Enlightenment Period Essays (Examples)

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French Enlightenment the Failure of Enlightened Absolutism

Words: 1159 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47406357

French Enlightenment

The Failure of Enlightened Absolutism in France: An Analysis of the Economic and Political Situation of the Country during the Enlightenment Period

The dawn of the 18th century saw the emergence of a period that eventually determined the future of modern society -- that is, the Age of Enlightenment. Under the Age of Enlightenment, the prevalent ideology is that it is possible for people to formulate and enforce reform and changes in the society. Social reform is especially applicable in the European experience, wherein the rigid and conservative influence of Christianity has led to the development of a society that is characteristically theocentric.

The Enlightenment is characterized by a shift of society's concern to the natural and social sciences through scientific observation, which necessitates objectivism and rational thinking. These changes in the character of European society are brought about by the rise of modernization, where agricultural-traditional society with…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kagan, D. (1995). Western Heritage. NJ: Prentice Hall.

Moore, B. (1966). Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. Boston: Beacon Press.

Preston, P.W. (1997). Development Theory: An Introduction. MA: Blackwell Publishers.
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Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment Scientific

Words: 548 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77050452



Two of the most important proponents were the French philosophes, Montesquieu and Jean Jacques Rousseau, whose great contributions to the Enlightenment lead to the development of liberal democracy characterized among modern societies at present.

Montesquieu's discourse, entitled, "The Spirit of the Laws," provided objective and insightful propositions for reforms as societies change from being traditional to modern. According to him, the process towards social progress should be accompanied with material progress, which can only become possible if societies conduct a careful analysis of the factors for economic and political success (such as socio-demographic variables and economic and political structures of the society). These factors should be studied at the context of the extant structures of the society; the parallelism between the factors and structures shall lead to material, and eventually, social progress.

Rousseau's contribution to the Enlightenment is illustrated in his seminal work, "The Social Contract." In this treatise, Rousseau…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kagan, D. (1995). Western Heritage. NJ: Prentice Hall.

Preston, P.W. (1997). Development Theory: An Introduction. MA: Blackwell Publishers.
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Enlightenment-Era Neo-Classical Works With Romantic Overtones 'Tartuffe

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55737002

Enlightenment-era, Neo-Classical works with Romantic overtones 'Tartuffe," Candide, and Frankenstein all use unnatural forms of character representation to question the common conceptions of what is natural and of human and environmental 'nature.' Moliere uses highly artificial ways of representing characters in dramatic forms to show the unnatural nature of an older man becoming attracted to a younger woman. Voltaire uses unnatural and absurd situations to question the unnatural belief of Professor Pangloss that this is the best of all possible worlds. Mary Shelley creates a fantastic or unnatural scenario to show the unnatural nature of a human scientist's attempt to turn himself into a kind of God-like creator through the use of reason and science alone.

"Tartuffe" is the most obviously unnatural of the three works in terms of its style. It is a play, and the characters do not really develop as human beings because of the compressed nature…… [Read More]

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Enlightenment on the French and

Words: 1114 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32699302

.. reason is being heard throughout the whole universe; discover your rights," led to her being charged with treason, resulting in her arrest, trial and execution in 1793 by the dreaded guillotine (1997, Halsall, "Olympe de Gouge," Internet).

The Haitian evolution:

While all of this revolt was happening in France, the small Caribbean colony of Haiti was experiencing similar turmoil. The Haitian evolution of 1789 to 1804 began as a political struggle among the free peoples of Saint Domingue, a French colony on the island of Hispaniola. The French evolution of the same period provided the impetus for class and racial hatreds to come about on the island. Each of the colony's social classes, being the wealthy planters and merchants, and the lower white classes, seized the chance to address their grievances and bring about social chaos and revolt. While many colonial members sought support from the political groups in…… [Read More]

References

Carpentier, Alejo. (2004). "The Kingdom of the World." Internet. November 12, 2004. Accessed June 10, 2005. http://www.msu.edu/~williss2/carpentier.

Declaration of the Rights of Man -- 1789." Internet. The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Accessed June 10, 2005.  http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/rightsof.htm .

Halsall, Paul (1997). "Olympe de Gouge: Declaration of the Rights of Women, 1791." Internet. Modern History Sourcebook. Accessed June 10, 2005. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1791degouge1.html.

Enlightenment
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Plato a Platypus and the Enlightenment

Words: 1482 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47560104

Plato and the Platypus

Philosophers in the Enlightenment era would come up with various new means to popularize ideas. Denis Diderot conceived the first encyclopedia in this period, which was an attempt to systematize all world knowledge in an accessible way. But also, in another innovation, Voltaire would offer as a refutation of the optimistic philosophy of Leibniz -- which held that "this is the best of all possible worlds" -- a new form of philosophical argument: the extended comedy (Cathcart and Klein, 17). Voltaire's short book Candide is essentially an extended refutation of Leibniz's view of God (or perhaps any view of God), but it makes its points through satirical humor. In some sense, Thomas Cathcart and Daniel Klein are following in the footsteps of Voltaire by attempting to shed light on philosophical ideas through the medium of humor in their work Plato and a Platypus alk Into A…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cathcart, Thomas and Klein, Daniel. Plato and a Platypus Walk Into A Bar: Understanding Philosophy Through Jokes. New York: Penguin Books, 2008. Print.
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Idea of Progress During the Enlightenment

Words: 1440 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77994012

Progress During the Enlightenment

The notion of progress is as evolving as the modern society we deem progressive. While some view progress in terms of science and technology, others view progress in terms of government, social equality, economic stability, spirituality and moral sensitivity. In terms of technology, our current society is more technologically advanced than ever before. We can pick up a telephone and speak to loved ones in other cities, states, and even countries; we can compose, mail, and deliver a letter within minutes via the world-wide-web; we can flip a switch and create light where there was darkness; we can turn a key and travel hundreds of miles within a few hours. Meanwhile, our governments no longer treat minorities as second-class citizens, the world wide poverty level and corresponding mortality rates have dramatically decreased, and our views of religion and spirituality are decidedly more eclectic than in times…… [Read More]

References

Annabel Chaffer. (2010). The Museum of London's "Cheapside Hoard" Jewelry Collection. Retrieved March 13, 2011 from http://www.annabelchaffer.co.uk/products/designer_jewellery/museum_london_cheapside_jewellery_collection_page01.htm

Economist. (2011). The Idea of Progress: Onwards and Upwards. Retrieved March 13, 2011 from  http://www.economist.com/node/15108593 

Nisbet, R. (1979). On Progress. Literature of Liberty: A Review of Contemporary Liberal Thought, 2(1).

Weiner, P. (ed). (1968). Dictionary of the History of Ideas, Studies of Pivitol Ideas. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
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Time Periods in English

Words: 1275 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18909245

English Literature

The medieval period in English history spans across some 800 years. The Anglo-Saxon period consisted of literature that was retained in memory. The major influence of the literature up until the Norman Conquest was mainly of the religious kind. "Distinguished, highly literate churchmen (Abrams 4) the Ecclesiastical History of England remains our "most important source of knowledge about the Anglo-Saxon period" (4).

The Anglo-Saxons were primarily known for their contribution to poetry. Their alliterative form was, of course, how poetry survived. Sine they wrote nothing down until they were "Christianized," Abrams suggest that that Christian ideals influenced how things were recorded and it would also explain why some non-Christian literature did not survive. Beowulf is what Abrams refers to as the "greatest" German epic, even though it appears to many pre-Christian ideas. (4) Another example of the Anglo-Saxon writing movement would be Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Chaucer brilliantly weaves…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abrams, M.H., ed. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986.

Encyclopedia Britannica. Chicago: William Benton Publisher. 1959.

Wright, Meg. Early English Writers. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation. 1989.
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National Period American History Technically

Words: 1347 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44920961

The Great Awakening brought people together (though it did also divide them), but its influence on what the United States would later become is great. First of all, it forced people to have their own religious experience and it decreased the heavy hands of the clergy; new denominations also would come to be because of the Great Awakening as a direct result of the importance that was put on personal faith and views on salvation. The Great Awakening also brought the American colonies together and though there was also some division, there was more unification than ever before in the colonies.

The Great Awakening is so significant in the shaping of American and what it would later become because it gave individuals the freedom to find their own peace with life and God as it pertained to their earthly life -- and also to their later salvation. The United States…… [Read More]

References:

Middleton, Richard. Colonial America: A History, 1565 -- 1776. Wiley-Blackwell; 3rd

edition, 2002.

Geiter, Mary K., & Speck, W.A. Colonial America: From Jamestown to Yorktown.

Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
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Dawn of American Enlightenment Started

Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89104035



Benjamin ranklin termed himself a pragmatic deist. He believes "there is one Supreme must perfect being," however that this being is distant, and that it is not necessary to build a personal relationship with such a supreme God. He concluded that it was useful and correct to believe that a faith in God should inform our daily actions. However, he did not believe in sectarian dogma, burning spirituality or deep soul searching as a part of religion (Lopez, 87). ranklin's religious views are important in the shaping of his Enlightenment philosophy. His approach to religion drew from reason and careful reflection, he did not believe in the "frivolity" of emotional thought and connectivity, but instead focused on the pragmatic understanding of the divine. His conclusion after careful reason formulates a "Supreme Being that can be manifest in various ways, depending on the needs of different worshipers" (Lopez, 88). In contrast…… [Read More]

Fiering, Norman. 1981. Jonathan Edwards's Moral Thought and Its British Context. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

Buxbaum, M.H., Critical Essays on Benjamin Franklin (1987)

Lopez, Claude-Anne, and Herbert, E.W., the Private Franklin (1975)
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Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment

Words: 2464 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23685525



A a) Describe the personal traits and talents of Napoleon which place him in a unique position in world history.

Napoleon Bonaparte was the leader of the French army that defeated the revolution. He ultimately became the dictator ruler of France and succeeded in conquering various parts of Europe. However his methods are frowned upon, Napoleon the First and Emperor of France remains unique personality in the history of the world.

