quite some time, there are still many issues that arise as it pertains to teaching English in Thailand. In some ways it may appear that English language pedagogy is still in its infancy. For instance many people in Thailand have low degrees of proficiency in English (Laopongharn & Sercombe, 2009). This is particularly true as it pertains to the speaking and writing of English. The problems present in Thailand as it pertains to Teaching English as a foreign language has many different causes (Laopongharn & Sercombe (2009). For the purposes of this discussion, Thai culture will be explored as an impediment to the teaching of English as…… [Read More]

References

Adamson, J., 2003. Challenging beliefs in teacher development: potential influences of Theravada Buddhism upon Thais learning English. Asian EFL journal, 5 (3), 1-21.

Adamson, J., 2005. Teacher development in EFL: what is to be learned beyond methodology in Asian contexts?. Asian EFL journal, 7 (4), 74-84.

Chou, C. 2000. Chinese Speakers' Acquisition of English Conditionals: Acquisition Order and L1 Transfer Effects. Second Language Studies, 19(1), pp. 57-98

Forman R. (2008) Using notions of scaffolding and intertextuality to understand the bilingual teaching of English in Thailand. Linguistics and Education 19-319 -- 332
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Language of News Reporting in

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72791834

Instead, however, the headline does follow the sequence of events as they happened to present a more chronological overview of the event while still maintaining a good inverted pyramid structure. For example, take the head line of the news story in Appendix A: 'Iranian election uproar tests U.S.', this headline without giving specifics of the actual election result implies that the results were not great overall because of the impact that it has on the relations between U.S. And Iran. Hence, whoever reads this headline and know even the slightest bit about the background of the U.S.-Iran relations will interpret the possible results without actually reading about them.

Similarly, when analyzing the headline in Appendix B, 'Regime Change Brewing in Iran?' another format of headline comes to mine. The headlines can also be used to exhibit the actual strategic breakdown of the news story in a single sentence. This simply…… [Read More]

Paragraphing is also a very important aspect in the language use of any news troy as it not only breaks down the news story into separate parts but also allows the journalist to use transitional words like meanwhile or furthermore that allows the story to have a flow and simultaneously allows the journalist to represent different emotions and importance of facts through difference in language use form one paragraph to the next (Ghadessy, 1988).

Conclusion

In the paper we have discussed how in the modern era the text of and the
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Language's Role in Sustaining Inequality Between the

Words: 3164 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3658115

Language's Role In Sustaining Inequality etween The Sexes

Although it is disputed whether language causes sexism or sexism causes certain language, language does play a part in sexism (Wikipedia). Given that the development of society has gone hand in hand with the development of language, it is unlikely that the causation will ever be determined. However, whether language causes sexism or sexism causes certain language, it is clear that language plays a key role in sustaining inequality between the sexes.

At its most basic, language is a system of symbols used by human beings to communicate with each other. However, language is not simply how humans communicate with one another, but also how humans communicate within themselves. Therefore, if language is sexist, then the actions, and even the thoughts, that it describes are sexist (West). For example, words with gender-based connotations imply that the attributes necessary to perform the duties…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bartlett, K. (1993) Gender and Law: Theory, Doctrine, and Commentary, New York: Little,

Brown & Company (1993).

Feitz, A. (1999) 'Feminist Scholarship: A Classic Oxymoron?', in Enterstageright.com: Enter

Stage Right.  http://www.enterstageright.com/archive/articles/1099femspeak.htm  accessed on January 5, 2005.
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English Literacy My Experience With

Words: 1545 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30730980

It is more likely that there will continue to be many varied and constantly changing definitions of the American family, and this will continue to confuse those learning English as they attempt to make concrete connections between words and concepts from their own language and those of the new -- and constantly developing -- culture and language they have adopted.

hen making cultural comparisons, it is important to refrain from qualitative judgments, and I do not mean to imply any here. The Korean concept of the family and its responsibilities is more concrete than the American cultural and linguistic definitions, but this does not necessarily make it better. The American ideals of freedom and self-determination lie at the root of the American family, and lead to very different cultural and linguistic perspectives. It is the difference in vantage point, and not in any perceived difference in quality, that proves a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Graff, E.J. "What Makes a Family?" Frame Work. Ed. Gary Columbo, Bonnie Lisle, Sandra Mno. Boston: Bedford, 1997, 26-38.

