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In what the economic stability of the United States is concerned, this has been of great use for Wall Mart, since it allowed it to develop a rather monopolistic position for itself. Thus, there have been many cases in which the goods' producers have complained because they could not sell their products at the prices they desired, when having Wall Mart as the main great buyer. When it comes to the global plan, as it has been outlined above, the economic stability should be seen as a sine-qua-non condition for choosing a country on which territory the company would expand.
In terms of technology, it has been assumed that it plays an important role in enforcing both domestic and global marketing decisions. For example, the Internet is the main means through which the CEO of Wall Mart Inc. communicates its decisions to the Managers of the company's hypermarkets in other…
McCarthy, E. & Perreault, W. (2002). Basic marketing (14th ed.). McGraw-Hill/Irwin. 2002 New York, NY., pp. 549
Wal-Mart, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wal-Mart
Wall Mart Inc., at http://www.answers.com/topic/wal-mart-stores-inc
Wall Mart, at http://www.walmartstores.com/GlobalWMStoresWeb/navigate.do?catg=316
Thus, although hamburgers and fries are synonymous with 'comfort food' in America, in other countries, these food items are exotic -- also the pull of the 'whining' child has less clout than in America, hence the lesser popularity of Happy Meals and the greater emphasis on adult staples like beer. The idea of media violence in "Pulp Fiction" rather than "I'm lovin' it" shows how America is capitalizing on even negative or perversely, darkly attractive associations of American culture in other lands, as is the heart attack on a bun that the Japanese love to buy. Yet in the United States, McDonald's new campaign "I'm Lovin' it" caters to a more upbeat youth market and stresses health, athleticism, and wholesomeness. Americans do not need to be told that McDonald's is all-American, unlike foreigners, and one of the attractions of the chain is its uniformity, thus McDonald's seldom caters to American…
Lev, Michael. (25 Feb1997) "In Japan, McDonald's means great marketing."
The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 21 Apr 2007 at http://www.licenseenews.com/news/news161.html
Marketing Strategy Mandatory for Business Success." (2001). Trailer Body Builders.
Penton Media Inc. Retrieved 21 Apr 2007 at http://trailer-bodybuilders.com/mag/trucks_marketing_strategy_mandatory/index.html
e) Political systems and international relations
The political systems raise complexities through distinctive legislations. While the political systems in the U.S. might militate for a specific business feature, foreign political system might militate for a different business feature. The complexities include the need to spend increased funds to research and comply with the laws of the political systems across the globe.
In terms of the international relations, these would not raise any difficulties in the context of a perfect market. Still, since this is not the case, the international relations between the countries might facilitate or create tensions for McDonald's marketing efforts.
f) Foreign Corrupt Practices and local, national and international legislations
Since McDonald's is registered in the United States and operates in various countries across the globe, it has to simultaneously respect the laws of both the United States, as well as the legislations of the countries in which…
Adams, B.,2007, McDonald's strange menu around the world, Trifter, http://trifter.com/practical-travel/budget-travel/mcdonald%E2%80%99s-strange-menu-around-the-world / last accessed on October 4, 2011
2011, Website of McDonald's, http://www.mcdonalds.com last accessed on October 4, 2011
The FCPA explained, FCPA Enforcement, http://www.fcpaenforcement.com/explained/explained.asp last accessed on October 4, 2011
Starbucks' code of ethics applies to its entire operations, including its partners, irrespective of local laws, which of course are also adhered to.
Political systems have had some impact on Starbucks, compelling them to joint ventures and partnerships rather than greenfield investments. International relations are critical to Starbucks, since it needs strong trade agreements and positive relations not only to operate in its multiple foreign markets but also for sourcing its coffee. Positive international relations allow Starbucks to exploit the market opportunities with which it is presented.
As with all American companies, Starbucks is bound by the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. This law covers American firms working overseas. Starbucks' strong commitment to ethical behavior compels the company and its employees to adhere to the foreign corrupt practices act. The company also adheres to, and usually exceeds the parameters of, international legislation. Starbucks pays its workers above local minimum wage and…
Starbucks website, various pages. (2009). Retrieved November 13, 2009 from http://investor.starbucks.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=99518&p=irol-financialHighlights
No author. (2009). Starbucks' green tea success with Japanese consumers leads to worldwide popularity. JETRO. Retrieved November 13, 2009 from http://www.jetro.org/content/353
Lu, H. (2009). Starbucks pushes China sales with local brew. China Daily. Retrieved November 13, 2009 from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchina/2009-02/05/content_7447136.htm
Berfield, S. (2009). Behind Starbucks' instant coffee rollout. Business Week. Retrieved November 13, 2009 from http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/content/sep2009/db20090929_148572.htm
Environmental Factors Influencing Marketing
This study outlines a report on my views as a consultant on the environmental factors that will affect marketing of educational toys, EduTot in the five selected countries. The selection relied from the fact that they have the greatest potential to accept the educational toy products. Various environmental factors will be considered in the report, with an analysis of supporting details. The study will also capture a table encompassing the environmental factors that will affect marketing in these countries. The ratings in the table outline how those factors support the sale of the educational toys in these countries.
Environmental Factors impacting Marketing
Exporting is the best strategy that may be used in marketing the products of EduTot Company in the international markets. This is because it exposes the business to fewer costs, as compared to other entry strategies of getting to the international markets. The countries,…
Lymbersky, C. (2008). Market Entry Strategies: Text, Cases, and Readings in Market Entry
Management. New York: Management Laboratory Press.
Tielmann, V. (2010). Market Entry Strategies: International Marketing Management. London:
businesses and trades can be affected by distinctive social strategies, singular accounting measures, or other different industry elements. Proportions of businesses in dissimilar industries are not analogous without bearing in mind manufacturing aspects. Due to industry-specific influences, most specialized analysts concentrate in one, or only a limited, businesses/trades. "Financial institutions such as brokerage houses, banks, and insurance companies typically employ financial analysts who specialize in areas such as mineral or oil extraction, chemicals, banking, retail, insurance, bond markets, or automobile manufacturing" (Edmonds, 2012, p. 696). When analyzing companies, it's important to identify and understand possible environmental factors that contribute to the overall examination.
Technical, constitutional, financial, cultural, demographic, situations are all possible environmental factors. An information-need spaces Goal is to recognize outside chances, threats, developments, and strategic hesitations in order to formulate proper analysis. When likening businesses, specialists must be attentive to vicissitudes in over-all economic trends annually. Noteworthy variations…
Edmonds, T. (2012). Fundamental financial accounting concepts (8th ed., p. 696). Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.
Gaur, S., Vasudevan, H., & Gaur, A. (2011). Market orientation and manufacturing performance of Indian SMEs: moderating role of firm resources and environmental factors. European Journal of Marketing, 45(7/8), 1172 -- 1193.
Menachemi, N., Shin, D., Ford, E., & Yu, F. (2011). Environmental factors and health information technology management strategy. Health Care Management Review, 36(3), 275 -- 285.
Wang, C., Chen, K., & Chen, S. (2012). Total quality management, market orientation and hotel performance: the moderating effects of external environmental factors. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(1), 119 -- 129.
environmental factors that affect global and domestic marketing decisions for KFC. The paper will focus primarily on KFC's presence in China, comparing some of the differences in the decisions that were made for KFC in the marketing sector in the U.S. As compared to the Chinese market. With this in mind, it will look at the way the environmental factors have played an essential role in shaping these differences.
It is difficult to start by classifying which of the factors is most important in shaping this decision, so the first factor that can be analyzed is the demographics, mainly because it primarily affects the market segmentation strategy that KFC uses. The urban population in China is better educated and has a higher income than the rural population. At the same time, it is more cosmopolitan and it looks to the West to adopt new traditions and norms.
This, combined with…
1. Bell, David; Shelman, Mary. 2011. KFC's Radical Approach to China. Harvard Business Review.
2. Patton, Leslie; Lin, Liza. May 2013. KFC loses its touch in China, its biggest overseas market. Bloomberg Business Week.
3. Sauer, Abe. September 2013. The Week in China: KFC's Six-Layer Beef, Luxury Carseats, Toilet Seat Restaurants and more. On the Internet at http://www.brandchannel.com/home/post/2013/09/13/The-Week-In-China-091313.aspx . Last retrieved on October 8, 2013
Japan -- Knowledge Economy Index.
