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This will help them to live and address their short-term challenges. At the same time, there will be a retraining and jobs creation program for these individuals. This will ensure that they are able to quickly transition into new careers to support themselves. ("Fukushima Nuclear Clean Up," 2012)
To take on the longer term issues, the government should have the plant's owner (Tokyo Electric) pay some kind of damages to property owners and farmers. This can be accomplished through having a land program that will allow these families to relocate to other communities and purchase select amounts of property. Over the course of time, this approach will help everyone that was impacted by the disaster to recovery financially. ("Fukushima Nuclear Clean Up," 2012)
To address the health related issues, the government must recommend that individuals from the exclusion zone receive regular checkups (for a various conditions caused by radiation exposure).…
Fukushima Exclusion Zone. (2012). Fox News. Retrieved from:
Fukushima Nuclear Clean Up. (2012). Guardian. Retrieved from:
Studies of the aftereffects of the Gulf War determined that every single U.S. 120 mm tank shell resulted, on average, in approximately five pounds of radioactive Uranium
Oxide dust. Likewise, each of the nearly one million 25 mm and 30 mm canon shells fired (mostly) by U.S. aircraft contributes a proportional share of Uranium Oxide dust per unit volume (Peterson, 2003).
Unlike the depleted Uranium itself (which emits mainly Alpha particles), the Uranium Oxide produced by the intense explosive heat of ordinance impact releases both Alpha particles as well as much more dangerously radioactive Beta particles (Fahey, 2000). Another very disturbing finding after the 1991 Gulf War was that Uranium Oxide aerosolized into extremely minute particles capable of ingestion both orally by physical transference, and by inhalation (Peterson, 2003).
Furthermore, several studies undertaken in the affected areas established that radioactive dust produced by the use of DU ammunition was capable…
Bertell, R. (1999) Gulf War Veterans and Depleted Uranium.
Diehl, P. (1999) Depleted Uranium: A by-product of the Nuclear Chain.
Fahey, D. (1999) Depleted Uranium Weapons: Lessons from the 1991 Gulf War.
Goodman, O. (2002) Nuclear Waste on the Highways; the New York Times Apr. 21/02. Accessed October 22, 2007, at http://www.mindfully.org/Nucs/Nuclear-Road-Goodman28apr02.htm
E-Waste: Environmental Impacts
The E-waste Threat
Health and Environmental Impact of E-waste
Particulars to Human Threat from Hazardous Metals from E-waste
Soil and water Contaminations from E-waste
The growth of electronic waste is expected to rise exponentially in the next few years. According to a report published in 'The Guardian' on December 2013, the volume of electronic waste is estimated to increase at a rate of 33% in the next few years (Hester & Harrison, 2009). The report, quoting UN's 'Step initiative', the combined weight of all the e-waste would be the same as eight of the great Egyptian pyramids put together (Vidal, 2013). The electronic wastes are made up of various materials like lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and flame retardants. All these chemicals are toxic in nature. For example, a cathode ray tube television set can have up to three kilograms of lead (McCann & Wittmann, 2015).
Carroll, C. (2015). High-Tech Trash - National Geographic Magazine. [online] Ngm.nationalgeographic.com. Available at: http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2008/01/high-tech-trash/carroll-text [Accessed 25 Apr. 2015].
Cohen, N. (2011). Green business. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.
Foote, S. And Mazzolini, E. (2012). Histories of the dustheap. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Goodship, V. (n.d.). Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) handbook.
The foundations of wind turbines have an impact on their local environment. Therefore, foundation selection is a primary consideration for developers and wind farm managers. Foundation selection is especially important for offshore wind turbines. The construction of turbine foundations and the use of scour protection materials have been notable impediments to shorebirds, seabirds, and the integrity of shallow water ecosystems including bedrock (Drewitt & Langston, 2006, p. 32). All wind turbines have an impact on birds, though, and the evidence suggesting that offshore wind turbines have a net worse impact on the avian community has been unsubstantiated (Fox et al., 2006). According to a Danish study, no more than two percent of total wind farm area is lost due to the turbine foundations or antiscour protection (Fox et al., 2006). The seabed habitat loss should, however, be monitored over time to provide more an accurate understanding of how…
Drewitt, A.L. & Langston, R.H.W. (2006). Assessing the impacts of wind farms on birds. Ibis 48(1): 29-42.