New York Daily News. "American Role Models." 6 November 2008. Editorial: pg. 32

Tan, Amy. "Four Directions" Frame Work. Ed. Gary Columbo, Bonnie Lisle, Sandra Mno. Boston: Bedford, 1997, 124-127.

Wetzstein, Cheryl. "American Family Needs Some Help." Washington Times, 8 March 2009, M15.
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English -- the Cv Professional Communication Skills

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33955993

English -- the CV

Professional communication skills in English

Looking back over your portfolio and the course as a whole, what have you learned (about yourself/your strengths/weaknesses/the job application process/employer expectations/interviews etc.), and what ideas/information will you use in future internship and job applications? Why? (If you feel you have not learned anything, please explain why you feel that is, and explain what would have changed that).

One of the most important things I have learned this semester is the difference between casual and professional English. When communicating with English language speakers on a casual level, I often find it easy to be understood, provided that my intention is sincere. Friends are willing to overlook bad grammar and poor choice of vocabulary. I can restate what I mean, use body language and gestures, and laugh at my own lack of comprehension. During a job interview, however, an employer is assessing…… [Read More]

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English Colonization

Words: 2665 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13158426

English Colonialism

The argument surrounding the recent conflict in Iraq was two sided: one favored ridding Iraq of Saddam Hussein; the other did not. Arguments of the anti-war sides bordered on accusing the United States of being an imperialist and colonialist power. That America had become an occupying force that sought to impose its will on a weaker nation found favor among most of the Middle Eastern Islamic countries. Though this argument might prove philosophically and intellectually disingenuous; there is historical precedence to colonialist ambitions. The Dutch, Spaniards, French and ritish and to a lesser extend the Danish colonized most of the world for more than five hundred years. The legacy that we see today in the world's lingua franca, the English language, is testament to that fact that the ritish were largely victors in the intra-imperialist wars. "ritannica" ruled the world for several centuries. Over the last century, most…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chatterjee, Partha. The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.

Ferguson, Niall. Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power. New York: Basic Books, 2003.

Hiatt, L.R. Arguments About Aborigines: Australia and the Evolution of Social Anthropology. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Kearney, Milo. The Indian Ocean in World History. Themes in World History. New York, NY: Routledge, 2003.
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Language Political or Historically Based

Words: 1090 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85876370

Note that inflated English has been more characteristic of the centuries preceding Orwell and of Orwell's own time than on the latter part of the 20th century. There has been a shift in linguistics. As linguists and historians of language have noted, the Western model of language follows the monological approach. The monological approach has roots reaching back to Aristotle who saw communication as one of rhetoric, namely persuasion, where communication was a strategy for influencing people and helping them see reason, or the truth. In this way, the 'other' became viewed as object, communication was one way (monological) and the objective was how to best seduce the other to one's way of thinking. According to some linguists, such as Alfred Taylor, this reduction culminated in reducing conversation, depersonalizing words, and converting them into ideas rather than seeing the complexity of the speaker behind the words. It also led to…… [Read More]

Source Orwell, G. Politics and the English Language, Horizon, 1946
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English Grammar Spelling Is Important Why Is

Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71351813

English (Grammar, Spelling) is Important

hy is it important for a student (and any writer) to use proper grammar and spelling? This paper delves into that subject and provides research that is pertinent and helpful.

hy is Grammar Important?

Beverly Ann Chin is professor of English at the University of Montana, and she explains that when papers, letters, essays, journalism and research papers do not use proper grammar those reading those writings may have "…preconceived notions about the value of its contents" (Chin, 2000).

hen the writing shows poor grammar, no one will take it seriously, Chin explains. She also mentions that good grammar helps to "…guarantee clarity" and it also brings "…a level of order and elegance into the language." But why does it really matter? Bad grammar suggests bad writing, she continues, and when a reader sees flaws in the grammar he or she tends not to take…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aston University. (2012). Graduate Advantage highlights the importance of spelling and grammar for graduates. Retrieved January 12, 2013, from http://www1.aston.ac.uk.

Chin, Beverly Ann. (2000). Why Do We Care About Grammar? Huff Post Teen. Retrieved January 12, 2013, from  http://www.uwplatt.edu .

