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The World Health Organization (WHO) has determined that poor people suffer greater loss of life and health from pollution and other environment-related causes, with lack of safe water, sanitation, and poor air quality being the main factors in determining life expectancy. The statistic that 20% of the total loss of life expectancy in developing countries is attributable to environmental causes, versus only 4% in rich countries is also indicative of the fact that the poor are hit the hardest by environmental degradation. (Ibid. p. 6)
Despite such overwhelming evidence about environmental degradation as a major cause of poverty, there is a widespread perception in developing countries that maintaining the environmental quality was a luxury that the poor countries can ill-afford while allocating their scarce resources in supposedly more important areas such as education, health and infrastructure. This is an arguable point. According to the "Sustaining the Environment to Fight Poverty..."…
Assessing Environment's Contribution to Poverty Reduction" (2005). United Nations Development Program for Poverty-Environment Partnership. Retrieved on June 13, 2007 at http://www.undp.org/pei/pdfs/AssessingEnvironmentsRoleinPovertyReduction.pdf
Sustaining the Environment to Fight Poverty and Achieve the MDGs." (2005). United Nations Development Program for Poverty-Environment Partnership. Retrieved on June 13, 2007 at http://www.undp.org/pei/pdfs/SustainingEnvironmentFightPoverty.pdf
UNDP is United Nations Development Program; UNEP is United Nations Environment Program; IIED is International Institute for Environment and Development; IUCN is World Conservation Union; and WRI is World Resource Institute
The perception is based on the controversial 'environmental Kuznets curve' (EKC) hypothesis, which suggests that environmental assets are degraded in the early stages of economic development, but they improve after some income threshold has been passed
negative effects of degradation of the environment. It will first discuss human population as a cause for environmental degradation by also relating to afferent effects. It will then bring into equation urbanization and industrialization which are closely linked. Ultimately, the general effects of global warming, as both a cause and an effect in itself, will be considered.
Key terms: environment, population density, urbanization, industrialization, global warming.
Man has impacted the environment since the beginning of times but, unlike nowadays, the effects were then negligible. As the number of population increased and spread around the globe, so did changes in the environment. Defining the environment has taken many forms throughout the years. The broader and most common understanding is that it represents the sum of conditions and natural factors that influence human activity. The environment is understood in terms of a dynamic system with a well defined structure where its components,…
Ahmad, F. (2012). India's economic development: Nexus between poverty and environmental degradation. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 1(5), 61-66. Retrieved from http://www.ijstr.org/final-print/june2012/Indias-Economic-Development-Nexus-Between-Poverty-And-Environmental-Degradation.pdf
Beck, M.W., Shepard, C.C, Birkmann, J., Rhyner, J., Welle, T., Witting, M., Wolfertz, J., Martens, J., Maurer, K., Mucke, P., & Radtke, K. (2012). WorldRiskReport 2012. Berlin: Alliance Development Works, ISBN 978-3-9814495-0-3.
Duraiappah, A. (1996). Poverty and environmental degradation: A literature review and analysis. CREED Working Paper Series No 8. Amsterdam: Institute for Environmental Studies. Retrieved from http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/8127IIED.pdf
Malthus, T. (1998). An essay on the principle of population (Electronic ed.). Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project. Retrieved from http://www.esp.org/books/malthus/population/malthus.pdf
Over-consumption, Social disintegration, and Environmental degradation: Social diseases of today's affluent American society
Today's American society's affluence is unparalleled: with the success of a capitalist economy, America is able to provide the essential needs of the society, and at a quantity more than what all of America needs. Food, clothing, cars, housing, and even home appliances range from the cheap to the expensive, in various sizes, color, and form. All these material needs and wants are available to every American. An observer would have considered that indeed, American life is the ideal life to live.
John de Graaf, David ann, and Thomas Naylor thought otherwise. Critically looking into the seemingly affluent and ideal social order of American society in the book, "Affluenza," the authors presented an insightful interpretation of the 'social diseases' that plague America. Collectively categorized under the epidemic termed as "affluenza," the authors discussed how affluent American…
De Graaf, J., D. Wann, and T. Naylor. (2001). Affluenza: the all-consuming epidemic. CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc.
Mack, W. (2001). "Book review: Affluenza." T+D, Vol. 55, Issue 7.
The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.
Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.
It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while…
Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.
Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.
Dannreuther, Roland (ed.) European Union Foreign and Security Policy (Routledge, 2004) Chapter 11
Deudney, D. The case against linking environmental degradation and national security, Millennium, 19:3 (1990), pp.461-76.
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law Violation
With the current changes in weather patterns, strange climatic conditions and other uncontrollable natural disasters, there has been a lot of attention directed towards the environment and the way people may be contributing to the degradation of the environment in small ways that is summed up results into the disasters that we see on daily basis. The environment is becoming unpleasant on an increasing trend each and every day, this is a cause to worry about for each government that cares to see the consequences of our careless handling of the environment.
There are also man's contribution to the insecurity that surrounds us on a daily basis since people no longer care for the safety of the workers that work in their industries and sadly to some extent, some don care even about themselves and the safety that may be protecting their…
Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Republic of South Africa, (2012). Stepping up
Enforcement Against Environmental Crimes. Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.environment.gov.za/Services/booklets/Environmental/EnviroCrimesEMI.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1998). Final Guidance for Incorporating
Environmental Justice Concerns in EPA's NEPA Compliance Analyses Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/compliance/ej/resources/policy/ej_guidance_nepa_epa0498.pdf .
A company working on such a goal might claim that the intent is to use less pesticides, but really they just want to decrease the cost of production.
Another example of why a food organism might be modified is to make the final product more resilient to the means of distribution, such as what is seen with tomatoes being genetically modified to have more resilient skins, so they can be grown, harvested and distributed in mass. Many think of these types of modifications as positive, for the development of sustainable food growth, to feed a growing population, more efficiently and effectively. In many ways the positive aspects of this trend are good, and yet genetically modified plants and foods also create potential threats. Some examples of this are plants that if left on their own can overcome natural and indigenous plants, such as are seen with grain crops that have…
Cook, Guy. Genetically Modified Language: The Discourse of Arguments for GM Crops and Food. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Gaudet, Mary. "Without a Trace: Controversy Buzzes around the Mysterious Disappearance of Bees on Prince Edward Island." Alternatives Journal July 2005: 32.
"Give a Weed an Inch, it'll Take a Smile." The Register-Guard (Eugene, or) 12 June 2005: c1.
Environmental Industrial Management
Corporate social responsibility (CS) has been a hot topic in business circles for decades. The topic has gained even greater attention in the last few decades in the wake of increased attention to the impact of business activities on the environment, economy, and the society (Flammer, 2013; Schrempf-Stirling, Palazzo and Phillips, 2016). This paper discusses the principles of CS; the integration of social, economic, and environmental aspects in the organisational agenda; the importance of transparency, accountability, and stakeholder engagement in CS; and the notions of materiality in CS and sustainability reporting as outlined in the Global eporting Initiative (GI) G4 guidelines.
Whereas there is no commonly agreed definition, CS generally refers to the activities business organisations deliberately undertake with the aim of promoting social, economic, and environmental sustainability (Crowther and Aras, 2008). It denotes the pursuit of economic objectives while at the same time consciously pursuing social…
Barclays, 2013. Citizenship Report 2013. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 December 2016]
Crowther, D. and Aras, G., 2008. Corporate social responsibility. New York: Ventus Publishing.
Flammer, C., 2013. Does corporate social responsibility lead to superior performance? A regression discontinuity approach. Management Science, 61(11), 1-27.
Foote, J., Gaffney, N. and Evans, J., 2010. Corporate social responsibility: implications for performance excellence. Total Quality Management, 21(8), 799-812.
US Government and Environmental Ethics
The United States government has had a long history with the environment, beginning with the very beginning of the settlement of the Pilgrims, through the industrialization era, forming the beginning principles of having national parks, and to today with the onset of climate change and the environmental hazards of the 21st century. (National Park Service, 2012) Compared to other countries, the U.S. has had a more favorable view towards the use of the environment for business matters, often leaving entire communities scarred by the unprotected use of machinery and pollution to retrieve coal minerals, build six lane highways through forests, and even building massive subdivisions of buildings so close together that they represent risks of fire and natural disaster. There are several government agencies that have been created through the years to govern the vast territories that have been preserved, but the amount…
American Farmland Trust. (2012). "History of the Farm Bill." Retrieved from, http://www.farmland.org/programs/farm-bill/history/usfarmsubsidies.asp .
