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Even when they are given a large number of students, teachers know that they must make at least some attempt to individualize their lessons, or at least allow for different learning styles. For teachers of English as a second language, this is often even more pronounced. Students learning English as a second language often come from different backgrounds that make the task easier and harder. First, language acquisition is a skill much different than math, science, or other academic disciplines. Instead, learning a language requires not simply the rote memorization of words and grammar, but instead the ability to synthesize vocabulary, grammar, and meaning in order to achieve fluency. Students "need opportunities to grapple with concepts by discussing topics in meaningful and productive ways" (151). Thus, the English language classroom looks for "meaningful discourse," as well as contributions from students that make that meaning (151). While enhancing the quality of…… [Read More]
Late-exit programs differ from early-exit programs in the amount and duration that English is used for instruction as well as the length of time students are to participate in each program (Hawkins, 2001). Students remain in late-exit programs throughout elementary school and continue to receive 40% or more of their instruction in their first language, even when they have been reclassified as fluent-English-proficient (Hawkins, 2001). Two-way bilingual programs, also called developmental bilingual programs, group language minority students from a single language background in the same classroom with language majority. Ideally, there is a nearly 50/50 balance between language minority and language majority students (Hawkins, 2001). Instruction is provided in both English and the minority language. In some programs, the languages are used on alternating days. Native English speakers and speakers of another language have the opportunity to acquire proficiency in a second language while continuing to develop their native language…… [Read More]
The structural linguists' rejection of conventional usage rules depends on two main arguments. The first is academic and methodological. In this age of technology, Descriptivists contend, it's the Scientific Method -- clinically objective, value-neutral, based on direct observation and demonstrable hypothesis -- that should determine both the content of dictionaries and the standards of "correct" English. Because language is constantly evolving, such standards will always be fluid. Gore's now classic introduction to Webster's Third outlines this type of Descriptivism's five basic edicts:
1 -- Language changes constantly;
2 -- Change is normal;
3 -- Spoken language is the language;
4 -- Correctness rests upon usage;
5 -- All usage is relative.
These principles look prima facie OK -- commonsensical and couched in the bland simple s.-v.-o, prose of dispassionate Science -- but in fact they're vague and muddled and it takes about three seconds to think of reasonable replies to…… [Read More]
The long-term effects of such learning suggest that language skills and vocabulary are also retained longer when learned in a context other than pure ESL instruction (Song 2006).
Both quantitative and qualitative data will be collected and analyzed as a part of this research study. Questionnaires with both closed and open response sections will be developed independently for students and ESL instructors, and administered electronically to those involved both in ESL courses that utilize television drama and soap operas as a method of instruction and those that do not. Quantitative data will be obtained both from reports of course performance and retention provided by learning institutions (after privacy issues have been met, of course), and through the use of a standardized test for English learning such as the TOEFL administered immediately and sometime after completion of a course, as a measure of both overall success in the program and retention…… [Read More]
The English language learner (ELL) student population continues to grow at a higher rate than the student population does as a whole. According to the National Center for Educational Statistics the general population grew 9% from 1993 to 2003, while the ELL population increased 65% during that same time. The ELL student population is estimated to now include 10% of all students (English Language Learners, 2005).
ELL students face the challenging task of learning a new language while also learning subject-area content. Although there have been signs of progress, including higher reading and math scores for ELL students, it is felt that more improvement is needed. Current trends show that English language learners receive lower grades, are judged by their teachers to have lower academic abilities, and score below their classmates on standardized tests (English Language Learners, 2005).
When school systems are developing ELL programs, goals for the program…… [Read More]
Accounts with Netflix or access to streaming web content are also recommended to enable personal or home viewing of assigned films.
Week 1: The first week of class is spent providing materials to students in preparation for the first film presentation, including film background information, character and vocabulary lists, and content questions. Students will also go through a process of nominating and voting on which award-winning (Academy, Sundance, Cannes only) films to be viewed during weeks 3 through 12.
Weeks 2-12: Each class will begin by presenting selected scenes without sound and then analyzing them as a class. The scenes will be viewed again with the soundtrack and altered perceptions examined in class. A 45 minute segment of the film containing these scenes will then be viewed without interruption, during which students will be expected to write down the dialog and make notes concerning any questions they may have.…… [Read More]
Technology Integration Theory
One of the challenges with respect to technology integration in the classroom lies with teacher pedagogical beliefs. Ertmer (2005). Teachers form their opinions about technology in the classroom based largely on their own experiences, the socio-cultural environment and the vicarious experiences of other teachers. The evidence shows that since 2000, technology use in classrooms has increased. Given the increasing number of teachers who were trained in high-technology environments, it is expected that this trend will continue going forward.
Hughes (2005) finds support for this, noting that teacher experience and knowledge can play a significant role in their adoption of technology in the classroom. The way a teacher interprets a technology's value is particularly important. To a point, there are real constraints here, such as how much time a teacher has to evaluate new technology, whether the school can afford it, what sort of hardware the school has…… [Read More]
English Language Learners, Specifically Aboriginals
English language learners, i.e. those learning English as a second language, have many struggles they face (Casper & Theilheimer, 2009). That is especially true when they attempt to learn English in an Early Childhood Education (ECE) capacity (Learning, n.d.). These people have been chosen for this study because they are a population that is often underserved in Canada and throughout the rest of the world. If they learn English they can lose the ability to use their first language effectively, but if they do not learn English they can find that they are not able to communicate appropriately for education and employment (Learning, n.d.). English is the power language in Canada, and it is something that can and should be learned, especially at an early age (Learning, n.d.).
