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This refers to the National Petroleum eserve of Alaska (NP-a), which is situated between the foothills of the Brooks ange and the Arctic coastline, and is about 120 miles from the Arctic National Wildlife efuge (ANW) (osen, 2003). The Bureau of Land Management ( BLM) estimates the area will"… supplement production from the Alpine fields, which hold 429 million barrels and have a daily oil output of about 100,000 barrels" (U.S. OKs Commercial Drilling in Alaska Oil eserve).
Government and the corporate sector state that the Alaskan oil reserve offers a possible solution to the energy needs of the country. However, there is also a very strong argument that even using these reserves would not solve the oil crisis and would in fact have a severely negative impact on the environment (osen, 2003). Opinion about access to Alaskan oil is split between those who see it in financial terms only…… [Read More]
" (Carson, 2) That the correlation between these collected symptoms and the use of pesticides in our predominantly agricultural towns had yet to be recognized at this point in history is important to consider. Though today it still receives troublingly little acknowledgment, the exponential rise in the consumption of organic produce in recent years is indicative of a graduating cognizance of that which Carson's work brought to the forefront of ecological discourse. Here, she makes apparent the causality of her concern and, thus, illuminates the pattern of environmental abuse which is an immediate ethical trespass and an ultimate threat to man as much as it is to any other species which is targeted by such behavior, either with intent or by collateral happenstance.
Herein, she expounds upon the retribution which man will receive for his impractical coexistence with other species and habitats on earth. In simplified terms, she describes a…… [Read More]
Also, careless people with guns shot the condors at will; and when ranchers put out poison to kill wolves and grizzly bears the condors then fed on those carcasses and were poisoned as well. In 1937 the U.S. Congress set aside a refuge for the condors in Santa Barbara County and in Ventura County in 1947, trying to protect these great birds, Peeters explains (p. 114). By 1987, there were only eight California Condors in the wild, so a decision was made to capture the remaining birds and begin a captive breeding program to try and save them from extinction.
The Endangered Species Bulletin (Behrens, et al., 2000) explains that the San Diego ild Animal Park took the last pair of breeding condors into a captive breeding program and subsequently (in 1992) condors began to be released back into the wild. Today there are about 175 condors that have been…… [Read More]
Environmental Ethics & United States Government
Environmental Ethics and United States
[Type the document title]
Definition of Environment Ethics & Its Approaches
United States & Environmental Ethics
ole of United States Government
Environment Protection Agency
Department of Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BLM)
National Park Service (NPS)
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
ole of Civil Society in Environment Protection & Preservation
Environment protection and preservation has been a serious concern for countries all across the globe. But the government of United States government has been acting as a leader in this regard. It is the first government to introduce a separate department solely for the purpose of ensuring that the natural environment is well-protected and in case of any damage, necessary preservation methodologies are adopted. In order to support this objective, U.S. government has formed various agencies and other departments over time with the sole purpose of protecting all…… [Read More]
In fact, when looking at the records of the environmental fights and debates that have been fought in the past, it is no surprise to see the aspect of animal suffering and extinction being given its due attention. It is also interesting to note that fights fought by the environmentalist and animal rights activist before the World War II took place were all based on the selfish and ruthless destruction of one of the nature's most bounty resources and the extinction of the other in order to better insure the development of weapons or forces equipments, and treating both the natural resources and animals (humans and non-humans) as expendable and insignificant goods. oth groups refused to believe in the utmost faith given to science as the solution to all the problems and it is no surprise that both these revolutions began with very little space between each other. There are…… [Read More]
The latest research shows that the eastern United States has experienced drastic increases in rainfall in the last sixty years, as well as drastic increases in the frequency of the most powerful storms. Some scientists tentatively report that the incidence of catastrophic natural events -- hurricanes especially -- is increasing. Deterioration of air quality is also strongly cited. The loss of the polar ice cap -- and the subsequent rise in sea levels and loss of unique habitats -- is perennially in the news; the more alarmist talking heads predict widespread flooding all over coastal regions of the world. Meanwhile, it is scientific fact that our oceans are getting hotter, about one degree Celsius averaged world-wide, but in some local surveys as much as ten or twelve degrees. Other habitats are at risk too; and certain invasive species, which do not co-exist well with humans, have begun to spread north…… [Read More]
" Humans have become "obsessed" with the idea that the masculine should dominate the feminine, the wealthy should dominate the poor, humans should dominate "nonhuman Nature," and estern cultures should rule over non-estern cultures (Devall, et al. 264).