The Encyclopedia of Earth. (2008). "Roosevelt, Franklin D. And his Environmental Policies." Retrieved from, http://www.eoearth.org/article/Roosevelt,_Franklin_D ..
The Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). "About Us." Retrieved from, http://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/ .
BBC News. (2011). "What is the Kyoto Treaty?." Retrieved from, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2233897.stm .
Current events of the environmental ethics
Some of the major current events concerning the environmental ethics are the issue of global warming. One of the leading researchers (in the causes and effects of climate change; and in the field of allergies) in Europe has discovered that the burning of the fossil fuel that has increased over the recent past has resulted into the increase of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide facilitates the growth of the ragweed- an invasive plant- moreover; the hay fever is triggered of by this plant's pollen grains. Both early and long seasons of allergy are caused by the bloom of the birch trees as a result of the warmer temperatures (White, 1967).
Non-environmentally friendly behaviors currently such as the increased acts of war has not only affected the environment by impoverishing the natural resources but has also caused stress in…
Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. California: Houghton Mifflin.
Van, W., & Peter C. (1997). Primitives in the Wilderness: Deep Ecology and the Missing
Human Subject. New York: SUNY Press.
Varner, G. (1998). In Nature's Interests? Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental
" (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)
The draft environmental impact statement elicited over 1.1 million responses which the Forest Service identified and summarized into six major issue categories including:
1) Public access;
2) Identification of other unroaded areas;
3) Exemptions and exceptions
4) Environmental effects;
5) Local involvement; and 6) the effect on communities with strong natural resource affiliations. (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)
These issues served to guide the process through:
1) Determining the scope of the proposal;
2) Development of a range of alternatives;
3) Direction of the analysis of potential environmental, social and economic effects;
3) Identification of possible mitigation and 4) Ensuring that the agency is operating within legal authorities. (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)
Two sets of alternatives were developed:
Four alternatives, including a No Action Alterative that cover the range of possible…
Forest Service Roadless Area Conservation (2000) United States Department of Agriculture. Forest Service. Washington Office November 2000. Final Environmental Impact Statement Summary. Online available at http://roadless.fs.fed.us/documents/feis/documents/summarynb.pdf
NEPA Documentation Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)(2000) Project Development. U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. Online available at http://www.environment.fhwa.dot.gov/projdev/docueis.asp
" (2007) Recommendations of this report include those as follows:
China should learn from the successes and failure of the U.S. And other developed countries in reducing the influence of energy use on air quality;
Continued dialogue and information exchange among U.S. And Chinese scientists and policy-makers should be promoted through professional organization, government support programs, and the National Academies in both countries to promote joint development of energy and pollution control strategies." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007)
Other findings of this report include the fact that "an important lesson learned is that air pollution damage imposes major economic costs, through premature mortality, increased sickness and lost productivity, as well as in decreased crops yields and economic impacts." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs,…
Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States (2007) Development, Security, and Cooperation (DSC) Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United States - Development, Security and Corporation: Policy and Global Affairs. National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council of the National Academies and the Chinese Academy of Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences. Online Pre-publication Release available at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12001&page=R2
Holder, Kevin (2007) Chinese Air Pollution deadliest in World - National Geographic News 9 July 2007. Online available at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/07/070709-china-pollution.html
Kim, Juli S. (2007)Transboundary Air Pollution - Will China Choke On Its Success? - A China Environmental Health Project Fact Sheet. 2 Feb. 2007. China Environment Forum in partnership with Western Kentucky University on the U.S. AID-supported China Environmental Health Project (CEHP)
Wang, Alex (nd) The Downside of Growth: Law, Policy and China's Environmental Crisis. Perspectives Vol. 2 No. 2. Online available at http://www.oycf.org/Perspectives/8_103100/downside_of_growth.htm
Environmental Themes in Grapes of rath
This essay reviews environmental themes from the following five books: Dust Bowl by Donald orster, The Grapes of rath by John Steinbeck, Everglades: River of Grass by Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Killing Mr. atson by Peter Matthiessen, and River of Lakes by Bill Belleville. This paper discusses the role that culture has played in environmental issues during the past century. Five sources used. MLA format.
Humans from the very beginning of their existence have had an impact, for better or worse, on the environment. Man has for the most part tried to control the environment to suit his needs or tastes of the era. Over-grazing, over hunting, ignoring the importance crop rotations, dam building, and toxic dumping, are but a few of the ways man tries to control. Few societies have ever considered any of the above when it comes to the environment.…
Belleville, Bill. River of Lakes. University of Georgia
Douglas, Marjory Stoneman. The Everglades River of Grass.
Pineapple Press. 50th Anniversary Edition. 1997.
hough the methods for solving environmental problems might be new, the skills necessary to develop and implement these solutions are not. Along with the desire and ability to take in a wide array of information and make complex decisions based on this information, environmental engineers must have the ability to plan ahead using the possible developments in this information. Long-term planning abilities, as well as the ability to communicate environmental issues and their solutions to non-engineers, are both essential skills that environmental engineers must possess (Lindner & Nyberg 1973). Without these abilities, the work of environmental engineers would not be effectively developed or implemented; they must be practically applied in the long-term in order to be useful.
he role of the environmental engineer developed essentially as a response to an ethical issue -- namely the degradation of the environment -- and thus every aspect of en environmental engineer's job can…
Though the methods for solving environmental problems might be new, the skills necessary to develop and implement these solutions are not. Along with the desire and ability to take in a wide array of information and make complex decisions based on this information, environmental engineers must have the ability to plan ahead using the possible developments in this information. Long-term planning abilities, as well as the ability to communicate environmental issues and their solutions to non-engineers, are both essential skills that environmental engineers must possess (Lindner & Nyberg 1973). Without these abilities, the work of environmental engineers would not be effectively developed or implemented; they must be practically applied in the long-term in order to be useful.
The role of the environmental engineer developed essentially as a response to an ethical issue -- namely the degradation of the environment -- and thus every aspect of en environmental engineer's job can be seen as in dialogue with certain ethical issues. This is directly and explicitly observable in the Institution of Engineers of Australia Code of Ethics (2000), which lists working "in conformity with accepted engineering and environmental standards" as a basic ethical tenet of all engineering, and as the primary goal of environmental engineering is to create and uphold these environmental standards it can be seen that environmental engineers necessarily hold up their ethical duties when they perform their jobs successfully. There may, of course, be certain dilemmas that arise in the course of environmental engineer's cuties; pressures to downplay environmental effects from corporate interests, or to divert problems and cut corners, could be very high in this type of work. Truly adhering to the engineering principles of the work however, also mandates adherence to the roper ethical behaviors and standards of the job.
Of all of the areas of engineering, environmental engineering is one of the most rapidly expanding and diversifying fields. There is a great amount of good that can be done in the field, as well as a great deal of interesting and innovating work that would be personally and intellectually fulfilling for the right candidate. From both a personal and a global perspective, then, environmental engineering is an exciting and increasingly relevant new field.
Some trades are much more environmentally difficult than others, and the WTO should consider upholding sanctions that are justified by the MEAs that have already been put into place (Singh, 2009).
If the WTO refuses to work with governments to ensure that MEAs are also taken seriously, it would be difficult to determine whether the MEAs have any place or any relevance at all. If there is no strength behind them and they are not taken seriously, what value do they have? What purpose do they serve? Originally, they were designed to protect the environment. However, if they are being overruled by the WTO at nearly every turn, they are no longer able to do what they were designed to do when it comes to making sure the environment is not sustaining lasting damage because of the way goods are being produced or the ways in which they are being…
Eckersley, R. (2004). The big chill: The WTO and multilateral environmental agreements. Global Environmental Politics, 4: 2
Krist, W. (2002). The WTO and MEAs -- Time for a good neighbor policy. A Policy Brief from the Trade and Environment Forum. Woodrow Wilson International for Scholars
Mushkat, R. (2003). Potential impacts of China's WTO accession on its approach to the trade-environment balancing act. Chinese JIL
O'Neill, M. (2002). Agriculture, the EC and the TWO: A legal critical analysis of the concepts of sustainability and multifunctionality. Environmental Law Review, 4: 144-155.