English language learners are the group that will be addressed here, but there is a subset of…… [Read More]
Ancient Origins of the English Language
English is one of the best known languages in the contemporary society, but in order for a person to have a complex understanding of the language, he or she needs to go back in time and learn about its early period. English is a est-Germanic language that came to develop as a consequence of Germanic invaders settling in areas around Britain. This means that there are a great deal of English words that are similar to words in German, Dutch, and languages in the Scandinavian Peninsula. The English language certainly has an impressive history and in order for a person to be able to comprehend its past properly, he or she would have to concentrate on tribes on the European continent that were responsible for perfecting it and for bringing it to Britain.
English started out as a Germanic dialect and came to be…… [Read More]
Semantic Feature in the English Language: Homonyms
The objective of this study is to examine homonyms in the English language and their specific features. Homonyms are words that are identical in sound but which can be differentiated in them meaning. Modern English is reported to be significantly rich in words and word forms that are homonymous. It has been reported, "Languages where short words abound have more homonyms than those where longer words are prevalent. Therefore it is sometimes suggested that abundance of homonyms in Modern English is to be accounted for by the monosyllabic structure of the commonly used English words." (Ibragimov, 2009, p.1) Words as well as other linguistic units may be homonymous. Ibragimov reports the argument that homographs represent a phenomenon that should be separated from homonymy in sound language linguistics however, this is not possible to accept since the educational and cultural written English effects result…… [Read More]
Politics and English Language
POLITICS AND THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
George Orwell in his essay 'Politics and the English Language' discusses the flaws and degeneration of English language. He believes that since the language is clearly losing its focus and direction, it is rapidly becoming unclear and vague giving rise to literary pieces that make little or no sense at all. Many people share Orwell's observation and feel that for some odd reason, English language is bringing on its own decline by making some common mistakes repeatedly and persistently. It has been noticed that with frequent use of words and phrases that sound fancy enough but actually lack meaning, English writing is becoming unclear and unfocused. The author has cited some examples of how the so-called learned people make clear mistakes in English writing and the vocabulary they use simply is mind-boggling. eaders are left in a sate of confusion and…… [Read More]
Politics and the English Language" by George Orwell
George Orwell's discourse on the political and social significance of the modern English writing is the primary theme shown in his essay, "Politics and the English Language," written in 1945. In this discourse, Orwell discusses the faults of modern English language regarding the gradual spread of vagueness and "insincerity" in the meaning of prose text. Furthermore, Orwell analyzes how certain writers of the English language committed this fault, wherein the meaning the writers tries to elucidate is lost behind the numerous phrases that are vague in meaning and inappropriately chosen with relation to the thought that they want to express. A commitment of this fault creates an ineffective form of writing in prose form, lacking clarity and conciseness.
To solve these problems of vagueness and insincerity, Orwell proposes explanations wherein he relates the improper use of the modern English language in the…… [Read More]
The Old French language became the official language of business and court in the now Norman controlled England (Soon Magazine). Parents who wanted their children to amount to anything would have them schooled in this language, while English was reserved for the commoners.
In this case, one can understand the first pronounced case of language bias in the English language. Although many of today's descriptive grammar linguists would hold that neither language was superior to the other, the social climate of the culture certainly held that the use of French was more correct than the use of English, which must have been seen as a dialect like today's Appalachian dialect. The result of this language bias was an altered English, Middle English, which emerged around 1200, when the French and English kingdoms were again sovereign entities (Soon Magazine). Thus, language bias caused the English language to change, which is a…… [Read More]
One instance is the terror attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001. Rosenthal, notes that while we never would have known it then, this event changed language. For example, security is one of the most affected elements of society and this bleeds into language as well. e do not think twice about having a photo I.D. And we would probably wonder why someone would not ask to see a photo I.D. rather than why they would. In addition, we do not consider it unusual for anyone to be suspicious of cybercrimes, the word would have baffled John Keats or Lord Byron, men who were considered masters of the English language.
Language is more than a tool used to communicate language, which is why it has proven to be beneficial for mankind to devise a universal language. Baugh notes that emotions play a large role in communication and work "against the…… [Read More]
Parts of Speech
To enable students to label parts of speech in their own work and in the work of others, such as when reading passages and on standardized exams
Big idea: Students will be able to label nouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, prepositions, pronouns, interjections, and conjunctions.
Essential questions: How does understanding the parts of speech make us better readers and writers?
Hook: Ask students to free-associate words that come to mind. Then, once every student has volunteered a word, discuss as a class under what part of speech these words can be classified. This may be followed by 'clustering' or listing the words under different categories. Words that can be placed in multiple categories can be singled out for special discussion.