Fox, A.D., et al. (2006). Information needs to support environmental impact assessment of the effects of European marine offshore wind farms on birds. Ibis 148(1): 129-144.
Razizadeh, S.B. (2014). Life cycle analyses of the foundation of onshore wind energy structures.
Wind Energy EIS (2014). Wind energy development environmental concerns. Retrieved online: http://windeis.anl.gov/guide/concern/
These are the organisms that are accountable for the development of red tides. These algal blooms later destroy additional aquatic species by interfering with their respiratory organs. Among the numerous species of microscopic algae that comprises the foundation of the aquatic food chain, about eighty-five species are said to be deadly (Carlisle, n.d).
Legislation should be passed to govern the maritime activities such as oil drilling and crude oil shipping in order to set specific safety guidelines and risk mitigation approaches. Hefty fines should be imposed on the parties that contravene these legislations. Cleanup activities should also be put in place to eliminate both the short-term and long-term effects of the previous oil spill. The aim is to rehabilitate and rejuvenate the level of aquatic and human health.
Oil spill are dangerous to aquatic and human life forms. They should therefore be avoided and controlled at all cost…
Achenbach, J. (2008) "A 'Dead Zone' in the Gulf of Mexico: Scientists Say Area That Cannot
Support Some Marine Life Is Near Record Size," Washington Post
Carlisle, E. (n.d) the Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone and Red Tides.
http://www.tulane.edu/~bfleury/envirobio/enviroweb/DeadZone.htm. Accessed on February 24, 2011
Life Cycle or Carbon Footprint of Plastic Bags
Plastic bags are regarded as one of the most common items in daily life in the modern society. These products continue to be common in everyday life despite emerging concerns across many cities worldwide concerning their probable environmental impact. These concerns have increased in the recent past because of the problem of global climate change. Actually, the concerns have been fueled by increased interest in calculating the climate change effects of varying consumer products in recent years. Despite accounting for a small portion of consumer products, plastic or shopping bags have been identified as sources of numerous environmental problems throughout the world. Some of the major environmental problems emerging from the use of plastic bags include litter, flooding, and resource depletion. Nonetheless, the impact of plastic bags on global climate change can be understood through examining their life cycle or carbon footprint.…
Adane, L. & Muleta, D. (2011, August). Survey on the Usage of Plastic Bags, Their Disposal, and Adverse Impacts on Environment: A Case Study in Jimma City, Southwestern Ethiopia. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, 3(8), 234-248.
Ellis et al. (2005, December 22). Plastic Grocery Bags: The Ecological Footprint. Retrieved November 12, 2015, from http://www.vipirg.ca/archive/publications/pubs/student_papers/05_ecofootprint_plastic_bags.pdf
Jalil, A., Mian, N. & Rahman, M.K. (2013). Using Plastic Bags and Its Damaging Impact on Environment and Agriculture: An Alternative Proposal. International Journal of Learning and Development, 3(4), 1-14.
Khoo, H.H., Tan, R.B.H., Chng, K.W.L. (2010, February 13). Environmental Impacts of Conventional Plastic and Bio-based Carrier Bags. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 15, 284-293.
The D. factor symbolizes the level of economic demand that the population has and it depends on the number of people that inhabit the earth. T stands for the technology used to exploit nature by the people in order to have everything necessary for surviving.
The equation is partly correct, but, in fact, it depends mostly on the population, as people tend to influence the environment with their constant evolution. During the early ages, people did not need a great deal of belongings in order to ensure their existence and instead they only needed things that could only take them through the day. Despite that, humans began to prove their superior intelligence with the invention of fire, wheel and other inventions which lead to evolution. Evolution also lead people in creating more favorable conditions of living, thus they could live better and they were able to increase their numbers. As…
solicited in connection the presence of the white-Tailed deer at Catoctin Park.
Due to the problem of the white-tailed deer hampering forest regeneration at Catoctin Mountain Park, the Park is considering implementing one of four action alternatives. The selected plan will become the final white-tailed deer management plan that will guide further actions for at least the coming 15 years. The proposed action plan runs from the most benign intention of placing certain controls in check to the most malevolent that includes sharp shooting and euthanasia of deer as well as deliberate plans to stem their reproduction (NPS.gov. United States Department of the Interior National Park Service Final white-tailed deer management plan, n.d.). After carefully evaluating the merits and demerits of each of the plans, this correspondent recommends Approach B. As the most feasible, ethical, and pragmatic implementation for reasons mentioned in this petition.