Devall and Sessions believe that while "some leading intellectuals" in the estern culture have viewed religion is merely superstition, and yet there are religious traditions (such as Buddhism, Taoism, Native American rituals and Christianity) that embrace the idea of asking deeper spiritual questions. These faiths, the authors believe, agree with the basic principles of deep ecology. hat the authors are suggesting is that humans should try to break away from seeing themselves in a narrow view as isolated human egos. Instead, it would be closer to the concept of deep ecology if humans would begin to identify first with other humans from diverse cultures - "all humans." And secondly humans should begin…… [Read More]
The silo argument is similar to the laboratory argument, but it focuses on the tangible things nature has to offer -- not just the knowledge of medicine that certain plants can provide, but the plants themselves that are used to make the medicine. This argument acknowledges that though nature can provide many material resources, these resources are limited, and if they are harvested and/or utilized in such a way that prevents their steady regeneration -- that is, in a way that disrupts or destroys the natural processes surrounding the given material, be it plant, mineral, or animal -- they will be lost. Much like the knowledge that would be lost in the laboratory argument, the adherents to the silo argument fear the loss of vital and potentially life-changing resources that are known and posited to exist in various wildernesses. Such a loss would be irreversible, because the commodities available in…… [Read More]
The fact that the U.S. has never adopted a workable public transportation system on a large scale demands that I drive a car. Obviously, this is true for most Americans: we cannot earn a living with out a car. But meanwhile, I am perfectly aware that I am contributing to the worldwide increase of greenhouse gases. This distresses me because, although I possess no real power to force our nation to build more realistic forms of mass transportation, I feel that the least I could do is refrain from using more of the world's oil -- as generally ineffectual as that may be. However, my livelihood depends on my own small contribution to this much larger problem. Generally, the way our society is structured requires that our responsibilities to the natural world conflict with our actions.
I remember when I was twelve years old and I was visiting my grandfather.…… [Read More]
Although, the argument of the authors is sound concerning the environment ethics, however, the authors fail to reveal the efforts of the North and South countries in addressing the problem of climate change in order to enhance the environmental ethics. Essentially, many advanced countries especially the United States and the United Kingdom have understood the importance of climate changes. Thus, these countries have made series of laws to promote environmental ethics in order to address the problem of climate change. Although, the western countries have tried to enhance effective environmental ethics, these countries still face impediment in enhancing environmental ethics at a global scale. The absence of a common ethical framework between the North and South countries is one of the most significant impediments to arriving at a global framework to environmental ethics.
Although, the aim of Moore and Nelson in their book is rational by demonstrating a global ethical…… [Read More]
Social responsibility is very important irrespective of the community in which business is conducted in. In my opinion all stakeholder groups are benefited from the use of socially conscious behavior. For one, stock holders benefit as they doing good within the overall community. These sales numbers will therefore provide a solid foundation in which to evaluate the merits of a particular activity such as a merger, acquisition, dividend, stock buy back and so forth. Consumers benefit as they are not mislead in regards to purchasing decisions. If the company is truly acting in the benefit of the society, consumers will realize it. These activities builds trust as the brand will become synonymous with environmentally friendly behavior, further expanding the market share of the company. Because the environment is so important to so many individuals, more people will buy the product. This will then benefit the shareholders even further as more…… [Read More]
" At the same time, it may be a lesson in perspective given that pigs are smarter than dogs and no less appreciative of human companionship than dogs when befriended instead of raised somewhat inhumanely and slaughtered for food.
The Plight of the Polar Bear
According to environmental experts like Kassie Siegel of the Centre for Biological Diversity, based in California, the natural habitat of the Polar Bear is disappearing too fast to sustain the species in the wild for much longer. Global climate change has caused so much of the Arctic ice to melt that Polar bears are unable to pursue enough food to maintain a healthy body weight, reproduce, or nourish their cubs to adulthood.
Unfortunately, there may be little that can be done for the Polar Bear beyond preserving the species in captivity unless there is a dramatic increase in technology capable of reversing climate change. Andrew…… [Read More]
US Government and Environmental Ethics
The United States government has had a long history with the environment, beginning with the very beginning of the settlement of the Pilgrims, through the industrialization era, forming the beginning principles of having national parks, and to today with the onset of climate change and the environmental hazards of the 21st century. (National Park Service, 2012) Compared to other countries, the U.S. has had a more favorable view towards the use of the environment for business matters, often leaving entire communities scarred by the unprotected use of machinery and pollution to retrieve coal minerals, build six lane highways through forests, and even building massive subdivisions of buildings so close together that they represent risks of fire and natural disaster. There are several government agencies that have been created through the years to govern the vast territories that have been preserved, but the amount…… [Read More]
Corporate Social esponsibility and Environmental Ethics
Abstract/Introduction -- No one can argue that the international business community is becoming more and more complex as a result of globalism. In turn, this complexity is driven by an increasing understanding of sustainability, going "green," and bringing ethical and moral philosophy into the business community. British Telecom, for instance, noted in 2007 that it had reduced its carbon footprint by 60% since 1996, setting itself a target of 80% reductions by 2016 (Hawser, 2007). Francois Barrault, CEO, BT Global Services, said that by supporting sustainability his company hoped not only to reduce its carbon footprint but also to attract younger people who prefer to work for environmentally and socially responsible companies. He didn't always think that way, though. Barrault said that when he first met former U.S. vice president and environmental activist Al Gore, who showed him pictures of icecaps melting, he thought…… [Read More]
Death of Nature" and "The Power and the Promise of Ecological Feminism"
This essay will provide a critical summary and response of the books "The Death of Nature" by Caroline Merchant and "The Power and the Promise of Ecological Feminism" by Karen arren. The summary will summarize the main argument of each ecofeminism author. The response will argue the position that nature is defenseless matter and thus subject to human domination and that women and men should be viewed as complimentary of one another rather than oppositional.