Chin, Beverly Ann. (2008). The Role of Grammar in Improving Student's Writing. Sadlier-

Oxford. Retrieved January 12, 2013, from
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Language of Geoffrey Chaucer and Its Relationship

Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58300789

language of Geoffrey Chaucer and its relationship to the development of English

In both literature and language, Geoffrey Chaucer made an important contribution to the development of English. In terms of the development of the English language his works and their popularity are related to the importance of the Midland dialect. This dialect formed part of the Mercian dialect of Old English, which was to assume significance due to the fact that it,

developed into centers of university, economic, and courtly life. East Midland, one of the subdivisions of Midland, had by that time become the speech of the entire metropolitan area of the capital, London, and probably had spread south of the Thames River into Kent and Surrey. "(ibid)

This form of the English language was disseminated and popularized partly by poets in the 14th century -- including Chaucer. In essence the works of Chaucer therefore added to the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baugh, Albert C. A History of the English Language. 2nd ed. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1959.

Chaucer, Geoffrey 1340-400) August 15, 2005.

http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Biographies/MainBiographies/C/chaucergeoffrey/2.html

English Language. Encarta. August 16, 2005. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761564210_2/English_Language.html
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English Tutor I Work With

Words: 381 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96024558



For some time, he has indicated to me his interest in obtaining his MBA. I support him in this endeavor one-hundred percent, and believe that he will be an asset to any company that would hire him in the future. He works very hard at learning the English language, and this dedication is something that he carries over into other areas of his life, such as his job, his studies, and his family and friends. He cares very much about people and their struggles, and he has a desire to help others. As a manager, I think that he will always work for the good of the company instead of the good of himself, which is becoming an increasingly rare quality these days. If he were denied the chance to get his MBA and put that to good use in a company, it would be tragic not only for him,…… [Read More]

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Language Philosophy Advocates Teaching Children

Words: 1511 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55574837

.., 2004).

Direct Instruction (DI) is a model for teaching that emphasizes well-developed and carefully planned lessons designed around small learning increments and clearly defined and prescribed teaching tasks. It is based on the theory that clear instruction eliminating misinterpretations can greatly improve and accelerate learning (Stockard, n.d.).

ibliography

Clowes, G. (2001, February 01). "Whole Language" faulted for U.S. reading woes. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from the Heartland Institute: http://www.heartland.org/publications/school%20reform/article/10248/Whole_Language_Faulted_for_US_Reading_Woes.html

Hanson, G. (1999, February 08). Whole language, half an education? Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Find Articles at NET: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_5_15/ai_53744894

Jones, J. (n.d.). Learning to read and whole language ideology. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Parents Raising Educational Standards in Schools: http://my.execpc.com/~presswis/phonics.html

Jones, J. (2004, July 28). What the data really show: Direct instruction really works! Retrieved March 23, 2009, from JeffLindsay.com: http://www.jefflindsay.com/EducData.shtml

Reyhner, D.J. (2008, Dec 13). The reading wars. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Jon Reyhner, Northern Arizona…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Clowes, G. (2001, February 01). "Whole Language" faulted for U.S. reading woes. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from the Heartland Institute: http://www.heartland.org/publications/school%20reform/article/10248/Whole_Language_Faulted_for_US_Reading_Woes.html

Hanson, G. (1999, February 08). Whole language, half an education? Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Find Articles at BNET: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_5_15/ai_53744894

Jones, J. (n.d.). Learning to read and whole language ideology. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Parents Raising Educational Standards in Schools: http://my.execpc.com/~presswis/phonics.html

Jones, J. (2004, July 28). What the data really show: Direct instruction really works! Retrieved March 23, 2009, from JeffLindsay.com:  http://www.jefflindsay.com/EducData.shtml
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Language and Literacy Lesion Plan

Words: 2798 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41760761

Progression and Foundation of Language

Concept/topic

Learning of primary language complements skills development; this includes learning about language, as well as learning other subjects in the school curriculum via language. Language learning facilitates general literary skills and allows children to revert to, and strengthen skills and concepts studied through their first language (The National Strategies Primary, 2009).