Index Japan (most recent)
Group: All Japan (1995)
Group: All USA (most recent)
Group: All USA (1995)
Group: All Knowledge Economy Index
Index Japan (most recent)
Group: All Japan (1995)
Group: All USA (most recent)
Group: All USA (1995)
Group: All Knowledge Index
Index Japan (most recent)
Group: All Japan (1995)
Group: All USA (most recent)
Group: All USA (1995)
Group: All Econ. Incentive egime
Index Japan (most recent)
Group: All Japan (1995)
Group: All USA (most recent)
Group: All USA (1995)
Group: All Education
Index Japan (most recent)
Group: All Japan (1995)
Group: All USA (most recent)
Group: All USA (1995)
Group: All Innovation
Index Japan (most recent)
Group: All Japan (1995)
Group: All USA (most recent)
Group: All USA (1995)
Group: All Information Infrastructure
The analysis shows that although both the U.S. And Japan remain at the forefront of these respective…
Carlile, L.E., & Tilton, M.C. (1998). Is Japan Really Changing Its Ways? Regulatory Reform and the Japanese Economy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Geiger, S.W., & Hoffman, J.J. (1998). The Impact of the Regulatory Environment and Corporate Level Diversification on Firm Performance. Journal of Managerial Issues, 10(4), 439.
Japan. (2005). U.S. Government: CIA World Factbook. Available: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/ .
Karoly, L.A., & Panis, C.W.A. (2004). The 21st century at work: Forces shaping the future workforce and workplace in the United States. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Marketing Beyond Borders
As a result of changing regulations and technological advances, businesses are now capable of ever-greater geographic reach. However, the changing competitive landscape also carries the risk of new competitors and new tools to gain insights into consumer preferences. The 21st century competitive environment emphasizes the strategic importance of capable business marketing is illustrated by considering the multitude of factors that have expanded the boundaries of the marketplace.
New Opportunities and New Values
Access to new markets presents new both new challenges and opportunities. hile socio-demographics and small regional differences, within a country, present variables for marketing, a shared experience of culture serves as a foundation. Marketing beyond borders presents the challenge of learning and adapting to different cultural values. As the research of Gert Hofstede has shown, the national culture of strong individualistic countries, such as the United States or the United Kingdom, exhibit significantly…
Burfisher, M.E., Robinson, S., & Thierfelder, K. (2001). The Impact of NAFTA on the United States. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 15 (1), 125-144.
Hofstede, G. (2012). National Culture Dimensions. Retrieved November 26, 2012, from geert-hofstede.com website: http://geert-hofstede.com/national-culture.html
Milchman, E. (2006, June 15). Yahoo 'Strictest' Censor in China. Retrieved November 26, 2012, from Wired.com Website: http://www.wired.com/politics/onlinerights/news/2006/06/71166
Savage, C. (2012, April 25). With Wal-Mart Claims, Greater Attention to Law. Retrieved November 26, 2012, from New York Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/26/business/global/with-wal-mart-bribery-case-more-attention-on-a-law.html
Important environmental factors relating to a firm include economic, cultural and social values, current values and trends, political and legal factors, and environmental threats or opportunities. These elements may impact or otherwise threaten a firm's success or opportunities for improving a firm's situation. ith respect to the economic situation, both the United States and foreign economies are presently facing some degree of economic uncertainty. In addition to dealing with the recent downturn in the dot-com/high- technology industry, the United States is also experiencing a general economic downturn that has resulted in nearly every single large corporation eliminating and/or otherwise reducing its workforce. Likewise, the United States is still recovering with the emotional and financial impacts and ramifications caused by the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.
The United States is not alone in experiencing economic uncertainty right now. Asia, Europe, and Latin America have all had financial…
Best Companies to Work for. Fortune. Retrieved at http://www.fortune.com/lists/bestcompanies/snap_1267.html . On March 20, 2002.
Coffee: Starbucks Campaign. Retrieved at http://www.globalexchange.org/economy/coffee/starbucks.html . On March 20, 2002
Cross-Border Organizing: Starbucks. Retrieved at http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~coyotez/star.html . On March 20, 2002
Launching Starbucks in Japan. The Seattle Times. July 29, 1996
Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in Le oy, New York, 2011, a mysterious medical
The relationship between an environmental agent and a health problem discussed within this document is the effect of air pollution on asthma. This effect is certainly a noxious one, as certain air pollutions have been known to cause asthma in those who did not previously have this condition, exacerbate it in those that did, and induce asthma attacks. In researching this relationship it is necessary to provide a brief overview of both asthma and air pollution. It is also prudent to discuss some of the more salient health disparities that emerge within a population that is related to aspects of genetics or environment.
Asthma is the constriction of the respiratory system with mucus. It is a serious cause of childhood morbidity (Islam et al., 2007, p. 957). Symptoms of asthma include difficulty breathing and coughing,…
Centers for Disease Control National Asthma Control Program. (2010). Asthma's impact on the nation. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/impacts_nation/asthmafactsheet.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency. (No date). Asthma and outdoor air pollution. www.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health-prof/Asthma_Flyer_Final.pdf
Islam, T., Gauderman, J., Berhane, K., McConnell, R., Avol, E., Peters, J., Gilliland, F.D. (2007). Relationship between air pollution, lung, function and asthma in adolescents. www.thorax.bmj.com. Retrieved from http://thorax.bmj.com/content/62/11/957.full.pdf+html
Natural Resources Defense Council. (2005). Asthma and air pollution. www.nrdc.org. Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/health/effects/fasthma.asp
..as long as those programs were at least as effective as the federal program." (the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act)
The passing of this Act by congress is therefore aimed at ensuring adequate health and safety standards for all workers. In terms of employers, the Act was designed to make sure that the place of employment was free of any hazards that might be injurious or detrimental to safety and health. This may include aspects such as the exposure to toxic chemical and materials as well as other environmental factors, for example excessive noise levels. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act) the Act cover a wide range of possible health and safety measures and is also intended to ensure that physical and mechanical dangers in the workplace are avoided, as well as unsanitary conditions. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act)
An important part of this…
Background: The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: RCRA. http://www.chemalliance.org/tools/background/back-rcra.asp
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: Superfund. February 7, 2009. http://www.answers.com/topic/superfund
Clean Air Act. February 4, 2009. ( http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/ )
Clean Water Act (CWA). February 4, 2009. http://www.epa.gov/oecaagct/lcwa.html
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
This is a pertinent observation and one that is possibly central to understanding the problem of environmental ethics today.
Bugeja goes on to state that "…the new technologies that now keep us constantly connected also keep us constantly distracted" (Bugeja, 2008). He also makes the important point that, "Digital distractions now keep us from addressing the real issues of the day. Each of us daily consumes an average of nine hours of media through myriad technological platforms…" (Bugeja, 2008). In other words, we have become distracted from the holistic view of reality by modern communications technology to the extent that we are out of contact with the environmental issues that surround us.
Bugeja is also of the opinion that this situation has deprived us of the important aspect of critical thought. Critical thinking is defined as "… the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking, and being able to…
Bugeja M. ( 2008) The Age of Distraction: The Professor or the Processor? The
Futurist, 42 (1).
Consequentialism: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/c/conseque.htm .
Environmental Ethics. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-environmental/
These studies show development and growth is usually positive and normal in a home environment where there is sufficient care and/or love and in an environment that positively motivates learning and development. Conversely, the problems that can be experienced in a dysfunctional family can lead to problems even later in life. This is shown by the fact that juvenile criminals who become repeat offenders often come for broken or dysfunctional family environments.
The home and family are not the only environments that can have a profound influence on the individual. The school and educational environment is another environmental "space" that is important in normal human development. The school is an area that is particularly important in that it is an environment in which we first learn to interact and encounter the outside world. Therefore it is a crucial factor in social development. This can be seen in the fact that…
2. Project Preparation
3. Project Implementation'
4. Facility Operation
These four assessment tools are to be standalone tools that are applied at specific stages of the Gipsy Lane brickworks road extension and the industrial development project life cycle. The assessment with one of the tools has no link or dependence with earlier stages. The tools of assessment are to be designed in a manner that they are applicable throughout the planning stage up to the point of making decisions in the project life cycle (See figure 1.).
The process of protocol assessment (Source: IHA, 2010).
The tools are to undergo repeated application so as to help in the continuous improvement of the process.
Strategic Assessments section
This section is important for the assessment of the strategic basis of the Gipsy Lane brickworks project. This part is most applicable at the stage when the Gipsy Lane brickworks is still…
Gratton, C., & Jones, I. (2003). Research methods for sport studies. New York: Routledge.
Fraenkel, J.R. & Wallen, N.E. (2001). Educational research: A guide to the process. Mahwah,
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Several important factors all contribute to better efficiency and cleaner water areas. For example, shallow grades in the buffer zones are ore effective than steeper grades of 5 degrees or more. Also, compacted soil proves to be less efficient than loose soil in the absorption of polluted storm and urban water runoff, (Stormwatercenter.net). Strategic placement of buffer zones is also a major factor in the effectiveness of the buffer areas. Mature forests and vegetated areas are ideal in choosing buffer zone sites. It has been shown through several studies that the more root systems in the ground of buffer zones, means the more pollutants absorbed from the ground water.