As a civilian, Bonaparte was a modest, but extremely bright man. His teachers have often praised his merits and he has also constituted a role model for his military fellows. In school and in the military he was hardworking. However he was generally quiet, he always managed to make an impression upon the people around him. His small stature had an impressive posture and he inspired both respect as well as admiration. His teachers and early commanders stated to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dieudonne, E.A., Memoirs of Emanuel Augustus Dieudonne, Count de Las Casas: Communicated by Himself, Comprising a Letter from Count de Las Casas at St. Helena to Lucien Bonaparte, Giving a Faithful Account of the Voyage of Napoleon to St. Helena, His Residence, Manner of Living, and Treatment on that Island..., University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1818

Donelson, T., the French Revolution and Its Failure, Politics, 2005, http://blogcritics.org/archives/2005/02/14/142316.phplast accessed on December 11, 2008

Donohue, L., Congress of Vienna, the Chicago Unified School District, 1999, http://www.cusd.chico.k12.ca.us/~bsilva/projects/congress/vienessy.htmllast accessed on December 11, 2008

Ellis-Christensen, T., When Was the French Revolution? Wise Geek, 2008, http://www.wisegeek.com/when-was-the-french-revolution.html. Ast accessed on December 11, 2008
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Intellectual-Led Enlightenment

Words: 1032 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24937155

Path to the Enlightenment

What with the ideological turmoil occurring prior to most of 18th century Western Europe, the Age of Enlightenment was but an inevitable outcome. eligious and political thoughts littered Europe by the spades, and with the foreign revolutions and tensions that led up to questioning both divine right and religious authority. The eformation, along with the discordant feelings toward the monarchy, became important turning points in history. Instead of blind faith, the Enlightened man turned to reason and science and believed in the utopian harmonic ideal. But exactly how did this Enlightenment come about?

Enlightenment was a movement that "strove scientifically to uncover religious truths rising above individual sectarian disputes" (Zhivov). Also simultaneously known as the "Age of eason," the Enlightenment culminated in a set of values that sought to question the traditions, customs, and moral beliefs of the cultural environment. While the schools of thought differ…… [Read More]

Resources

Brnardi?, Teodora Shek. "Exchange and commerce: intercultural communication in the age of Enlightenment." European Review of History 16.1 (2009): 79-99. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 9 Mar. 2011.

Brnardi?, Teodora Shek. "The Enlightenment in Eastern Europe: Between Regional Typology and Particular Micro-history." European Review of History 13.3 (2006): 411-435. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 9 Mar. 2011.

Gordon, Aleksandr V. "The Russian Enlightenment: The Meaning of National Archetypes of Power." Russian Studies in History 48.3 (2009): 30-49. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 9 Mar. 2011.

Rao, Anna Maria. "Enlightenment and reform: an overview of culture and politics in Enlightenment Italy." Journal of Modern Italian Studies 10.2 (2005): 142-167. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 9 Mar. 2011.
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Rousseau and Kant the Enlightenment

Words: 1770 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41169853

Morality therefore comes within but is associated with the results generated within as well:

The force of an internal sanction derives from the feeling of pleasure which is experienced when a moral law is obeyed and the feeling of pain which accompanies a violation of it (Denise, Peterfreund, and White, 1996, 202).

Kant sees the true nature of the age and stated,

Enlightenment is man's emergence from his self-imposed nonage. Nonage is the inability to use one's own understanding without anther's guidance. This nonage is self-imposed if its cause lies not in lack of understanding but in indecision and lack of courage to use one's own mind without another's guidance (Kant, 1973, p. 384.

Kant expresses the view that the public can enlighten itself if it is given the freedom to do so, and this would become a starting point for intellectual inquiry in the age as well as for…… [Read More]

References

Copleston, F. (1959). A history of philosophy: Volume VI: Wolff to Kant. New York: Doubleday.

Denise, T.C., S.P. Peterfreund, and N.P. White (1996). Great traditions in ethics?. New York: Wadsworth.

Dent, N.J.H. (1992). A Rousseau dictionary. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell.

Green, F.C. (1955). Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Cambridge at the University Press.
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Baghdad Importance in Abbasid Period as a

Words: 2501 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71466798

Baghdad (Importance in Abbasid Period as a Muslim Cultural Center)

The Muslim world is comprised of various ethnic groups, nationalities, customs and traditions, languages and races. Muslims all over the world have a common belief in the Oneness and Supremacy of Allah, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), and the Holy Quran. On the contrary, they all have different versions and interpretations of their religion, Islam. Thus, the theological traditions they follow are dissimilar. The Muslim world possesses an extensive political, social, economic, and geographical landscape which signifies a "kaleidoscope of historical and cultural experiences." Despite of the differences, however, the contemporary Muslim world today has inherited a highly triumphant and exultant civilization. Muslims are the heirs of a successful civilization that was larger and more productive than the greatest empires in the history including Greek, oman, Byzantine, and Sassanid (Ahmad 2007).

After the demise of the prophet Muhammad (peace…… [Read More]

References

Abbasid. 2009, In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press, Retrieved December 30, 2011, from Questia database: .

Ahmad, I. 2007 The Muslim World: Its Time, Continuity and Change, Social Studies Review, 46, 33+. Retrieved December 29, 2011, from Questia database: .

Background Note #3: The Philosophical/Scientific Contribution. 2007, Pattern in Islamic Art [online], accessed December 31, 2011 from: .

Baghdad. 2009, In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.), New York: Columbia University Press, Retrieved December 30, 2011, from Questia database: .
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From the Baroque Period Through the Romantic Age

Words: 1110 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82076000

art is changed by the changes that occur in political culture. The writer presents examples and contrasts two of the following areas Baroque, ococo, Neoclassicism, and omanticism and argues the point of how the eras drive changes in artwork. In addition the writer devotes two pages to comparing three works of famous artists.

Art has always been influenced by the masses. Political culture, and change have been driving forces behind the changes in art that history has witnessed. When political and cultural changes occur it is generally because of changing attitudes of those who live in the era and drive those changes. This extrapolates to changes in many things including taste in artwork. Two periods in history provide classic examples of such change occurring and being directly related to political and cultural changes that were taking place in society during the time.

The Neoclassical period and the omantic era are…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Grainstack 1891

http://www.oceansbridge.com/art/customer/product.php?productid=38385& cat=4037& page=19& maincat=M

Pierre Bonnard The Terrace

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/scpa/hob_68.1.htm
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Life of Bees Racial Enlightenment

Words: 1851 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38883005



Though her mother had passed, there would be maternal, familial and nurturing love to be found in the warmth and kindness of those whom she would meet here. ith the Black Madonna photograph as a compass and the pressures of the changing Civil Rights climate as a motor, Lily ultimately had found personal redemption in the implications of both. It is no matter of coincidence that the author so aggressively intertwined the conditions of Lily's confrontation of her own demons concerning the death of her mother with the personal revelations that, on a broad social scale, underscored the Civil Rights Movement as a whole. Indeed, the resolution finds Lily in a place of relative emotional equanimity, having confronted the truth about her mother, having faced the anger of her father and having ultimately settled on her life in the Boatright's community. Accordingly, "August and her community become Lily's new family,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Flanagan, M. (2002). Review: The Secret Life of Bees. About Contemporary Literature. Online at http://contemporarylit.about.com/cs/currentreviews/fr/secretLifeOfBee.htm

HCRHS. (2007). The Secret Life of Bees Weblog. Hunterdon Central Regional High School.

Horn, J. 2008). 'Secret Life of Bees' is a test case for mainstream appeal. Los Angeles Times. Online at  http://articles.latimes.com/2008/oct/16/entertainment/et-word16 

Kidd, Sue Monk. (2003). The Secret Life of Bees. Penguin.
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History of Economic of the 4 Periods in Ancient Civilization

Words: 5166 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16341967

Economics in Ancient Civilization

It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.

Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.

Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.

Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
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Western Enlightenment

Words: 1691 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64281599

Ideology in France 1848-1849: eflections on Nationalism and Liberalism

The ideology adopted in France between 1848-1849 has been described in many different ways by historians and theorists. The predominant body of research available however suggests that a liberal and nationalistic ideology reigned supreme during this time, where the middle class became much more influential. The idealisms of the romantic era are also evident in France during this period of time, and may have influenced the nationalistic state of affairs in France at the time.

The liberal and nationalistic idealisms adopted by the middle class led many people to experience struggles and hardships, but a majority of these were in the process of discovering their own form of leadership and sense of pride. These ideas are explored in greater detail below.

Ideology in France

Karl Marx describes the France of 1848-1849 as filled with Class struggles. From primary accounts of the…… [Read More]

References:

Dunham, A.L. "The industrial revolution in France, 1815-1848." New York: Exposition

Press: 1955.

Evans, D.O. "Social romanticism in France, 1830-1848." Oxford: Clarendon Press: 1951.

Hemmings, F.W.J."Culture and society in France, 1815-1848." New York: Peter Lang,
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Neo-Classical Art and Romanticism

Words: 906 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76614217

Art has always been used as a means of expression and of confirmation of events and movements that take place in the society in that respective period of time. The Neo-Classical and Romanticist art makes no exception to this rule and the two periods have been considered in the history of artistic art as two of the most representative for the expressivity they brought to the world of the arts as well as through the painters they inspired. Jacques-Louis David and Eugene Delacroix are two of the most representative painters of the New Classical period and the Romanticist art and their paintings are significant for the symbols and ideals these two periods provided for the artistic world.

Neo-classical art must be seen in the wider context of the 18th century and the era of Enlightenment when the new perceptions on the role of reason were redefined against the concepts of…… [Read More]

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Dangerous Liaisons Film Research Paper

Words: 944 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95927806

Europe witnessed a flowering period in the 18th century that historians call the Age of Enlightenment. A period filled with experimentation as well as intellectual curiosity, people relied on the power of human reason in order to understand society and nature. One specific manifestation of the Enlightenment was a steadfast faith in the stable progression of civilization via scientific development. Because of this religious judgment went to the wayside. Instead, people wanted improvement through freedom, equality, and tolerance. French writers/thinkers expressed these sentiments and notions through their work. These philosophers devoted their passion to useful thought and not speculation. Towards the latter half of the 18th century (1782), such thinking took the form of a highly scandalous story, Dangerous Liaisons.

ritten by Pierre Ambroise Choderlos de Laclos, a member of minor nobility and a French intelligence officer within the army, Dangerous Liaisons describes French nobility and the search for sex…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burns, William E. The Enlightenment. ABC-CLIO, 2015. Print.