Motivation: Students will be motivated because they will be able to volunteer the words. Allow students to be as funny or as…… [Read More]
The literature review provides an abundance of material related to the educational and cultural aspects of Australian society and how those aspects play into the educating process regarding immigrants and especially high school students from Iraq who immigrate to Australia in search of education and a better way of life. The review focuses not only on the generality of those concepts but on specific aspects as well. Some of the items covered by the literature review will include; the different approaches taken by Australian teachers, instructors and administrators in order to teach international students participating in the Australian educational system, the importance and functions of good communication skills (as well as the difference between good and bad skills), the cultural differences found in education, the teaching of English in Australian schools, and the influence of globalization. Additionally, the literature review will take a look at how all the…… [Read More]
In conclusion, it becomes clear from reading this enlightening essay that the English language is peppered with racial stereotypes and slurs, even in words and phrases that seem quite harmless. The question remains. Is this intentional? Were many English words and phrases created with subtle references to black as "bad" and white as "good" intentionally, or are they simply a result of a long-term repressed and unconscious thoughts and feelings about the races? Indeed, the author contends this is the case, and that these words and phrases actually continue to contribute to these unconscious thoughts and feelings. Perhaps we will never know, but reading this essay makes the question more compelling and the answer even more nebulous.
Briefly, the article is about many instances in the English language that encourage and give credence to racial prejudice, stereotypes, and victimization. The essay uses many "colorful" and even amusing examples of words…… [Read More]
Taking these two pieces of data into consideration, we may conclude that poverty amongst immigrants is rising and having a correspondent challenging impact on their children. These children who, frequently, know little English then bring their problems into the schools that they attend not only impacting their peers but also frustrating and challenging their teachers and principals. The challenges of the poor home environment as well as the deprived atmosphere that these children live in infiltrate into the school. A further problem that the schools have is communicating with parents who not only have poor English but may have little time or patient to communicate with the teachers. Cultural misunderstandings, too, can exacerbate the problems.
7. Write a paragraph explaining performance of ELLs compared to native English speakers.
The Table (NCE) demonstrates the average reading scale scores of 4th- and 8th-graders in public schools and the percentage scoring at or…… [Read More]
The first example is her sentence structure. The sentences are complete but simple. For example she wrote, "The boy is mopping." It is clear that this student understands how to combine words and punctuation to form sentences but the words used are basic vocabulary and the sentence is using only introductory English words. The second example of her emerging level is her vocabulary. In one sentence she wrote, "The girl is folding." This is the most basic a statement can be, there is a name, a verb, and a verbal. All the words are simple English words. This is common for an early production language learner. The final example of her basic level is one that separates her from a speech emergence student: variation. The student only has the most basic grasp of the language, so she is only able to form basic sentences, all with the same structure and…… [Read More]
Language and literacy are important aspects to learning because they are part of communication. Understanding what is being taught, communicating what one wants a pupil to learn, this takes skill in language and literacy. For example, if a person wishes to understand the plot of a book, a teacher must communicate in a way that is easy to absorb. That teacher can create charts piecing together narrative plot points with specific literary terms and so forth. Journal entries are one way to combine the use of language and literacy by promoting expression and self-reflection.
From my own fieldwork experience, I was able to identify some issues some English Language Learners had regarding understanding new vocabulary. By seeing their journal entries and having them identify issues in certain areas, it was easier to facilitate communication and understanding to then help the student improve. If a student had trouble remembering a word,…… [Read More]
High school student leader English Language Arts (ELA) observations report
• Incorporates major content components and aids pupils in applying higher order thinking skills within learning.
• Displays the capability of relating current content to prior experiences, future learning, practical application and other disciplines.
• Displays correct knowledge regarding the topic taught.
• Displays abilities that are pertinent to the lesson.
• Centers teaching on objectives which echo superior expectations and a grasp of the discipline.
• Undertakes realistic time-planning in the areas of pacing, transition and subject mastery.
• Undertakes efficient differentiated instruction planning.
• Ensures pupils' involvement and dynamic learning.
• Builds on pupils' current skills and knowledge.
• Makes use of instructional technology for improving pupils' learning.
• Communicates explicitly and confirms student understanding.
• Applies various valid evaluation tools and approaches relevant to the pupil population and content.
• Employs evaluation tools for summative as…… [Read More]
Action Research Proposal
The number of school-age English Language Learners in the state of Alberta is increasing at a fast pace. As these students begin studying, they experience a great deal of challenges, which can impact the acquisition and learning of the English language (New York University, 2018). In particular, one of the key challenges faced by these students is pronunciation. What is more, unlike mathematics, English language does not have a material set of rules or guideline as to what sound every letter of the alphabet signifies. For instance, the letter e can be pronounced as e, eh. In addition, the tenses of verbs can also hamper learning. Cultural differences also play a key role in acquisition of the English language (Wold, 2006). There have been deliberations regarding the most efficacious approaches of second language instruction. Picture seeing texts and hearing sounds that do not correspond with those that…… [Read More]
(Farah and idge, 2009)
The successful shift from textbook, memory-based curriculum to a standards-based curriculum is therefore dependent on three things: the development of national standards and goals for curriculum; the development of corresponding assessment tools; and the re-education of teachers towards the objective of altering teachers' attitudes and views of their role in the education system. ather than simply drilling memorized facts, words or phrases into a student's consciousness-as is the case with a memory-based curriculum-teachers in a standards based, student-centered curriculum are responsible for helping students to apply such knowledge to practical situations for social success, over and above academic success.