The book "The Death of Nature" by Caroline Merchant seeks to explain the historic correlation between the supremacy of nature and women. Merchant asserts that the scientific revolution fashioned a society that perpetuates a mechanistic view of nature rather than an organic view of a feminine natural world that was in existence before the revolution. The former views nature as inert matter that…… [Read More]
This is a pertinent observation and one that is possibly central to understanding the problem of environmental ethics today.
Bugeja goes on to state that "…the new technologies that now keep us constantly connected also keep us constantly distracted" (Bugeja, 2008). He also makes the important point that, "Digital distractions now keep us from addressing the real issues of the day. Each of us daily consumes an average of nine hours of media through myriad technological platforms…" (Bugeja, 2008). In other words, we have become distracted from the holistic view of reality by modern communications technology to the extent that we are out of contact with the environmental issues that surround us.
Bugeja is also of the opinion that this situation has deprived us of the important aspect of critical thought. Critical thinking is defined as "… the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking, and being able to…… [Read More]
Current events of the environmental ethics
Some of the major current events concerning the environmental ethics are the issue of global warming. One of the leading researchers (in the causes and effects of climate change; and in the field of allergies) in Europe has discovered that the burning of the fossil fuel that has increased over the recent past has resulted into the increase of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide facilitates the growth of the ragweed- an invasive plant- moreover; the hay fever is triggered of by this plant's pollen grains. Both early and long seasons of allergy are caused by the bloom of the birch trees as a result of the warmer temperatures (White, 1967).
Non-environmentally friendly behaviors currently such as the increased acts of war has not only affected the environment by impoverishing the natural resources but has also caused stress in…… [Read More]
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…… [Read More]
On the largest scale, the U.S. population is disproportionately responsible for the depletion of fossil fuels and other natural resources in that Americans consume approximately one-quarter of those valuable energy resources despite constituting less than five percent of the entire global population (Attfield, 2003; Poiman & Poiman, 2007).
Besides consuming such a disproportionate amount of natural resources, another major environmental ethics issue arises in connection with the deliberate export of hazardous waste from wealthy countries to poor countries and the outsourcing of dangerous jobs, such as some of those that are strictly prohibited by domestic environmental laws (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008; Poiman & Poiman, 2007). United States military operations have also contributed to new environmental ethics concerns, such as the contamination of soil and water supplies in Iraq and Central Europe by the millions of depleted uranium shells left by tactical aircraft supporting ground troops in Iraq or engaging hostile…… [Read More]
Ethics Must Be Global Not Local
Ethics Must Be Global, Not Local
International Business equirements
Global Business Ethics
The large business units expand their operations in global markets through their own presence as well as franchising and distributors. The business operations are expanded on the basis of various standard practices. The business freedom provided by countries and various global practices are utilized as a basis for taking global operational decisions. The business also encounters various legal, operational, and ethical issues related to the local market. However in order to expand business beyond borders and physical boundaries of countries it is required to maintain a degree of uniformity in products and ethical practices followed throughout the manufacturing processes. It is advised to understand various aspects of international business requirements, global operations, ethical practices, and recommendations to assert a standard for global ethical business operations.
International Business equirements:
The global…… [Read More]
ethics and morality of Paul Taylor's view of the environment
One key ethical issue, contentious amongst environmentalists today as well as those activists who oppose the ethical philosophy of environmentalism, is whether environmentalism should be focused on improving the lot of the human animal on earth, or should attempt to benefit all species upon earth in an equal fashion. The philosopher Paul Taylor argues that environmental ethics should emphasize the interdependent nature all individual members of earth's biological community. He states that environmentalists should embrace the idea that no single species is superior to the others. However, although Paul Taylor's philosophy is commendable in its emotional intensity when he says, "we have a self-evident moral obligation to the individual members of the Earth's biotic community to protect and promote their good for their sake" (518), his philosophy of species equality is fundamentally flawed. Environmentalism is a human ideological construction. No…… [Read More]
.....men and women behind everything from public infrastructure to consumer product design, engineers have a distinct ethical obligation to uphold standards of safety. However, there is more to engineering ethics than the assurance that safety standards are met or exceeded. Engineers also need to ascribe to a policy resonant with corporate social responsibility: working in accordance with global values like environmental conservation and sustainability. Another key component of engineering ethics is related to the globalized nature of the work that engineers do: engineers frequently find themselves working in countries and cultures that are different from their own. The occasional conflicts that arise between local and home values may present unique ethnical conundrums that engineers can overcome with critical thinking and cultural awareness.
Safety is the most apparent of all ethical obligations place upon engineers throughout their careers. The first provision of the American Society of Civil Engineers, as with…… [Read More]
Legal Ethics Surrounding the Love Canal Tragedy
Love Canal Law/Ethics
In 1979, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) filed a lawsuit against Hooker Chemical Company and its parent corporation, Occidental Petroleum (EPA, 1979). The Department of Justice (DOJ), acting on behalf of the EPA, charged these corporations with creating an imminent and substantial danger to health and the environment, by violating the esource Conservation and ecovery Act, Clean Water Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, efuse Act, and the common law of nuisance. In 1995, 16 years after the suit was filed, Occidental agreed to pay the requested amount for cleanup and resident relocation costs (DOJ, 1995).