As you write, Catoctin Mountain Park…
Matthews NE et al. (2005). Evaluation of a trap-sterilize-release program for white tailed deer. Report for the Highland Park City Council www.wildcarebayarea.org/site/DocServer/Matthewsetal2005HighlandParkSterilizationReport
NPS.gov. Chapter 1 Purpose and Need for Action http://www.nps.gov/cato/parkmgmt/upload/1EIS.pdf ;
NPS.gov. Chapter 2. Alternatives
Streetcar Named Desire?
The playwright Tennessee Williams was known for gritty family dramas and his presentation of frank sexuality, which came across as sensationalist at the time that many of his plays were written, but have aged into fine representations of American cultural dynamics. His three most renowned plays all feature this interplay of sexuality and family dynamics: The Glass Menagerie, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, and A Streetcar Named Desire. However, Streetcar differs from the other plays in that its protagonist, Stanley Kowalski, is largely without redeeming features. More than any other character in any of his plays, Kowalski appears to be Williams's opposite in many significant ways, perhaps personifying the things that Williams both adored and hated about the South to which he was born.
To understand any of Williams's plays, it is critical to understand the American South in the period prior to the Civil Rights…
Dubai should be thinking about sustainability, since the seaport expansion and modernization has been damaging to the environment over the past decade. AS more and more ships begin to use the Dubai port, and as commerce and economic activity return after the global economic recession, the environmental challenges surrounding the port will likely increase as well.
Bagaeen, Samer. (2007). "Brand Dubai: The Instant City; or the Instantly ecognizable
City." International Planning Studies. Vol. 12, No. 2. Pp. 173-197.
Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens. (2008). "Dubai -- a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding." Journal of Place Management and Development. Vol. 1, No. 1. Pp. 62-91.
Betriebswirt; Dipl. And Noack, Sascha MBA. (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the UAE. GIN Verlag: Berlin.
Burt, J; Bartholomew, A.; Usseglio, P; Bauman, A. And P.F. Sale. (2009). "Are artificial reefs surrogates of natural habitats for corals and fish in…
Bagaeen, Samer. (2007). "Brand Dubai: The Instant City; or the Instantly Recognizable
City." International Planning Studies. Vol. 12, No. 2. Pp. 173-197.
Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens. (2008). "Dubai -- a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding." Journal of Place Management and Development. Vol. 1, No. 1. Pp. 62-91.
Betriebswirt; Dipl. And Noack, Sascha MBA. (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the UAE. GRIN Verlag: Berlin.
International tourism reinforces the idea that all persons are a part of a world community and act as a reminder of how precious the natural resources of the world can be for all persons, regardless of where they call home. Finally, tourism can provide local populations with employment in ways that do not tax the natural resources, such as rampant industrialism, or force them to abandon their local customs and culture ("Socio-Cultural Impacts of Tourism," Environmental Impacts of Tourism, 2002).
Three Main Impact Areas." Environmental Impacts of Tourism. 2002. Last updated 2001. [17 Feb 2006]
How Tourism Can Contribute to Conservation." Environmental Impacts of Tourism. 2002. Last updated 2001. [17 Feb 2006]
Socio-Cultural Impacts of Tourism." Environmental Impacts of Tourism. 2002. Last updated 2001. [17 Feb 2006]
Three Main Impact Areas." Environmental Impacts of Tourism. 2002. Last updated 2001. [17 Feb 2006]
How Tourism Can Contribute to Conservation." Environmental Impacts of Tourism. 2002. Last updated 2001. [17 Feb 2006]
Socio-Cultural Impacts of Tourism." Environmental Impacts of Tourism. 2002. Last updated 2001. [17 Feb 2006]
Tourism in Thailand
Economic, Social, Cultural and Environmental Impacts of Tourism in Thailand
Urban and rural tourism in Thailand accounts for around 7% of the total GDP. There are various factors, social, economic, environmental and cultural factors which affect the tourism industry in Thailand. Also, the rural tourism in Thailand needs more work. This report has some strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of Thailand's tourism industry. In the end, recommendations are given on how to improve the tourism industry in Thailand.