However, the three buffer zones working in harmony with environmental factors prove to be more efficient, and are a great asset in keeping local environments less polluted from residential and urban developments. Effective implementations of these strategic buffer zones can help…
Center of Watershed Protection. (). Article #41. Watershed Protection Techniques. http://www.cwp.org/Downloads/ELC_PWP41.pdf
Mulligan, Gerard E. (Feb 2007). "Aquatic Buffers." Westchester County Soil and Water Conservation District. http://www.westchestergov.com/planning/environmental/Reports/WaterResourceBufferBroch.pdf
Stormwatercenter.net. (2007) "Aquatic Buffers Fact Sheet." http://www.stormwatercenter.net/Assorted%20Fact%20Sheets/Tool3_Buffers/BufferZones.htm
There are numerous other supporting factors within this paper that provide support for differentiation to the market level, further supporting this statement. The one statement disagreed with within the enhanced model section is "Therefore, it is clear that an organization cannot engage in marketing without being aware of its environment" is false. Many organizations participate in marketing and have no idea what they are doing or how to accomplish it. This statement is therefore false and debatable.
The reliance on one specific model (Deshpande) for the definition of Organic vs. Mechanistic processes is enough of a foundation onto which the authors can arguably create more useful quadrants. The authors however stop short of being able to create a useful scalable framework that can be used across the entire lifecycle of a product or a service for example. The framework is also static; it does not take into account…
(Saxby, Parker, Nitse, Dishman, 28 -- 34)
Carl L. Saxby, Kevin R. Parker, Philip S. Nitse, and Paul L. Dishman.
"Environmental scanning and organizational culture." Marketing Intelligence & Planning 20.1 (2002): 28-34.
" (Sukumaran, 2004) Mutation is what results in the difference and may be utilized as a measure of the time that has elapsed since separation of the species from the common ancestor during evolution. This is a method of "inferring the divergence of time of clades from a common ancestor by means of gene/protein sequencing" and has been termed 'molecular dating'. The process is one in which there is a calibration of time in comparison to the Phanerozoic era fossil data and then expoliation is conducted for providing the estimation time for divergence of phyla. (Sukumaran, 2004; paraphrased) Indeed, if life did evolve as posited in the work of Charles Darwin then "the abrupt appearance of diversified life at the beginning of the Cambrian period was not explainable." (Sukumaran, 2004) However, Sukumaran explains that gradualism is not a central tenet to the idea that there has been an evolution of…
Fenchel, Tom (2002) the Origin and Early Evolution of Life. Oxford University Press 2002.
Wray et al., Molecular evidence for deep Precambrian divergence among metazoan phyla, Science, Vol. 274, pp. 568-573, 1996
Gon, S.M. III (2005) Trilobites of Chengjiang, China. 27 Apr 2005. Online available at http://www.trilobites.info/Chengjiang.htm
Gon, S.M. III (2007) Trilobites of the Emu Bay Shale, Australia 7 July 2007. Online available at http://www.trilobites.info/Emu.htm .
Childhood Obesity and Interventions
There is a strong relationship between childhood obesity and exposure to environmental factors -- most notably socio-economic status. There are exposures that trigger both positive and negative outcomes, and these have to be discussed along with the possible interventions that can be undertaken. Low socio-economic status (E) has been associated with a large number of problematic outcomes where health is concerned, including obesity and related issues in childhood (Kallem, et al., 2013). Despite this correlation, though, there are plenty of children with low E who grow up slim and apparently health, so it is clear that environment is not the only factor (Kallem, et al., 2013). The objective of the study by Kallem, et al. (2013) was to examine the "shift-and-persist" strategy and how (or if) it was what was protecting low E children from obesity in some cases. This strategy involves how a person deals…
Studies have found that racial and ethnic disparities can be just as significant as SES, diet, and exercise issues -- largely because SES and related concerns are often tied to specific racial and ethnic groups more than others (Carroll-Scott, et al., 2013). Preschool age children who are in minority racial and ethnic categories have a statistically higher prevalence of obesity when all other variables have been controlled for by researchers (Carroll-Scott, et al., 2013). That is a serious indication that there is more at play in the overall environment, and that study of all factors that could contribute to obesity is needed. That would include analyzing a larger area of environmental factors, because there are many causes for the tripling of obese children and adolescents throughout the last three decades (Dixon, et al., 2012). That much of a change in that short of a time period is a significant problem for society, and can raise the rates of health care for everyone.
If the obesity epidemic in children is not dealt with now, society can expect to see increases in the rates of many chronic diseases, and these diseases will be particularly obvious in populations that already have a disparity in their health (Dixon, et al., 2012). In the study conducted by Dixon, et al. (2012), the associations between SES and social characteristics of the residential environment were considered. Then, these were looked at as compared to diet, physical activity, and BMI (Dixon, et al., 2012). The participants consisted of students in the fifth and sixth grade at a school in New Haven, Connecticut (Dixon, et al., 2012). That was done to narrow down a population in order to determine the environmental factors associated with it (Dixon, et al., 2012). Multilevel modeling was used in order to collect information on the area and the students (Dixon, et al., 2012).
It was discovered that students living within a close walking distance of fast food outlets had higher BMI numbers than those who lived farther away (Dixon, et al., 2012). Additionally, high fast food outlet densities were linked to higher BMIs and more unhealthy eating (Dixon, et al., 2012). When students had close access to gyms, parks, and playgrounds, though, they were more likely to get exercise, helping to offset some of the unhealthy eating patterns (Dixon, et al., 2012). More affluent neighborhoods were also linked to healthier eating behaviors and better exercise regimens, where students who were on the low end of the SES scale ate poorly and got little exercise (Dixon, et al., 2012). One of the ways to help lessen the problems with childhood obesity could be to provide more parks, playgrounds, and other areas where students could get good exercise, and to lower the number of fast food establishments in residential areas.
Although the research tools provided by the ISO 14001 framework are both qualitative and quantitative, this approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who points out that, "Both qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet there is much overlap between the type of data and the style of research. Most qualitative-style researchers examine qualitative data and vice versa" (p. 16). Indeed, researchers have used qualitative and quantitative surveys to assess consumer reactions to proposed environmental initiatives at the local level (Neuman, 2003).
In fact, quantitative and qualitative research methods are characterized by a number of similarities that lend themselves to environmental systems analyses and development (as well as some differences) (Neuman, 2003). The distinct differences in the qualitative and quantitative research suggest that the use of quantitative data for environmental system development is highly appropriate, but that such…
Bonlac Foods. (2012). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://investing.business week.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=883342.
McComb, S. (2010). Green building & green business informatics tool. Elusor. Retrieved from http://www.environmentalaccountingtools.com/magazine/tag/building.
Recardo, R. & Jolly, J. (1999). Organizational culture and teams. SAM Advanced Management
Journal, 62(2), 4-5.
Evolutionay Undestanding of Physical Attaction and Mate Selection
Oveall Analysis of Pefeences Effect
Factos Influencing Mate Choices
Evolutionay Undestanding of Physical Attaction and Mate Selection
What factos would usually dive a peson to pefe one peson as a mate, to anothe? Ae thee any obsevable diffeences between the mate selection stategies employed by men, and those employed by women? A numbe of theoies have been put fowad to povide answes to these questions. Buss and Banes (1986), while making specific efeence to the Evolutionay Theoy, posit that the qualities women look fo in a potential mate diffe consideably fom those that men look fo. These diffeences, they suggest, manly accue fom the biological systemic diffeences between men and women, as well as the common belief that women age faste than men.
Women's fetility has been obseved to decease…
references influence your mate choices. Your cooperation is well appreciated. Thank you.
1. What is your gender? (Please circle one) (GENDER)
a. Male = 1
b. Female = 2
c. Transgender = 3
Environmental Assessing Canada
More and more countries have gotten actively involved in protecting the environment and Canada makes no exception from the rule, taking into account that it installed a series of programs meant to assist nature and discourage individuals or groups that might be inclined to damage it. The Canadian Environmental Act is probably one of the most significant steps that the country has taken with the purpose of making it mandatory for people and communities to conduct environmental assessments for diverse projects that they propose. Canadians have acknowledged the fact that some actions might have negative effects on the environment and thus developed environmental assessments meant to remove or diminish a project's capacity to harm to environment.