Duchovnay, Gerald. Film Voices. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2004. Print.

McAlpin, Mary. Sexuality And Cultural Degeneration In Enlightenment France. Routledge, 2016. Print.
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Republicanism the Rise of Republicanism

Words: 839 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69429893

Intellectual development is reflected in the creation, development and eventual preference for a specific type of government or representation in the society. Consequently, this period of intellectual development helped promote the freedom and social order, as more forms of representation and governance were developed and implemented in American society. Republicanism's eventual dominance over other governments and political ideologies, however, reflects the society's need to preserve and champion their individual freedoms and at the same time, maintain social order despite people's political differences and beliefs.

The Great Awakening emerged as an ideology, a religious movement that embodied social order and served as a precursor to the American Revolution (declared in the late 18th century). This revivalist religious movement in American history paved the way for an "open and undisguised Unitarianism" among different Christian sects and churches in America. While there was still diversity among churches and sects, the Great Awakening improved…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Castiglione, D. (2002). "Republicanism and its Legacy." European Journal of Political Theory, Vol. 4, No. 4.

Goodman, J. (2005). "What is classical liberalism?" National Center for Policy Analysis. Available at: http://www.ncpa.org/pub/what-is-classical-liberalism

Pettit, P. (1997). Republicanism: a theory of freedom and government. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Philp, M. (2004). "Enlightenment, Republicanism and Radicalism." In the Enlightenment World. NY: Routledge.
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Adam Smith's Inquiry Address to the First

Words: 927 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84614511

Adam Smith's Inquiry

Address to the First omen's Rights Convention" was a speech given by Elizabeth Cady Stanton in order to raise voice against male chauvinism and religious bigotry and how it had been used to suppress women throughout history.

omen Rights in Eighteenth Century America

"Address to the First omen's Rights Convention" was a speech given by Elizabeth Cady Stanton in order to raise voice against male chauvinism and religious bigotry and how it had been used to suppress women throughout history. The goal of this paper is to analyze the address given by Elizabeth Cady Stanton in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton had made the commitment to improve the condition of women and elevate their status in American society. Her intellectual thinking and her ability to move out from the role of a house wife allowed her to be part of a…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Baker, Jean H. Sisters: The Lives of America's Suffragists. Hill and Wang, New York, 2005.

Bradstock, A. And Rowland, C. Radical Christian Writings.Blackwell Publishers Ltd. 2002.

Mani, Bonnie G. Women, Power, and Political Change. Lexington Books, 2007.
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Consecutive Executive George W Obama

Words: 4436 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7688432

Kant was no exception to the paradigmatic priorities (i.e. objectivity as knowledge) of the era, and brief reference to the episteme is serves accuracy in discursive analysis of this heritage within American politics and policy thought. For instance, Kant's Critique of Judgment is enormously influential in establishing a connection between judgment and political and moral precepts to conduct in communities. Intellectual lineage to Kant's model of Enlightenment 'reason" combines ritish Empiricism with Continental Rationalism; and partly explains why his philosophical proposition that the existence of persistent war against non-liberal states is a requirement to perpetual peace is reiterated in scholarly expiation since the Enlightenment period, making Perpetual Theory of War as lasting as seminal reference (ehnke, 2009, Caranti, 2006 and Murray, 2003). Discourse Analysis toward the study's cause-and-effect analysis is derived from speeches and interviews taken from the ush administration in Table 1.

Table 1

President ush -- Speeches and…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Behnke, a. (2009). Eternal Peace, Perpetual War? A Critical Investigation into Kant's Conceptualisation of War. Conference Papers -- International Studies Association, 1-18.

Bolton, J. (2010). Obama's Next Three Years. Commentary, 129(1), 24-28.

Brose, C. (2009). The Making of George W. Obama. Foreign Policy, (170), 52-55.

Caranti, L. (2006). Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace? Reflections on the Realist Critique of Kant's Project. Journal of Human Rights, 5(3), 341-353. doi:10.1080/14754830600812357.
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International Development Studies Economic Development

Words: 1827 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44147697



Globalization in the economic sense - economic, social and technological process that advocates a constant interdependence at a global level, supporting trade liberalization.

International Monetary Fund (IMF) - an international financial organization that monitors the global financial flows and that offers financial assistance to Third World countries.

African Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC) - cultural festival that promotes and sustains the revival of the lack cultural values and civilization.

1945 - the end of the Second World War and the beginning of the contemporary period. It is also equivalent with the start of the decolonization period, with Indonesia one of the first countries to make this step.

Poverty - lack of the material capacity to finance the basic needs of an individual or a society.

A unfreedom" ref. Sen - according to Sen, these would include, besides lack of political freedom or freedom of the press, forms of unfreedom…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Andrew Apter. The Pan-African Nation: Oil and the Spectacle of Culture in Nigeria.

University of Chicago Press (2005)

Only the Introduction and Chapter 1)

2. Frederick Cooper and Randall Packard, eds. International Development and the Social Sciences: Essays on the History and Politics of Knowledge. UC Press (1997)
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History of the Habsburg Empire 1273-1700 the Historical

Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59441436

History of the Habsburg Empire,1273-1700

The historical work of Jean Berenger titled, "A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1273-1700," is beneficial in understanding the Habsburg Dynasty of this time period. hile there has been many works that have also been helpful when completing studies on this topic, Berenger's work is a successful addition to previously published research.

Berenger is a respected professor of history. His writings display a vast knowledge of the most recent as well as the older literature on Habsburg history. His knowledge is not limited to just the French and Austrain works, but he is also in command of the most recent English fellow. In this work, Berenger undertook an enormous task of explicitly explaining the colorful tapestry that is woven of the individual nations of the monarchy. He didn't take any stand for only one side, but equally gives information concerning all involved.

Berenger explains the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berenger, Jean. (1997). A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1700-1918. London: Longman.
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Moll Flanders the Eighteenth Century Is Often

Words: 3113 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47252681

Moll Flanders

The eighteenth century is often thought of a time of pure reason; after all, the eighteenth century saw the Enlightenment, a time when people believed fervently in rationality, objectivity and progress. However, Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe also shows an era of chaos, depicted by a sort of wildness inside of people. Moll Flanders, the protagonist of Defoe's story, has been an orphan, a wife, mother, prostitute and a thief. Paula Backscheider (65) urges that Moll Flanders symbolizes the vicissitudes that were frequently experienced by many people in what was supposed to be an enlightened age. This is an obvious juxtaposition in Defoe's work. Defoe depicts a world that is not very compassionate, despite it being the Enlightenment period. Moll should have been better taken care of as an orphan, but she wasn't and this shows a complete lack of social responsibility on the government's side. There seems…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Backscheider, Paula R. Moll Flanders: The Making of a Criminal Mind. (Twayne's

Masterwork Studies). Twayne Publishers, 1990.

Defoe, Daniel. The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders. Oxford University Press, 2009.

Dupre, Louis K. The Enlightenment and the Intellectual of Modern Culture. Yale University Press, 2005.
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Women After the Middle Ages

Words: 2796 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2125633

It also widened her female audience much further than the small group of upper-class women with whom she was acquainted (ibid).

Overall, this work represented Lanyer as a complex writer who possessed significant artistic ambition and "who like other women of the age wrote not insincerely on devotional themes to sanction more controversial explorations of gender and social relations" (Miller 360).

In her work, Lanyer issued a call to political action by noting several Old Testament women who changed the course of ancient Jewish history through their bravery, humor and valor, and she recalled the favor Christ demonstrated to women in a variety of actions and by electing them as custodians of his salvational message (ibid 362). The story covered Christ's betrayal by male apostles, the arraignment before male authorities to whom Lanyer addressed complaints, and the account of Christ's procession to Calvary, the crucifixion and the drama of the…… [Read More]

References

Barish, Jonas. Ben Jonson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1963.

Braun, Lily, and Meyer, Alfred. Selected Writings on Feminism and Socialism. Gary: Indiana University Press, 1987.

Castiglione, Baldassare. "The Courtier." In Three Renaissance Classics. NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953, 242-624

De Vroom, Theresia. Female Heroism in Thomas Heywood's Tragic Farce of Adultery. NY: Palgrave, 2002.
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Skepticism Is Defined as a School of

Words: 1206 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32274438

Skepticism is defined as a school of philosophical thought where a person doubts the beliefs of another person or group. hile one person might believe wholeheartedly a certain political perspective or believe completely the dogma of a religion, a skeptic would have doubts about these beliefs or about the stories related to religion. Not only do they doubt organized religion, they also doubt the validity of socially constructed morals and laws. Sometimes they doubt the world as they witness it because they are unsure of the truth of reality as they perceive it through the senses (Butchvarov 1998). Like many philosophies, skepticism has origins in Ancient Greece. Pyrrho of Elis is credited with founding the philosophy, a branch of which was later named Pyrrhonism in his honor. The philosophy was expanded into countries throughout the known world, up to and including the early modern world. During the Enlightenment, skepticism branched…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baird, F.E. & Kaufmann, W. (2008). From Plato to Derrida. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson

Prentice Hall.

Butchvarov, P. (1998). Skepticism about the External World. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Cuneo, & Woudenberg. (2004). The Cambridge Companion to Thomas Reid.
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Eve as Society in Milton's

Words: 912 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80158926

At the Tree of Knowledge, in a last impassioned speech designed (successfully to convince Eve to taste the fruit, Satan (in the guise of the serpent) extols the virtues of the fruit in high apostrophe: "O Sacred, Wise, and Wisdom-giving Plant, / Mother of Science" (Paradise Lost 9 679-80). This is a clear indication of what the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge represented, both to Eve in Milton's tale and to the seventeenth century readers of Milton's telling. That is, Milton quite purposefully equated knowledge with science, and not just the moral knowledge of good and evil that is explicitly referenced in the Bible, and later on in Milton's own version of the tale. Paradise Lost is not meant to simply be a modern retelling of the story of Adam and Eve, the casting out of Satan and the other fallen angels, and other portions of the Christian mythology.…… [Read More]

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Kant and Rousseau Reducing Conflicts Between States

Words: 1198 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73059150

Kant and Rousseau

Reducing Conflicts Between States

The Theories of the Great Philosophers Rousseau and Kant

The great philosophers of the 18th century were the first of their kind to fully encapsulate what it meant to be an ethnocentric state, rather than a simple nation or territory, and also were the first philosophers able to address the question of war between states as not merely individual struggles for dominance, but rather persistent frictions present in the system of states themselves. The formal idea of statehood came of age in the Peace of estphalia in 1648, which ended the Thirty Year's ar, and affirmed the domination of the central government of each state as the supreme power of the land, rather than any religious or social power. At this time, every state was essentially a dictatorship, and the world was divided into fiefdoms. The peace reached at estphalia created the conditions…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ferraro, V. (n.d.). The ruth c. lawson professor of international politics. Retrieved from http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm

Jones, R. (2008). www.philosopher.org.uk. Retrieved from  http://www.philosopher.org.uk/rom.htm .