Curriculum is enriched by language learning. Teachers as well as children find it fun and challenging, and display enthusiasm towards language; this leads to creation of interested learners and the development of positive attitudes towards learning languages, all throughout one's life. A natural link exists between language and other curricular areas, and this enriches the overall teaching-learning experience. Proficiencies, understanding, and information learned through language contribute greatly to literacy and oracy development in children, as well as to better understanding of one's own and others' cultures. Language is also integral to community and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

(n.d.). Anticipatory Set/Hook. Weebly. Retrieved from:  http://ed491.weebly.com/uploads/8/4/6/1/8461140/anticipatorysets.pdf 

(2013). Arizona Early Learning Standards. Arizona Department of Education. Retrieved from:  http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED486135.pdf 

(n.d.). Developing Lessons with Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0136101259.pdf

Huppenthal, J., Stollar, J., & Hrabluk, K. (n.d.). Arizona State Literacy Plan. Arizona Department of Education. Retrieved from:  http://www.azed.gov/standards-practices/files/2012/06/arizona-state-literacy-plan-compiled-doc-9.29.11.pdf .
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English and Spanish Language Learners

Words: 1191 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32139522

Psycholinguistics: A eview

Gamez, P., Lesaux, N., izzo, A. (2016). Narrative production skills of language

minority learners and their English-only classmates in early adolescence. Applied Psycholinguistics, 37: 933-961. DOI: http://dx.doi.org.proxy.tamuc.edu/10.1017/S0142716415000314

The study by Gamez, Lesaux and izzo (2016) compares early-adolescent Spanish language speakers to same-age English-only language speakers in terms of narrative production skills. The researchers provided the subjects with picture books and then asked them to produce a narrative based on the pictures. What the researchers found was that the Spanish language speakers and the English language speakers utilized the same story structure in the creation of their narratives. Both groups produced narratives that had a "goal -- action -- outcome framework" (p. 952). However, the Spanish language speakers had less grammatical diversity than the English-only speakers; they demonstrated a tendency to revise and to commit errors when using prepositions; also, their narratives were longer than those produced by…… [Read More]

References

Gamez, P., Lesaux, N., Rizzo, A. (2016). Narrative production skills of language

minority learners and their English-only classmates in early adolescence. Applied Psycholinguistics, 37: 933-961.
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Language and Culture

Words: 941 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11024449

BABIE AND GILS' BODY IMAGE

Motherese across Cultures

Jack Sprat

MOTHEESE ACOSS CULTUES

MOTHEESE ACOSS CULTUES

Motherese across Cultures

Motherese is the universal, infant-directed speech that seems to come to women on instinct when they have a preverbal baby. Some people discourage speaking in "baby talk," because they think that children can't possibly learn good English if they are not spoken to in good English. However, there is a lot of qualitative and quantitative research to suggest that motherese provides an effective bridge between mother and baby for linguistic transfer (TeechConsult's KIDSpad, 2010). Motherese enhances attention using reduplication, the use of special morphemes and phonological modification, and grammatical simplification, helping babies find boundaries between linguistic units. That, though, is not the most interesting thing about motherese. What are most interesting are the similarities and differences of motherese across cultures and linguistic groups.

Pitch Contour Comparisons between Chinese and American Mothers…… [Read More]

References

Burnham, D., Kitamura, C., Luksaneeyanwin, S., & Thanavishuth, C. (2001). Universality and specificity in infant-directed speech: pitch modifications as a function of infant age and sex in a tonal and non-tonal language. Infant Behavior and Development, 24(4), 372-392.

McLeod, P.J., Pegg, J.E., & Werker, J.F. (1994). A cross-language investigation of infant preference for infant-directed communication. Infant Behavior and Development, 17(3), 323-333.

Papousek, M., Papousek, H., & Symmes, D. (1991). The meanings of melodies in motherese in tone and stress languages. Infant Behavior and Development, 14(4), 415-440.

Reilly, J.S., & Bellugi, U. (1996). Competition on the face: Affect and language in asl motherese. Journal of Child Language, 23(1), 219-239.
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English as a Foreign Language in America

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21192317

Foreign Language Learning

In DeJong's Foundations for Multilingualism in Education, the idea that multilingualism should not be viewed as a specialty but rather treated as a norm is a good one, as Dutta indicates in his experience of growing up using various languages, believing them to be one entity not separate as they are viewed in the West (DeJong, 2011, p. 1). For instance, the UK's tendency to "teach" a separate language in one class but to ignore it in all other occasions does not help to support the actual learning or usage of that language. Yet schools still have a tendency to feel the need to label students and language learners as though they needed to be marked as special or different. It should be the norm for all to learn multiple languages especially at a younger age in order to develop skills and open doors for later careers.…… [Read More]

References

DeJong, E. (2011). Foundations for Multilingualism in Education: from Principle to Practices. Caslon Publishing.