The 1868 Fisheries Act is probably one of the first significant environmental assessment programs that the government installed with the purpose of preventing individuals from harming the environment as a result…
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, "Canada Enter the Nuclear Age: A Technical History of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited," (McGill-Queens, 1997)
"Fisheries Act," Retrieved November 11, 2012, from the Fisheries and Oceans Canada Website: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/habitat/role/141/1415/14151-eng.htm
"Canadian Environmental Assessment Act," Retrieved November 11, 2012, from the Canadian Environmental Law Association Website: http://www.cela.ca/taxonomy/term/212
As a brief introduction of this study, environmental psychology pertains to the Correlational approach and linkages that are focused on the relationship between human being and their environment. This is a scientific study that are focused on the importance of natural environments that can be utilized by human beings that are focused on the development and manipulation of prioritization of certain issues and challenges affecting the environment. In this manner, the existence of the environment is influential to the world of humans for the fact that the degree of the environment's capability improves the welfare of the society to make the quality of life achieved. The concept of environmental psychology has an interest for applying the principles of design that can be made as an important structure in the environment according to Davis (2011). This can be in the form of architectural design and infrastructures that involves the…
Davis, John (2011). Ecopsychology and environmental psychology. Accessed: http://www.johnvdavis.com/ep/index.htm.
Edgerton, Eddie (2009). Environmental Psychology. Available: http://www.c-s-p.org/flyers/9781847182180-sample.pdf.
Evans, Gary (2007). Environmental Stress. Accessed: http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~scohen/environstress.pdf.
Graetz, Ken. (2009). Environment Learning Moments. Retrieved from: http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERM0663.pdf .
Current events of the environmental ethics
Some of the major current events concerning the environmental ethics are the issue of global warming. One of the leading researchers (in the causes and effects of climate change; and in the field of allergies) in Europe has discovered that the burning of the fossil fuel that has increased over the recent past has resulted into the increase of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide facilitates the growth of the ragweed- an invasive plant- moreover; the hay fever is triggered of by this plant's pollen grains. Both early and long seasons of allergy are caused by the bloom of the birch trees as a result of the warmer temperatures (White, 1967).
Non-environmentally friendly behaviors currently such as the increased acts of war has not only affected the environment by impoverishing the natural resources but has also caused stress in…
Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. California: Houghton Mifflin.
Van, W., & Peter C. (1997). Primitives in the Wilderness: Deep Ecology and the Missing
Human Subject. New York: SUNY Press.
Varner, G. (1998). In Nature's Interests? Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental
Environmental Case Study (Alberta's Oil Sands)
Alberta's Oil Sands represents one of the international environmental problems facing Canada and close to seventy countries across the globe. Albert's Oil Sands proves to be a new course of political conflict within the setting of Canada and at the international level. Oil Sands development is responsible for rapid economic growth of Alberta. This creates ethical or moral dilemma because there is a massive risk in association with the development of Oil Sands within the province. Oil Sands contribute towards ecological harm thus having a negative impact on the living conditions of the individuals in the province and the entire planet. This ethical dilemma leads to mobilization processes by environmental entities to help alleviate the situation. This is because some prominent political outfits such as Peter Lougheed recognize that the rate of the development of the oil sands in Alberta is not socially or…
Brown, Jordan. "The Pembina Institute: Balancing Environmental Policy with Oil Sands Development in an Industry-Oriented Economy." Undercurrent 6.2 (2009): 7-16. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.
Dunbar, R.B. Existing and Proposed Canadian Commercial Oil Sands Projects. Calgary: Strategy West, April 2008. Available at:
Fairley, Peter. "Alberta's Oil Sands Heat Up." Technology Review 114.6 (2011): 52. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 31 July 2012.
Pasqualetti, Martin J. "The Alberta Oil Sands From Both Sides Of The Border." Geographical Review 99.2 (2009): 248-267. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.
The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.
Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.
It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while…
Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.
Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.
Dannreuther, Roland (ed.) European Union Foreign and Security Policy (Routledge, 2004) Chapter 11
Deudney, D. The case against linking environmental degradation and national security, Millennium, 19:3 (1990), pp.461-76.
Environmental isk Analysis Process
Environmental isk Analysis (EA) is "a process for estimating the likelihood or probability of an adverse outcome or event due to pressures or changes in environmental conditions resulting from human activities" (Ministry of Environment, Land, and Parks, 2000). EA should be a scientific process, when that is possible. "In general terms, risk depends on the following factors: How much of a chemical is present in an environmental medium (e.g., soil, water, air), how much contact (exposure) a person or ecological receptor has with the contaminated environmental medium, and the inherent toxicity of the chemical" (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). All of these factors help the assessor determine the "potential adverse effects that human activities have on the living organisms that make up ecosystems. The risk assessment process provides a way to develop, organize and present scientific information so that it is relevant to environmental decisions"…
Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. (2009, June). Ecological risk assessments.
Retrieved January 7, 2013 from Department of Environmental Conservation website: http://dec.alaska.gov/spar/csp/guidance/eco_risk.pdf
Ministry of Environment, Land, and Parks. (2000, July). Environmental risk assessment (ERA):
An approach for assessing and reporting environmental conditions. Retrieved January 7,
Additionally, Bollier further states the contrail emissions to cause warmer weather.
The duration of contrails in the atmosphere can last for days, according to (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010). Trails may last for days and spread over hundreds of miles. According to Patrick Minnis, senior research scientist at NASA's Langley esearch Center in Virginia, "It helped us get a very good handle on the relationship between natural cirrus clouds and contrails, and separate the two effects. We estimate that contrails have an overall warming effect which is at least the same as aircraft CO2 exhaust, if not more." (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010)
The white streaks (Murray, 2006), which characterize the contrail left by a flying aircraft is suggested by Murray to be removed as a contaminant by lowering the altitude of the aircraft during flight. Additionally, "because contrails are released at high altitudes, have a more potent effect on the environment…
Fast, E. 2002, "Can contrails alter climate?," Environment, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 7.
Beam, S. 2005, "The Trouble with Contrails," Environment, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 4.
Bollier, S. 2007, "High Flyers and the Grounding of Equality," Multinational Monitor, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 31.
Harris, P., Kuper, S. & Lebel, C. 2010, Sandals Optional: Stories - Environment - Insight; Not all heroes of the green revolution fit the left-liberal activist stereotype.., the Financial Times Limited.
Environmental and Organizational
Individual Commitment to Environment
Contribute to Profits
Environmental vs. Organizational Pressure
Change is disruptive and can be the source of much anxiety and stress. egardless of these fears, changes within organizations are inevitable and are guaranteed to happen sooner or later. To better manage these changes it is helpful to compare and contrast the different types of pressures an individual may feel when working in a corporate environment. The purpose of this essay is to discuss these pressures in an organizational and environmental context to decipher their influence on organizations. For purposes of this essay I will utilize my job working for Astra Zeneca as a guide to explain these influences and how change can best be managed.
The environment contains the organization and is large in size and scope, and, in theory affecting everyone who…
Angell, L (1999). Environmental and Operations Management Face the Future. Decisions Sciences, May 1999. Retrieved from http://www.decisionsciences.org/DecisionLine/Vol30/30_3/pom30_3.pdf
Delmas, Magali A. And Michael Toffel. "Institutional Pressures and Organizational Characteristics: Implications for Environmental Strategy." The Oxford Handbook of Business and the Natural Environment. Bansal, Pratima, and Andrew Hoffman, Eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. 229-247
Donovan, F. (2013). Organizational pressures creating schizophrenia within IT. Fierce Enterprise Communications, 30 Mar, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.fierceenterprisecommunications.com/story/gartner-organizational-pressures - creating-schizophrenia-within-it/2013-03-30
Linear systems are constructed with layers of natural materials with low permeability. Leachate collection system is designed to remove liquid that is found in the liners. Waste is placed above the collection leachate system in layers.
Modern landfills are now built in locations which protect environment and human health as well as having structural integrity. There is restriction of the construction of modern landfills in floodplains, wetland or fault areas (epa, 2010). Once the modern landfills reach the height which is permitted it is closed down an engineered in such a way that it prevents the infiltration of water through the installation of a cap low in permeability which is same as the linear system. On top of the low-permeability barrier there is a granular drainage layer that diverts water from the top of the landfill. There is a protection cover at the filter blanket's top as well as top…
Repa, E. (2010). Modern Landfills. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&sqi=2&ved=0CHUQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.greenkerala.net%2Fpdf%2Fkey_issue_on_open_dumps.pdf&ei=Vy9uUcyuBamy7AbDo4GYBQ&usg=AFQjCNFUTQkrQnIxwkIgJOzwJtptbNSfGw&bvm=bv.45368065,d.ZWU
Republic Services, (2013). Solar-Gas Innovation. Retrieved April 18, 2012 from http://www.republicservices.com/Corporate/Planet/SustainabilityProjects/San-Antonio-Atlanta.aspx
Skye, J. (2011).Environmental problems: Landfills. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Environmental_Problems:_Landfills
This is an interdisciplinary field which focuses on the relationship between humans and their surroundings. It defines the term environment broadly, including natural environments, social settings, built environments, learning environments, and informational environments. When solving problems in pertaining human-environment interactions, which might be global or local, you must have a model of human nature that predicts the environmental conditions under which humans will behave in a decent and creative manner. Such a model enables one to design, manage, protect and/or restore environments that foster reasonable behavior, predict ion likely outcomes which comes about when these conditions are not met, and identifies problem situations. This field develops a model of human nature by retaining a wider and inherently multidisciplinary view. It explores two different issues such as common property resource management, view finding in complex settings, the effect of environmental stress on human performance, the characteristics of restorative environments,…
Gifford, R. (2007). Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice (4th ed.). Colville, WA: Optimal Books.