Another area of change brought on by the assistance of the EDF is that which now more explicitly connects environmental degradation with certain social and demographic factors. The creation of its Scorecard ebsite in 2001 would bring a new dimension to the social discourse on environmental issues. According to Dooley (2001), with this new scorecard in place, "on the main Environmental Justice page, entering a ZIP code generates a report of the varying degrees of environmental burden within that area for different racial, ethnic, and income groups. The burdens include releases of toxic chemicals, cancer risk from hazardous air pollutants, and facilities emitting criteria air pollutants." (Dooley, p. 367)
Other recent decisions also reflect the degree of success that the EDF has had in moving governments forward on specific issues. So is this reflected in the text by Zimmerman (1995), which reports on a decision in the case of City…
Dooley, E.E. (2001). Environmental Defense Scorecard: Environmental Justice. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(8).
Environmental Defense Fund. (2011). Our Mission and History. EDF.org.
F.B. (1979). Spectrum. Environment, 21(2).
Zimmerman, J.F. (1995). High Court Action To Elevate Costs Of Solid Waste Disposal. National Civic Review, 84(1).
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
Corporate Social esponsibility and Environmental Ethics
Abstract/Introduction -- No one can argue that the international business community is becoming more and more complex as a result of globalism. In turn, this complexity is driven by an increasing understanding of sustainability, going "green," and bringing ethical and moral philosophy into the business community. British Telecom, for instance, noted in 2007 that it had reduced its carbon footprint by 60% since 1996, setting itself a target of 80% reductions by 2016 (Hawser, 2007). Francois Barrault, CEO, BT Global Services, said that by supporting sustainability his company hoped not only to reduce its carbon footprint but also to attract younger people who prefer to work for environmentally and socially responsible companies. He didn't always think that way, though. Barrault said that when he first met former U.S. vice president and environmental activist Al Gore, who showed him pictures of icecaps melting, he thought…
Career Services. The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved from:
Corporate Social Responsibility in the Global Supply Chain.. APEC
Human Resources Development Working Group. Retrieved from: http://hrd.apec.org/index.php/Corporate_Social_Responsibility_in_the_Global_Supply_Chain.
Environmental determinism has long been out of favor among historians and social scientists, although well into the 19th Century even the majority of Westerners were highly dependent on the climate and environment for their survival. Since the entire world economy was based on agriculture, a shortfall in harvests meant famines, epidemics and death for those who were at or below subsistence level. Such famines were a primary cause for the overthrow of the monarchy in France in 1789, for example, and they led to rebellions, riots and instability wherever they occurred. As late as the 1840s in Ireland, the great potato blight led to the death or immigration of half the population, and the near-destruction of Irish society. In the case of Easter Island, Norse Greenland and the Classic Maya civilization, climate change combined with deforestation and agricultural practices that destroyed the environment led to the total collapse…
Diamond, Jared. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (Penguin Books, 2006).
Demarest Arthur A.. Ancient Maya: The Rise and Fall of a Rainforest Civilization (Cambridge University Press, 2004).
Fagan, Brian M. The Little Ice Age: How Climate Made History (Basic Books, 2000).
Gill, Richardson B. The Great Maya Droughts: Water, Life, and Death (University of New Mexico Press, 2000).
Adaptation, Culture Scale, and the Environmental Crisis.
The article deals with the important issue of how the scale of a cultures dictates how that culture will adapt to its environment, and the role that this adaptation plays in damaging the environment and depleting resources.
This interesting article begins with the following telling quote. "Nor are those cultures that we might consider higher in general evolutionary standing necessarily more perfectly adapted to their environments than lower. Many great civilizations have fallen in the last 2,000 years, even in the midst of material plenty, while the Eskimos tenaciously maintained themselves in an incomparably more difficult habitat. The race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong."
This quote raises some of the most salient points that are brought out further in the article. First, it notes that the scale of the culture and the concentration of social power have…
Sahlins, M. & Service, E.R. Adaptation, Culture Scale, and the Environmental Crisis.
Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude Oil/Natural Gas Exploration, Transportation, Refining and Storage
Ever since crude oil was first successfully drilled in the U.S. In Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859, the demand for oil has only been increasing over the years in countries all over the world. (Camden, 1883) Crude oil, from which various petroleum products are obtained, is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon component found trapped in rocks below the earth. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth." Natural gas is another form of hydrocarbon that is also found in nature. oth crude oil and natural gas have excellent combustibility and are good sources of energy. Crude oil is not used in the extracted form; but it is refined to obtained products such as gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, kerosene, gas-oil and fuel oil. Secondary products during the purification of crude oil are obtained are…
Associated-Press, and Reuters. World's Biggest Oil Rig Sinks. 2001. CNN. Available:
http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/americas/03/20/brazil.rig.02/.August 2, 2004.
AWMA. Oil Spills - a Fact Sheet. 2000. Air & Waste Management Association. Available:
http://www.awma.org/education/oilspills.htm . August 1, 2004.
Environmental Effects on Species Habitats in the Southern California Mountains
Southern California is not for everybody. "Some people view the climate and laid-back lifestyle with longing. Others perceive the area, and its inhabitants, as a little too far over the edge" (Hutchings 2001:4D-Z). hile the region may not appeal to all types of humans, it does attract a wide range of species who make their home in the mountainous areas of Southern California. In fact, Southern California is dotted with several mountain ranges, including the San Gabriel, San Bernardino, San Jacinto, San Bruno, Santa Rosa, Cuyamaca, the Palomar Mountains and even the Chocolate Mountains (Havert, Gray, Adams & Gray 1996). One of the most biodiverse and well-studied of these ranges is San Gabriel (ake 1996). This paper will provide an overview of the ecosystems in these mountain ranges in general with an emphasis on the San Gabriel mountain range in…
Adams, Jonathan S., Lynn S. Kutner and Bruce A. Stein, eds. Precious Heritage: The Status of Biodiversity in the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Baur, Donald C. And Karen L. Donovan. The No Surprises Policy: Contracts 101 Meets the Endangered Species Act. Environmental Law, 27(3):767-90.
California's Plants and Animals. (November 24, 2003). Habitat Conservation Planning Branch, California Department of Fish and Game. Available: http://www.dfg.ca.gov/hcpb/species/lists.shtml.
Dasmann, Raymond F. (2004). Habitat Conservation. In Encyclopedia Britannica.com [premium service].
lowland Maya decimation is much more than at any time before, and there are currently several studies that concentrate on the period from roughly A.D. 750 to A.D.1050. Previously, researchers have had a tendency to sum up clarifications of the decimation from individual locales and areas to the marshes in totality. Later methodologies push the extraordinary differences of changes that took place over the swamps amid the Terminal Classic and Early Post classic periods. Along these lines, there is presently a general agreement on the view that Maya culture and civilization in general did not fall, albeit numerous zones did experience significant change
Present scenarios are the result of the long haul elements of human-environment interplay. The fact of the matter is that, we have a long-term viewpoint, keeping in mind the end goal to best comprehend continual changes in ambient environs we observe in present times
. Analysis of…
Aimers, James J. "What Maya Collapse-Terminal Classic Variation in the Maya Lowlands." Springer Science+Business Media (2007): 330-337.
Oldfield, F., ed. 1998. Past global changes (PAGES): Status reportand implementation plan. IGBP Report 45. Stockholm: International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme
Dunning, Nicholas, et al. Arising from the Bajos: The Evolution of a Neotropical Landscape and the Rise of Maya Civilization. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2002.
Chase, A.F., and Chase, D.Z. (1992). El norte y el sur: pol?'tica, dominios y evolucio'n cultural maya.Mayab 8: 134 -- 149
Environmental Accounting DQ
Activity-based costing refers to costing methodologies identifying activities within organizations and assigning relevant costs to each activity against resources. The advisories are presented to all services and products based on the actual consumption of the items. The model assigns exclusive overhead costs to various direct costs in comparison with conventional costing. The ABC plan allows companies to have a sound estimate of cost elements for different products, services, and activities. The element helps in informing the company's decision for purposes of identifying and eliminating the services and products that are unprofitable while lowering prices for the overpriced service and product portfolio.