Samway, K and McKeon D. (2007). Myths and Realities: Best Practices for Language

Minority Students. Heinemann.
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Language Acquisition and Learning in Education

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78735701

Second language proficiency and academic achievement can be challenging to develop simultaneously. Krashen's (2010) work illustrates the various systems of learning, including the learning that takes place subconsciously and the learning that takes place more by rote methods. Likewise, Gottlieb (2006) differentiates between social and academic language proficiency and academic achievement for students. The acquisition of the language entails different cognitive processes than the acquisition of subject-specific knowledge. Educators armed with a more thorough understanding of academic versus language proficiency can better help their students succeed on both levels.

Krashen (2010) points out that each human being learns language in the same way. Individual differences may be important for current scientific paradigms, but for educators, a more universal approach will be far more helpful in creating a classroom environment and pedagogical approach that will be effective. After all, human biology is universal; so, too are the cognitive processes involved in…… [Read More]

References

Gottlieb, M. (2006). Assessing English Language Learners. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Krashen, S. (2010). On language acquisition. Retrieved online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NiTsduRreug

"Nebraska: ELL Resources," (n.d.). Colorin Colorado. Retrieved online: http://www.colorincolorado.org/ell-basics/resources-state/nebraska
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Language Proficiency and Content Understanding

Words: 698 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18461851

Seamless Bridge

As language may be viewed as a vehicle by which a student can better achieve academic success (Gottlieb, 2006), language proficiency assessments are ways in which the teacher can review whether or not the student is developing language proficiency rather than just content understanding. Thus the idea that students who are learning an additional or second language will seamlessly bridge into grade-level content once they reach the highest level of proficiency is a simple extension of the reality that language affords the user: it is the means by which understanding and success in a culture wherein that language is used can be obtained. Thus, if an ELL develops a true understanding and grasp of the language, the grade-level content that the student should be able to grasp is made available to him: it opens up because the language proficiency acts as the key what would otherwise be a…… [Read More]

References

AdLit. (n.d.). Building Trust with Families. Retrieved from http://www.adlit.org/media/mediatopics/ells/

Gottlieb, M. (2006). Assessing English language learners: Bridges from language proficiency to academic achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
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Standardization Expectation and Judgment in Response to Language Use

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8267543

Language

American English is incredible malleable and diverse, and it would be a mistake to impose artificial rules. Not only would it be a mistake, it could even be construed as racist. The imaginary Correct English (whether Oxford or Webster-based prescriptive grammatical rules) is one that is clearly defined by the white upper-class hegemony in higher education. As Deresiewicz (2005) states, "there is no such thing as Correct English, and there never has been." Dialects and accents are a sign that the language is alive. Language reflects subculture and social identity, and can allow for the vivid expression of ideas that would be severely restricted if there were only one Correct English.

Language is a form of cultural capital. Therefore, "stigmatized forms" of language such as edneck or African-American speech, are "typically those used by social groups other than the educated middle classes -- professional people, including those in law,…… [Read More]

References

Baron, D. (n.d.). Language and society. PBS. Retrieved online:  http://www.pbs.org/speak/words/sezwho/socialsetting/ 

Cutler, C. (n.d.). Crossing over. PBS. Retrieved online:  http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/prestige/crossing/ 

Deresiewicz, W. (2005). You talkin' to me? The New York Times. Jan 9, 2005. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2005/01/09/books/review/09DERESIE.html?_r=2&pagewanted=print&position=

Finegan, E. (n.d.). State of American. PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/correct/prescriptivism/
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Power of Language

Words: 523 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32150651

Language and Communication

The Power of Language in Communication

The ability of humans to speak and utter sounds that creates meaning for understanding of human society is an important skill and capacity that distinguishes us from other living species here on earth. Possessing the power of language, we as humans are able to express our ideas and thought through it, and in the process, conducts communication and interaction with other people as well.