Proshansky, H.M. (1987). The field of environmental psychology: securing its future
Altman, I., Christensen, K. (Eds.). 'Environment and Behavior Studies: Emergence of Intellectual Traditions,' pp. 169 -- 185
Environmental and Organizational Pressures Sample
Create a table where at least three (3) organizational pressures and at least three (3) environmental pressures in the organization are illustrated and rank those pressures according to their influence.
Carbon emissions and overall sustainability
anking and promotion characteristics with the military.
Dependency on natural resources and their overall depletion
The ability to attract, hire and retain talented individuals to serve in the military
Identifying and using alternative energy and packaging solutions
Cultural sensitivity and its meaning within the organization.
Describe in detail the environmental and organizational pressures that exist in the organization and how they have evolved over time.
In regards to organization pressures within the military, much has changed due to varying societal norms. What was once deemed unacceptable by society has now become acceptable for society overall. As such, these changes have manifested themselves in…
1) Visser, Wayne, Dirk Matten, Manfred Pohl, and Nick Tolhurst (Editors) (2007). The A to Z. Of Corporate Social Responsibility. London, England; New York, NY: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-72395-1
2) Armstrong, Scott (1977). "Social Irresponsibility in Management." Journal of Business Research (Elsevier North-Holland Inc.) 15: 115 -- 203. http://marketing.wharton.upenn.edu/ideas/pdf/armstrong2/social.pdf .
3) Kalinda, B. (Ed.). Social Responsibility and Organizational Ethics. (2001). Encyclopedia of Business and Finance (2nd ed., Vol. 1). New York: Macmillan Reference
" (2007) Recommendations of this report include those as follows:
China should learn from the successes and failure of the U.S. And other developed countries in reducing the influence of energy use on air quality;
Continued dialogue and information exchange among U.S. And Chinese scientists and policy-makers should be promoted through professional organization, government support programs, and the National Academies in both countries to promote joint development of energy and pollution control strategies." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007)
Other findings of this report include the fact that "an important lesson learned is that air pollution damage imposes major economic costs, through premature mortality, increased sickness and lost productivity, as well as in decreased crops yields and economic impacts." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs,…
Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States (2007) Development, Security, and Cooperation (DSC) Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United States - Development, Security and Corporation: Policy and Global Affairs. National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council of the National Academies and the Chinese Academy of Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences. Online Pre-publication Release available at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12001&page=R2
Holder, Kevin (2007) Chinese Air Pollution deadliest in World - National Geographic News 9 July 2007. Online available at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/07/070709-china-pollution.html
Kim, Juli S. (2007)Transboundary Air Pollution - Will China Choke On Its Success? - A China Environmental Health Project Fact Sheet. 2 Feb. 2007. China Environment Forum in partnership with Western Kentucky University on the U.S. AID-supported China Environmental Health Project (CEHP)
Wang, Alex (nd) The Downside of Growth: Law, Policy and China's Environmental Crisis. Perspectives Vol. 2 No. 2. Online available at http://www.oycf.org/Perspectives/8_103100/downside_of_growth.htm
Meanwhile, if a teacher used the book, Awareness to Citizenship: Environmental Literacy for the Elementary Child, and uses it fully in developing a philosophy of teaching, a child will never be scared because the information is down-to-earth, well-presented, and family-friendly. The authors insist that teachers need not "know everything or be able to identify everything," but on the other hand, they should explore environmental issues with their students, and "always be thinking about how they might encourage students...by introducing nature-related materials, nature-related themes and concepts, [and] student centered activities" (Basile, et al., 20).
A good philosophy to develop is that nature is always all around us; Basile encourages her students to observe and make journal entries about what they "see and hear in the schoolyard" (21). This engenders a sense that the environment isn't some vague place "out there," but rather, that conservation and ecology are right here in the…
Basile, Carole; White, Cameron; & Robinson, Stacey. (2000). Awareness to Citizenship:
Environmental Literacy for the Elementary Child. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, Inc.
Bowers, C.A. (1995). Educating For An Ecologically Sustainable Culture: Rethinking Moral
Education, Creativity, Intelligence, and Other Modern Orthodoxies. Albany, NY: State
Environmental Themes in Grapes of rath
This essay reviews environmental themes from the following five books: Dust Bowl by Donald orster, The Grapes of rath by John Steinbeck, Everglades: River of Grass by Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Killing Mr. atson by Peter Matthiessen, and River of Lakes by Bill Belleville. This paper discusses the role that culture has played in environmental issues during the past century. Five sources used. MLA format.
Humans from the very beginning of their existence have had an impact, for better or worse, on the environment. Man has for the most part tried to control the environment to suit his needs or tastes of the era. Over-grazing, over hunting, ignoring the importance crop rotations, dam building, and toxic dumping, are but a few of the ways man tries to control. Few societies have ever considered any of the above when it comes to the environment.…
Belleville, Bill. River of Lakes. University of Georgia
Douglas, Marjory Stoneman. The Everglades River of Grass.
Pineapple Press. 50th Anniversary Edition. 1997.
Environmental Challenges Facing the Current Generation
hat are the most challenging environmental issues that will face humanity over the next 50 years? And what are the best ideas for options in the face of these challenges? hat are some companies doing to mitigate (reduce, reuse, and recycle resources) the problems on a local level? These and other issues and questions will be approached in this paper.
The Main Environmental Challenges
hile there is no one single most serious environmental challenge that all scholars, scientists, researchers, policy makers, journalists and others agree on, any cursory research into future environmental challenges and issues for Planet Earth will turn up the alarming and well-documented consequences of climate change. Of course climate change is not just a future issue but very much a current worry for citizens, scientists and policy makers. Many other critical issues are related to global climate change, including the population…
Emmott, S. (2013). Humans: the real threat to life on Earth. The Guardian / The Observer.
Retrieved February 21, 2014, from http://www.theguardian.com .
Foley, J. (2012). Earth in 20 Years. University of Minnesota. Retrieved February 21, 2014, from http://www1.umn.edu .
General Motors. (2013). Innovation: Environment / Waste Reduction. Retrieved February 21,
Environmental Biology: The Effects of Pollution in the Ocean
The oceans are being contaminated by pollution caused by oil spills, tanker discharges, untreated municipal wastes and agrochemical residues. Pollution is known to have destabilized many coastal ecosystems and is believed to be responsible for the decline in phytoplankton and consumable shellfish which usually thrive further out to sea. Medical wastes, beach visitors' garbage, waterfront businesses account for most of the toxic and most dangerous pollutants that lurk below the surface of the ocean. Oil spills and medical wastes only play a small part in ocean pollution (Energy Intelligence Group, 2002). Plants and factories spew over thirty-two billion gallons of poisonous chemicals and sewage into the sea every day. The Commerce Department's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2000) states that eighty percent of pollution to the marine environment comes from land-based sources, such as runoff pollution. Runoff pollution includes many small…
Adler, T. (1996, Feb.). The expiration of respiration; oxygen - the missing ingredient in many bodies of water. Science News, (149) 88.
Boukhari, S. (1998, July-Aug.). Marine blues. UNESCO Courier, (2) 47.
Conformer." Glossary of Marine Biology. Retrieved November, 7, 2002 from: http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/marinebio/glossary.c.html .
Energy Intelligence Group. (2002, May). Oil spills play small role in ocean pollution.