Munkler, H. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.opendemocracy.net/faith-iraqwarphiloshophy/article_1921.jsp

Rousseau, J.J. (1917). A lasting peace through the federation of europe and the state of war. London, England: Constable and Co. Retrieved from  http://oll.libertyfund.org
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Compare and Contrast Imagination With Faith and Reason in the Pursuit of Truth

Words: 1451 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36954410

Imagination, Faith, And Reason

Truth is an intangible idea that people have tried to get a grasp on since the dawn of time. It is often hard to determine what is true and what is false and how to categorize the things that are seen and done. Part of the reason is that truth is potentially subjective and determined by the society in which the question of truth is asked. Artists in all media, whether it be painting or the literary arts, have tried to illustrate and explain how to find truth, all to varying degrees of success. As with most intangible ideas, people have tried to apply different means in order to explain this thing which is largely unexplainable. Usually, when confronted with such an issue, humans have traditionally tried to explain truth with their imaginations, their faith and their ability to reason.

Imagination is the human ability to…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Keats, John, and Claire Tomalin. Poems of John Keats. Camberwell, Vic.: Penguin, 2010. Print.

"Paul's First Letter to the Corinthians." The Bible. Web. 2012. http://ebible.org/web/1Cor.htm

Racine, Jean. Phaedra. Norton Anthology of World Literature. Ed. Sarah Lawall. Norton, 2003.

Print.
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United States a Democracy the

Words: 1069 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90855666

The Executive Branch (President and Cabinet) executes spending and Congressional instructions, makes appointments to certain governmental posts, and is the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. The Judicial Branch (Supreme Court) exercises judicial review over the constitutionality and interpretation of laws; determines how Congress meant the law to apply, and has a panel that serves for life (Constitutional Topic: Separation of Powers).

There are a number of criticisms focused on the actual level of democracy or even democratic representation in the United States of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. First, many governmental officials (Supreme Court justices, etc.) are appointed, not elected, and therefore may operate outside the will of the populace. Second, in order to be elected to a state or national office now requires a huge amount of funding; putting elected office outside the purview of most people. Thus, it is not necessarily the "best" people…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Cassier, E. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1968.

"Constitutional Topic: Separation of Powers." March 2009. U.S. Constitution.net. December 2010 .

Dahl, Shapiro and Cheibub. The Democracy Sourcebook. Boston: MIT Press, 2003.

"Democracy vs. Republic." June 2004. Albatrus.org. December 2010 .
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Classical Liberalism Central to the

Words: 490 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77114518

Moreover, they saw religious faith as critical to promoting moral stability in the community (Breslin, 2004). Here we see how federalists adhere in the idea of liberalism by siding with sovereign nation-states where a central type of government is a political strategy. Moreover, Federalists side with the Hobbesian doctrine of liberalism where no religious power should be exercised among people as Anti-Federalists argued that religious faith is crucial is the stability of communities. For Federalists, political rule is the only legitimate rule of power, at least in the socio-political sense.

eferences

Berkowitz, P. (1996). Intellectual History of Classical Liberalism. etrieved from www.dailyrepublican.com/liberalhistory.html. onMarch 12.

Breslin, B. (2004). The Communitarian Constitution. etrieved from www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt/lpbr/subpages/reviews/breslin904.htm. onMarch 12.

Moseley, a. (2006). Political Philosophy. etrieved at http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/p/polphil.htm#SH3aonMarch 12, 2009.

Mount, S. (2007). Constitutional Topic: The Federalists and Anti-Federalists. etrieved at http://www.usconstitution.net/consttop_faf.html. onMarch 12, 2009.

New World Encyclopedia. (2008). Age of Enlightenment. etrieved from www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Age_of_EnlightenmentonMarch…… [Read More]

References

Berkowitz, P. (1996). Intellectual History of Classical Liberalism. Retrieved from www.dailyrepublican.com/liberalhistory.html. onMarch 12.

Breslin, B. (2004). The Communitarian Constitution. Retrieved from www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt/lpbr/subpages/reviews/breslin904.htm. onMarch 12.

Moseley, a. (2006). Political Philosophy. Retrieved at http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/p/polphil.htm#SH3aonMarch 12, 2009.

Mount, S. (2007). Constitutional Topic: The Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Retrieved at  http://www.usconstitution.net/consttop_faf.html . onMarch 12, 2009.
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Taylorism There Are a Number

Words: 742 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24963490

Marxist theory always sees class struggle, always exploitation of the haves vs. The have nots, and asks what economic systems cause societies to structure themselves in this hierarchical manner. Marx believed his theories about class struggle and historical materialism were scientific, and had the objective of developing a scientific analysis of the working class and its relationship to the owners. Marxist sociology asks: how does capital control the working class? How does the mode of production influence class? What is the interrelationship between workers, economics and the state? How do economic issues influence the inequalities in society? Thus, Marx views labor as integral but underactualized -- in a sense, Taylorism proves Marx's point about the conflict between classes.

Prior to both Marx and Taylor, John Locke, one of the most influential English philosophers of the Enlightenment Period, set the stage for the role of humanity within society. His views on…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Baird, F. And Kaufman, W. (2007). Phlosophic Classics: From Plato to Derrida.

New York: Prentice Hall.

Cassier, E. et. al. (1968). The Philosophy of the Enlightenment, Trenton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Garson, B. (1994). All the Livelong Day: The Meaning and Demeaning of Routine Work.
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Secularism One of the Most

Words: 2966 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60251509

As a result, explicit religious control over social and political life diminishes, but it still retains its ability to control and constrain individuals; it simply relies more on its individual adherents than formal church hierarchies and leadership.

This process has played itself out in a number of different contexts, and although the particular religious response to secularization differs according to nations and societies, in each case these responses disprove the secularization theory while reiterating the danger of religious influence in political and social affairs. For example, though the Enlightenment saw a somewhat dramatic increase in the secularization of Europe, particularly during the French evolution, this secularization did not correspond to the expected decrease in religious influence over political and social affairs. This is because even when formal religious institutions lose some explicit power, religious belief remains an acceptable justification for the formation of public policy and social norms (Audi &…… [Read More]

References

Audi, R., & Wolterstorff, N. (1997). Religion in the public square. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.

Berger, P. (1999). The desecularization of the world: Resurgent religion and world politics.

Washington: Ethics and Public Policy Center.

Norris, P., & Inglehart, R. (2004). Sacred and secular: Religion and politics worldwide.
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Romantic Era Marked a Movement

Words: 308 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77652395



Jane Austin's Sense and Sensibility, while including no supernatural references, focuses on the more positive side of extreme emotion of romantic love. Similarly to Shelley's work, this side of emotion is also used to reflect upon the society of the time. The hypocrisy often associated with marriage ties are for example exposed.

Romantic poetry is not so much concerned with the anxieties or evils in society. Instead, the concern of this poetry is depicting the human relationship with nature as a part of it, rather than separated from it. As such, there is a departure from the image of socially imposed order towards a free, untamed image of nature. Similarly to romantic fiction, poetry also focuses on the strength of emotions related to this. These are entirely individualized, with the connection of the individual to nature often central to the work.… [Read More]

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Christian Response to Philosophical Naturalism

Words: 1140 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72729965

ince neither of those explanations is likely (let alone knowable), philosophical naturalists would have to doubt that the universe exists at all; yet, very clearly, it does. The most likely explanation for the existence of the universe is simply that some force or consciousness (i.e. God) caused whatever the so-called "first cause" of existence was.

The second major philosophical assumption of philosophical naturalism presupposes that all philosophical postulates must, necessarily, fit the scientific model. However, that supposition clearly closes off many possible explanations simply because they may lie outside of human understanding. Again, that position is an a priori assumption that also violates the first major philosophical assumption of philosophical naturalism. In essence, it suggests that scientific concepts provide the only possible set of tools for understanding phenomena, including phenomena that obviously defy scientific explanation such as miracles and faith. Most importantly, it automatically (and in a manner that is…… [Read More]

Sources Consulted

Friedman, M. (1997). "Philosophical Naturalism." Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association. Accessed online, October 15, 2011, from:

 http://galileo.fcien.edu.uy/philosophical_naturalism.htm 

Hawking, S. (1990). A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes. Bantam Publishing: New York.
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Motivations for and Effects of

Words: 1802 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1846399

In the 21st century, American, European, and Asian trans-national corporations (e.g., General Motors; Toyota; Coca Cola; IBM; Nestle, etc., build plants in Mexico and Latin America, where indigenous labor is cheaper than American labor. Meanwhile, tens of thousands of poor Mexican citizens living in poverty struggle to sneak across the borders of the United States, into California, Arizona, Texas, or New Mexico, in hope of finding better lives by working for American dollars, instead of Mexican pesos.

All in all, European colonialism, an outgrowth and direct result of acquisitive worldwide European exploration and expansion, from the time of the Spanish conquistadores through the Enlightenment Period; through the Industrial Revolution and beyond, has done more harm than good within both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. For the most part, within these regions, colonialism (and/or its long-lasting after-effects) brought disease; poverty, and much cultural coercion to those areas. Natural resources were stolen;…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bradshaw, Michael et al. Contemporary World Regional Geography: Global

Connections, Local Voices. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: Norton, 1999.
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Crying of Lot 49

Words: 1940 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73138330

Dominance of Humanity over Nature: Conflict and Change in 19th Century Human Society in the Frankenstein by Mary Shelley

Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, author of the novel Frankenstein (1818), had introduced in literature a new genre and theme where human society and nature experiences conflict over time. The novel primarily depicts the state of humanity in the 19th century, where the effects of the Enlightenment period are reinforced through the study of the natural sciences (biology, physics, and chemistry, among others) and predominance of empirical thought, i.e., human knowledge acquired through experience and obtained through the scientific method.