That is why I feel fortunate to be able to speak two languages: English and Taiwanese. Possessing the skill and knowledge to speak two languages allows me to interact with people who belong to cultures that similarly, speak Taiwanese and English. By being bilingual, I am able to converse easily with people, making initial encounters and daily interactions easier and manageable for me. Furthermore, bilingualism provides me with a lot of opportunities to conduct business communications and…… [Read More]

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How Best to Learn a Foreign Language

Words: 1155 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11722819

Language Autobiography

What I know about language is that it is essential in life and in learning. We use it to communicate ideas, feelings, needs, and thoughts. Being social creatures, we use language to bond with people, to create bonds of affection, and to create pillars of support for each other and for society as a whole. Language is something that can unite people; but if it is not known, it can also isolate those who do not know it.

How I learned what I know about language has come from my experience as a learner. What I remember learning about learning my native language is a real reticence to actually begin speaking: I was 5 years old before I started actually speaking; I would listen to my two older brothers have conversations and from them I learned both English and Spanish. Since my family and friends mostly spoke in…… [Read More]

References

Adichie, C. (2009). The danger of a single story. TED. Retrieved from http://www.ted.com/talks/chimamanda_adichie_the_danger_of_a_single_story

Gottlieb, M. (2006). Assessing English language learners: Bridges from language proficiency to academic achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Levien, R. [mediathatmatters]. (2009, June 16). Immersion [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I6Y0HAjLKYI

North Clackamas Schools. (2013). SIOP Components and Features. Retrieved from http://www.nclack.k12.or.us/Page/1563
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How a Language Changes Over Time

Words: 1206 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39896948

Language change refers to the process in which a particular language varies in its linguistic levels of analysis by developing or assimilating new forms and/or eliminating and/or totally modifying some of the existing forms (Schukla & Conner-Linton, 2014). Every natural language is subject to change over time even if these changes and alterations do not receive recognition by the individuals that use them. The process of change can be a slow and sure process or certain catch phrases may be incorporated very quickly (Kroch, 1989). Thus, the changes may not always be obvious but by comparing different the same language at different times, comparing different dialects, or how different languages interact, it becomes clear that languages change in all of their qualities including their grammar, syntax, semantics, lexicon, morphology, and phonology (Algeo & Butcher, 2013).

The process of language change is studied both by historical linguists and sociolinguists.

Historical linguists…… [Read More]

References

Algeo, J., & Butcher, C. (2013). The origins and development of the English language. Boston:

MA: Cengage Learning.

Beckner, C., Blythe, R., Bybee, J., Christiansen, M. H., Croft, W., Ellis, N. C., ... & Schoenemann, T. (2009). Language is a complex adaptive system: Position paper. Language Learning, 59(s1), 1-26.

Hock, H. H., & Joseph, B. D. (2009). Language history, language change, and language relationship: An introduction to historical and comparative linguistics (Vol. 218). Berlin,
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Language Policy and Planning Language Planning Refers

Words: 1581 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60978398

Language Policy and Planning

Language planning refers to the efforts that are deliberately undertaken to influence how languages functions, are structured or acquired or the variety of languages in a given country. It is often a government responsibility by non-governmental organizations have also come to be involved in this. Grass-roots organizations and also individuals have been involved in this. The goal of language planning differs depending on the country. However, it generally includes planning, decision making and possible changes which benefit the communications system of the country. Language planning or efforts to improve the communication in a country can also bring about certain social changes such as shift of language, assimilation and therefore provide a motivation which plans the function, structure and acquisition of languages Woolard & Gahng, 1990()

Decision making in language planning

There are four dominant language ideologies which motivate the decisions that are made regarding language planning.…… [Read More]

References

Little, M.E.R., & McCarty, T.L. (2006). Language Planning Challenges and Prospects in Native American Communities and Schools. Tempe, AZ: Language Policy Research Unit.

Martin, J.J. (1988). An American Adventure in Bookburning in the Style of 1918. Colorado Springs: Ralph Myles Publisher.

Woolard, K.A., & Gahng, T.-J. (1990). Changing Language Policies and Attitudes in Autonomous Catalonia. Language in Society, 19(3), 311-330.