The growing population has a great impact on the extent of global warming and its consequences for society, economy and the environment. This means that there is rising in greenhouse emission, more people means more industry. Scientists worry about the emission from developing countries which may contribute to global environment problems even sooner than expected. ut not only the developing countries contributes to the emission but also rich industrialized countries have been putting carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere for many years now. "20% of the world's population can not continue to indiscriminately pollute the atmosphere at the expense of the majority" (M. Glantz 2005). Rich industrialized countries contributes a higher percentage of emission at the atmosphere that increases the environment's temperature of global warming and results to change of weather pattern to different regions. "Africa's contribution to the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases has been minimal,…
Glantz.H. (March 2005) Climate Change Global Warming and Sub-Saharan Africa. Fragile Ecologies. Retrieved on May 03, 2008, from website: http://www.fragilecologies.com/mar02_05.html. s
Global Warming. Natural Resources Defense Council. Retrieved on May 03, 2008, from website: http://www.nrdc.org/globalWarming/qthinice.asp
Klueger J. (2008). Global Warming Heats Up. Time Magazine. Retrieved on May 03, 2008, from website, www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1176980,00.html
The first Grays arrived in 2010, but they did not come en masse until a century later. The initial group of twenty brought with them a plethora of testing equipment from their home planet and took with them a total of two thousand samples from our environment. With the cooperation of the United Nations Council on Extraterrestrial Life (UNCEL), the Grays were permitted to take with them soil samples from hundreds of Earth locations and hundreds of botanical samples, many of which were of plants edible to humans but many of which were deemed palatable by the Grays. The Grays also took atmospheric air samples and water samples, both saline and non-saline, with them. Once the extensive surveys determined that their species could and would live on Earth comfortably, and once UNCEL approved it, about ten thousand of the Grays were permitted to come to the planet. The…
hough the methods for solving environmental problems might be new, the skills necessary to develop and implement these solutions are not. Along with the desire and ability to take in a wide array of information and make complex decisions based on this information, environmental engineers must have the ability to plan ahead using the possible developments in this information. Long-term planning abilities, as well as the ability to communicate environmental issues and their solutions to non-engineers, are both essential skills that environmental engineers must possess (Lindner & Nyberg 1973). Without these abilities, the work of environmental engineers would not be effectively developed or implemented; they must be practically applied in the long-term in order to be useful.
he role of the environmental engineer developed essentially as a response to an ethical issue -- namely the degradation of the environment -- and thus every aspect of en environmental engineer's job can…
Though the methods for solving environmental problems might be new, the skills necessary to develop and implement these solutions are not. Along with the desire and ability to take in a wide array of information and make complex decisions based on this information, environmental engineers must have the ability to plan ahead using the possible developments in this information. Long-term planning abilities, as well as the ability to communicate environmental issues and their solutions to non-engineers, are both essential skills that environmental engineers must possess (Lindner & Nyberg 1973). Without these abilities, the work of environmental engineers would not be effectively developed or implemented; they must be practically applied in the long-term in order to be useful.
The role of the environmental engineer developed essentially as a response to an ethical issue -- namely the degradation of the environment -- and thus every aspect of en environmental engineer's job can be seen as in dialogue with certain ethical issues. This is directly and explicitly observable in the Institution of Engineers of Australia Code of Ethics (2000), which lists working "in conformity with accepted engineering and environmental standards" as a basic ethical tenet of all engineering, and as the primary goal of environmental engineering is to create and uphold these environmental standards it can be seen that environmental engineers necessarily hold up their ethical duties when they perform their jobs successfully. There may, of course, be certain dilemmas that arise in the course of environmental engineer's cuties; pressures to downplay environmental effects from corporate interests, or to divert problems and cut corners, could be very high in this type of work. Truly adhering to the engineering principles of the work however, also mandates adherence to the roper ethical behaviors and standards of the job.
Of all of the areas of engineering, environmental engineering is one of the most rapidly expanding and diversifying fields. There is a great amount of good that can be done in the field, as well as a great deal of interesting and innovating work that would be personally and intellectually fulfilling for the right candidate. From both a personal and a global perspective, then, environmental engineering is an exciting and increasingly relevant new field.
Environmental Decision Making Ecosystems Approach
What is the author's main point?
The author's main point is to focus on the conflicting needs of stakeholders. He is developing an effective environmental management system to meet the conflicting interests. In these situations, Fish (2011) determined that a flexible and holistic approach must be utilized in conjunction with each other. The combination of these factors enables everyone to create a system that achieves the larger objectives of the organization. While at the same time, it is maintaining a sense of balance between the various interests in society. This is when it will be effective in reducing the adverse ecological impacts and it is taking into consideration all of the other factors that are not accounted for. (Fish, 2011)
Who is the author's intended audience?
Fish's intended audience is individuals who are in business, government, public advocacy groups and environmental organizations. Each one of…
Fish, R. (2011). Environmental Decision Making. Progress in Physical Geography, 35 (5), 671-680.
Schultz, L. (2015). Adaptive Governance, Ecosystem Management and Natural Capital. Proc. Natl. Acad. (112), 7348-7355.
Identify four factors that affect whether an industry does or does not present a company with a good business opportunity?
The business environment has become highly complex and challenging for firms due to various macro-environmental factors. These factors directly impact the operational and financial performance of firms in one way or another (Sharp, Bergh, & Li, 2013). The economic, political, legal, social, cultural, competitive, and technological forces collectively form the external business environment for business organizations (Hill & Jones, 2010). However, the four leading factors that drive the performance of organizations whether their industry does or does not present them with good business opportunities include: globalization, technological advancements, consumer behavior, and competitive intensity (Thompson, Peteraf, Gamble, Strickland, 2013).
Globalization has a significant influence on the performance of local and international firms operating in a country. Now firms not only have to compete with their domestic competitors, but…
Batra, S.K., & Kazmi, S.H. (2008). Consumer Behavior: Text and Cases, 2nd Edition. New Delhi: Excel Books.
Hill, C.W., & Jones, G.R. (2010). Strategic Management Theory: An Integrated Approach, 9th Edition. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2013). Strategic Management: Competitiveness & Globalization - Concepts, 10th Edition. Mason, OH: South-Western.
Johnson, G., Scholes, K., Whittington, R., & Pyle, S. (2011). Exploring Corporate Strategy: Text and Cases, 9th Edition. Harlow: Prentice Hall.
Ginger - Smart Basics
The country's environmental factors
This study focuses on a PESTEL analysis touching on the tourism industry in India as encountered by Ginger - Smart Basics Company. PESTEL is a framework of employed in identifying key factors that drive organizational changes in the strategic environment. It entails environmental, legal, technological, social, economic and political factors.
Political violence and the public have damaged the tourism industry significantly in the past few years. However, experts within the industry argue that the damage is not long-term. Industry leaders and the government say there is much to do in rebuilding the tattered reputation of tourism. In broad daylight, the world has witnessed scores of terrorist killing masses across the city of Mumbai. Although India has been notorious for orchestrating the political violence, this recent horrific attack was primarily targeting foreigners and travelers. This attack was televised across the globe…
Das, G.D. (2011). Tourism marketing. Delhi: Pearson.
Kamplikar, M. (2011). Ginger -- Smart Basics. Q Emerald Group Publishing Limited Vol. 1 No. 1 pp. 1-12,
Kumar, S. (2009). Marketing of Hospitality & Tourism Serv. New York: Tata McGraw-Hill
Wirtz, J. (2012). Essentials of Services Marketing. California: FT Press.
Brain Factors That Influence Psychopathy
Psychopathy is among the conditions that burden the performance of most global states in the current contemporary society. A variety of factors causes psychopathy. The factors include biological, environmental, and brain factors. Psychopathy presents with different symptoms including, violence, deceitfulness, aggression, irresponsibility, lack of guilt, and impulsiveness among other symptoms associated with it. Significant researches conducted in the past have failed to create an understanding of the brain factors that cause the psychopathy. Therefore, the following essay presents an analysis of the brain factors that cause the psychopathy. The analysis presents results obtained from studies conducted to create an understanding of the relationship.
According to Verona, Sprague, and Sadeh (2012) psychopathy refers to a condition characterized by diminished abilities for remorse and low abilities to control behaviors. Cale and Lilienfeld (2002) show in their definition that defining psychopathy should not only focus on the…
Anderson, J.L., et al., (2014). Examining the Associations between Section III Antisocial Personality Disorder Traits and Psychopathy in Community and University Samples. Journal of Personality Disorders, 12(3), 1-23.
Cale, E.M., & Lilienfeld, S.O. (2002). Histrionic Personality Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder: Sex-Differentiated Manifestations of Psychopathy?. Journal of Personality Disorders, 16(1), 52-72.
Coid, J., & Ullrich, S. (2010). Antisocial Personality Disorder Is On A Continuum With Psychopathy. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 51(4), 426-433.
Harmer, C., Perrett, D., Cowen, P., & Goodwin, G. (2001). Administration of the beta-adrenoceptor blocker propranolol impairs the processing of facial expressions of sadness. Psychopharmacology, 154(4), 383-389.
What is the role of human factors in improving aviation safety?
Many personnel are involved in the operation and maintenance of airplanes. The aviation industry employs many people performing many different roles and tasks to keep aviation a safe mode of transportation for goods and services. Despite rules, procedures, and advanced technology to help keep passengers and crew safe, sometimes accidents still occur. It was found that more than 70% of commercial airplane accidents are caused by humans, rather than simply a failure of technology (Higgins & Higgins, 2008). This research supports the thesis that human factors are one of the most difficult, and the most important issues in aviation needed to increase aviation safety in the future.