Congress reacted to the environmental and health disaster by enacting Superfund legislation, which contained a provision making polluters retroactively liable. However, the concept of retroactive liability has been a source of controversy for legal and ethical reasons. This essay will examine the legal/ethical issues…… [Read More]
individuals with the ability to understand their connection to the world around them is the fundamental characteristic of an effective environmental education. To do this successfully requires two important things: individuals that are inspired by and actively involved in the physical world around them; and institutions of learning that provide curricula delineating the individual's link to these natural systems and societies at large.
The current environmental educational system in America, for the most part, illustrates a mis-educative experience. The system is mis-educative because most learning still takes place inside a classroom. Students are not encouraged to explore their relationship with the outside world either by literally going outside or through their studies. There is little or no formal attempt to encourage students to make the connection between what they learn in mathematics, science, economics or business to other subjects or the outside world. Any learning is thus, compartmented. It is…… [Read More]
Environmental ethics is a conjecture and an application in relation to apprehensions for principles in, and obligations regarding the natural world. Ethics, basically, is people relating to people in impartiality and love. Environmental ethics begins with human distresses for quality surroundings (Gaston 52). This concern shapes the ethic from beginning to the end. Beyond inter-human concerns, ideals are at pledge when individuals relate to animals, plants, species and ecosystem. Humans ought to find nature morally considerable, and this turns ethics into new directions.
Environmental ethics maintains that humans, not until they reach a more considerate ethic, are ignorant as opposed to popular opinion (Keller and Golley 67). Humans are the only self-reflective, deliberative moral agents. Nature has endowed the wise species with a conscience. Ecological quality is essential for eminence of human life. Individuals significantly re-establish their surroundings and live in an innate ecology where resources are subjects of life…… [Read More]
The ethics of the design research demands that 'the research is valid and that threats to validity have been taken into account', and reporting has been accurate and sufficient details have been listed and supplemented for the clarity and appropriate interpretation of the research content, furthermore 'in qualitative research, it is important to be particularly careful about how to choose direct quotations from the data in the research, and ensure that they are representative' (Ian, 2003).
Many professional associations, government agencies, and universities have developed, adopted and practiced specific codes, rules, and policies relating to research ethics i.e. East Carolina University, National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the Food and Drug Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture have developed their own ethical rules related to the design research. Some of the influential ethical policies on design research includes, 'the Uniform equirements (International Committee…… [Read More]
According to the dictionary definition, ethics refer to the "set of principles of right conduct, or more specifically, "the rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession." Ethics and morals are closely related, but ethics is the term more commonly used in the professional realm, whereas morals generally refer to guidelines for personal behavior. Both ethics and morals are reflections of beliefs and values, which are held by individuals and collectively, by whole societies. The development of ethics therefore stems from social and cultural factors as well as from personal ones. However, a few ethical codes are nearly universal. Ethics are complex; in the business realm they may vary widely from sector to sector. No organization is completely immune to ethics, even if the organization has no formal ethical code. Professional decisions are made with regard to personal ethics or to the…… [Read More]
Priority of values should be identified so as to aid the organization avoid breaking laws by following the stipulated requirements of operation.
The top three of four values should be reviewed to help the organization determine which values currently help it fulfill its mandate. For example, in the accounting department, the organization should identify accuracy and confidentiality as the key values to the success of the department. Values needed to identify current issues should be brought to fore. This should be done by selecting a few people to interview the members of the organization in identifying key areas that require attention in the organization. Out of the issues identified, determine which ones are ethical and device ways in which the organization can solve them.
It should be noted that not all remedies can be obtained for any ethical dilemma that might arise. Emphasis should be made on dilemmas that don't…… [Read More]
Ethics Leadership Analysis
One of the biggest advantages of globalization is that many different companies are able to receive cheap labor to produce a wide variety of products that are sold at numerous retail stores in the United States. However, an ugly facet to what has been happening, is that there are a number of different sweat shops in a host of regions around the world and in some cases within the U.S. itself. Evidence of this can be seen with an investigation that was conducted by the Department of Labor. They found that over half of the companies they were looking at, were breaking numerous labor laws by operating 10,000 of these kinds of facilities illegally inside the nation. At the same time, they discovered that a variety of governments around the world were encouraging these kinds of factories. (Elliot, 2009)
In the case of Kathie Lee Gifford, her…… [Read More]
Education on ethics must be wider compared to "moral development" in that it must tackle the broader consideration of a wide-ranging vocation, and constricted in that it must tackle problems particularly to the accounting vocation. (esearch on Accounting Ethics)
Definite duties of the accounting profession are put forth in the different code of ethics circulated by important establishments like the AICPA. The AICPA's foremost rule of professional conduct declares: In discharging their duties as professionals, associates must implement responsive professional and moral views in all their works. (Business and Accounting Ethics) the failure of auditor sovereignty infringing ule 101 of the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct was the topic of a research project using 2,000 arbitrarily chosen AICPA members in public accounting profession as a staff auditor, senior, or manager. These executives were offered with 15 roles that are an infringement of ule 101 and were directed to give their…… [Read More]
Chapter 4: Administrative responsibility: The key to administrative ethics
Administrators are responsible for complying with the law -- and also for complying with the administrative responsibilities. Ethics requires a delicate balancing of objective and subjective responsibilities on the part of administrators. All this is easier said than done, of course. The administrator's role is complicated by a network of often conflicting responsibilities -- responsibilities to his or her own ethics, to immediate superiors, to his or her specific agency, to elected officials who speak for the public, and to the public good (which may not always be fully articulated within the desires of public officials) Furthermore, the law is not always clear-cut but it must be an important cornerstone of administrative policies. Of course, when administrative policies are potentially conflict with the law, an immediate red flag should be raised.