Wyburn, J., & Hayward, J. (2009). OR and Language Planning: Modelling the Interaction between Unilingual and Bilingual Populations. The Journal of the Operational Research Society, 60(5), 626-636.
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Language & Community How Language Circumscribes the

Words: 1124 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49759315

Language & Community

How Language Circumscribes the World and Defines Community

The famous philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein wrote, "The limits of my language mean the limits of my world." Wittgenstein used his language to make this profound statement packed with a depth of meaning. Language, whether it is written language, spoken language, body language or sign language, is a fundamental aspect to the human condition. Language permits us to communicate with others, which is also a vital part of being human. Language also makes possible thought, speech, and writing. Without language, it would be exceedingly difficult for people to have relationships. Language comes in various forms and in huge varieties. Language additionally is a critical and prominent aspect to the definition of a culture. Every culture and subculture has characteristics that distinguish it as such; language is a characteristic at the forefront of defining or circumscribing cultures and communities. This paper…… [Read More]

References:

Bucholtz, M. (1999) "Why be normal?": Language and identity practices in a community of nerd girls. Language in Society, 28(2), 203 -- 223.

Eckert, P., & McConnell-Ginet, S. (19992) Think Practically and Look Locally: Language and Gender as Community-Based Practice. Annual Review of Anthropology, 21, 461 -- 490.

Garrod, S., & Doherty, G. (1994) Conversation, co-ordination and convention: an empirical investigation of how groups establish linguistic conventions. Cognition, 181 -- 215.

Ochs, E. (1993) Constructing Social Identity: A Language Socialization Perspective. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 26(3), 287 -- 306.
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Language and Language Practices Language Is the

Words: 1505 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7740802

Language and Language Practices

Language is the written and verbal method by which people communicate with one another. It employs sounds or written designs that are understood by others to create words, phrases, and sentences. Other species have language, as well, but it is not believed to be as complex as the language used by human beings (loomfield, 1914; Deacon, 1998). There are many facets to language, and there are nuances and subtleties that are often overlooked. This is especially true with people who are just learning a language, whether they are children first learning to speak or second-language learners being exposed to a new and different language for the first time. People who study languages are involved in what is called linguistics. They may study a particular language, but more often than not they study multiple languages and the construction of those languages. What they do is very different…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bloomfield, Leonard. 1914. An introduction to the study of language. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Deacon, Terrence William. 1998. The Symbolic Species: The Co-Evolution of Language and the Brain. New York W.W. Norton & Company.

Kandel, ER; Schwartz, JH; Jessell, TM. 2000. Principles of Neural Science (fourth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Katzner, K. 1999. The Languages of the World. New York: Routledge.
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Language and Social Grouping Language Is Used

Words: 563 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98470219

Language and Social Grouping

Language is used differently in different geographic groups, ethnic, age, gender, and socioeconomic groups (Williams, 2010). Geographic groups use the same languages in different dialects that belong to the particular geographic regions. Within each language are many different dialects that have been formed with different geographic locations and cultures.

Shared words, experiences, cultures, and expressions are ethnic and shared elements of the social fabric. Language of a common gender and age is a common part of that shared experience. Age of individuals accounts for place and shared experience in society. The style of language used reflects someone's age. Individuals within the same age, gender, and geographic location would use language different from other groups with different ages, gender, and geographic locations.

Language reflects education and socioeconomic status. Individuals in different industries and positions communicate differently than individuals from other industries. The level of education also determines…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Eble, C. (n.d.). Sociolinguisitics Basics. Retrieved from Do You Speak American:  http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/sociolinguistics/sociolinguistics/ 

Karr, L.J. (2010, Nov 29). How Do We Understand Language Variations. Retrieved from Bright Hub Education: http://www.brighthubeducation.com/studying-a-language/63557-understanding-language-variation/

Williams, G. (2010, Nov 8). How Does Language Reflect and Influence Social Grouping? Retrieved from Suite 101: http://suite101.com/article/how-does-language-reflect-and-influence-social-grouping-a306336
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Language and Identity

Words: 904 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99910380

Language/Identity

Language and Identity

A large part of culture has to do with the language that people speak. It is a unifying concept that allows a group of people to identify one another as belonging to the same group. It does matter how the group is bounded, usually more by geographical bounds than ethnic of racial, it matters more how the person related to the world through the spoken word. This paper looks at the culture of the Caribbean, especially those people who were brought to the region as slaves from the African continent, and how they have maintained their identity through the commonality of language.