Mechanical failure is cited as one of the more common reasons for aviation disasters (Higgins & Higgins, 2008). It is easy to shift the blame to a machine, rather than…
AAM-500. (2010). Human Factors Research Division (AAM-500) Simulation Facilities. Federal Aviation Administration. http://www.faa.gov/data_research/research/med_humanfacs/humanfactors/
Gallaway, G. (2011). A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Fatigue Risk Management in Aircraft
Maintenance -- Near-Term and NextGen Time Frame (Maintenance Fatigue; Avers).
AAM-500-b-F-004 Rev.2. Retrieved from
Night Vision Goggles: Fatigue and Decline Cognitive Levels
Night Vision Goggles: Fatigue and Decline of Cognitive Levels
In modern combat missions, the desire to operate at night is paramount because of the heightened enemy prowess against aggressors. As a result, technology has fostered the possibility of developing systems that would minimize the challenges associated with darkness. A common example of this technology is the Night Vision Goggles (NVG). However, because of physical and physiological challenges associated with NVG technology, pilots have often been dissatisfied with their careers. This situation has often forced many of them to leave their current workplaces in search for the ones that address cognitive and psychological problems associated with the use of the gadget. This research proposal will prove that NVG causes fatigue and lowers the quality of cognitive judgments required in piloting. While identifying the problems associated with NVG technology in piloting, this study will…
Bailey, R.E. (2012). Awareness and Detection of Traffic and Obstacles Using Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems. NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, 1-69
Brickner, M.S. (1980). Helicopter Flights with Night-Vision Goggles- Human Factors Aspects. Ames Research Center; 1-40
Chen Y, Wickramasinghe V and Zimcik D. (2007). Adaptive mount approaches for helicopter seat vibration control. In: Proceedings of ICAST 17 (4) 211-241
Craig, G, et al. (2006). Night Vision Goggle External Lighting Effects. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 50: 86-90 DOI: 10.1177/154193120605000119
As a result, in such conditions, the flight control systems commands the engines to increase thrust without pilot intervention and with an accuracy that no pilot could achieve.
Human Factors Considerations
The F/a-18D Hornet that slammed into a residential neighborhood in San Diego last December came from the first family of fighter jets with full fly-by-wire technology, where a flight control computer gathers data from on-board sensors to control flaps and other control surfaces that were mechanically driven on planes decades ago. ut for all their high-tech appeal, do fly-by-wire systems distance pilots from the feel and behavior of their airplanes to the point that crashes become more likely (Milstein)?
In aviation, human factors is dedicated to better understanding how humans can most safely and efficiently be integrated with the technology. That understanding is then translated into design, training, policies, or procedures to help humans perform better (Human Factors).…
Aircraft flight control systems." n.d. Absoluteastronomy. 03 March 2009 http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Aircraft_flight_control_systems .
Alford, L.D., Jr. "Fly-by-wire T & E. challenge [aircraft test pilot handling compensation]." Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, IEEE February 2004: 3-7, Volume 19, Issue 2.
Bannister, Jonathan, et al. "Fly-by-Wire Report." 04 October 2006. Adelaide University School of Mechanical Engineering. 05 March 2009 http://www.mecheng.adelaide.edu.au/~marjom01/Aeronautical%20Engineering%20Projects/2006/group8.pdf .
Corporate information/history: Fly-by-wire." n.d. Airbus. 04 March 2009 http://www.airbus.com/en/corporate/people/company_evolution/history/part_6.html .
Biological Factors and Juvenile Delinquency
A biological theory or a biological factor contributing to delinquency:
A genetic propensity for addiction
Although many teens experiment with drugs and alcohol, not all teens become addicted. Biological as well as social factors can impact an adolescent's propensity to become addicted to illicit substances. According to the research study, "Youth substance use and body composition: Does risk in one area predict risk in the other?" from the Journal of Youth and Adolescence, a positive association has been found in numerous studies between high adolescent BMI and alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use (Pasch et al. 2012). The willingness to engage in illegal behavior regarding drugs and alcohol has thus been linked to a higher BMI in youth and adolescents.
The authors of the study initially speculated that this association might be due to the fact that overweight teens use smoking as an appetite suppressant,…
Pasch, K.E., Velazquez, C.E., Cance, J.D., Moe, S.G., & Lytle, L.A. (2012). Youth
substance use and body composition: Does risk in one area predict risk in the other? Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41(1), 14-26. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-011-9706-y
In a report on recent research in this area, Hickman (2008) states that, "Although the public recycle newspapers and bottles, only one eighth of clothes are recycled through charity shops
About 70 per cent goes straight to landfill or incineration" (Hickman). This is telling example, of the way that Fast Fashion can affect the environment.
The fact that these fashions are relatively cheap means that they are more easily discarded that would be the case with more expensive garments. Furthermore, the finding that almost all discarded Fast Fashion is not ecologically processed in an environmentally friendly way is a central factor that will be explored in detail.
The same study by Hickman referred to above contributes to the overall picture of the potentially negative outcomes of Fast Fashion in countries like the United Kingdom. " aste volumes from the sector are high and growing in the UK with the advent…
ANALYSIS: Do consumer concerns threaten fast fashion? 2007. 9 Feb. 2008 http://www.just-style.com/article.aspx?ID=98337
Antonides, G. & van Raaij, W.F. Consumer Behaviour: A European Perspective, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. 1998
Betts K. Margareta van den Bosch. Style & Design, Vol. 170, 2007.
Cheap Fashion, Fast Fashion. 9 Feb. 2008. http://www.bbc.co.uk/blast/art/articles/cheap_fashion_fast_fashion.shtml
The researcher predicts that the information gathered from the literature review and field studies will suggest that multiple environmental and familial influences significantly impact adult African-American perceived job satisfaction and quality of work life. The researcher also intends to find that environment is a key indicator of job market prospects and opportunities available to adult African-Americans.
Much of the literature available currently suggests that strong familial relationships exist within this community, and that those relationships may either positively or negatively impact African-American's self-esteem and perceptions of their employment opportunities and work environment. This research will fill a void that currently exists with respect to employment studies and African-American familial and environmental relationships. The results of this study may provide insight to researchers and social workers as to what steps must be taken to improve self-reported quality of work life and employment opportunities among this population.
Bowles, S. &…
Bowles, S. & Gintis, H. (2000 - Dec). "The inheritance of economic status: Education, class and genetics." Dept. Economics, University MA. 12, October 2005: http://www.santafe.edu/sfi/publications/Working-Papers/01-01-005.pdf
Cokley, K.O. (2001). "Testing the construct validity of scores on the multidimensional inventory of black identity." Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34(2): 80.
Harry, B., Klinger, J.K. & Hart, J. (2005). "African-American families under fire:
Ethnographic views of family strengths." Remedial and Special Education, 26(2): 101
Tourism in Thailand
Economic, Social, Cultural and Environmental Impacts of Tourism in Thailand
Urban and rural tourism in Thailand accounts for around 7% of the total GDP. There are various factors, social, economic, environmental and cultural factors which affect the tourism industry in Thailand. Also, the rural tourism in Thailand needs more work. This report has some strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of Thailand's tourism industry. In the end, recommendations are given on how to improve the tourism industry in Thailand.
Tourism in Thailand
Impact of Environmental, Economical, Social and Cultural Factors on Tourism in Thailand
Tourism is one of the world's fastest growing industries, and this industry has been identified as a means of generating national income (Pender, & Sharpley, 2005). Thailand, a beautiful country at the heart…
Chon, K, Singh, A, & Mikula, J. (1993). Thailand's tourism and hotel industry. The Cornell hotel and restaurant administration quarterly, 34(3), 43-49.
Elliot, J. (1983). Politics, power, and tourism in Thailand. Annals of tourism research, 10(3), 377-393.
Forsyth, T, (2002). What happened on the "the beach"? social movements and governance of tourism in Thailand. International journal of sustainable development, 5(3), 326-337.
Gold, J, & Revill, G. (2004). Representing the Environment. Routledge, London
Geen" Human Resouce Pactices And Envionmental Pefomance
A numbe of entepises have histoically adopted the appoach of compliance within thei envionmental initiatives, and by consequence, ules and legislations guiding thei envionmental appoaches. Howeve, ove the last many yeas, new consume needs, consume boycotts, global envionmental standads, dynamic pefeences, and othe envionmental factos have influenced coe values and the fundamental business stategies of copoations (Daily, Bishop and Steine, 2007). Oganizations ae pat of society, and it is impeative that they function like team playes; this is whee the concept of "geen" management becomes elevant. A key schema now is that a company's outcome is stongly impacted by envionmental concens (Taiq, Jan & Ahmad, 2016).