The application of random percentages in allocation of costs allows ABC to identify the cause and effect elements in objectively assigning costs. With the sequence of activities identified, the extensive costs for activities are attributed to various products to the scope in which…
Regulating Oil and Gas Drilling and Transport
The American economy runs on energy produced from oil, coal, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear power and renewable sources like solar and wind energies. In fact according to a report in the Congressional Research Service, oil provides the United States with 40% of its total energy needs. It is used in myriad ways, providing "…fuel for the transportation, industrial, and residential sectors" (Ramseur, 2012). Because of the great need for energy to fuel the American economy, oil in "vast quantities" enters the country and moves through the country by ships and by pipelines, Ramseur explains in the Congressional Research Service. Hence, it is inevitable that some spills will occur, and they certainly do occur, notwithstanding the attempts by the industry to conduct its business safely.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports that the U.S. consumed 6.87 billion barrels (about 18.83 million barrels…
American Petroleum Institute. (2012). Energy Security. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://www.api.org.
Barkham, Patrick. (2010).Oil spills: Legacy of the Torrey Canyon. The Guardian. Retrieved February 14, 2013, from http://www.guardian.co.uk .
Griffin, Catherine. (2013). European Satellite Confirms Arctic Ocean is on Thin Ice, Global
Warming Strikes Again. Science World Report. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://www.scienceworldreport.com .
Environmental Issues in eusing Cleaning Solvents
Solvent recycling depicts the process of taking dirty and used solvents, cleaning them to return a pure form of the solvent or any other acceptable form. It encompasses fractionating and distillation of the used solvents placed in a solvent recycler (Shen, 2013). Nationwide pollution prevention program have focused on reducing solvent wastes. The use of solvents occurs as a vital element in water and air pollution, making it a prominent contributor of hazardous waste. Depletion of the ozone layer has depicted the impact of chlorinated solvents. Increased awareness and calls for environmental protection have stimulated the adoption of ways in reducing solvent wastes.
Environmental conservation and cost reduction emanate as the significant benefits of this technique. Organizations can take advantage of the recovery of solvents through the distillation processes. Solvent recycling also poses various disadvantages that include required capital for purchasing recycling equipment and…
Boodhoo, K. & Harvey, A. (2013). Process Intensification Technologies for Green Chemistry: Engineering Solutions for Sustainable Chemical Processing. New York: Springer Science & Business Media
Shen, T. (2013). Industrial Pollution Prevention. New York: Springer Science & Business Media
Stream Degradation and King County' Salmon Population
King County in Washington State is home to some of the most significant spawning beds in the nation for several major species of salmon, such as the endangered steelhead and Chinook (or King) species. As a result of Washington's urbanization over the preceding years and decades, the purity and integrity of King County's streams and rivers have been degraded and the waterways contaminated (Morley, Karr, 2002). Currently, the Department of Natural esources' Water and Land esources Division is working on numerous projects to reclaim and maintain the streams and rivers of the County (Salmon and Trout Topics: ecovery, 2016). King County's own Wildlife Program Publication offers an indication of how important it is to maintain clean streams and waters for the salmon population. This study aims to answer the three-fold question: Has stream degradation affected salmon habitats in King County Washington state (specifically…
Are Wild Salmon Increasing in Numbers? (2014). State of Salmon in Watershed 2014
Report. Stateofsalmon.wa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.stateofsalmon.wa.gov/statewide/fish-summary/
Booth, D., Jackson, R. (1997). Urbanization of aquatic systems -- degradation thresholds, stormwater detention, and the limits of mitigation. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 22(5): 1-20.
Booth, D., Hartley, D., Jackson, R. (2002). Forest cover, impervious-surface area, and the mitigation of stormwater impacts. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 38(3): 835-845.
Geen" Human Resouce Pactices And Envionmental Pefomance
A numbe of entepises have histoically adopted the appoach of compliance within thei envionmental initiatives, and by consequence, ules and legislations guiding thei envionmental appoaches. Howeve, ove the last many yeas, new consume needs, consume boycotts, global envionmental standads, dynamic pefeences, and othe envionmental factos have influenced coe values and the fundamental business stategies of copoations (Daily, Bishop and Steine, 2007). Oganizations ae pat of society, and it is impeative that they function like team playes; this is whee the concept of "geen" management becomes elevant. A key schema now is that a company's outcome is stongly impacted by envionmental concens (Taiq, Jan & Ahmad, 2016).
Envionmental and human esouce (HR) management's effect in the business context elates powefully to a moe compehensive association between oganizations' economic and envionmental pefomance. In this context, it is fequently agued that impoved envionmental pefomance esults in…
references for sustainability and their impact on supply chain management. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 43, 380 -- 406.
Benn, S., Teo, S. T., & Martin, A. (2015). Employee participation and engagement in working for the environment. Personnel Review, 44(4), 492-510.
Boxall, P., Purcell, J., & Wright, P. (2009). Human resource management: Scope, analysis, and significance. In J. Storey, P. Wright, & D. Ulrich (Eds.), The Routledge companion to strategic human resource management (pp. 1 -- 17). New York: Routledge.
Crotty, J., & Rodgers, P. (2012). Sustainable development in the Russia Federation: the limits of greening within industrial firms. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 19(3), 178-190.
Daily, B. F., Bishop, J. W., & Steiner, R. (2007). The mediating role of EMS teamwork as it pertains to HR factors and perceived environmental performance. Journal of Applied Business Research, 23(1), 95.
Thereafter, Poland and the Czech Republic were required to provide evidence concerning their compliance with the requirement to improve their commitment to environmental standards as well (Medvec 2009).
Both Poland and the Czech Republic were successful in satisfying the EU's leadership of their commitment to full integration by providing evidence of their commitment to improving their track record on environmental issues and achieved membership in the EU in 2004; in fact, the Czech Republic even assumed the presidency of the EU in 2009 (Medvec 2009). Both Poland and the Czech Republic have also become more fully integrated into the EU in other ways as well, including a transition from their former status as members of the Soviet Union's Warsaw Pact to become members in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization in 1999 (Medvec 2009). Despite these achievements, both Poland and the Czech Republic are still confronted with a number of constraints…
Source: Hofstede, 2009
As can be readily seen
Ginger - Smart Basics
The country's environmental factors
This study focuses on a PESTEL analysis touching on the tourism industry in India as encountered by Ginger - Smart Basics Company. PESTEL is a framework of employed in identifying key factors that drive organizational changes in the strategic environment. It entails environmental, legal, technological, social, economic and political factors.
Political violence and the public have damaged the tourism industry significantly in the past few years. However, experts within the industry argue that the damage is not long-term. Industry leaders and the government say there is much to do in rebuilding the tattered reputation of tourism. In broad daylight, the world has witnessed scores of terrorist killing masses across the city of Mumbai. Although India has been notorious for orchestrating the political violence, this recent horrific attack was primarily targeting foreigners and travelers. This attack was televised across the globe…
Das, G.D. (2011). Tourism marketing. Delhi: Pearson.
Kamplikar, M. (2011). Ginger -- Smart Basics. Q Emerald Group Publishing Limited Vol. 1 No. 1 pp. 1-12,
Kumar, S. (2009). Marketing of Hospitality & Tourism Serv. New York: Tata McGraw-Hill
Wirtz, J. (2012). Essentials of Services Marketing. California: FT Press.
Overcrowding in Megacities
Cities are increasingly getting larger, which results in the increased emergence of megacities worldwide. Megacities are increasingly emerging in developing nations due to mass urbanization. One of the major contributors to the rise of megacities worldwide is globalization and rapid technological advancements. By increasing connectivity, globalization has contributed to mass urbanization as people look for better environments for their socioeconomic growth and development. Globalization has transformed the nature of urbanization by making people’s movement to become global rather than intra-national rural-urban migration. According to Heyzer et al. (2016) the rise of megacities worldwide is an indicator that humankind is experiencing the highest ever growth in urbanization. While the rise of megacities is associated with some positive impacts relating to economic growth and development, these cities face some challenges due to overcrowding. This paper examines the social and environmental challenges facing megacities due to overcrowding.