English as a Second Language. (2010). etrieved December 30, 2010, from http://www.rong-chang.com/
English Teachers Network. (2010). Why Have a Standards-Based Curriculum and What are the Implications for the Teaching-Learning Assessment Process?. etrieved December 30,
2010, from http://www.etni.org.il/red/etninews/issue4/whystandard.html
Farah, S., & idge, N. (2009). Challenges to Curriculum…… [Read More]
Is it utopian to believe that "peace can make right"? That such sayings, as "Do unto others as they do unto you," and "To each one his (her) due" can actually be followed in a positive way?
In the fifth chapter of the Once and Future King, Merlyn wants to teach Arthur that the point of ruling is to create order and peace, not just to make people do what he wants them to do. Merlyn shows Arthur what a horrible thing "might makes right" is.
The author, T.H. White was a pacifist, and wrote this book during WWII. He uses the Aurthurian story to stress his own belief that violence and aggression are not the answer to life's challenges. Regardless of what government is in place, the importance is the leader and his/her views on what is right and moral. The answer, then, does not lie in a country,…… [Read More]
The Norman conquest had forever altered the face of history and the face of the English language.
The period thought of as the Middle English period roughly from 1150-1500 is a period that is demonstrative of the massive changes associated with the Norman conquest. Though there is some evidence that French did not completely overtake English in common or official use the language had a great influence upon English via the Normans and the elasticity of the language at its source.
The Middle English period (1150-1500) was marked by momentous changes in the English language, changes more extensive and fundamental than those that have taken place at any time before or since. Some of them were the result of the Norman Conquest and the conditions which followed in the wake of that event. Others were a continuation of tendencies that had begun to manifest themselves in Old…… [Read More]
Consider the fact that the Iroquois are said not to have had a strong word for the singular "I," and that they subsequently developed what was arguably the longest lasting communal representative democracy the world has ever known. The Inuit, whose culture revolves around the arctic world, have dozens of words for snow - this sort of technical knowledge allows quick and accurate transmission of conditions and training in survival.
In Western terms, one remembers that Jesus Christ was said to be "The Word," yet in the original Greek this indicates not only a spoken word but also the Logos - the root term for intellectual reason, for Meaning within context (be that the context of a sentence, a life, a history, or a universe); logos was rational order. The difference between saying that a religious figure is the Word (which at its most profound seem to indicate a kind…… [Read More]
As Gloria Anzaldua states in "How to Tame a ild Tongue" from Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza, "Chicano Spanish sprang out of Chicanos' need to identify ourselves as a distinct people," (447). Chicano Spanish is a "secret language" of cultural bonding and binding. This is true for the many "forked tongues" that have sprung up in communities of opposition: patios tongues that become crucial to identity formation and preservation (Anzaldua 447). The dominant culture finds "wild tongues" to be inherently frightening, evil, and subversive (Anzaldua 446). The dominant culture does all it can to stamp out, suppress, and "cut out" the wild tongues that threaten social hierarchy and preserve patterns of oppression in non-white, non-Anglo, communities (Anzaldua 446). Suppressing language is a means of oppressing people. Therefore, clinging to language diversity is a political move. hen Anzaldua corrected her teacher's pronunciation of her name, and was sent to the…… [Read More]
Language continually reminds one (or not), and underscores and reinforces (or not) one's roots, identity, and authentic self. That is, I believe, the real reluctance of those who would cling, too stubbornly, it has been argued by Hayakawa and others, to their first, original tongue. That is also why much of the intimacy, energy, comfortableness, and fun instantly evaporated from the Rodriguez family atmosphere the afternoon one of Richard's teachers suggested to the children's parents that the family speak more English, and less Spanish, at home.
Along with one's language of birth (whatever it is) come feelings of being understood and accepted; and from those spring a sense of one's own selfhood and identity. In my opinion, that is the main, underlying, reason why 'English Only' Legislation is not a particularly practical solution to multilingualism in the United States (if multilingualism needs a "solution"). This is not because such legislation…… [Read More]
Further, it is in this stage that instructors have the ability to widen the instruction significantly to incorporate many activities that allow students to practice their new knowledge in a variety of different ways and with focus on a variety of different subject matters.
In viewing the basic theoretical and practical-use background of the Natural Approach of Language Teaching and Learning, one can understand that basic functions that allow students the ability to hone new skills in a non-threatening environment. However, despite significant praise in the teaching community regarding the success of the Natural Approach, the method's critics still exist. Due to this, it is crucial to understand the advantages as well as the disadvantages that exist when the Natural Approach is employed in a language learning environment, especially in dealing with English as a second language.
Advantages and Disadvantages
In beginning to understand the overall value of the Natural…… [Read More]
Language and Literacy
Every workplace without exception relies on language as a primary means of communication. Therefore, all types of literacy are required in order for an organization to function properly. The different types of literacy range from multicultural awareness to written language to public speaking. For the purposes of this project, I examined and analyzed several different workplace environments for their usage of language and their different literacy demands. My personal workplace environment is a high-stress, hustle-and-bustle office. Phones are ringing constantly throughout the day, memos are being circulated on a near-daily basis, and most employees need to be familiar with company literature including quarterly financial reports. In addition to the rigors of interpersonal communication, which entails informal as well as formal conversations, we deal with inter-office communications with those who work at remote office locations, with offices located abroad, with clients, and with various others with which we…… [Read More]
2002, 108)." By 1996 the teaching of English in Thailand was compulsory for all primary children from the first grade.