If an administrator does not have the authority to resolve…… [Read More]
Consider the three purposes of morality treated in Chapter 1. Which of these would it be easier for utilitarianism to fulfill and which could well be more difficult for that system to fully meet?
Of the three purposes of morality treated in Chapter One, perhaps the easiest purpose for the ethical system of utilitarianism, as developed by the Englishman Jeremy Bentham, to meet would be to create a functional system of social ethics, or the ethical schema that holds a society together by its ethical 'glue.' Utilitarianism suggests that society, when pressed on many sides by the competition of different ethical claims, or even simply by different but equally valid claims for personal happiness, should choose the truth claim that allows for the greatest good for the greatest number of individuals within that particular society. For instance, the happiness of the many in my neighborhood to sleep late at…… [Read More]
Ethics are often stronger than the laws of the land. Laws are cobbled together by special interests and have little to do with right and wrong, or personal ethical codes. For most people, their own personal codes of ethics will be stronger than the laws. People are much less likely to violate their own personal ethical codes than the laws.
Morals are codes of conduct put forward by a society, often within the context of a cultural or social group. Ethics are, following the Aristotelian tradition, a general guide to behavior that an individual adopts as his own guide to life (Gert, 2011). The relationship between the two is self-evident: while ethics are individual they are often strongly influenced by society's moral context.
Kohlberg (1971) outlined morals are being pre-conventional, conventional and post-conventional. Pre-conventional morals are in the obedience and punishment orientation and the self-interest orientation. Like when you learn…… [Read More]
The second step is to initiate a supplier code of conduct. The greatest potential for ethical violations falls with suppliers such as agricultural firms or offshored service providers, and these violations can result in negative publicity for the company.
Ultimately, it is not expected that these ethical standards will form a competitive advantage for the company. Having high ethical standards is more of a hygiene factor in that it is something a company needs to have to avoid negative impacts, but few companies get any particular competitive mileage from their ethical policies. There is little impetus to join the fair trade or organic businesses for most of the products we sell. hile many consumers are willing to pay more for said products, it remains a niche category especially in Europe and the UK. This usually means that the volumes are too low to justify the effort. Overall, the best approach…… [Read More]
Ethics and Corporate esponsibility
The following will be an assessment of firm referred to as PharmaCAE. The assessment will concentrate on the idea of companies that have encountered negative outcomes as a result of company business activities. CECLA (Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act) will be brought up in this assessment in addition to other environmental safeguarding proposals and human social theories in regards to environmental and work ethics.
A new initiative, We CAE about YOU world, was recently initiated by PharmaCAE, declaring its dedication to the environment via modifications in packaging, recycling, and other green programs. This was possible in spite of the fact that the firm's lobbying attempts and PAC have effectively conquered environmental policies, such as the broadening of the Superfund tax that was established by Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act (CECLA). Situated in New Jersey, PharmaCAE sustains a huge production facility in the…… [Read More]
Ethics and the Environment
One of the most eminent challenges societies around the world is to find practical and economic ways to bring the benefits of economic growth to the developing world without damaging the environment. Whereas Beijing is the number one in the least of air polluters, Mexico City, the world's second largest city ranks on place four of the megacities with the most polluted air of any major metropolitan area in the world. There should be a combined consecutive approach of scientists and politicians guided by principles of ethics in government to make to transform the recommendations the scientific world operative.
I have chosen to review the following articles: Platt, Holden K. (9 July 2009) on "Chinese Air Pollution Deadliest in World." Platt wrote this article for the "National Geographic News" which is a magazine published by the National Geographic Society, based in Washington, D.C., USA. Existing since…… [Read More]
There are several ways that BP could have chosen to respond, all of which were "open" to them (i.e. they had free will), yet those chose to take paths that were less moral. Kant's universal law would have them put their responsibility to humanity as the motivator, however, their motives have not proven to be driven by doing what is genuinely good for humanity.
Blackburn (2009) states that it is tricky to apply the categorical imperative and that the most persuasive examples of it being effective are in cases where there is an institution whose existence depends on sufficient performance by a sufficient number of individuals.
Suppose, as is plausible, that our ability to give and receive promises depends upon general compliance with the principle of keeping promises. Were we to break them sufficiently often, or were promise-breaking to become a 'law of nature,' then there would be no such…… [Read More]
if, however, that actor acts with the greatest good for the greatest number in mind, they will be more environmentally responsible. If each person, corporation and government acts in such a manner, the common good will be protected. If not, one actor or group can contribute significant damage to the commons at the expense of the others.