Social Challenges Facing…
Climate Change -- Chapter Hall
Effect Of Climate Change On Tourism
Effects of Climate Change on Tourism
What are the potential impacts of climate change on tourism?
Climate leads to increased intensity and frequency of extreme storms, flooding and other unpredictable weather conditions. The result is the destruction of tourist facilities like residential areas and the attractive scenery become inaccessible. Tourists also face higher insurance costs and interruption costs due to loss of insurability (Schweiger, ingo & Gonzales, 2006). In some cases, weather adversities lead to increased evaporation and reduced precipitation in various regions. This causes the shortage of water resources in various tourist facilities and other sectors, desertification and increased wildfires. This threatens the infrastructure and affects demand in this sector.
Why climate change is a greater security threat than terrorism?
Unfavorable climatic conditions such as extreme heat and continuous rainfall cause drastic implications to tourism as compared to…
Hall, M.C., & Higham, J. (2007).Introduction: Tourism, Recreation and Climatic Change Hall. New York: Springer.
Mart?'n, M. (2005). Weather, Climate and Tourism a Geographical Perspective: Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 571 -- 591,
Schweiger, L.J., Ringo, J.C., & Gonzales, T. (2006).Fueling the Fire: Global Warming, Fossil Fuels and the Fish and Wildlife of the American West. National Wildlife Federation.
With the public pressure in the right places, regulations of application and procedures can be developed for precise procedures (Vosse 1996).
roadbent (1996) writes that the ecological consequences, from construction to removal of merchandise that are dangerous and poisonous ought to be considered in the rules. Elements ought to be assessed depending on the altitude of peril, and where prudent substitutes have become obtainable, limitations will be forced. Rules for responsibility and costs for impairments ought to complement the principles, to endorse better precision and prudence, chiefly in the administration of dangerous discard and corrective measures for fear of pollution of the land and water. This can only take place when the people join hands and collectively pressurize the government to replace existing laws with laws that support the abovementioned processes (roadbent, 1996).
Although dictatorial procedures continue to be vital for the efficiency of the strategy, social organizations…
Broadbent, J. (1998). Environmental Politics in Japan, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Barrett, Brendan F.D., and Riki Therival. (1991). Environmental Policy and Impact Assessment in Japan New York: Routledge. Reviewed in the Journal of Asian Studies (JAS) 51.1: 164-164.
Fujitsu group. (2005). Fujitsu group sustainability report.
Furuoka, F. And Oishi, M. (2005) Developmentalism and Ecosystem Conservation: What Can Be Learnt from Japan's Experience? Paper presented at the Third BBEC International Conference 2005, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.
In this sense, Keynes' quote seems to be more than reasonable and many people turn to it when it comes to environmental protection. What is the goal of keeping nature healthy, when we will not be here to benefit from it several decades from now? Do we psychologically actually care about what happens after we die? Can we reasonably believe that individuals have any concern about future evolution on Earth after their death?
As we have seen from the discussion here above, perhaps the strongest argument that should defend the pro-environmentalist position would be that it costs us much more not to protect the environment than it does to take the necessary measures to keep nature healthy. However, this is a conclusion that few have arrived to and it seems to me quite clear that the individualistic attitude I have mentioned is much closer to what we are experiencing now.…
THE HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERFACE- WORLDVIEW and ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN. On the Internet at http://www.eeexchange.org/sustainability/content/G/4.htmL
THE HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERFACE- WORLDVIEW and ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN. On the Internet at http://www.eeexchange.org/sustainability/content/G/4.HTML
Future Energy: Guiding Decisions Evidence in order reduce negative environmental impacts growing human population increasing demands energy technological advances continue, individual countries, states, cities households opportunity shift energy sources renewable
Most consumers are unaware of the extreme negativeness surrounding their consumption of goods and that it inevitably leads to environmental degradation. However, there seems to be a more conscious effort to go around the negative impact of consumption of energy by choosing renewable sources. In this essay, we will assess a particular region in America and that is the state of Florida with specific references to certain areas in order to observe what sources of energy are currently used and what renewable sources may be best suitable and least suitable in the area, considering climate and the environment.
With climate changes accelerating at a fast pace, Miami, which is already subject of the increase of Earth's temperatures and rise of…
Miami -- Dade County. N. y. Energy -- Electricity and Fuel [Data File] Retrieved from http://www.miamidade.gov/greenprint/planning/library/milestone_one/energy.pdf
Natural Resources Defense Council. N. y. State Profiles -- Florida [Data File] Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/energy/renewables/florida.asp
Integrating Total Quality Environmental Management Systems - a Critical Study of TQEM
Relevance of TQM to Environmental Management
Scope of Dissertation
Moving from Reactive to Proactive Management
Understanding TQM in Relation to TQEM
History of TQM
Operation of TQM
Quality and Environmental Management Standards
Environmental Management Systems
Weaknesses of EMS Standards
Total Quality Environmental Management
Comparing ISO 9000 and ISO 14000
Integrating the ISO 14000 Environmental Management System
Impact of certification on economic and ecological performances
Research Design and Nature
Integrating a Sustainable EMS with TQM
Steps to Implementing an Effective TQEM Strategy
INTEGRATING QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ManagementS SYSTEMS - A CRITICAL STUDY
ackground and Overview of Study
For decades economic growth has been considered the main indicator of a healthy society (Oliver, 1996). However, only recently has society begun to recognize the environmental cost of this growth. As a result, there is now an…
Bibliography working paper. Winnipeg, MB: International Institute for Sustainable Development, 1996. 58
Bisang, O. (2000), Green Banking - The Value of ISO 14001 Certification
Chattopadhyay, S.P. (2001), "Improving the Speed of ISO 14000 Implementation: A Framework for Increasing Productivity," Managerial Auditing Journal, 16/1, pp. 36-39.
Chinn, R. (March 21, 2001). Roadmap to Realization -- "Getting Started with Your QMS/EMS Integration Process. Alamo Learning Systems.
Clark, D. (1999), What Drives Companies to Seek ISO 14000 Certification, Pollution Engineering, Summer, pp. 14.
The net effect of these trends on the environment is mixed. According to Kohler and Erdmann (2004), the expanded use of ICT applications will ultimately result in both benefits to the environment, as well as some new problems associated with their use. The extent to which the negative effects are mitigated will ultimately depend on the foresight that is used today to develop long-term energy and waste management policies that will control the development of ICT infrastructures and how they are used in the future (Kohler & Erdmann, 2004).
According to Lan and Thomas (2009), there is no escaping the fact that information and communication technologies are fundamentally changing the nature of commerce and hold important promise for economic development in the future. These authors are quick at add, though, that proceeding with these technologies is a complex enterprise and there are still a number of unknowns involved concerning how…
Cyr, C. (2007, April/May). E-waste not. Plenty, 31.
Daly, J. (2005, June). ICT and ensuring environmental sustainability. Communication Initiative.
Retrieved from http://www.comminit.com/redirect.cgi?m=7e7425fe10109533767cb66
Unless this model is fundamentally reformed as to take into account the overall health of the planet, the prospect of a sustainable future looks grim.
Hawken, P., Lovins, A., & Lovins, H.L. (1999) Natural capitalism: creating the next industrial revolution. Boston: Little, Brown.
Heuer, M. (2010). Foundations and capstone; core values and hot topics; ethics-lx; skytech; and the green business laboratory: simulations for sustainability education. Academy Of Management Learning & Education, 9(3), 556-561.
Hirshberg, G. (2008, June 16) Stirring it up: how to make money and save the world. Wall Street Journal. etrieved on 21 Nov., 2011, from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121330973266469601.html
Johnson, M.W., & Suskewicz, J. (2009). How to jump-start the clean tech economy. Harvard Business eview, 87(11), 52-60.
Marcus, A.A., & Fremeth, A.. (2009). Green management matters regardless. Academy Of Management Perspectives, 23(3), 17-26.
Morgan, L. (2011). Green job training in prisons benefits everyone. Corrections Today, 73(2), 34.
Hawken, P., Lovins, A., & Lovins, H.L. (1999) Natural capitalism: creating the next industrial revolution. Boston: Little, Brown.