Teaching English as a Second Language in Thailand
Although the teaching of English as a second language has been present in Thailand for quite some time, there are still many issues that arise as it pertains to teaching English in Thailand. In some ways it may appear that English language pedagogy is still in its infancy. For instance many people in Thailand have low degrees of proficiency in English (Laopongharn & Sercombe, 2009). This is particularly true as it pertains to the speaking and writing of English. The problems present in Thailand as it pertains to Teaching English as a foreign language has many different causes (Laopongharn & Sercombe (2009). For the purposes of this discussion, Thai culture will be explored as an impediment to the teaching of English as…… [Read More]
Instead, however, the headline does follow the sequence of events as they happened to present a more chronological overview of the event while still maintaining a good inverted pyramid structure. For example, take the head line of the news story in Appendix A: 'Iranian election uproar tests U.S.', this headline without giving specifics of the actual election result implies that the results were not great overall because of the impact that it has on the relations between U.S. And Iran. Hence, whoever reads this headline and know even the slightest bit about the background of the U.S.-Iran relations will interpret the possible results without actually reading about them.
Similarly, when analyzing the headline in Appendix B, 'Regime Change Brewing in Iran?' another format of headline comes to mine. The headlines can also be used to exhibit the actual strategic breakdown of the news story in a single sentence. This simply…… [Read More]
Language's Role In Sustaining Inequality etween The Sexes
Although it is disputed whether language causes sexism or sexism causes certain language, language does play a part in sexism (Wikipedia). Given that the development of society has gone hand in hand with the development of language, it is unlikely that the causation will ever be determined. However, whether language causes sexism or sexism causes certain language, it is clear that language plays a key role in sustaining inequality between the sexes.
At its most basic, language is a system of symbols used by human beings to communicate with each other. However, language is not simply how humans communicate with one another, but also how humans communicate within themselves. Therefore, if language is sexist, then the actions, and even the thoughts, that it describes are sexist (West). For example, words with gender-based connotations imply that the attributes necessary to perform the duties…… [Read More]
It is more likely that there will continue to be many varied and constantly changing definitions of the American family, and this will continue to confuse those learning English as they attempt to make concrete connections between words and concepts from their own language and those of the new -- and constantly developing -- culture and language they have adopted.
hen making cultural comparisons, it is important to refrain from qualitative judgments, and I do not mean to imply any here. The Korean concept of the family and its responsibilities is more concrete than the American cultural and linguistic definitions, but this does not necessarily make it better. The American ideals of freedom and self-determination lie at the root of the American family, and lead to very different cultural and linguistic perspectives. It is the difference in vantage point, and not in any perceived difference in quality, that proves a…… [Read More]
English -- the CV
Professional communication skills in English
Looking back over your portfolio and the course as a whole, what have you learned (about yourself/your strengths/weaknesses/the job application process/employer expectations/interviews etc.), and what ideas/information will you use in future internship and job applications? Why? (If you feel you have not learned anything, please explain why you feel that is, and explain what would have changed that).
One of the most important things I have learned this semester is the difference between casual and professional English. When communicating with English language speakers on a casual level, I often find it easy to be understood, provided that my intention is sincere. Friends are willing to overlook bad grammar and poor choice of vocabulary. I can restate what I mean, use body language and gestures, and laugh at my own lack of comprehension. During a job interview, however, an employer is assessing…… [Read More]
The argument surrounding the recent conflict in Iraq was two sided: one favored ridding Iraq of Saddam Hussein; the other did not. Arguments of the anti-war sides bordered on accusing the United States of being an imperialist and colonialist power. That America had become an occupying force that sought to impose its will on a weaker nation found favor among most of the Middle Eastern Islamic countries. Though this argument might prove philosophically and intellectually disingenuous; there is historical precedence to colonialist ambitions. The Dutch, Spaniards, French and ritish and to a lesser extend the Danish colonized most of the world for more than five hundred years. The legacy that we see today in the world's lingua franca, the English language, is testament to that fact that the ritish were largely victors in the intra-imperialist wars. "ritannica" ruled the world for several centuries. Over the last century, most…… [Read More]
Note that inflated English has been more characteristic of the centuries preceding Orwell and of Orwell's own time than on the latter part of the 20th century. There has been a shift in linguistics. As linguists and historians of language have noted, the Western model of language follows the monological approach. The monological approach has roots reaching back to Aristotle who saw communication as one of rhetoric, namely persuasion, where communication was a strategy for influencing people and helping them see reason, or the truth. In this way, the 'other' became viewed as object, communication was one way (monological) and the objective was how to best seduce the other to one's way of thinking. According to some linguists, such as Alfred Taylor, this reduction culminated in reducing conversation, depersonalizing words, and converting them into ideas rather than seeing the complexity of the speaker behind the words. It also led to…… [Read More]
English (Grammar, Spelling) is Important
hy is it important for a student (and any writer) to use proper grammar and spelling? This paper delves into that subject and provides research that is pertinent and helpful.
hy is Grammar Important?