Tourism in Thailand
Impact of Environmental, Economical, Social and Cultural Factors on Tourism in Thailand
Tourism is one of the world's fastest growing industries, and this industry has been identified as a means of generating national income (Pender, & Sharpley, 2005). Thailand, a beautiful country at the heart…
Chon, K, Singh, A, & Mikula, J. (1993). Thailand's tourism and hotel industry. The Cornell hotel and restaurant administration quarterly, 34(3), 43-49.
Elliot, J. (1983). Politics, power, and tourism in Thailand. Annals of tourism research, 10(3), 377-393.
Forsyth, T, (2002). What happened on the "the beach"? social movements and governance of tourism in Thailand. International journal of sustainable development, 5(3), 326-337.
Gold, J, & Revill, G. (2004). Representing the Environment. Routledge, London
Additionally, Bollier further states the contrail emissions to cause warmer weather.
The duration of contrails in the atmosphere can last for days, according to (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010). Trails may last for days and spread over hundreds of miles. According to Patrick Minnis, senior research scientist at NASA's Langley esearch Center in Virginia, "It helped us get a very good handle on the relationship between natural cirrus clouds and contrails, and separate the two effects. We estimate that contrails have an overall warming effect which is at least the same as aircraft CO2 exhaust, if not more." (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010)
The white streaks (Murray, 2006), which characterize the contrail left by a flying aircraft is suggested by Murray to be removed as a contaminant by lowering the altitude of the aircraft during flight. Additionally, "because contrails are released at high altitudes, have a more potent effect on the environment…
Fast, E. 2002, "Can contrails alter climate?," Environment, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 7.
Beam, S. 2005, "The Trouble with Contrails," Environment, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 4.
Bollier, S. 2007, "High Flyers and the Grounding of Equality," Multinational Monitor, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 31.
Harris, P., Kuper, S. & Lebel, C. 2010, Sandals Optional: Stories - Environment - Insight; Not all heroes of the green revolution fit the left-liberal activist stereotype.., the Financial Times Limited.
Environmental Assessing Canada
More and more countries have gotten actively involved in protecting the environment and Canada makes no exception from the rule, taking into account that it installed a series of programs meant to assist nature and discourage individuals or groups that might be inclined to damage it. The Canadian Environmental Act is probably one of the most significant steps that the country has taken with the purpose of making it mandatory for people and communities to conduct environmental assessments for diverse projects that they propose. Canadians have acknowledged the fact that some actions might have negative effects on the environment and thus developed environmental assessments meant to remove or diminish a project's capacity to harm to environment.
The 1868 Fisheries Act is probably one of the first significant environmental assessment programs that the government installed with the purpose of preventing individuals from harming the environment as a result…
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, "Canada Enter the Nuclear Age: A Technical History of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited," (McGill-Queens, 1997)
"Fisheries Act," Retrieved November 11, 2012, from the Fisheries and Oceans Canada Website: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/habitat/role/141/1415/14151-eng.htm
"Canadian Environmental Assessment Act," Retrieved November 11, 2012, from the Canadian Environmental Law Association Website: http://www.cela.ca/taxonomy/term/212
..as long as those programs were at least as effective as the federal program." (the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act)
The passing of this Act by congress is therefore aimed at ensuring adequate health and safety standards for all workers. In terms of employers, the Act was designed to make sure that the place of employment was free of any hazards that might be injurious or detrimental to safety and health. This may include aspects such as the exposure to toxic chemical and materials as well as other environmental factors, for example excessive noise levels. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act) the Act cover a wide range of possible health and safety measures and is also intended to ensure that physical and mechanical dangers in the workplace are avoided, as well as unsanitary conditions. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act)
An important part of this…
Background: The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: RCRA. http://www.chemalliance.org/tools/background/back-rcra.asp
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: Superfund. February 7, 2009. http://www.answers.com/topic/superfund
Clean Air Act. February 4, 2009. ( http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/ )
Clean Water Act (CWA). February 4, 2009. http://www.epa.gov/oecaagct/lcwa.html
On the largest scale, the U.S. population is disproportionately responsible for the depletion of fossil fuels and other natural resources in that Americans consume approximately one-quarter of those valuable energy resources despite constituting less than five percent of the entire global population (Attfield, 2003; Poiman & Poiman, 2007).