With these state of events and forces dominating 19th century human society, this paper's analysis of the novel Frankenstein is two-fold: one facet discusses the issue of conflict and change happening in human society during the period, and the other facet looking into the dynamics of these changes, through exemplars and cases illustrated…… [Read More]

Bibliography

St. Clair, W. (2000). "The Impact of Frankenstein." In Bennett, B. And S. Curran, Mary Shelley in Her Times. Baltimore: John Hopkins UP.

Shelley, M. (1994). Frankenstein. (Dover Thrift Edition). NY: Dover Publications, Inc.

Turney, J. (1998). Frankenstein's Footsteps: Science, Genetics, and Popular Culture. New Haven: Yale UP.
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Radical Christianity in the 21st Century

Words: 1480 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41103011

Platt Book Critique

eligion is an integral part of human culture -- a set of organized beliefs about the universe, humanity, and the larger questions surrounding the spiritual values akin to society. Philosophers have debated the notions of religion for centuries, and even in the Enlightenment Period of European history, many found the lack of tolerance in many Christians an idea that could not be reconciled with the actual teachings of the Bible. Indeed, this disconnect between spirituality and the man-made interpretation seemed to manifest in intolerance and judgment as opposed to the teachings of Christ as unconditional love and acceptance.

Author David Platt, in adical, challenges the reader on just this disconnect. How humans have historically manipulated the Gospels to fit a series of cultural preferences and to justify behaviors that were simply not part of the very nature of Christianity. We know that the Christian Bible has been…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Henry, P. (2010). What Patrick Henry Actually Said. Palletmasters. Retrieved from:   http://www.palletmastersworkshop.com/patrick.html  

Platt, D. (2010). Radical: Taking Back Your Faith from the American Dream. Colorado Springs, CO: Multnomah Books.
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Abortion Created Serious Debates and

Words: 3098 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13402871



A normal pro-life campaign is less complex than Catholic anti-abortion principles because of the religious aspect of the matter. The connection between the Catholic Church and morality has come to be stronger in the recent years in spite of the fact that it does not essentially function based on morality alone. To a certain degree, one might be inclined to consider that the Church is wrong in promoting anti-abortion simply because it wants to follow Christian tradition. Catholic teachings are essentially derived from the Bible and "whatever the "moral" teaching of the Church might be, it is, in the final analysis, a function of how to read the Scripture. Christian morality is not, in short, a "stand-alone" moral position" (O'Brien 92). In promoting anti-abortion messages, Catholic representatives practically go against the general message that the Gospel is trying to convey.

Catholics have recently been more determined than ever to fight…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Faundes, Anibal and Barzelatto, Jose, "The human drama of abortion: a global search for consensus," Vanderbilt University Press, 2006.

John Paul II, "Evangelium Vitae: The Gospel of Life," St. Pauls Publications, 2009.

Mitchell, Alan C. "Choosing life: a dialogue on Evangelium vitae," Georgetown University Press, 1997.

O'Brien, George Dennis, "The Church and abortion: a Catholic dissent," Rowman & Littlefield, 2010.
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Origin of Species

Words: 2291 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12726516

Darwin

Had the Enlightenment adequately prepared 19th century readers for Darwin's Origin of the Species? The Enlightenment view of the science of life was neatly summed up by Diderot in his Encyclopedia, in many ways a signature product of the Enlightenment's dedication to setting forth the foundations of human knowledge. As Diderot notes in his prefaratory comments, what we call biology falls under the heading of "Natural History":

The divisions of natural history derive from the existing diversity of the facts of nature, and the diversity of the facts of nature from the diversity of the states of nature. Either nature is uniform and follows a regular course, such as one notes generally in celestial bodies, animals, vegetables, etc.; or it seems forced and displaced from its ordinary course, as in monsters; or it is restrained and put to different uses, as in the arts. Nature does everything, either in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Campbell, John Angus. Why Was Darwin Believed? Darwin's Origin and the Problem of Intellectual Revolution. Configurations 11.2 (2003) 203-237.

Cosans, Chris. Was Darwin a creationist? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48.3 (2005) 362-371.

Darwin, Charles. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Sixth Edition. Project Gutenberg. Accessed 25 March 2012 at: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/2009/2009-h/2009-h.htm

Diderot, Denis. "Detailed Explanation of the System of Human Knowledge." The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert Collaborative Translation Project. Translated by Richard N. Accessed 25 March 2012 at: http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.did2222.0001.084
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Thomas Jefferson A Pioneer in

Words: 5416 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9505486



Jefferson's Principles and their Impact on Education

Jefferson's radical beliefs in the inherent moral and developmental capacities of humans, and in their capacities to take part to participatory democracy, in turn reinforced his enduring commitment to an education that would be accessible to all. Jefferson was well aware that democracy could only work properly when the people were both virtuous and enlightened.

From these notions that people were naturally virtuous but not naturally enlightened, but that enlightenment was necessary for democracy, it followed that the society had a vested interest in investing in education to provide enlightenment.

In a letter to the Welsh born philosopher Richard Price dated January 8, 1789, Jefferson observed that "wherever the people are well informed they can be trusted with their government."

uch well informed or enlightened people could be relied on, "whenever things get so far wrong as to attract their notice," to set…… [Read More]

Sources

Primary

Ford, W. Ed. Thomas Jefferson Correspondence. Boston, 1916.

Jefferson, T. The Life and Selected Writings of Thomas Jefferson. New York: Modern Library, 1993.

Public and Private Papers New York: Vintage Books/the Library of America, 1990.
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Scientific Revolution

Words: 375 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18648564

Scientific Revolution was the period when man's intellect explored the interests of science, reasoning, and truth. It was the time when man, not satisfied with the assumptions about things he was used, explored scientific methods and theories to determine the truth about things based on scientific way of thinking. The emphasis of this intellectual change was on natural sciences of the earth such as astronomy, physics, zoology, geology, mathematics, and botany. The period of the Renaissance's desire to produce reality from art led to mathematics and scientific interests (Sedivy, D. HRHS). This intellectual shift appealed to the middle and upper classes of society. Two of the famous contributors in the Scientific Revolution were Isaac Newton and Galileo. Isaac Newton formulated the law of gravity, while Galileo developed the first telescope. Rene Descartes was another contributor of this period of intellectual change. He formulated mathematical theories that provide explanation to the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Sedivy, Dave. The Enlightenment.

Highlands Ranch High School. 27 Oct 2003.  http://mrsedivy.com/enlite.html 

The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment.

CLSCC.cc.tn.us. 27 Oct 2003. http://www.clscc.cc.tn.us/Courses/ngreenwood/scientific_revolution_and_the_en.htm
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Western History Looking Into the

Words: 549 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76697361

The growing dominance of the bourgeois class and the growing economic discontent in the society combined to create the atmosphere of dissatisfaction and conflict that eventually led to the development and declaration of the French Revolution.

King Louis XVI's passion for ballet dancing paved the way for ballet to thrive, develop and become rampant during his reign in the late 17th century. Under the leadership of Louis XVI's, ballet was institutionalized not only as an art form, but also as a profession. Moreover, during this period, ballet became a profession and art form no longer dominated by males, but also by females. It was also during this period that the comedie ballet became a popular form of ballet dance, particularly performed in Louis XVI's court ballet.

One of the most distinct characteristics of the Age of Enlightenment from other social and cultural movements that occurred in the history of humanity…… [Read More]

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Tartuffe Swift and Voltaire in His Own

Words: 968 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55520352

Tartuffe, Swift and Voltaire

In his own way, Moliere's Tartuffe represents one aspect of the Enlightenment, if only a negative one, since he is a purely self-interested individual who cares only about advancing his own wealth and status. He is a fraud, a con artist and a hypocrite who puts on a show of religion but is really only interested in stealing Orgon's estate -- and his wife. Orgon is too foolish to understand this until the end, although his wise and cunning servant Dorine understands Tartuffe's intentions almost immediately. In this case, the uneducated servant is far more intelligent and clever than her master, who even seems callously indifferent to the illness of his wife. By the standards of the time, Orgon is a very incompetent head of household and a poor ruler and governor, in choosing a corrupt and scheming advisor who only intends to destroy his estate…… [Read More]

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Evening in the Palace of Reason Bach

Words: 1596 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45069138

Evening in the Palace of Reason: Bach Meets Frederick the Great in the Age of Enlightenment (Harper Perennial, James Gaines), 2006.

Gaines' book discusses two of history's greatest men, each of whom became great for a different reason. One was a political leader and statesman the other a musician. he biography of each could not have been more different. Both had tough lives and both fought against enormous stakes but one lived in a palace and the other travelled from place to place living in some at most only 3 years. One sampled jail and the other saw his partner killed and was saved by being sent to the military. One was homosexual and the other happily married in love. Bach's love in contradistinction to that of Frederick was more serene and meaningful. His music absorbed him and made him happy. He was focused; his life purely devoted to cantatas…… [Read More]

Two great men who met at the end of one's life and the pinnacle of the energy of another. Their lives could not have been more different but both can inspire us in different ways.

Source

Gaines, J "Evening in the Palace of Reason: Bach Meets Frederick the Great in the Age of Enlightenment." Harper Perennial, 2006."
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John Locke Biographical Research During the

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90966106

He continued to study medicine with Thomas Sydenham as his mentor. (ikipedia)

He had an unsuccessful attempt to prevent James II from reaching the throne, and, as a result of his failure, he had been obliged to flee England. He did not return to England until 1689, when James II had been removed from power. It only took one year until he published his most important work: An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding. He had been inspired from the works of Decartes when he wrote the essay. Locke also paid great interest to politics, which motivated him in writing the Two Treatises of Government. His work related to the fact that the state has to protect the rights that its citizens have, including the right to property.