3) There are many causes of environmental pollution and depletion. Land use decisions contribute to deforestation, overgrazing and other problems. Urban sprawl swallows land useful for farming. esources are depleted through exhaustive mining. Overfarming and overfishing contribute to depletion. Excessive water use is diminishing our supply of fresh water. The product of toxic substances further poisons the Earth. Carbon dioxide emissions as a result of the internal combustion engine are contributing significant pollution. Nearly ever facet of human activity contributes in some way to the pollution and depletion of the planet's…… [Read More]
Ethics, Gross National Products
Gross National Product
Ethics is a branch of Philosophy and deals with the basics questions about right and wrong, virtue and vice, as well as good or bad nature of things human beings do in their daily lives. Thus, ethics is essentially related to the moral aspect of things. A thing, act, or idea of practice might be legally correct but may not be morally sound in given conditions. For instance, the pursuit of profit by firms is legally correct but ignorance to the well being of society in which that firm operates is morally incorrect. Essentials of ethics: The essential elements of ethics are related to the character of actions being taken by the human beings. The topic essentially deals with the behavior and its outcomes with respect to the impact created on fellow human beings and society as a collective…… [Read More]
Ethics primarily acts as a check to ensure that the corporate strategy is enacted effectively. arely do firms take ethics into account as a key element of strategy, though it does happen once in a while. Generally, the role that ethics plays is tangential to strategy aside from its role as a check. obin and eidenbach (1988) elaborate further on this idea, noting that "without the integration of ethics at the very beginning of the planning process… the organizational culture may not provide the checks and balances needed…" Their argument is that while corporations tend to put the profit motive forward first, a lack of ethics can undermine the objective of maximizing shareholder wealth. Having a strong program of ethics built into the organizational culture reduces the risk of major ethical lapse.
A couple of recent issues highlight the importance of building an ethical culture to maximizing shareholder wealth. Enron…… [Read More]
All employees of XYZ Corporation
From: Joe Smith, CEO
Re: Sustainability Marketing Strategy
Sustainability has always been a core value of XYZ Corporation. To support this value, we will soon be making sustainability a key component of our marketing campaign. The concepts of ethics, sustainability and public relations are complex, but while our marketing messages may be simple and digestible, internally our programs will reflect this complexity. We have long had an ethical code, and this will form the foundation of our ethical and sustainability policies.
The specific details of the sustainability marketing program will be outlined at a later date, but the critical takeaway right now is that the company needs to back up this marketing talk with actions -- we need to walk the talk. We cannot market sustainability by doing it, but when we do it, we lend credibility to the marketing talk in which…… [Read More]
Giving Voice to Values
The class discussion on giving voice to values touched on many different topics of great interest, not the least of which were the many different systems of values that exist. I have always found myself caught between ethical theories that emphasize intentions and those that emphasize effects, and I truly feel that different situations call for different understandings of right and wrong -- some situations might be best determined by a consideration of intentions, while others must be judged on the ultimate effects of a given action or set of actions. Determining which situation deserves which application of ethics is obviously highly subjective, and this was definitely highlighted in the class discussion. A large number of individual and cultural values were brought up that point out different features of specific cases or derive differing interpretations from an agreed upon set of circumstances to a degree that…… [Read More]
Fox, R.F. (2001, November). Warning Advertising May Be Hazardous to Your Health: Ads Pose a hreat to Physical, Emotional, Social, and Cultural Well-Being. USA oday, Volume 130, Issue 2678, 62.
he author discusses different types of advertising and promotion and finds ethical problems in the way many are handled, especially with reference to advertising and promoting goods and services to children. He cites the use of focus groups for toy companies and the ethical implications of improving advertising to kids.
Cohn, E. (2000, January 31). Marketwatch: Consuming Kids. he American Prospect, Volume 11, Issue 6, 13.
he author questions the promotion of certain products to children and finds marketers hiring psychologists to shape the message so as to reach children. Other psychologists have denounced such actions and have called for an emendation of the ethics code to govern this sort of promotion in the future.
Ethics in Pricing
Cranberg, G.…… [Read More]
Ethics and Social esponsibility
General Motors (commonly known as GM) is an American multinational automobile manufacturer. It is the world's largest corporation in the automotive industry with respect to unit sales. GM is headquartered in Michigan, United States and operates with fully-owned subsidiaries as well as joint ventures in 157 countries of the world. The manufacturing units are being operated in 31 countries. It employs more than 202,000 people who work in its 158 different operational areas in all six operating regions of the world. General Motors was established in 1908 by William C. Durant. It has a very well-established brand image across the Globe with a high level of brand acceptability and loyalty by its customers and stakeholders (General Motors, 2012).
Having business operations at the Global scale, General Motors operates in a highly complex and uncertain business environment. There are a number of environmental factors that…… [Read More]
This information, stored on a computer and used to correlate with other data could be considered invaluable by many researchers, but the patients have a right to keep certain information private, and to suggest anything else would be an ethical violation of the patient's privacy.
Because computer ethics is such a volatile issue, an entire branch of study has grown up around computer ethics, which proponents who believe the computer age caused these ethical issues, and others who believe these issues would have surfaced anyway. One of the proponents of computer ethics, who actually was the first to teach the concept, Walter Maner, from Old Dominion University, is a proponent of the computer creating brand new ethical issues. An expert quotes Maner, "For all of these issues, there was an essential involvement of computing technology. Except for this technology, these issues would not have arisen, or would not have arisen…… [Read More]
Ethics of Society, Technology, And the Environment
Ethics of Society, Technology and Environment
Being the member of the human society in 21st century is like to be the witness of the breathtaking technological revolution. Society, technology and environment are the three vertices of a same triangle and hence connected to each other. As a result they tend to have inter-related influences and affects. With the advancements and immense developments in the fields of science and technology, the life particularly in 21st century has taken an almost new turn. The glance on the ancient or earlier times would prove that, the life then, was completely different.