Heuer, M. (2010). Foundations and capstone; core values and hot topics; ethics-lx; skytech; and the green business laboratory: simulations for sustainability education. Academy Of Management Learning & Education, 9(3), 556-561.
Hirshberg, G. (2008, June 16) Stirring it up: how to make money and save the world. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 21 Nov., 2011, from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121330973266469601.html
Johnson, M.W., & Suskewicz, J. (2009). How to jump-start the clean tech economy. Harvard Business Review, 87(11), 52-60.
Progressivism began as a social movement and evolved into a political movement, according to materials published by George Washington University (www.gwu.edu). Early in the social movement progressives were concerned about poverty, racism, greed and "class warfare," and they believed that those problems could be best addressed through education, a safer environment, and a workplace that was fair and safe (www.gwu.edu). Who were those considered to be progressives? The George Washington University narrative explains that they live "mostly in the cities," they had graduated from colleges and universities, and their beliefs included the belief that "…government could be a tool for change" -- and among the most vocal and visible social reformers / progressives were Jane Addams and journalists Jacob Riis and Ida Tarbel (www.gwu.edu).
Progressive journalists wrote investigative pieces that exposed "the evils of corporate greed" and they presented a balanced view of immigration and ethnicities, all the time "…urging…
Women Status Contemporary India
The Status and ole of Women in Contemporary India
The women in contemporary India have a very significant role as they fulfill crucial responsibilities in almost every sector including family life, agricultural development and industrial development. However, it is unfortunate that such contributions have remained mostly indistinguishable to the planners and policy makers due to which the Indian women have always experienced an unstable status in the country. Even in this modern era of science and technology, women in India are still considered a disadvantaged group as there has been no change in the conventional structure of society as well as cultural and moral standards (Chakrapani and Kumar, 1994).
In addition, a majority of women are still unaware of the social laws that have been designed to alleviate the problems women face in the society. As a consequence, distressed situations influence Indian women more than Indian…
Berman, B.J., Bhargava, R., & Laliberte?, A. (2013). Secular States and Religious Diversity. Vancouver: UBC Press. Print.
Chakrapani, C., & Kumar, S.V. (1994).Changing Status and Role of Women in Indian Society. New Delhi: MD Publications. Print.
Chowdhuri, J.P. (2012). Caste System, Social Inequalities and Reservation Policy in India: Class, Caste, Social Policy and Governance Through Social Justice. Saarbru-cken, Germany: Lambert Academic Publishing. Print.
Jain, T.R., & Ohri, V.K. (2006). Indian Economy: Issues in Economic Development and Planning in India and Sectoral Aspects of Indian Economy. New Delhi: V.K. Publications. Print.
Corporate Social and Environmental eporting: Greenwashing or Legitimate Accounting Practice?
Corporations have increasingly been viewed as owing a social and environmental responsibility to a wide range of stakeholders, including their employees, shareholders, the communities in which they compete as well as the larger populations they serve. In some jurisdictions, social and environmental reporting is required by law while corporate social and environmental reporting is a voluntary practice. Therefore, when corporations engage in corporate social and environmental reporting, it is clearly intended to further their best interests and image among their stakeholders. For instance, according to one economist, "The main motivation for corporate [social and environmental] reporting ... is to enhance corporate image and credibility with stakeholders" (Adams, 2002: 244-245). This paper reviews the relevant literature to provide the basis for an agreement with Adams' assertion, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning corporate social and environment…
Adams, C. (2008) "A commentary on: corporate social responsibility reporting and reputation risk management," Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, Vol. 21 No: 3, pp. 365 -- 370.
Adams, C. (2002), "Internal organisational factors influencing corporate social and ethical reporting beyond theorizing," Accounting, Auditing, and Accountability Journal, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 223-250.
Baxi, C. & Ray, R. (2009, January) "Corporate Social & Environmental Disclosures & Reporting." Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol. 44. No. 3, pp. 355-360.
Bebbington, J., Larringa-Gonzalez, C., and Moneva, J. (2008), "Corporate social responsibility reporting and reputation risk management." Accounting, Auditing, and Accountability Journal, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 337-361.
According to Glenn and Gordon, "Current absorption capacity of carbon by oceans and forests is about 3 to 3.5 billion tons per year. Yet, 7 billion tons are added to the atmosphere annually, which could increase to 14 billion tons per year if current trends continue -- eventually leading to greenhouse effects beyond the ability of humans to control" (Glenn & Gordon, 2006, p. 20).
Since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century and throughout the 20th century, economic development has taken place in many regions of the world with little or no regard for its impact on the environment. his has been particularly evident in the developing nations of the world where the need for economic development outweighs the importance of environmental sustainability. In an increasingly globalized marketplace, though, the opportunity to reverse these ugly trends exists, but only if thoughtful approaches to the use of…
The need for informed approaches to addressing the threats to the global environment has never been greater. At present, more than half of the global life-support systems have already vanished or are in jeopardy of collapsing and environmental degradation will only become more severe by mid-century when an additional 2.6 billion people are added to the world's population (Glenn & Gordon, 2006). Moreover, the overwhelming majority of the population growth that will occur by mid-century (90%) is projected to take place in the world's poorest nations (Yeager & Barker, 2000).According to Glenn and Gordon, "Current absorption capacity of carbon by oceans and forests is about 3 to 3.5 billion tons per year. Yet, 7 billion tons are added to the atmosphere annually, which could increase to 14 billion tons per year if current trends continue -- eventually leading to greenhouse effects beyond the ability of humans to control" (Glenn & Gordon, 2006, p. 20).
Since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century and throughout the 20th century, economic development has taken place in many regions of the world with little or no regard for its impact on the environment. This has been particularly evident in the developing nations of the world where the need for economic development outweighs the importance of environmental sustainability. In an increasingly globalized marketplace, though, the opportunity to reverse these ugly trends exists, but only if thoughtful approaches to the use of information technology are identified and deployed. In this regard, Zhao, Liu and Dong (2008) emphasize that, "Globalisation should provide an opportunity to think more in terms of using technology to create win-win alternatives to the traditional trade-offs between growth and environmental sustainability" (p. 320).
Despite the introduction of increasingly sophisticated and powerful information technology tools in recent years, there remains a paucity of timely and relevant studies concerning how these tools can best be applied to environmentally sustainable initiatives and what types of improvements in these technologies will be required to achieve optimal results. For instance, Glenn and Gordon report that, "The moment-by-moment connectivity among ideas, people, resources, and challenges in order to create optimal solutions, however, is yet to be developed. A worldwide race to connect everything
Worldwide Population Increase Affect Planet
The world population is a lucrative endeavor that has influential effects on the immediate environment. One of the changing or growing avenues of the planet is that of the enlargement of the human population. Initially, the human population was perceived as a small entity within a vast planet. Nonetheless, the human population has been on the increase over the past centuries. Many lucrative approaches and human activities are part of the changes that have occurred because of the increase in human population in the planet. The avenues of performance within the spectral and planetary stratifications account to the many steps that have been taken by human beings in the environment. The environment is a fragile structure and body that deserves equitable management and security. In order to foster equitable management of the environmental sustainability avenues, there is a need to have a long-range of performances…
Axelrod, R.B., Cooper, C.R., Warriner, A.M., & Kennedy, X.J. (2011). Reading Critically,
Writing Well ninth Ed + Writing and Revising. Bedford/St. Martins
Baer, H.A. (2012). Global capitalism and climate change: The need for an alternative world system. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.
Gilbert, G. (2006). World population: A reference handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-
The life of the world is an endless cyclical act of discarding and renewal. The philosophical nature of art can show us that to refuse to recycle and to cling to the false idea that the shiny new tin wheels on our roller blades, that originates in the scrap metal of our recent ancestors, is new is a powerful one.
Scanlan's poetic musings in On Garbage also stress the humbling nature of garbage. All societies are reduced to relics after the death of the civilization. These waste products, such as broken and chipped pots, are now deployed as costly museum attractions. If we are not to bury ourselves in a world with rapidly dwindling space and resources, Scanlan argues, we must grapple with estern culture's mania for discarding things as a way of moving forward. estern culture has denied the natural lifecycle of rebirth, and clung to a false ideal…
Porter, Richard C. The Economics of Waste. Washington DC: RFF Press, 2002.