Many examples exist in literature that solidify the notion that language and identity are very closely intertwined. As a matter of fact, one author states "Language and identity are inseparable. The quest for identity is another prevalent concern in Caribbean literature" (Dance 5). hy…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bennett-Coverly, Louise. "Colonization in Reverse." 1966. Web.

Dance, Daryl Cumber. Fifty Caribbean Writers: A Bio-Bibliographic-Critical Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 1986. Print.

Morris, Mervyn. "On Reading Miss Lou Seriously." Caribbean Quarterly 28.1/2 (1982): 44-56.

Narain, Denise DeCaires. Contemporary Caribbean women's Poetry: Making Style. London: Routledge, 2002. Print.
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Language & Cognition the Relationship Between Language

Words: 1294 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40028872

Language & Cognition

The relationship between language and cognition continues to be an area of science that is heavily studied and for which research builds in exciting ways (Aitchison, 2007). New learnings about cognition and language are intimately tied to technological advances as neuropsychologists and others probe the human brain ever more deeply and meaningfully (Aitchison, 2007).

Language and lexicon. Language is understood to be the symbolic representation of human thought (Yule, 2005). Language is the most complex method of human communication, whether written or spoken, in that it uses words in a structured manner and in conventional ways that are understood by those who speak, read, and write a particular language (Yule, 2005). Language can also take the form of nonverbal communication through facial and gestural expressions (Yule, 2005). The concept of lexicon takes two general forms: A dictionary of a particular language, and the vocabulary associated with an…… [Read More]

References

Aitchison, J. (2007) The Articulate Mammal: An Introduction to Psycholinguistics (5 rev edn) London: Routledge.

Bock, J.K. (1982, January). Toward a cognitive psychology of syntax: Information processing contributions to sentence formulation. Psychological Review, 89 (1), 1-47.

Williamson, G. (2009, October 13). Key properties of language. Speech Therapy Information and Services (STIR). Retrieved http://www.speech-therapy-information-and-resources.com/key-properties-of-language.html

Yule, G. (2005) The Study of Language (3 rev edn) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Language as it Relates to

Words: 1513 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84446572

Rather, language may be more apt to change the way we see the world, rather than vice versa, at least according to Chomsky.

Meaning thus varies and shifts, some would say as the world shifts, others would say as language itself grows and generates new meanings -- while almost all would agree that the drive to communicate and make consistent and coherent meanings endures in all segments of the species. hile a stroke may damage the ability of some human brains to convey language and different people may have different levels of ability in using language effectively, or learning foreign systems of communication, the innate, structured, yet dynamic nature of human language lives on. Language exists on a biological, linguistic, and cultural level, although the degree to which these factors produce and affect language and meaning remains controversial.

orks Cited

Luger, G.F. (1994). Chapter 13: Language representation and processing. In…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Luger, G.F. (1994). Chapter 13: Language representation and processing. In Cognitive science: The science of intelligent systems. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. Retrieved 22 Sept 2008.  http://www.jimdavies.org/summaries/luger1994.html 

Sowa, John F. (2005, Nov 27). "Lexicon." Excerpted from the book Knowledge representation. Retrieved 22 Sept 2008.  http://www.jfsowa.com/ontology/lexicon.htm 

Szab, Zoltan Gendler. (2004). Noam Chomsky. Dictionary of modern American philosophers.

1860-1960, in Ernest LePore (ed.) Bristol. Retrieved 22 Sept 2008. http://www.chomsky.info/bios/2004-.htm
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Language Is Arbitrary as You Are Reading

Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94896095

Language Is Arbitrary

As you are reading these words, you are taking part in one of the wonders of the natural world," begins Steven Pinker's The Language Instinct. (Pinker, 3) In other words, it is a wonder that the human mind is able to create, from need and cognitive structure and instinct, a morphological structure of communication that can change over time from context to context, yet still be understood.

It is a wonder that is both natural yet arbitrary in its construction. For the syntax, or appearance and sound of a particular kind of piece of language is arbitrary, even though the semantics, or relational meaning of the language is not. Should you, the reader, doubt this proposition, consider that one solitary letter can mean the difference between an object being understood, in an English context, as a bat, a cat, or a hat respectively. One letter can be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Frompkin, Victoria. (2002) Introduction to Language. Heinle: Seventh edition.

Pinker, Steven. (2000) The Language Instinct. New York: HarperCollins.