Besides consuming such a disproportionate amount of natural resources, another major environmental ethics issue arises in connection with the deliberate export of hazardous waste from wealthy countries to poor countries and the outsourcing of dangerous jobs, such as some of those that are strictly prohibited by domestic environmental laws (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008; Poiman & Poiman, 2007). United States military operations have also contributed to new environmental ethics concerns, such as the contamination of soil and water supplies in Iraq and Central Europe by the millions of depleted uranium shells left by tactical aircraft supporting ground troops in Iraq or engaging hostile…
Attfield R. (2003). Environmental Ethics: An Overview for the Twenty-First Century.
Cambridge, UK: Polity.
Halbert T. And Ingulli E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:
West Legal Studies.
Environmental Industrial Management
Corporate social responsibility (CS) has been a hot topic in business circles for decades. The topic has gained even greater attention in the last few decades in the wake of increased attention to the impact of business activities on the environment, economy, and the society (Flammer, 2013; Schrempf-Stirling, Palazzo and Phillips, 2016). This paper discusses the principles of CS; the integration of social, economic, and environmental aspects in the organisational agenda; the importance of transparency, accountability, and stakeholder engagement in CS; and the notions of materiality in CS and sustainability reporting as outlined in the Global eporting Initiative (GI) G4 guidelines.
Whereas there is no commonly agreed definition, CS generally refers to the activities business organisations deliberately undertake with the aim of promoting social, economic, and environmental sustainability (Crowther and Aras, 2008). It denotes the pursuit of economic objectives while at the same time consciously pursuing social…
Barclays, 2013. Citizenship Report 2013. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 December 2016]
Crowther, D. and Aras, G., 2008. Corporate social responsibility. New York: Ventus Publishing.
Flammer, C., 2013. Does corporate social responsibility lead to superior performance? A regression discontinuity approach. Management Science, 61(11), 1-27.
Foote, J., Gaffney, N. and Evans, J., 2010. Corporate social responsibility: implications for performance excellence. Total Quality Management, 21(8), 799-812.
Awareness also plays a part on the other side of environmental crime -- laws cannot be made restricting certain activities with a detrimental environmental impact until that impact is known, and certain types of environmental crimes might remain hidden for years (Interpol, 2009).
The International Police organization, or Interpol, recognizes two major forms of environmental crime: wildlife crime and pollution crime (Interpol, 2009). Wildlife crime is the exploitation of protected plants or animals, such as the murder of elephants for ivory or whales for meat (Interpol, 2009). Because there is no direct human victim, these crimes may often go unnoticed, and if the public is not aware of the activity than the government is not very likely to do anything about it. The same is true of pollution crime, which does have a direct impact on human populations but which can often be very difficult to prove (EPA, 2009). Direct…
Environmental Crime." (2009). Interpol. Accessed 24 January 2009. http://www.interpol.int/Public/EnvironmentalCrime/Default.asp
Environmental Crime." (2009). EPA Website. Updated 13 January 2009. Accessed 24 January 2009. http://epa.gov/compliance/criminal/investigations/environmentalcrime.html
Insofar as many
of the nations now impacted so drastically by the food scarcity crisis are
also those developing theatres in which globalizing companies have sought
to operate, it is becoming more difficult all the time to find an
appropriate context for operation. Thus, organizations pursuing offshore
production interests, outsourced service laborers and overseas contract
management must immerse themselves in many settings where poverty,
instability and widespread suffering are all increasingly characteristic.
Forecasting organizational performance and opportunity under these terms is
marked by challenge.
So too is this case in navigating the uncertainties of legal policy
concerning environmental conditions. Under the Bush Administration, we
have experienced a significant decline in standard protections for both
dumping and emissions, due to the president's composition of ironically
entitled bills such as the Clean Air Act and the Clean ater Act. Both of
these, in spite of their titles, were marked for their historical…
Butler, M. (2008). Lessons from Biofuels. Greentech. Online at
Reuters. (2008). States sue EPA over ozone pollution standards. Thomson
Reuters. Online at
2. Project Preparation
3. Project Implementation'
4. Facility Operation
These four assessment tools are to be standalone tools that are applied at specific stages of the Gipsy Lane brickworks road extension and the industrial development project life cycle. The assessment with one of the tools has no link or dependence with earlier stages. The tools of assessment are to be designed in a manner that they are applicable throughout the planning stage up to the point of making decisions in the project life cycle (See figure 1.).
The process of protocol assessment (Source: IHA, 2010).