Envionmental and human esouce (HR) management's effect in the business context elates powefully to a moe compehensive association between oganizations' economic and envionmental pefomance. In this context, it is fequently agued that impoved envionmental pefomance esults in…
references for sustainability and their impact on supply chain management. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 43, 380 -- 406.
Benn, S., Teo, S. T., & Martin, A. (2015). Employee participation and engagement in working for the environment. Personnel Review, 44(4), 492-510.
Boxall, P., Purcell, J., & Wright, P. (2009). Human resource management: Scope, analysis, and significance. In J. Storey, P. Wright, & D. Ulrich (Eds.), The Routledge companion to strategic human resource management (pp. 1 -- 17). New York: Routledge.
Crotty, J., & Rodgers, P. (2012). Sustainable development in the Russia Federation: the limits of greening within industrial firms. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 19(3), 178-190.
Daily, B. F., Bishop, J. W., & Steiner, R. (2007). The mediating role of EMS teamwork as it pertains to HR factors and perceived environmental performance. Journal of Applied Business Research, 23(1), 95.
" Indeed, a Danish study according to Kety et al. (as cited in Kalat, 2012) "found schizophrenia in 12.5% of the immediate biological relatives and none of the adopting parents." It can therefore be noted that although only a small percentage of the general population suffers from schizophrenia, having close familial relations with someone suffering from the same does increase an individual's chances of developing schizophrenia. The disorder is thus inheritable. This effectively means that Alan's chances of becoming schizophrenic are rather high given that both his parents had schizophrenia.
It is however important to note that as I had already indicated earlier, environmental factors also do play a role in the development of schizophrenia. If one twin is schizophrenic, then it does not automatically mean that the other twin could be suffering from the same condition as well. This effectively means that genetic predisposition is not the only cause…
Kalat, J.W. (2012). Biological Psychology (11th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Kearney, C.A. & Trull, T.J. (2011). Abnormal Psychology and Life: A Dimensional Approach. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine -- NCBI, NLM (2012, February 13). Schizophrenia: Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia. Retrieved February 9, 2013, from the NCBI, NLM website: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001925/
These problems can stem from genetic factors, but can also come about with other events of abuse, neglect, and violence in young children. Diseases, such as ADHD, Autism, as well as others can also bring about these problems that cause low performance and the child needs special services to learn appropriate functioning. oys with low neuropsychological performance and family adversity showed four times the aggression levels of boys with only one of the factors, accounting for 70.2% of all violence committed by the cohort of the study (Raine, 2002).
For example, a child with ADHD can be extremely hyper, depending on the degree of ADHD that causes problems with how the hyper activity is handled. It is easy for a parent who does not know how to handle the hyper child to become frustrated. If there are other environmental factors, such as alcohol and drugs, the problems can become worse…
Brain injury rate high for young delinquents. (2008). Crime Times, 14(4).
Raine, a. (2002). Biosocial studies of antisocial and violent behavior in children and adults: A review. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(4), 311-2-6.
The apparent lessons learned from frequency distribution analysis and an assessment of the data do not get past the methodology to gain greater insights however. The researchers could have made a much more valuable study possible by using the methodology as the foundation instead of the fences or barriers to further accomplishment of analysis.
The data also is sourced from a variety secondary research database, and it is apparent that the methodology to generate this data varies significantly. The researchers discount the variations in data sourcing by explaining they all had the same basic research objective of understanding the Spanish small and medium business adoption of e-commerce. The study does not resolve this issue but instead uses the statistical analysis to show intuitively what the researchers surely already knew: the more wired and stronger the technological infrastructure of a region the greater the adoption and reliance on e-commerce as a…
Rodriguez-Ardura, I., & Meseguer-Artola, A. (2010). Toward a Longitudinal Model of e-Commerce: Environmental, Technological, and Organizational Drivers of B2C Adoption. Information Society, 26(3), 209.
It has made effective use of American's desire to save money on gas and avoid depending on foreign fuel, although it has given little attention to the additional time savings provided by the ability to drive in commuter lanes and tax and insurance savings provided to hybrid owners. It has perhaps shown perhaps insufficient consideration for American's obsession with power, speed, and acceleration, which drivers rated (surprisingly) even more highly than fuel economy in a recent survey when asked what motivates them to buy a particular brand of car (Reddell, Tran, & Zittle, 2006). Currently, Toyota is marketing the Prius with a stress on its lowered price tag: "Prius: Easy on Gas. And now Easy on the allet" ("Toyota Prius," 2007, Toyota ebsite). It continues to strike a balance between capitalizing upon consumer self-interest and interest in the environment, but Toyota could try to make the car itself seem sexier,…
Hagenbaugh, Barbara. (16 May 2006). "Gas costs families $1,000 more a year than in '01."
USA Today. Retrieved 20 May 2007 at http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/energy/2007-05-16-gas-prices-hearing_N.htm
Laumer, John. (2005). "Tree Hugger Interviews Mary Nicholson, Technical Marketing
Manager for the Toyota Prius." Tree Hugger. Retrieved 20 May 2007 at http://www.treehugger.com/files/2005/10/treehugger_inte.php
GESP factors basis social business opportunities country Malaysia. I attached paper requirements. Thanks.
Social Business esearch
Malaysia is located in Southeastern Asia, peninsula bordering Thailand and northern one-third of the island of Borneo, bordering Indonesia, Brunei, and the South China Sea, south of Vietnam. It has a tropical climate with annual monsoons. The country's natural resources are tin, petroleum, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas and bauxite.
The most important environmental issues Malaysia is facing are represented by air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions, water pollution from raw sewage, deforestation, smoke from Indonesian forest fires.
The economic and financial crisis has affected Malaysia as much as it has affected other countries in the world. The crisis' effects were more severe on the poor (The World Bank, 2000). This situation can be observed by analyzing education participation rates, unemployment, and infant mortality.…
1. Malaysia (2014). CIA, The World Factbook. Retrieved February 7, 2015 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/my.html .
2. Malaysia: Social and Structural Review Update (2000). The World Bank. Retrieved February 7, 2015 from
Even though users of light therapy are often advised not to look directly at the light source, the mechanisms of the eye focus incoming light onto the macula, the small region of the retina where vision takes place, and where age-related macular degeneration occurs. Since blue light wavelength make up only a small percentage of the light in white light, any form of light therapy using a high proportion of blue light therefore risks subverting a variety of defensive mechanisms that protect the retina against blue light hazard. These defensive mechanisms include the anatomical positioning and structure of eye and its surrounding features, as well as human posture, which makes it awkward for humans to gaze upwards for long periods of time. Sunnex iotechnologies, 2008)
The work of David H. Sliney entitled: "Ocular Hazards of Light" presented at the International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop states the following risks and…
Figueiro, M.G., J.D. Bullough, R.H. Parsons, and M.S. Rea. Preliminary Evidence for Spectral Opponency in the Suppression of Melatonin by Light in Humans. Neuroreport, Vol. 15, 2004, pp. 313-316 in: Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7
Figueiro, M., et al. Demonstration of additivity failure in human circadian phototransduction. Neuro Endocrinology Letters, Vol. 26, 2005, pp. 493-498.
Ingling, C.R., E. Martinez, and a.L. Lewis. Tonic-Phasic-Channel Dichotomy and Crozier's Law. Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 73, 1983, pp. 183-189 in Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7 Report
Lack, Leon, Bramwell, Toby, Wright, Helen, and Kemp, Krystyn (2007) Morning blue light can advance the melatonin rhythm in mild delayed sleep phase syndrome
Control and Adjustment of Environmental Factors for a New Bookstore: The Balanced Scorecard Perspective
All businesses, whether they are brand new and still in the planning stages or have been around for generations, must continually reappraise their position in their given market and industry in order to ensure that they are providing their shareholders and all stakeholders with the maximum possible benefit for their involvement with the business. Simply put, companies must make sure that their vision and strategies, in addition to being maintained with a high degree of focus and integrity, are also being implemented in effective and practical ways. There are a variety of different theoretical models that can help to translate the abstractions of visions and objectives into practical actions and decisions, and among the simplest yet potentially most effective of these models is the balanced scorecard.
The balanced scorecard model or framework was developed…
Bourne, M. & Bourne, P. (2009). Balanced Scorecard (Instant Manager). London: Hodder & Stoughton.
Kaplan, R. & Norton, D. (2002). The Balanced Scorecard: Translating Strategy into Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business Press.
Niven, P. (2002). Balanced Scorecard Step-by-Step: Maximizing Performance and Maintaining Results. New York: Wiley.
Olve, N. & Sjostrand, A. (2006). The Balanced Scorecard. New York: Wiley.