By ethics we mean, those specific standards which determine the functioning of the system for which they are defined. Ethics of society, technology and environment are thus those set generalized standards for the safety and preservation of the environment and nature along with the technological…… [Read More]
In the former approach, tradable goods, money or services are exchanged between buyers and sellers at a rate that is agreeable to all parties. This approach assumes both the buyers and sellers have enough money, services or goods to have their needs met. The latter approach, public provision, is when all is available to those on an as-needed basis.
The Pharmaceutical and Manufacturing Association warns that whenever there is government control of prices it only has a negative impact on those who are in need of being helped: 1) When funding for new medical technology, cures for diseases and research and development are diverted to more lucrative economic areas; 2) Incentives to enter the pharmaceutical industry decline; 3) More restrictions are placed on providers; 4) the quality of medical care suffers and 5) This leads to a rationing of care. Instead, the association says there has to be a healthcare…… [Read More]
Core-Tex is facing a number of problems that could result in negative publicity. At present, the company is facing multiple challenges but has escaped major headlines. Thus, its stock price has not been hit too hard as the result of the accounting accusations. For the CEO, there are a few key things that need to be done. The first move, the muzzling of the C-suite, is essential. From a public relations perspective, the company needs to speak with a unified voice. From a legal perspective, there may be limits to how much the company can say anyway.
The first step, then, is information gathering. The CEO in particular is liable under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act for anything accounting misstatements (Sarbanes-Oxley, 2014). The CEO must take personal responsibility for verifying the accounting allegations. This is necessary because there seems little doubt that the SEC will send investigators over the company, given…… [Read More]
Environmental Case Study
Ten years ago, the United States Environmental Protection Agency established the Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Sulfur Control equirements. The rule accomplished a comprehensive single national program to control emissions of heavy-duty vehicles by regulating the both the vehicles and the diesel fuel used in the engines. The aim was to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOX ) by 2.6 million, non-methane hydrocarbons by 115,000 tons, and particulate matter by 109,000 tons by 2030. By 2006, most areas of the country sold only ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. By 2007, the only new diesel engines sold required ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. One looming problem was that diesel engines are durable and have a long product life -- the change to cleaner engines would take until about 2020.
Diesel fuel is the cause of one-third of the nitrogen oxide (NOX) and one-fourth of the particulate matter…… [Read More]
Ethics and Risks
Exercise 1 How would you measure the unethical behavior in an organization?
"In its simplest terms, measuring performance means assessing business results to determine how effective a company's strategies and operations are and make changes to address shortfalls and other problems." (Performance Measurement) Performance is a good measurement against unethical behaviors. The process includes defining objectives, or setting clear objective goals, defining critical success factors, actions that must be taken to achieve the objectives, and define performance metrics, measures used to assess the amount of accomplishment. For example, if you use 10 unethical behaviors as 100% and want to target 1 unethical behavior, you would set a ratio of 99 to 1. The 99 would be performance and the 1 would be unethical behaviors.
Exercise 2 Find an article/report related to an external environmental factor that affects business and analyze how the subject would impact your current…… [Read More]
Ethics in Law Enforcement
Ethics are what almost anyone would define as a person's determination between what is good or bad, or more accurately what is right or wrong. Although many of these attitudes can be a product of parenting or other factors in one's maturing environment, ethical decisions could also be a product of environmental factors that are outside of the control of individuals. It is difficult to determine where a person's ethical code, but some professions demand an ethic that is not needed elsewhere.
One such profession is law enforcement. Officers of the law are called upon to "stand in "harm's way" not so much against enemies with bullets, but against enemies skilled in every form of trickery, deceit, feigned ignorance, and deception" (Stevens, 2005). Because of the environment that they must exist in, police officers are constantly deciding whether to make the right decision or take the…… [Read More]
This establishes a clear chain from the economic research to public policy that affects millions of people. As such, it is imperative that the economics profession set out a code of ethics with respect to all of the economists conducting economic research. The public should not need to wonder if they are being misled by professional economists. Economic credentials, if they are to have such an influence over our lives, should stand for something. The case in question may not be significant in the grand scheme, but it serves to illustrate well a situation that occurs in the halls of power every day. If economic researchers hold themselves to higher standards, we all benefit.
Broome, John. (1999). Ethics out of Economics. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved February 26, 2009 at http://books.google.com/books?id=Nj0nBRX8pVsC&dq=ethics+economics&printsec=frontcover&source=bll&ots=rk9IvUym0q&sig=l8-MdbqiVZBnqacBGm7Rs0Zsc6g&hl=en&ei=82mSfz-H4H8tgfA7MHXDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=11&ct=result#PPA2,M1
Friedman, Milton. (1970). The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved…… [Read More]
This impacts the entire citizenry, not just the think tank or its backers. Again, we reach the intersection between classical ethics philosophy and economics. hether or not a think tank strives to eliminate bias from its published research, if that research influences public policy to the detriment of the populace, it would be considered unethical. Resnick (2007) promotes the idea that research ethics are important to maintain the trust of the public in such research. hen considering the outcomes of published research, we must then consider whether an economic think tank bears any duty of care towards the populace at large.