The tools are to undergo repeated application so as to help in the continuous improvement of the process.
Strategic Assessments section
This section is important for the assessment of the strategic basis of the Gipsy Lane brickworks project. This part is most applicable at the stage when the Gipsy Lane brickworks is still…
Gratton, C., & Jones, I. (2003). Research methods for sport studies. New York: Routledge.
Fraenkel, J.R. & Wallen, N.E. (2001). Educational research: A guide to the process. Mahwah,
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Environmental Cues Shape Behavior and Implications for the Environment
Humans are responsive creatures, and a wide array of environmental cues serves to shape human behavior. In some cases, the responses to environmental cues are strictly in the self-interests of the consumer, but in other cases, these responses can be modified to promote improved outcomes. Because people may not be able to gauge the impact of their individual behaviors on the environment, it is important to identify those environmental cues that promote and sustain environmentally responsible behaviors. To this end, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning how environmental cues shape behavior and how behavior can be modified to support sustainability to limit the negative impact on the environment. Finally, the paper provides two possible solutions that could successfully change behavior and habits to lessen negative environmental impact followed by a summary of the research and…
Dane-Staples, E. (2012, September). Gendered choices: Mascot interactions in minor league baseball. Journal of Sport Behavior, 35(3), 286-291.
Fulton, R. (2012, December). Perceptions of reality: 'Poverty tourism' often sits uneasily in the range of sightseeing options open to travellers in underdeveloped countries.
Geographical, 84(12), 52-59.
Henson, H.K. (2006, Summer). Evolutionary psychology, memes and the origin of war.
Environmental Cues Shape Behavior
Most people spend their daily lives completing tasks, which involve waiting or queuing on a line. With this situation of waiting like at ATMs, others avoid, postpone, or even abandon their endeavors. Other people endure the wait even though they feel frustrated or dissatisfied by the experience (Horowitz, 2007).
It is evident that irrelevant environmental cues like queue barriers used in airports, banks of ATMs serve as barriers that split people waiting in two categories. The first category comprises those who are within the system and the other category involves those outside the system. In-system people show increased persistence in task completion, action initiation and overall optimism (Ahmad & Prasad, 2012).
Situational cues have a substantial impact on behavior. For instance, wine shops that play French music have demonstrated an increase in the purchase of French wine. This suggests that cues not directly connected to a…
Ahmad, P. & Prasad, M. (2012). Environmental adaptations and stress tolerance of plants in the era of climate change. New York: Springer New York.
Cormier, L., Nurius, P., & Osborn, C.J. (2009). Interviewing and change strategies for helpers: Fundamental skills and cognitive behavioral interventions. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.
Horowitz, F.D. (2007). Exploring developmental theories: Toward a structural/behavioral model of development. Hillsdale, N.J: L. Erlbaum Associates.
The project in question that of Building a reduced-sulfur generating, coal-fired plant by GHECO-One in Map Ta Phut, Thailand was examined for potential environmental impact due to the possible damage that the plant could cause. The company has stated throughout that their wish is to construct a plant that will be both environmentally and physically safe for the people, plants and animals that live within the region. This evaluation looks at that report with a specific view towards whether this environmental assessment is overly politicized in order to pacify the examining board of the country, and whether the site will have a cultural impact for the regions fishermen and others who either work in the area or are in some way affected by it. This evaluation is conducted to determine if the impact assessment met all of the requirements of a truthful and straightforward telling of the facts.…
EBR., 2009. Construction of GHECO-One coal-fired IPP power plant continues in Thailand. Retrieved from http://www.energy-business- review.com/news/construction_of_ghecoone_coalfired_ipp_power_plant_continu es_in_thailand_090526
Fujitsu., 2012. Fujitsu's ICT helps to solve environmental issues in Thailand. Retrieved from http://www.fujitsu.com/global/news/pr/archives/month/2012/20120207 - 02.html
GHECO-One., 2010. Thermal power plant project. Retrieved from http://www.glow.co.th/OurProject/EN/GHECO- ONE/Summary%20report%20of%20GHECO-ONE_English.pdf
Hariharan, M., 2011. Thailand's Map Ta Phut crisis -- The NGO side of the story. Retrieved from http://www.icis.com/blogs/asian-chemical - connections/2010/03/thailands-map-ta-phut-crisis -- .html
Although the research tools provided by the ISO 14001 framework are both qualitative and quantitative, this approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who points out that, "Both qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet there is much overlap between the type of data and the style of research. Most qualitative-style researchers examine qualitative data and vice versa" (p. 16). Indeed, researchers have used qualitative and quantitative surveys to assess consumer reactions to proposed environmental initiatives at the local level (Neuman, 2003).