Beverly Ann Chin is professor of English at the University of Montana, and she explains that when papers, letters, essays, journalism and research papers do not use proper grammar those reading those writings may have "…preconceived notions about the value of its contents" (Chin, 2000).
hen the writing shows poor grammar, no one will take it seriously, Chin explains. She also mentions that good grammar helps to "…guarantee clarity" and it also brings "…a level of order and elegance into the language." But why does it really matter? Bad grammar suggests bad writing, she continues, and when a reader sees flaws in the grammar he or she tends not to take…… [Read More]
language of Geoffrey Chaucer and its relationship to the development of English
In both literature and language, Geoffrey Chaucer made an important contribution to the development of English. In terms of the development of the English language his works and their popularity are related to the importance of the Midland dialect. This dialect formed part of the Mercian dialect of Old English, which was to assume significance due to the fact that it,
developed into centers of university, economic, and courtly life. East Midland, one of the subdivisions of Midland, had by that time become the speech of the entire metropolitan area of the capital, London, and probably had spread south of the Thames River into Kent and Surrey. "(ibid)
This form of the English language was disseminated and popularized partly by poets in the 14th century -- including Chaucer. In essence the works of Chaucer therefore added to the…… [Read More]
For some time, he has indicated to me his interest in obtaining his MBA. I support him in this endeavor one-hundred percent, and believe that he will be an asset to any company that would hire him in the future. He works very hard at learning the English language, and this dedication is something that he carries over into other areas of his life, such as his job, his studies, and his family and friends. He cares very much about people and their struggles, and he has a desire to help others. As a manager, I think that he will always work for the good of the company instead of the good of himself, which is becoming an increasingly rare quality these days. If he were denied the chance to get his MBA and put that to good use in a company, it would be tragic not only for him,…… [Read More]
Sometimes students have obstacles to contend with as they enter school. One such barrier can be language. The student I worked with is a Chinese first year student who is attempting to assimilate to AP class schedules. He is a 14-year old interested in learning the English language and is having problems not only learning the language but balancing out the needs of his identity versus the American culture. English Language Learners often must contend with several influences and deal with a new culture that may seem dauting and stressful[footnoteRef:1]. His name is Bo. [1: Larry Ferlazzo, English Language Learners: Teaching Strategies That Work (Santa Barbara, Calif: Linworth, 2010)]
Bo recently immigrated to the United States with his family two years ago. While Bo has learned conversational English and some grammar, he still has problems writing in English. The way to write simplified Chinese is different than English and so…… [Read More]
Direct Instruction (DI) is a model for teaching that emphasizes well-developed and carefully planned lessons designed around small learning increments and clearly defined and prescribed teaching tasks. It is based on the theory that clear instruction eliminating misinterpretations can greatly improve and accelerate learning (Stockard, n.d.).
Clowes, G. (2001, February 01). "Whole Language" faulted for U.S. reading woes. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from the Heartland Institute: http://www.heartland.org/publications/school%20reform/article/10248/Whole_Language_Faulted_for_US_Reading_Woes.html
Hanson, G. (1999, February 08). Whole language, half an education? Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Find Articles at NET: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_5_15/ai_53744894
Jones, J. (n.d.). Learning to read and whole language ideology. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Parents Raising Educational Standards in Schools: http://my.execpc.com/~presswis/phonics.html
Jones, J. (2004, July 28). What the data really show: Direct instruction really works! Retrieved March 23, 2009, from JeffLindsay.com: http://www.jefflindsay.com/EducData.shtml
Reyhner, D.J. (2008, Dec 13). The reading wars. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Jon Reyhner, Northern Arizona…… [Read More]
GAP stands for Guadalupe Alternative Programs and stands to serve St. Paul's Latino youth living on the West Side for the last fifty years. Programs like GAP have existed to promote the wellbeing of St. Paul's, Minnesota's Latino student population by offering services like counseling, educational programs, emergency resources, and job assistance (GAP, n.d.). While GAP still assists the Latino student population, times have changes and the Latino population has decreased, opening GAP services to diverse ethnic backgrounds. This has led to a recent issue of understanding the needs of the current population of GAP students.
The current population consists of English language learners, refugees (Karen refugees), and low income students. Social work interns at GAP recognized external factors that may affect GAP students. This has led to the desire to promote wellness among the current student GAP population. This research study is meant to provide an understanding of what…… [Read More]
Progression and Foundation of Language
Learning of primary language complements skills development; this includes learning about language, as well as learning other subjects in the school curriculum via language. Language learning facilitates general literary skills and allows children to revert to, and strengthen skills and concepts studied through their first language (The National Strategies Primary, 2009).
Curriculum is enriched by language learning. Teachers as well as children find it fun and challenging, and display enthusiasm towards language; this leads to creation of interested learners and the development of positive attitudes towards learning languages, all throughout one's life. A natural link exists between language and other curricular areas, and this enriches the overall teaching-learning experience. Proficiencies, understanding, and information learned through language contribute greatly to literacy and oracy development in children, as well as to better understanding of one's own and others' cultures. Language is also integral to community and…… [Read More]
BABIE AND GILS' BODY IMAGE
Motherese across Cultures
MOTHEESE ACOSS CULTUES
MOTHEESE ACOSS CULTUES
Motherese across Cultures
Motherese is the universal, infant-directed speech that seems to come to women on instinct when they have a preverbal baby. Some people discourage speaking in "baby talk," because they think that children can't possibly learn good English if they are not spoken to in good English. However, there is a lot of qualitative and quantitative research to suggest that motherese provides an effective bridge between mother and baby for linguistic transfer (TeechConsult's KIDSpad, 2010). Motherese enhances attention using reduplication, the use of special morphemes and phonological modification, and grammatical simplification, helping babies find boundaries between linguistic units. That, though, is not the most interesting thing about motherese. What are most interesting are the similarities and differences of motherese across cultures and linguistic groups.