It such a duty of care is not owed to the populace, to whom is it owed? This brings back the question of motivation. Basic motivation theories such as Maslow's Hierarchy discuss motivation in terms of human needs (NetMBA.com, 2007). Applied to an organization, we find the heart of…… [Read More]
(Southwest Airlines Corporation)
The employees are always put first at Southwest Airlines, and according to the CEO Herb Kelleher, who was responsible for founding the company Southwest Airlines, the philosophy that employees come first is deeply embedded in the psyche of the company, and if the employees of the company are happy and contented and fully satisfied with their work, then they will most definitely take better care of the customers of the company, and this is exactly what happens at Southwest Airlines. When the customers are happy at the treatment that they receive at Southwest Airlines, they, quite naturally keep coming back for more, and this in turn makes the shareholders extremely happy and satisfied. The employees at Southwest Airlines are some of the best and most highly paid employees of any airline, and in general, all the walls of the company are always filled with several pictures of…… [Read More]
Environmental and Organizational Pressures Sample
Create a table where at least three (3) organizational pressures and at least three (3) environmental pressures in the organization are illustrated and rank those pressures according to their influence.
Carbon emissions and overall sustainability
anking and promotion characteristics with the military.
Dependency on natural resources and their overall depletion
The ability to attract, hire and retain talented individuals to serve in the military
Identifying and using alternative energy and packaging solutions
Cultural sensitivity and its meaning within the organization.
Describe in detail the environmental and organizational pressures that exist in the organization and how they have evolved over time.
In regards to organization pressures within the military, much has changed due to varying societal norms. What was once deemed unacceptable by society has now become acceptable for society overall. As such, these changes have manifested themselves in…… [Read More]
Environmental Themes in Grapes of rath
This essay reviews environmental themes from the following five books: Dust Bowl by Donald orster, The Grapes of rath by John Steinbeck, Everglades: River of Grass by Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Killing Mr. atson by Peter Matthiessen, and River of Lakes by Bill Belleville. This paper discusses the role that culture has played in environmental issues during the past century. Five sources used. MLA format.
Humans from the very beginning of their existence have had an impact, for better or worse, on the environment. Man has for the most part tried to control the environment to suit his needs or tastes of the era. Over-grazing, over hunting, ignoring the importance crop rotations, dam building, and toxic dumping, are but a few of the ways man tries to control. Few societies have ever considered any of the above when it comes to the environment.…… [Read More]
The CDM is meant to award the developers 'credits' for supporting projects in developing countries which avoid greenhouse gas emissions (Joy, 2000). Provided that these credits can be bought and sold, effectively the price of the project is decreased. It has been anticipated that this may decrease the price of nuclear plants by as much as 20 or 30 per cent. On the other hand it was decided, after pressure from the EU, that nuclear projects should not be eligible for CDM credits, with opponents to nuclear inclusion arguing that it was not a clean, safe or sustainable option, nor a useful tool for economic development, at the reconvened Conference of Parties to the Kyoto agreement held in Bonn in 2001 (Ferguson, 2010).
Despite the fact that there are some scenarios for a nuclear revitalization in estern countries, this does not appear probable to be on a big level, and…… [Read More]
As a proponent of participative leadership, my sense of moral responsibility in business matters would find a solid foundation in involving my subordinates in decisions and taking their views and suggestions into account. Since relationships are the primary vehicle through which successful leadership responsibilities are carried out, then people and interpersonal competencies are central to their effectiveness.
My success as an ethical leader is rooted in self- awareness, self-management, social awareness and relational management. Self-awareness will allow me to recognize my own emotions and how they affect my performance .It provides me with a better sense of my own strengths and weaknesses, more open to seek out feedback and have a better knowledge and sense on how to improve said skills. Self-management requires pacing one self to match a determined situation. Social awareness, which without it, we become disconnected from our environment, is the ability to read groups and people…… [Read More]
Instead of valuing some parts of nature over others, we should cultivate a universal regard for all parts of nature, down to the lowliest tree in our back yard. Aldo Leopold would agree. His "land ethic" calls for a new philosophy that includes a moral respect for the land. Like Cronon, Leopold advocates an "ecological conscience," that includes a "conviction of individual responsibility," (435). Cronon realizes that humility and respect as well as "critical self-consciousness" should be the guiding forces of the environmentalist movement (p. 387).
However, Leopold too upholds a dualistic worldview that appears to be ingrained in American cultural consciousness. For Leopold, there are two different groups of people pulling in opposite directions: those who view land as soil and therefore commodity production, and those that view land as biota. Leopold makes a snickering comment about organic farming as well: "the discontent that labels itself 'organic farming' while…… [Read More]
Any effort that detracts from that objective -- unless that effort is explicitly authorized by the shareholders -- is therefore a breach of duty. The managers of the Company must therefore have the objective of upholding their duty to the shareholders, within the confines of the law. BP will therefore not be providing research funding, compensation or any other form of assistance to the fishermen, without judicial or regulatory order.
It is important that the Department understands the principles that underpin this decision. BP does not take this decision lightly, and understands that not all stakeholders will have their needs met as the result of this decision. e regret in particular if this decision causes problems for our steadfast partners at the Department of Environment. However, the managers of the Company has no choice but to undertake activities that fulfill their duty to the shareholders, and in this case that…… [Read More]