In fact, quantitative and qualitative research methods are characterized by a number of similarities that lend themselves to environmental systems analyses and development (as well as some differences) (Neuman, 2003). The distinct differences in the qualitative and quantitative research suggest that the use of quantitative data for environmental system development is highly appropriate, but that such…
Bonlac Foods. (2012). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://investing.business week.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=883342.
McComb, S. (2010). Green building & green business informatics tool. Elusor. Retrieved from http://www.environmentalaccountingtools.com/magazine/tag/building.
Recardo, R. & Jolly, J. (1999). Organizational culture and teams. SAM Advanced Management
Journal, 62(2), 4-5.
Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude Oil/Natural Gas Exploration, Transportation, Refining and Storage
Ever since crude oil was first successfully drilled in the U.S. In Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859, the demand for oil has only been increasing over the years in countries all over the world. (Camden, 1883) Crude oil, from which various petroleum products are obtained, is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon component found trapped in rocks below the earth. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth." Natural gas is another form of hydrocarbon that is also found in nature. oth crude oil and natural gas have excellent combustibility and are good sources of energy. Crude oil is not used in the extracted form; but it is refined to obtained products such as gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, kerosene, gas-oil and fuel oil. Secondary products during the purification of crude oil are obtained are…
Associated-Press, and Reuters. World's Biggest Oil Rig Sinks. 2001. CNN. Available:
http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/americas/03/20/brazil.rig.02/.August 2, 2004.
AWMA. Oil Spills - a Fact Sheet. 2000. Air & Waste Management Association. Available:
http://www.awma.org/education/oilspills.htm . August 1, 2004.
CEFC and the Future of Environmental Finance
The Clean Energy Finance Corporation (CEFC) represents the most aggressive environmental finance initiative sponsored by the Australian Government to date. The CEFC is an independent entity established as part of the Clean Energy Future Policy by the Australian government. As of March 2012, funding for the program totaled AUS $10 billion in government backed investments for the commercialization and deployment of clean energy technologies. This research will explore the CEFC and its role in the development and deployment of environmentally friendly energy sources and alternatives.
Governments around the world recognize the need for developing clean and renewable energy sources that reduce their environmental impact. The topic of global warning and climate change has increased the need for the development of less energy intensive and environmentally damaging energy sources. Although the role of human beings in these changes is a topic of debate, it…
Business Innovation & Skills. 2011. The economics of the Green Investment Bank: Costs and Benefits, rationale and value for money. [online] Available at: http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/biscore/business-sectors/docs/e/12-554-economics-of-the-green-investment-bank.pdf [Accessed 10 June 2012].
Clean Energy Council. March 2012. Design Features of the Clean Energy Finance Corporation.Deloitte. [online] Available at: http://www.cleanenergycouncil.org.au/...CEFC.../ ... [Accessed 10 June 2012].
Commonwealth of Australia. 2011. Clean Energy Finance Corporation, Expert Review. [online] Available at: http://www.cefcexpertreview.gov.au/content/Content.aspx?doc=report/default.htm [Accessed 10 June 2012].
Department for Business Innovation and Skills. 2012. UK Green Investment Bank. [online] Available at: http://www.bis.gov.uk/greeninvestmentbank [Accessed 10 June 2012].
When a company such as Wal-Mart goes green, it is because they see a profit in it, and customers are demanding it, and that is the case with the fashion industry, as well.
In conclusion, the fashion industry is becoming much more eco-friendly largely because of consumer demand. People are becoming increasingly aware of just what goes into the products they consume, and they are demanding new products that use less energy to produce and use eco-friendly fibers and fabrics, as well. The public is becoming much more aware of environmental issues such as global warming and climate change, and it seems that the demand for eco-friendly products, including fashions will continue to rise. Smart fashion designers and companies will jump on this growing trend. They need to take the earth and its survival into consideration, but even more than that, they need to continue to fill consumer's shelves to…
Belli, Brita. "The Eco Fashion Revolution: Getting Consumers to Care about What They Wear." E. Sept.-Oct. 2007: 26+.