Pitch Contour Comparisons between Chinese and American Mothers…… [Read More]
Foreign Language Learning
In DeJong's Foundations for Multilingualism in Education, the idea that multilingualism should not be viewed as a specialty but rather treated as a norm is a good one, as Dutta indicates in his experience of growing up using various languages, believing them to be one entity not separate as they are viewed in the West (DeJong, 2011, p. 1). For instance, the UK's tendency to "teach" a separate language in one class but to ignore it in all other occasions does not help to support the actual learning or usage of that language. Yet schools still have a tendency to feel the need to label students and language learners as though they needed to be marked as special or different. It should be the norm for all to learn multiple languages especially at a younger age in order to develop skills and open doors for later careers.…… [Read More]
Second language proficiency and academic achievement can be challenging to develop simultaneously. Krashen's (2010) work illustrates the various systems of learning, including the learning that takes place subconsciously and the learning that takes place more by rote methods. Likewise, Gottlieb (2006) differentiates between social and academic language proficiency and academic achievement for students. The acquisition of the language entails different cognitive processes than the acquisition of subject-specific knowledge. Educators armed with a more thorough understanding of academic versus language proficiency can better help their students succeed on both levels.
Krashen (2010) points out that each human being learns language in the same way. Individual differences may be important for current scientific paradigms, but for educators, a more universal approach will be far more helpful in creating a classroom environment and pedagogical approach that will be effective. After all, human biology is universal; so, too are the cognitive processes involved in…… [Read More]
As language may be viewed as a vehicle by which a student can better achieve academic success (Gottlieb, 2006), language proficiency assessments are ways in which the teacher can review whether or not the student is developing language proficiency rather than just content understanding. Thus the idea that students who are learning an additional or second language will seamlessly bridge into grade-level content once they reach the highest level of proficiency is a simple extension of the reality that language affords the user: it is the means by which understanding and success in a culture wherein that language is used can be obtained. Thus, if an ELL develops a true understanding and grasp of the language, the grade-level content that the student should be able to grasp is made available to him: it opens up because the language proficiency acts as the key what would otherwise be a…… [Read More]
Finite and Non-Finite English Verbs
Verbs do much of the semantic labor in a language -- their use allows us to mean things that cannot be conveyed by mere nouns and adjectives. In our study of syntax, we can identify several important classes of verbs by their behavior and use, and the way in which they interact with negation: finite and non-finite verbs. These verb classes allow us to do a variety of things: distinguish perfect (i.e. finished) and imperfect (not yet complete) actions without the cumbersome use of case markers, use verbs as the core of an independent sentence (finite verbs only), and form the base for clauses that employ auxiliary verbs (nonfinite verb-based clauses). The acquisition of finite and non-finite verbs in English is interesting to many scholars (Theakston, Lieven, & Tomasello, 2003). These forms also respond to negation in distinctive ways compared to other verbs. Below, I…… [Read More]
American English is incredible malleable and diverse, and it would be a mistake to impose artificial rules. Not only would it be a mistake, it could even be construed as racist. The imaginary Correct English (whether Oxford or Webster-based prescriptive grammatical rules) is one that is clearly defined by the white upper-class hegemony in higher education. As Deresiewicz (2005) states, "there is no such thing as Correct English, and there never has been." Dialects and accents are a sign that the language is alive. Language reflects subculture and social identity, and can allow for the vivid expression of ideas that would be severely restricted if there were only one Correct English.
Language is a form of cultural capital. Therefore, "stigmatized forms" of language such as edneck or African-American speech, are "typically those used by social groups other than the educated middle classes -- professional people, including those in law,…… [Read More]
Language and Communication
The Power of Language in Communication
The ability of humans to speak and utter sounds that creates meaning for understanding of human society is an important skill and capacity that distinguishes us from other living species here on earth. Possessing the power of language, we as humans are able to express our ideas and thought through it, and in the process, conducts communication and interaction with other people as well.
That is why I feel fortunate to be able to speak two languages: English and Taiwanese. Possessing the skill and knowledge to speak two languages allows me to interact with people who belong to cultures that similarly, speak Taiwanese and English. By being bilingual, I am able to converse easily with people, making initial encounters and daily interactions easier and manageable for me. Furthermore, bilingualism provides me with a lot of opportunities to conduct business communications and…… [Read More]
What I know about language is that it is essential in life and in learning. We use it to communicate ideas, feelings, needs, and thoughts. Being social creatures, we use language to bond with people, to create bonds of affection, and to create pillars of support for each other and for society as a whole. Language is something that can unite people; but if it is not known, it can also isolate those who do not know it.