The fact that he considered the people to be more important than the state and that freedom of religion was vital in order for…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. (2008). "John Locke." Retrieved May 23, 2009, from The European Graduate School Web site: http://www.egs.edu/resources/locke.html

2. (2009). "John Locke." Retrieved May 23, 2009, from Wikipedia Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Locke
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Role and Importance of the

Words: 5946 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47971090



Most individuals fail to appreciate life to the fullest because they concentrate on being remembered as some of the greatest humans who ever lives. This makes it difficult for them to enjoy the simple pleasures in life, considering that they waste most of their time trying to put across ideas that are appealing to the masses. While many did not manage to produce ideas that survived more than them, others succeeded and actually produced thinking that remained in society for a long period of time consequent to their death.

Creativity is generally regarded as one of the most important concepts in society, considering that it generally induces intense feelings in individuals. It is responsible for progress and for the fact that humanity managed to produce a series of ideas that dominated society's thinking through time. In order for someone to create a concept that will live longer than him or…… [Read More]

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Franklin Delaney Roosevelt's Attitude Towards the Jewish

Words: 1417 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51340018

Franklin Delaney oosevelt's attitude towards the Jewish problem during the War. I have read and heard such contradictory accounts spanning from Jews who congratulate for his involvement to some scholars and others who criticize him for an alleged anti-Semitism. Being that this is a famous personality that we are talking about and a prominent President of the U.S.A.; I felt that enlightenment on the subject was important. I wanted to go to the source, and therefore I accessed original documents from the collections of the Franklin D. oosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. These, compounded with other sources, are the results that I found.

By the 1940s, news had already reached the U.S.A. about the concentration camps which Edward . Murrow described (December, 13, 1942),as "A horror beyond what imagination can grasp . . . there are no longer 'concentration camps' -- we must speak now only of 'extermination camps.'" (FD…… [Read More]

References

Beschloss, M. The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman and the Destruction of Hitler's Germany NY: Simon & Schuster, 2002.

FDR AND THE HOLOCAUST

 http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/archives/pdfs/holocaust.pdf 

Feingold, HL The Politics of Rescue: The Roosevelt Administration and the Holocaust, 1938-1945 New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1970.
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Scientific Revolution Industrial Revolution and

Words: 893 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81223947

The new universe made room for God because the collective mind was opened to the notion of a divine entity controlling all aspects of the universe not just one corner of it.

The Industrial Revolution can call Britain "home" (Craig 627) because at the time, Britain was the "single largest free-trade area in Europe" (627). Mechanical inventions spark the beginning of this revolution. In 1769, the spinning jenny was patented, which lead to the invention of a power loom. This increased demand for cotton with production jumping to twice as fast as before. The steam engine is another important invention of the Industrial Revolution and it connected to two "basic commodities of modern industrialization -- coal and iron" (Chodorow 718). Iron production was a basic element of modern development, as it "constitutes the chief element of all heavy industry and land or sea transport and is the material out of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bailey, Thomas and Kennedy, David. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1994.

Boorstin, Daniel. The Discoverers. New York: Random House. 1983.

Chodorow, Stanley, et al. A History of the World. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich

Publishers. 1986.
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Language of Apparel From France Cultures

Words: 1372 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73266906

Clothing and Culture

Clothing, in the modern definition, is considered to be fiber or textiles that are worn on humans, and one of the anthropological features of human culture and society. The type (color, style, fit) of clothing is typically dependent upon a number of variables -- geography, weather, gender, status, physical state, work activities, and even status symbols. From a practical standpoint, clothing serves as protection from external weather, or for safety reasons (constructing, cooking, hiking, sports); it may protect the wearer from flora and fauna (nettles, bites, thorns); it may insulate against hot or cold conditions; and may even provide a hygienic barrier. Often, studying the aspects of clothing and society tells scholars a great deal about the particular culture -- not just in external appearance but in the technology of textile production, weaving, and adornment (oucher & Deslandres, 1989).

Evolution of Clothing Styles: Scholars are uncertain as…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Blum, S. (Ed.). (1982). Eighteenth-Century French Fashion Plates. New York: Dover Publications.

Boucher, F., & Deslandres, Y. (1989). 20,000 Years of Fashion. New York and London: H.N. Abrams.

Delpierre, M. (1997). Dress in France in the 18th Century. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Doyle, W. (2001). The Ancien Regime. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
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Shape and to Create Our Modern World

Words: 1799 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35724750

shape and to create our modern world?

The modern world was shaped by a range of events and powerful people. One of the first most influential people was Clovis. Clovis was the founder of the Merovingian dynasty of Frankish kings, and one who defeated the Roman rule in Gaul along with defeating a range of Germanic people, creating the kingdom that is known as France nowadays. Most notably, it was this ruler's conversion to Christianity which had a profound impact on the nation for years to come. Charles Martel might not be as famous as other rulers, but he had a significant impact on the development of the modern world in that he was able to stop the advance of the Moors into his land. Charles the Great is remembered more profoundly throughout time in that he was the leader of numerous holy wars against a variety of non-Christian groups.…… [Read More]

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1500 to 1800 Was Perhaps

Words: 1581 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66018852

Two examples of this "Enlightened Despotism" were Catherine the Great of Russia and Frederick the Great of Prussia. They based their monarchial powers, not on the Divine Right of Kings, but upon the need for a strong authoritative government to promote greater welfare within the state. These rulers created greater national standards and regulations that helped the state create a strong political infrastructure that veered away from traditional custom-based doctrine. As a result, Enlightened Absolutism became the norm within European government as monarchs began to systematically create a method to entrench national level reforms that would provoke greater political, economic and social stability.

Ultimately all four of these events are strongly interrelated because they were changes in the mindset of individuals. At the core level however, they were all reactions and extensions of the Reformation movement, which promoted greater individual liberty and free thinking. Absolutism and its evolution led to…… [Read More]

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Art the Renaissance Heralded in

Words: 2995 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58827633



French omantic painter, Eugene Delacroix, is well-known from this period. Delacroix often took his subjects from literature but added much more by using color to create an effect of pure energy and emotion that he compared to music. He also showed that paintings can be done about present-day historical events, not just those in the past (Wood, 217). He was at home with styles such as pen, watercolor, pastel, and oil. He was also skillful in lithography, a new graphic process popular with the omantics. His illustrations of a French edition of Goethe's "Faust" and Shakespeare's "Hamlet" still stand as the finest examples in that medium.

Delacroix' painting "Massacre at Chios" is precisely detailed, but the action is so violent and the composition so dynamic that the effect is very disturbing (Janson, 678). With great vividness of color and strong emotion he pictured an incident in which 20,000 Greeks were…… [Read More]

References

Art: A World History. New York: DK Publishing, 1997.

Eysteinsson, Astradur. The Concept of Modernism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1992

Gardner, Helen. Art through the Ages. New York: Harcourt, Brace: 1959.

Hoving, Thomas. Art. Foster City, CA: IDG, 1999.
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Joey's Going Commando Lead to a State

Words: 1766 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2570342

Joey's "going commando" lead to a state of American cultural Enlightenment?

Adorno's "How to read a television show," the American cultural industry of television, different definition of Enlightenment, and the departing NBC network show "Friends"

One of the most complex words in the English language is Enlightenment. Consider the many levels of meaning that have been attached to the word, throughout history and in the many dictionaries that line the shelves of modern libraries. To begin with the Internet, as all searches for meaning must begin in the 21st century, according to an Internet site identifying itself as "brainydictonary," the definition of "Enlightenment" is a noun that means the "act of enlightening, or the state of being enlightened or instructed." Enlightenment relates to the expansion "of conscious states, expanding consciousness, expansion of consciousness, consciousness expansion. (Brainydictionary, 2004)

However, the expansion of the mind on a personal level is a relatively…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adorno, T. "How to Look at Television." Culture Industry. Routledge Classics.

Brainydictionary. "Enlightenment. http://www.brainydictionary.com/words/en/enlightenment160280.html

Enlightenment." PBS Glossary.  http://www.pbs.org/faithandreason/gengloss/enlight-body.html
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Religions of Buddhism and Christianity

Words: 2909 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69498612

Many believe that this judgment takes place within a person's lifetime through sufferings for acts committed, and one does not have to wait for the end of time. The basic belief of Christianity is that there is a Christian God, who is benevolent and giving, but who is also a vengeful God. In fact, a large part of Pilgrim theology was premised on God being vengeful, and that self sacrifices were needed to appease God. Christians also believe that Christ was the son of God, who came to fulfill the Messianic prophecy espoused by sages from the Old Testament. Goodness, kindness, good deeds, generosity, honesty are divinely inspired. Christians keep Christ as a cherished beacon to be emulated every step of the way. Good deeds (which would satisfy uddhists) without true faith is meaningless.

The uddhists have an assigned eight-step path to enlightenment. These are not far removed from any…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bernstein, Alan E. The Formation of Hell: Death and Retribution in the Ancient and Early Christian Worlds. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993.

Bowker, John Westerdale. The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Easwaran, Eknath. The Dhammapada. Petaluma, Calif.: Nilgiri Press, 1986.

Meeks, Wayne a. The Origins of Christian Morality: The First Two Centuries. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
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17th and 18th Century Europe

Words: 859 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49770450

Not only was this theme fully explored within the historical context, but thoroughly analyzed within Europe as well. The teachings of such notable thinker as Sigmund Freud points to this direction of development. He concluded that there modernism within Europe had become characterized by the disorder of the mind. More precisely, there was a lack of any fixed system of reference for living and thinking. Europe, which had formerly been the center of intellectual development and revolutionary thinking now suffered under the burden of a weak political infrastructure. As a result, many of their greatest talents and knowledge now flowed away from Europe to other developing nations such as the United States.

The Age of Anxiety was coined not by historian but by Europeans of the age themselves. They reflected upon the disturbing trends that were occurring within European nation-states. It gave rise to radical social, political and scientific ideas…… [Read More]

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Invention of Peace Discussion 1

Words: 573 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54023333

When Serbia refused, Austro-Hungary declared war on Serbia, forcing the mobilization of ussia to prevent the destruction of Serbia.

German forces mobilized in support of Austro-Hungary by prior agreement, and declared war on ussia in response to her mobilization of forces.