Scanlan, John. On Garbage. Reaktion Books, 2005.
Backcountry Skiing Do Not Outweigh the Individual and Societal Impacts
Backcountry skiing is one of the most popular winter recreational activities in many parts of the globe. This activity has gained much popularity with many people taking waiting for winter to take part in the largely accepted practice across those countries that have long winters. There are many impacts of the activity not only to individuals and society but also to the economy and environment. Although environmental conservation campaigns have been on the rise, limited literature explains the impacts of this activity on the people and the environment. The activity is used as a recreational activity for most of the people, but recent calls have been made to have an environmental analysis of the effects of the activity to ensure that the negative impacts have been reduced across the globe. In some cases, the skiing takes place on mountains or…
doubt seen the most profound transformation of the human relationship with the natural world in the history of humankind," ("Great Acceleration," 2015). Technological and environmental progress has been a tremendous boon for humanity, but came at the price of environmental degradation and disaster. Looking back from the vantage point of 2117 to the success of sustainable economic growth around the world that occurred since 2017, it is a relief to see how humans were able to withstand the temporary, loud, but ultimately divisive and ineffective movements like the "Cooler Heads Coalition" that flourished around the time Obama was President of the United States.
Climate change denial organizations and other conservative coalitions resisted change and government interventions to the point where they were almost willing to sacrifice their grandchildren's planet and human welfare in general just for the sake of making their political opponents work harder. In a PBS Frontline episode…
"Great Acceleration," (2015). Retrieved online: http://www.igbp.net/globalchange/greatacceleration.4.1b8ae20512db692f2a680001630.html
McKibben, B. (2012) Global Warming's Terrifying New Math. Rolling Stone, July 19, 2012
Mooney, C. (2015). The Magic Number: Holding Warming Under Two Degrees Celsius is the Goal. But is it Still Attainable?" The Washington Post, November 25, 2015.
PBS Frontline, "Climate of Doubt," (2012)
Technology and Global Ecosystem
An Analysis of the Implications of Technology and the Global Ecosystem
The 21st century promises to usher in innovations in technology that cannot yet be imagined, and the advancements to date have provided many in the world with unprecedented standards of living. Improved methods of transportation and communication, combined with more leisure time than ever in which to spend it has resulted in many people developing a keen appreciation for technology and what it promises for mankind; an unfortunate concomitant of these innovations in many parts of the world, though, has been an intensive assault on the globe's ecosystem in an effort to bring emerging nations into line with the productivity being experienced in the developed nations of the world. As a result, a debate over whether or not technology threatens the integrity of the global ecosystem has emerged in recent years, and pundits warn that…
Anton, Philip S., James Schneider and Richard Silberglitt. The Global Technology Revolution:
Bio/Nano/Materials Trends and Their Synergies with Information Technology by 2015.
Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2001.
Bjornerud, Marcia. (1997). "Gaia: Gender and Scientific Representations of the Earth." NWSA
Although ecologism is rapidly developing into a political ideology in its own right, its widespread acceptance and influence continues to rely on its relationship with other, existing ideologies. One of the most important, and influential, of the 'isms' is Marxism, and the link between it and ecologism is increasingly becoming the subject of academic and political study. This is especially true within the field of environmental sociology, where the Marxist perspective's ability to address the issues of ecologism and sustainability is the root of growing debate and analysis.
Ecologism, which according to Andrew Dobson, "holds that a sustainable and fulfilling existence presupposes radical changes in our relationship with the non-human natural world, and in our mode of social and political life" (2), is a relatively new arrival to the field of environmental politics. Only a few decades ago, environmental and ecological issues, such as global warming, genetically…
Dobson, A. Green Political Thought. London: Routledge, 2000.
O'Connor, J. Natural Causes: Essays in Ecological Marxism. New York: Guilford, 1998.
Earthy Odyssey: A Review
If anyone would know about the state of our environment, it would be Mark Hertsgaard. As a respected journalist, he's traveled the world for over six years getting a first-hand view of the environmental destruction of our world and people's attitudes toward it. Earth Odyssey offers weighted insight into complex issues such as humanity's addiction to the automobile, the spread of nuclear technology, and the unavoidable tension between unbounded capitalism and the health of the planet. Mark Hertsgaard's contention is that global environmental problems should be given a higher profile and I agree. ut first, he says, it must begin with us.
In his few first pages, Hertsgaard, says it that human beings appear to be at war with their environment. In fact, he wonders is we'll even survive this century before us. For some, it is merely a struggle for survival which drives them to…
Hertsgaard, Mark. Earth Odyssey: Around the Earth in Search of our Environmental Future. Broadway Books, 1999.
Loans needed to buy the equipment and seeds create indebtedness to Western banks. Western professionals are needed to intervene and to manage. The productivity of monocrops (e.g., rice or maize) undermines other native crops. Routledge writes, "The project destabilized traditional farming methods, which further rationalized the use of new technologies from the West, and the displacement of traditional foodstuffs by the HYVs" (316). The whole agro-food system has damaged the soil fertility and made dependent the poorer nations, who are compelled to use the seeds of the manufacturers and their means of industrial growth (fertilizer, experts, credit, etc.). People are viewed as irrational and a hindrance to progress. State control over natural and financial resources consolidates the power of the national ruling party who serves the interests of transnational corporations. Routledge writes, "In the process, traditional subsistence economies and their associated cultures are being destroyed; people face displacement from their…
Johnson, R.J., Peter J. Taylor, and Michael J. Watts, eds. Geographies of Global Change: Remapping the World at the End of the Twentieth Century. 2nd edition. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 2002; reprint, 2007.
Summary of the purpose of Corporate Sustainability Reporting
Reporting corporate sustainability is one of the best ways to ensure that a company is not only doing well financially in the present but also in securing a better and more certain future. The reporting of corporate suitability ensures that the current needs of the organization are effectively met without comprising future needs of the organization. Reporting on corporate sustainability also ensure that organization are able to keep up with all changes in the industry, with ensuring that new innovations have been developed, maintained and employed in the daily operations of the organization. Corporate sustainability is developed on a grid developed to ensure that the future is secure, and that the organization will survive for a long time.
Corporate sustainability also encompasses the assessment of current and future risks that the organization is likely to endure. As such, a majority…
Chee Tahir, A., and Darton, R. C, 2010, "The process analysis method of selecting indicators to quantify the sustainability performance of a business operation." Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 18, 1598 -- 1607.
Kaufman, A. And Englander, E, 2011, "Behavioral Economics, Federalism, and the Triumph of Stakeholder Theory." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 102 No.3, 421-438.
Fassin, Y, August 2012. "Stakeholder Management, Reciprocity and Stakeholder Responsibility." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 109 No.1, 83-96.
Pryor, M, Humphreys, J, Oyler, J, Taneja, S. And Toombs, L, December 2011, "The Legitimacy and Efficacy of Current Organizational Theory: An Analysis." International Journal of Management Part 2, Vol. 28 No.4, 209-228.
Spiegel & Velga (2010) report that a new international effort is underway to regulate the diffusion of mercury into the environments contextualizing mining operations. According to Spiegel & Velga, the world community has recently developed a set of International Guidelines on Mercury Management in Small-Scale Gold Mining. As Spiegel & Velga report, "commissioned by the United Nations Global Mercury Project, the purpose of the guidelines is to assist policymakers, practitioners, researchers, miners and the public in developing strategies for reducing mercury use, eliminating major pollution point sources and reducing risks." (p. 375)
This points to the worldwide interests that are implicated by the current conflict between miners and environmental advocates in Colombia, which over the course of the country's gold-mining boom, has become a template-setter for how national and world governments must balance mounting economic opportunity with the threat of environmental destruction.
AFP. (2010). Deep in Colombian Jungle,…
AFP. (2010). Deep in Colombian Jungle, a First in Eco Gold. The Independent.
Angenent, M. (2010). Artisanal Gold Mining in Colombia Co-Creating a Sustainable Future. Fair Jewelry Action.
Associated Press (AP). (2010). Colombia Shuts 18 Gold Mines. Straits Times.
Colombian Solidarity Campaign (CSC). (2007). Gold Mining in Colombia; Cauca Assembly in Resistance. Colombia Solidarity.