How I learned what I know about language has come from my experience as a learner. What I remember learning about learning my native language is a real reticence to actually begin speaking: I was 5 years old before I started actually speaking; I would listen to my two older brothers have conversations and from them I learned both English and Spanish. Since my family and friends mostly spoke in…… [Read More]
Language change refers to the process in which a particular language varies in its linguistic levels of analysis by developing or assimilating new forms and/or eliminating and/or totally modifying some of the existing forms (Schukla & Conner-Linton, 2014). Every natural language is subject to change over time even if these changes and alterations do not receive recognition by the individuals that use them. The process of change can be a slow and sure process or certain catch phrases may be incorporated very quickly (Kroch, 1989). Thus, the changes may not always be obvious but by comparing different the same language at different times, comparing different dialects, or how different languages interact, it becomes clear that languages change in all of their qualities including their grammar, syntax, semantics, lexicon, morphology, and phonology (Algeo & Butcher, 2013).
The process of language change is studied both by historical linguists and sociolinguists.
Historical linguists…… [Read More]
Language Policy and Planning
Language planning refers to the efforts that are deliberately undertaken to influence how languages functions, are structured or acquired or the variety of languages in a given country. It is often a government responsibility by non-governmental organizations have also come to be involved in this. Grass-roots organizations and also individuals have been involved in this. The goal of language planning differs depending on the country. However, it generally includes planning, decision making and possible changes which benefit the communications system of the country. Language planning or efforts to improve the communication in a country can also bring about certain social changes such as shift of language, assimilation and therefore provide a motivation which plans the function, structure and acquisition of languages Woolard & Gahng, 1990()
Decision making in language planning
There are four dominant language ideologies which motivate the decisions that are made regarding language planning.…… [Read More]
Language & Community
How Language Circumscribes the World and Defines Community
The famous philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein wrote, "The limits of my language mean the limits of my world." Wittgenstein used his language to make this profound statement packed with a depth of meaning. Language, whether it is written language, spoken language, body language or sign language, is a fundamental aspect to the human condition. Language permits us to communicate with others, which is also a vital part of being human. Language also makes possible thought, speech, and writing. Without language, it would be exceedingly difficult for people to have relationships. Language comes in various forms and in huge varieties. Language additionally is a critical and prominent aspect to the definition of a culture. Every culture and subculture has characteristics that distinguish it as such; language is a characteristic at the forefront of defining or circumscribing cultures and communities. This paper…… [Read More]
Language and Language Practices
Language is the written and verbal method by which people communicate with one another. It employs sounds or written designs that are understood by others to create words, phrases, and sentences. Other species have language, as well, but it is not believed to be as complex as the language used by human beings (loomfield, 1914; Deacon, 1998). There are many facets to language, and there are nuances and subtleties that are often overlooked. This is especially true with people who are just learning a language, whether they are children first learning to speak or second-language learners being exposed to a new and different language for the first time. People who study languages are involved in what is called linguistics. They may study a particular language, but more often than not they study multiple languages and the construction of those languages. What they do is very different…… [Read More]
Language and Identity
A large part of culture has to do with the language that people speak. It is a unifying concept that allows a group of people to identify one another as belonging to the same group. It does matter how the group is bounded, usually more by geographical bounds than ethnic of racial, it matters more how the person related to the world through the spoken word. This paper looks at the culture of the Caribbean, especially those people who were brought to the region as slaves from the African continent, and how they have maintained their identity through the commonality of language.
Many examples exist in literature that solidify the notion that language and identity are very closely intertwined. As a matter of fact, one author states "Language and identity are inseparable. The quest for identity is another prevalent concern in Caribbean literature" (Dance 5). hy…… [Read More]
Language & Cognition
The relationship between language and cognition continues to be an area of science that is heavily studied and for which research builds in exciting ways (Aitchison, 2007). New learnings about cognition and language are intimately tied to technological advances as neuropsychologists and others probe the human brain ever more deeply and meaningfully (Aitchison, 2007).
Language and lexicon. Language is understood to be the symbolic representation of human thought (Yule, 2005). Language is the most complex method of human communication, whether written or spoken, in that it uses words in a structured manner and in conventional ways that are understood by those who speak, read, and write a particular language (Yule, 2005). Language can also take the form of nonverbal communication through facial and gestural expressions (Yule, 2005). The concept of lexicon takes two general forms: A dictionary of a particular language, and the vocabulary associated with an…… [Read More]
Rather, language may be more apt to change the way we see the world, rather than vice versa, at least according to Chomsky.
Meaning thus varies and shifts, some would say as the world shifts, others would say as language itself grows and generates new meanings -- while almost all would agree that the drive to communicate and make consistent and coherent meanings endures in all segments of the species. hile a stroke may damage the ability of some human brains to convey language and different people may have different levels of ability in using language effectively, or learning foreign systems of communication, the innate, structured, yet dynamic nature of human language lives on. Language exists on a biological, linguistic, and cultural level, although the degree to which these factors produce and affect language and meaning remains controversial.
Luger, G.F. (1994). Chapter 13: Language representation and processing. In…… [Read More]
Language Is Arbitrary
As you are reading these words, you are taking part in one of the wonders of the natural world," begins Steven Pinker's The Language Instinct. (Pinker, 3) In other words, it is a wonder that the human mind is able to create, from need and cognitive structure and instinct, a morphological structure of communication that can change over time from context to context, yet still be understood.
It is a wonder that is both natural yet arbitrary in its construction. For the syntax, or appearance and sound of a particular kind of piece of language is arbitrary, even though the semantics, or relational meaning of the language is not. Should you, the reader, doubt this proposition, consider that one solitary letter can mean the difference between an object being understood, in an English context, as a bat, a cat, or a hat respectively. One letter can be…… [Read More]