To avoid a war on two fronts, Germany attacked France because of the fear that France would attack Germany once Germany and ussia went to war against each other.

Britain entered the war against Germany because Germany invaded Belgium to bypass the most fortified approaches into France. By 1917, German attacks on neutral shipping bound for England provoked the U.S. To enter the war as well. Some of the first action of the wider war was the occupation of German colonies in Asia and Africa. By the end of the war, England was poised to rule much of the Middle East until after World War II, which control was…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Howard, M. (2000) the Invention of Peace: Reflections on War and International Order. London: Yale University Press.
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Principal Intellectual Movements Anglo-American Colonies Eighteenth Century

Words: 799 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5410188

Principal intellectual movements Anglo-American colonies eighteenth century: Great Awakening Enlightenment." You sources relevant paper. Use Reich's Colonial America reference research report if draw material source assigned, footnotes book, article,

The Great Awakening and the Enlightenment:

Wrestling for the souls and the minds of colonial settlers in the Americas

The colonial period in the Americas was a time of intense intellectual ferment. Two seemingly contradictory intellectual movements arose: that of the Great Awakening and the American Enlightenment. The Great Awakening was a period of religious revivalism that arose within the New England and Mid-Atlantic colonies. The American version of the Enlightenment, a movement which began in Europe, was characterized by intellectual curiosity and a belief in the need for rationalism over superstition when governing human affairs. oth of these conceptions of the 'human' shaped the future, evolving history of America.

While many of the American colonies were founded by people fleeing…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"The Great Awakening." Wake Forest University. December 17, 2010

http://www.wfu.edu/~matthetl/perspectives/four.html

Hooker, Richard. "The American Enlightenment." World Civilizations. Updated June 6, 1999.

December 17, 2010
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Waste Land French Lieutenant the

Words: 4164 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35242335

(Eliot, 1971).

The Subjective over the Objective

Modernism was a reaction against Realism and its focus on objective depiction of life as it was actually lived. Modernist writers derived little artistic pleasure from describing the concrete details of the material world and the various human doings in it. They derived only a little more pleasure from describing the thoughts of those humans inhabiting the material world. Their greatest pleasure, however, was in expressing the angst, confusion, and frustration of the individual who has to live in that world. (Merriam-Webster, p. 1236).

Modernist writers used novel means for expressing these newly intense emotions. They did not always express the individual's confusion and frustration by relating the inner discourse of the individual. Instead, they manipulated the structure, style, and content of their works to cultivate a certain effect on the reader. (aym, Vol. D, p. 17). They wanted to convey the experience…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Snow, C. (1968). The Realists: Portraits of Eight Novelists. New York: Macmillan.

2. Fried, M. (1997). Realism, Writing, Disfiguration: On Thomas Eakins and Stephen Crane. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

3. Wilson, E., & Reill, P. (2004). Encyclopedia of the enlightenment. New York, NY: Facts on File.

4. Zafirovski, M. (2011). The Enlightenment and Its Effects on Modern Society. New York: Springer.
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Mozart and Salieri Throughout the

Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51142260

In the scene where the Emperor and his aides argue about the language for the new opera, one of the aides notes, "Plain German for plain people," and "German is too brutal" ("Amadeus"). Underlying this conversation is the idea that the north could not possibly be civilized or educated, and only the elite and attuned listened to the classical music emanating from Italy. This also indicates how the culture was changing, and indicates the difference between the two composers. Mozart welcomed writing in German, but was open to any language, while Salieri plodded along in Italian. He was not open to change and innovation, while Mozart championed it in his music and his life.

Throughout the film, it is clear Salieri cannot grow to accept the changes in Classical music. He represents the old morals of the enaissance, while Mozart represents the new morals of the Enlightenment that would forge…… [Read More]

References

Amadeus. Dir. Milos Forman. Perf. F. Murray Abraham, Tom Hulse. Orion Pictures, 1984.
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Age of Reason Age

Words: 2901 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56114727

You can't just issue degrees without having the use of force lurking in the background to make sure those degrees have some "teeth" so to speak. But Rousseau rejected that idea.

Rousseau also rejected the notion that ties between family members were an appropriate model for relationships between the state and its citizens. In using precepts from what Aristotle had written two thousand years earlier (in Aristotle's Politics), Rousseau - who admitted that he owed a profound debt to Aristotle - "was adamant that the authority of man over man in civil society - whether for good or evil - had been and ought to be established by choice and not necessity," okler explained.

Justice, in other words, cannot thrive if the government is in a paternal partnership with citizens (the belief that father knows what's best isn't applicable to government in a true democracy); a just society is a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aldridge, A. Owen. Voltaire and the Century of Light. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1975.

Hampson, Norman. Will & Circumstance: Montesquieu, Rousseau and the French Revolution.

London: Duckworth, 1983.

HighBeam Encyclopedia "Origins of the Revolution / Rousseau." (2005). Retrieved 29 Nov, 2006, at http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/section/frenchre_effectsoftherevolution.asp.
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Freemasonry in Pre-1917 Russia Free

Words: 3982 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81981926

I. Novikov. It is not clear whether Bolotov himself was a Mason, but he certainly personally belonged to the same social circles as many leading Freemasons in Russia. In his Entsiklopediia, 128, 990, Serkov mentions Bolotov as a possible member of the Konigsberg military lodge of Joanna Krestitelia (John the Baptist) working in Elagin's system around 1773. (Cross, 105)

The Freemasons continued to grow and improve Russian society until the death of Peter III, when his wife Catherine took over the throne. During the reign of Peter III, the numbers and lodges grew substantially and it became fashionable in Russia to be a member of the Freemasons. In fact, many nobles from other countries were traveling to Russia to be a part of the new and growing movement.

Catherine the Great

One of the longstanding rules and traditions of the Freemasons is that members must be men, as women were…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Wolff, Larry. Inventing Eastern Europe: The Map of Civilization on the Mind of the Enlightenment. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1994. Print.

Hosking, Geoffrey a. Russia and the Russians: A History. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2001. Print.

Riasanovsky, Nicholas V.A History of Russia. New York: Oxford UP, 1984. Print.

Dmytryshyn, Basil. Modernization of Russia under Peter I and Catherine II. New York: Wiley, 1974. Print.
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1023 at the End of

Words: 1078 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71297276

Robespierre had Danton and his followers arrested, convicted, and beheaded.

A movie produced on Danton by Poland's Andrzej Wajda in 1983 clearly showed the zeal of the revolutionaries against this Rule of Terror (Weiss). The movie argues that Robespierre was so concerned with keeping his own power, he destroyed the principles on which the revolution was founded. In a scene of the film, the onvention realizes Robespierre's intentions, and someone yells, "Down with the dictator!" Robespierre destroys the revolution by using violence to enforce democratic ideals. During the trial Danton sums up what Robespierre has done: "Revolutionary principles have made you forget the revolution."

The Enlightenment ended after the devastation of the French Revolution and Napoleonic era, rise of a religious revival and growth of the Industrial Revolution and business class. However, much of the philosophies of this time continue today through constitutions of countries including the U.S.'

France was…… [Read More]

Cranston, Maurice. The intellectual origins of the French Revolution. History Today, 1989, 39.

Dubois, Laurent. Avengers of the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004

Weiss, Andrew. Danton and the Destruction of the French Revolution. Website retrieved 12, June 2005. http://shakti.trincoll.edu/~aweiss/danton.htm
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Fall of Christendom in Modern Era

Words: 1859 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14331401

Christianity in Europe

The Decline of European Christianity, 1675-Present

The demise of Christianity in Europe coincides with the rise of the Age of Enlightenment at the end of the 17th century.

Up to that moment, Europe had been relatively one in religious belief. True, religious wars had been raging for more than a century, with the fracturing of nations in the wake of the "Protestant Reformation." ut even then, Europe had acknowledged a single Savior -- wherein lay His Church was the major point of contention. ut today Europe exists in a post-Christian state. Its Christian identity has collapsed under the weight of Romantic-Enlightenment ideals, expressed dramatically in the French Revolution at the end of the 18th century and adopted politically throughout the continent as a result of a more man-centered, rather than God-centered, vision of life. This paper will trace the decline of European Christianity and provide three reasons…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Israel, Jonathan. Radical Enlightenment Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-

1750. UK: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Jones, E. Michael. Libido Dominandi: Sexual Liberation and Political Control. IN: St.

Augustine Press, 2000.
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Green Tara Tibetan Art -

Words: 2111 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71028000

The most striking difference of this painting is the extensive use of gold leaf. A matured use of shadow and detail can be seen in this tangka, indicating a later, more developed art form. It lacks the detail to symmetry found in the other two examples as well. This piece provides an excellent contrast to the earlier two Tangka that were examined. it's attention to shading, clear outlines, and accents in gold may indicate the Menris school of the 1500s (Tibetanartschool.com).

Conclusion

Tangka paintings are an important part of Tibetian life. Many regional differences exist in the painting styles and techniques that are employed in the paintings. It might be noted that Tangkas in western Tibet take on a Chinese flavor. Tangkas of the religious nature are divided into three major portions. They are the top, middle and lower portions of the painting, representing the heaven, earth and underworld (U-wayttours.com).…… [Read More]

References

Asianart.com. Desire and Devotion: Art From India, Nepal, and Tibet in the John and Berthe

Ford Collection. <  http://www.asianart.com/exhibitions/desire/tara.html  > Accessed

November 23, 2010.

Rumsey, D. Green Tara.
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Vindication of the Rights of

Words: 12319 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94246949

Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:

Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)

Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.

Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.

Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.

Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.
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Menage a Trois Brought Together

Words: 457 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77573152



La Mort D'Ophelie, Berlioz -- -Choir

Style-Romanticism

Unity and Variety-emphasis upon unity

Structure of the Music

Purpose of the Music

Tempo-Adagio

Volume-low

Rhythm-Consistent

Melody-Consistent

armony-balanced

Form-Circular

istorical Period-1842

Vier Gesange, Op. 17, Brahms-Choir

Style-Enlightenment

Unity and Variety

Structure of the Music

Purpose of the Music

Tempo-Adagio

Volume-Low

Rhythm-Consistent

Melody-Consistent

armony-balanced

Form-Enlightenment

istorical Period-Mid 1800s

Pavane in F-Sharp Minor, Op. 50

Style-Romantic

Unity and Variety

Structure of the Music

Purpose of the Music

Tempo-Adagio

Volume-Low

Rhythm-Consistent

Melody-Consistent

armony-Balanced

Form-Romantic

istorical Period-1885

Faure - Choir Fantasy in C-Minor For Piano

Style-Romantic

Unity and Variety-Emphasis upon unity

Structure of the Music

Purpose of the Music

Tempo-Adagio

Volume-Low

Rhythm-Consistent

Melody and armony-low pitch

Form-Romantic

istorical Period-1887

Chorus and Orchesta by Beethoven.

Style-Improvisational

Unity and Variety-Emphasis upon unity, but variety within one piece

Structure of the Music

Purpose of the Music

Tempo-Adagio and then Allegro

Volume-Immense

Rhythm-Very Consistent

Melody and armony-igh emphasis upon pitch

Form-Romantic…… [Read More]

Historical Period-1808

The instrumentation of concert included sopranos from the Ebell chorale and the Hollywood master Chorale, as well as soloists, alto, tenor, bass, violin, viola, violoncello, double bass, flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, French horn, trombone, percussion, harp.

I enjoyed the concert. It gave me an overall feeling of satisfaction due to unity of choir and instrumentation.
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Yakup Kadri's Yaban and the

Words: 1719 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26254391

It was reflected in the Republic's closure of religious convents in 1925. (Fleet, Faroqhi, & Kasaba, p. 164). The Republic also replaced the Islamic canon law with a secular civil code in 1926. (Fleet, Faroqhi, & Kasaba, p. 164-165). Thus, Yaban's portrayal of the gullible peasant populace and their attachment to Islam, illustrates the social obstacles that the Nationalist government was reacting to with its secularizing reforms.

Conclusion

Karaomerlio-lu's views might be represented by Celal's resignation with the village and warned future bureaucrats of the impossibility of Nationalist enlightenment there. Ironically, Yaban's publicisation of their condition invoked political sympathy for them, leading to intensified efforts to nationalize, civilize, and develop peasant villages. This sentiment was represented by Kadro, a leftist publication managed by the Kemalist regime's opposition party, which advocated peasant interests in the Republic. (Turkes, 2001, p. 92-93). In response, the Republican People's Party, which ousted the Kemalist regime,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Karaomerlio-lu, Y. (1932). Yaban. Istanbul: Ileti-im, 2006 (1932(.

Fleet, Faroqhi, & Kasaba (2008). The Cambridge History of Turkey, Volume 4. Cambridge University Press.

Turke? M. (1998). "The Ideology of the Kadro [Cadre] Movement: A Patriotic Leftist Movement in Turkey." Middle Eastern Studies 34, no. 14 (1998): 92-119.

Baykan & Robertson (2009). Identity, Culture and Globalization - Annals of the International Institute of Sociology.
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Science and Religion in the 17th Century

Words: 1113 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69708860

Science and Religion in the 17th Century

he Interaction between Science and Religion in the Seventeenth Century:

ransforming our World

he world we know today has been shaped by many important events. Some people may see the industrial and the technological revolutions of the past two centuries as central pillars that have helped humanity not only survive, but also advance greatly. Others may see political revolutions as central to our society's progress, be they wars for independence in the colonies of the 20th century, or be they the mother of drastic political change, the French Revolution. Others yet may believe that cultural revolutions, such as the Enlightenment of the 18th century, a phenomenon that spurred great change and bore great thinkers, truly altered society. However, above all, one must note that without the interaction between science and religion and the issues this brought to light in the 16th and 17th…… [Read More]

To prove his voice, even under arrest, Galileo continued making discoveries, most notably discovering sunspots on the surface of the Sun. Thus, he was not silenced, and his works have survived even to today and have greatly aided other scientific advancements. Another notable example of fantastic scientific advancement and survival is found in Nicolaus Copernicus' Gold Jagiellonian Globe, a globe surrounded by a celestial metal sphere with a clock inside that can tell date, time, month and the position of the sun in the sky. Such machines, though not available to the greater population, at least gave other intellectuals the ability to see beyond religion and start questioning their world, thus paving the way, much later, for the masses. [3: Commemorating Copernicus. Science News, Vol. 103, No. 15 (Apr. 14, 1973), p. 236 Published by: Society for Science & the PublicArticle Stable URL:  http://www.jstor.org/stable/3958075 ]

These "disagreements" between science and religion, exemplified by such people as Galileo and Copernicus would eventually give way to the Enlightenment in the 18th century, which, as aforementioned, truly transformed the world. Though at the time it was difficult to be on a different side than the church, the obstinate stance of these early intellectuals was eventually rewarded. Without their efforts, for example, the period of Enlightenment may never have taken place. Because these scientists existed and worked hard at making and publishing their discoveries, during the 1700's, society continued to make unparalleled progress in the cultural, astrological, astronomical, political, mathematical and artistic fields.

In other words, the interaction between science and religion for two centuries eventually led to a temporary dissipation of ritualistic, religious dogma in the higher strata of society, and shaped events that were to alter forever the landscape of the Earth in the following centuries. It is due to the Enlightenment, and specifically the works of such philosophers as John Locke, whose essays are unparalleled in wisdom, for example, that America is a democratic country. The inability of religious dogma to slow down the ever-quickening pace of discovery was all too real and the measurable positives of science during the 16th and 17th centuries were too great of an advance to be resisted. Eventually, religion had to step back and give science its well-deserved foot forward. [4: Uzgalis, William. "John Locke," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .]
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Price Beauty 'For Though Beauty Is Seen

Words: 6265 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40095914

Price Beauty?

'For though beauty is seen and confessed by all, yet, from the many fruitless attempts to account for the cause of its being so, enquiries on this head have almost been given up"

illiam Hogarth, The Analysis of Beauty, (1753)

Not very encouraging words, but if the great artist illiam Hogarth felt himself up to the task, we can attempt at least to follow his lead. That beauty is enigmatic goes almost without saying. Different ages, different cultures, and even different individuals, will have their own definitions of "beauty." The problem is more than skin deep. Any term that can be so widely and irregularly employed is bound to trap the casual researcher ... Or reader ... Or viewer ... Or for that matter, any other human being who attempts to define what is and what is not "beauty." People, places, things -- even ideas dreams -- can…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Al-Braizat, Fares. "Muslims and Democracy: An Empirical Critique of Fukuyama's Culturalist Approach." International Journal of Comparative Sociology (2002): 269+.

Browne, Stephen H. "EDMUND BURKE (1729-1797)." Eighteenth-Century British and American Rhetorics and Rhetoricians: Critical Studies and Sources. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. 42-50.

Callaghan, Karen A., ed. Ideals of Feminine Beauty: Philosophical, Social, and Cultural Dimensions. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

"The Eighteenth-Century Beauty Contest." Eighteenth-Century Literary History: An MLQ Reader. Ed. Brown, Marshall. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999. 204-234.
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Women in Candide Is a

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he has lived through violence, rape, slavery, and betrayal and seen the ravages of war and greed. The old woman's story also functions as a criticism of religious hypocrisy. he is the daughter of the Pope, the most prominent member of the Catholic Church. The Pope has not only violated his vow of celibacy, but has also proven unable and unwilling to protect his daughter from the misfortunes that befell her.

Candide also displays this sense of hope in light of his many hardships. He honors his commitment to marry Cunegonde at the end of the story despite the physical abnormalities that have plagued her. Cunegonde is a young and beautiful woman at the beginning of Candide. Mirroring Candide's naive optimism, their love plays out in unrealistic romantic cliches: a blush, a dropped handkerchief, a surreptitious kiss behind a screen. However, this romance in the shelter of the Baron's estate…… [Read More]

Stromberg, Roland. "The Philosophes and the French Revolution: Reflections on Some Recent Research." Eighteenth-Century Studies 21: 321-339.

"Francois-Marie Arouet Voltaire" Literature Network

 http://www.online-literature.com/voltaire/
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Realism Monet and Debussy as

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It is as if the art was improvised, much like Monet's portrait of flowers gives the impression that the artist simply happened upon a cluster of flowers one day, and was moved to paint by the beauty he saw before him.

Of course, it must be argued that neither composition, although they create such an extemporaneous impression, was truly spontaneous. Both works were carefully and consciously planned by the artist and composer respectively, they did not simply bubble forth from Monet or Debussy's emotions. But the fact that the artists strove to create this impression is telling, and suggests a willingness to let pure emotion enter the realm of art in a way that it was not allowed to before, when standards of painting were rigorously governed by the French Academy, and when all musical compositions had to have a conventional structure.

Ironically, in creating such spontaneity, Monet and Debussy…… [Read More]

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Religion Ancient Buddhism and How

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In addition for many years it was indeed considered impolite to laugh out loud in public which had an impact on the aesthetic value of the period in history.

Conclusion

The faith of Ancient Buddhism is perceived to be one of the oldest faiths in the world. Its teachings are still followed today in much of the Eastern part of the world and its simplistic view of life and the meaning of life can be seen in many other areas and cultures.

There is no denying the aesthetic value that the faith had on the period of ancient times when one examines the art being located on digs today. The beliefs of Ancient Buddhism have carried over to impact the aesthetic value of Western cultures as well as can be evidenced in the color lessons at designers schools and the study of color by modern day mental health professionals.

REFRERENCES…… [Read More]

Ultimate Journey: Retracing the Path of an Ancient Buddhist Monk Who Crossed Asia in Search of Enlightenment. - Review - book review Christian Century, May 23, 2001 by Leo D. Lefebure http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1058/is_17_118/ai_75496693

Color Symbolism in Buddhist Art       http://www.kheper.net/topics/Buddhism/colors.html      

Real Buddhas Don't Laugh:Attitudes towards Humour and Laughter inAncient India and ChinaMICHEL CLASQUINUniversity of South Africa http://209.85.165.104/search?q=cache:0ZC9clSD9mMJ:www.thezensite.com/ZenEssays/Philosophical/Buddhas_Dont_Laugh.pdf+aesthetic+%22ancient+Buddhism%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=5&gl=us&ie=UTF-8