The Wimbledon Tennis tournament as a hallmark-sporting event creates these social and cultural impact of the community. This is because according to theory transient and recurring events act as important methods of collecting identification of host communities. They present opportunities of asserting, reproducing, reinforcing, and contesting prevailing cultural values and beliefs and social norms (Quinn 2009). Hallmark events are identified as functions that support and reinforce the image of established social and cultural norms.
PR Newswire (2012) indicates the unpredictability of the effects of Olympics as its impact may be difficult to evaluate. However, in the case of London's 2012 Olympics, the games left a lasting impression on the socio-cultural context of ritain. According to Dhar (2012), the games led to the unification and social spirit of unity among the ritish during 2012, as compared to the divided and lawlessness associated with urban riots in 2011. The games increased the…
Akerlund, U 2008. Implementation of hallmark events among tourism stakeholders: the discourses of Umea's bid for European Capital of Culture 2014
Andersson, TD, Armbrecht, J and Lundberg, E, 2008. Impact of Mega-Events on the Economy. Asian Business & Management, 7(2), pp. 163-179.
Andrea, C, Andrew, F, Munday, M, and Roberts, a 2007. Assessing the Environmental Consequences of Major Sporting Events: The 2003/04 FA Cup Final. Urban Studies, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 44(3), pp. 457-476.
Anonymous 2012, Apr 18. Olympics 2012: The Economic Impact Market Assessment 2012. PR Newswire.
Sustainability Process in the Design of Construction of Sports Venues
In the United States, the construction and operation of sports stadiums create certain numbers of environmental problems. The construction projects including the sports projects consume 60% of the U.S. raw materials yearly. Moreover, the physical facilities in the United States consume 14% of the country's potable water, responsible for 38% of CO2 emissions, 30% of waste output, and 72% of electricity consumption. In most cases, construction of sports projects fails to integrate sustainable protocols in their design strategies during and after the constructions leading to the environmental degradations. Many products used to construct the facilities exteriors and interiors after or during the construction affect the environment negatively. Over the years, the U.S. government introduces series of legislations such as the Clean Water Act (CWA) and Clean Air Act (CAA) mandating the sport events stakeholders to integrate sustainability into the design…
His task becomes more difficult, however, when he attempts to prove that the right to an unpolluted environment is equal to other rights such as the right to property and life. His basic political philosophy reflects nothing new since Locke; it is in his application that his argument disintegrates.
Blackstone assumes that human responsibility for environmental changes is a foregone conclusion. Though his assumption here could be debated, for the sake of argument we will assume that he is correct. It does not, however, automatically follow that it is an ethical imperative for mankind to care for and protect the environment in the same manner that society is designed to protect and ensure freedom. In traditional liberal political thinking, an individual's freedom is thought to end where it impinges on someone else's. Blackstone argues that environmental degradation falls into this category, and that one individual's right to a pristine environment…
It closely links human rights violations with national and international insecurities. And the concept enhances development thinking by expanding real freedoms already enjoyed by people. Protecting security, therefore, urgently requires a new consensus among all countries, whether developed or developing. It must aim at reviewing current foreign policies and aiming at creating real opportunities for people's safety and dignity.
Rethinking the Concept
Human security focuses more on generalized poverty than average well-being.
General poverty means being below a threshold of well-being. A policy on human security concerns itself mainly with persons in situations of deep want. Human development pertains to average levels of human well-being. Many believe that human security must be a priority in human development. A "prioritarian" view is for the improvement of everyone but emphasis on that of those at the bottom. An egalitarian view wants well-being to be distributed across all persons. An egalitarian person will…
Compass. Human Security. Manual on Human Rights Education with Young People:
Council of Europe, 2000. Available from http://www.eycb.coe.int/compass/en/pdf.5_10.pdf; internet: accessed 29 Oct 2009
Fuentes, Claudia F. And Aravena, Francisco Rojas. Promoting Human Security: Ethical,
Normative and Educational Frameworks in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Pre-accident plan is a plan which contains the necessary information for all personnel that would be required in the event of a mishap, investigation of the mishap including the details needed in the process of recovering an aircraft that is involved in an accident. It includes all the duties, the responsibilities and the training programs necessary to successful manage an accident involving an airplane. The pre-accident pan is structures so as to contain all the latest notifications and the necessary contact procedures to be used to initiate a response to all the aircraft incidents. A copy of the pre-accident plan is then copied to the Chief of Fire and Aviation, The area Chief ranger and the notification set to a relevant body such as FAA (Castro,1988).
The pre-accident plan is to be coordinated with the relevant disaster control departments using a set of standard procedures that are to be exercised,…
Alaska Interagency Coordination Center Aircraft (2009)Pre-Accident Plan
Castro, R (1988).Emergency and Pre-Accident Plans . Flight Safety Digest.< www.flightsafety.org/fsd/fsd_may88.pdf>
Department of the Army (2007)Army Aviation Accident Prevention Program
National Transportation Safety Board (2007) .Air Methods Corporation Safety Manua.< http://www.ntsb.gov/Dockets/Aviation/DCA09SH001/410568.pdf >
Pakistan is the South Asian country and was established in 1947. It shares border with India, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Iran and China. It has a coastline spanning of 1,046 km with Arabian Sea. The country has highest peaks in the world that are K2 and Nanga Parbat of Karakorum and Pamir in the northern and western highlands of Pakistan. Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi provide the major by air gateways to Pakistan. India and Iran also provides the way to reach Pakistan by train.
There are several favorable characteristics that make Pakistan an ideal country for an international business. However, the country is facing imbalanced economic, societal and political conditions since independence due to which investors gets reluctant to invest in the country. This report reviews the favorable and unfavorable aspects of Pakistan for U.S. investors.
Investors need to consider various factors before making investment for an international business. First…
Dawn. (2012, May 27). Taxation and Foreign Investment. Retrieved July 23, 2012, from Dawn: http://dawn.com/2012/05/27/taxation-and-foreign-investment/
Khan, A.H. (2012, January 31). Instability and Economy. Pakistan.
Mahmood, J. (2012, 07-16). Pakistani Stock Market, Rupee Exchange Rate Rise. Karachi, Pakistan.
Masood. (2010, June 3). Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan. Pakistan.
International egulation of Tourism in Antarctica
Since the mid-1980s, Antarctica has been an increasingly popular tourist destination, despite the relative danger of visiting the largest, least explored -- and arguably least understood -- continent on earth. Beginning with the 1959 treaty establishing Antarctica as an international zone free of claims of sovereignty by nation's that had been instrumental in establishing research stations there, there has been almost constant negotiation about how to administer regulations pertaining to the preservation of life forms on the continent, what those regulations should be, and what sanctions should be applied and by whom.
To understand the depths of the negotiations, and the potential for discord, it is necessary to understand what the continent offer the 65% of global nations that are party to the 1959 and all subsequent treaties. To understand the possible future of Antarctica, it is necessary to outline treaty attempts to minimize…
Antarctica. Siyabona Africa Web site. Retrieved September 28, 2004 at http://balule.krugerpark.co.za/africa_antarctica.html
Chile Web site. Retrieved September 17, 2004 at http://www.visit-chile.org/antartica/antartica.phtml
Australia urges regulation as tourism to Antarctica escalates. (2004, March 24) Agence France Presse English. Retrieved September 14, 2004 at http://www.highbeam.com .
Bulgaria in Antarctica. Retrieved September 15, 2004 at http://www.bluelink.net/antarctic/ant_en/BGant.htm
These agents must sustain profitably and prove, economically and logistically why innovative "green" supply chains are realistically more effective than the status quo of historical procurement. Continuing education in both formal and informal fashions must be developed to increase the efficacy of the procurement agent, with regard to "green" purchasing. Changing both large and small organization patterns for procurement can eventually trickle down to even the most uncaring consumers, of which there is a dwindling number. Sroufe, provides a list of environmental performance indicators which have become increasingly important and recognizable issues in today's production society.
2006, p.15) ii) the business reasons for "greener purchasing"
There are literally hundreds of reasons for the development of sustainable business practices, not the least of which is ensuring the long-term existence of the business and production needs.
Among those that are most important are the following:
Sustainable production: Purchasing "green" enhances sustainable production…