Claudio, Luz. "Environmental Impact of the Clothing Industry." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.9 (2007): 448+.
Editors. Sustainable Innovation: Cultivating Growth and Prosperity through Collaboration. Organic Exchange, Volume 4, Issue 1, March 2008. 1-8.
Sustainable Tourism Impacts
The impact of sustainable tourism on Kaho'olawe can be divided into three constituent parts: the economic impact, the physical or environmental impact, and the socio-cultural impact.
Economic impact: The economic impact of sustainable tourism on Kaho'olawe is predicted to be a net positive gain after initial investment. Hiring only local labor, when possible, will conform to sustainable tourism goals. This will also prevent financial leakage: that is, losing any revenues gained to outsiders and instead keeping revenues within the island. This will have a net-positive impact on the local economy and permit further investment.
Physical/environmental impact: This is the area of greatest concern regarding the development of Kaho'olawe. Tourism infrastructure is likely to lead to issues and potential problems such as pollution, land degradation (erosion, sinkhole), and habitat loss for local flora and fauna. Additionally, the development of tourism could have unforeseen aesthetic drawbacks such as…
Environmental Concern on Green Products Purchase: Empirical Study of German etailers
Evaluation of results
The analysis exhibits various results about the perceptions of German consumers with reference to green products. The findings have been able to achieve the research objectives and test the hypothesis based on the demographic characteristics of the sample population. The results reveal that all the sample population is well educated with 84% of participants have completed the graduate programs. Thus, the participant has advanced knowledge of health benefits of green products. They also have knowledge about the impact of conventional products on the environment, which influences consumer buying decisions of sustainable products. Larsson, & Arif Khan (2011) argue that green awareness motivates consumer's choice of pursuing the green criteria, and consumer's choice of product is also influenced by earlier purchases experience. When informed consumers decide to purchase sustainable products, they search for both primary and secondary…
Andrea K. M. (2016). Buying organic -- decision-making heuristics and empirical evidence from Germany, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 33(7): 552 -- 561.
Delafrooz, N. Taleghani, M. & Nouri, B. (2013). Effect of green marketing on consumer purchase behaviour. QScience Connect:5.
Larsson, S. & Arif Khan, M. (2011). A Study of Factors That Influence Green Purchase. Umea School of Business and Economics.
Moser, A.K. (2016). Consumers' purchasing decisions regarding environmentally friendly products: An empirical analysis of German consumers. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. 31: 389 -- 397.
Local Economic Development Initiatives
THE IMPACT OF LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
The Concept of Sustainable ural Communities in Local Areas
The Concept of ural Development in Local Areas
The Concept of Endogenous Development Initiatives in Local areas
Transformation is key when it comes to local economic development initiatives. Ever since World War II economies in so many different rural areas have been faced with the rising harsh economic circumstances that have been threatening people's everyday existence. A lot of the situations that they are going through have a lot to do with depopulation resulting for the most part from low growth in job opportunities, out-migration, an aging population, underemployment rate, high unemployment and low family income, lack of socio-economic infrastructure ( shopping centers, health centers, schools, power and electric supply water supply,). esearch show that the rural economy in both developed and developing nations countries has also gone through a big…
Andolina, R. (2012). THE VALUES OF WATER: Development cultures and indigenous cultures in highland ecuador. Latin American Research Review, 21(12), 3-26,231,235.
Blignaut, J. & . (2011). The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives. Water S.A., 34(12), 123-145.
Cole, M.A. (2009). imits to growth, sustainable development and environmental kuznets curves: An examination of the environmental impact of economic development. . Sustainable Development, 12(4), 23-67.
Gordon, T.M. (2009). Bargaining in the shadow of the ballot box: Causes and consequences of local voter initiatives. Public Choice, 23(14), 45-56.
Test Results: "Total Cost Accounting course and Test" located at http://teexcit.tamu.edu/tca / (Total Cost Accounting online course and test).
Bakshi, B.R., Landers, .F., Singh, S., Merugula, L.A., Mishchenko, O., and Fiskel, J. (2012, November 2). Accounting for ecosystem services in life cycle assessment by co-LCA: Advances in methodology and software. Paper to be presented at the Annual Conference of the 11th Global Congress of Process Safety on April 2015 in Austin, Texas.
The authors explain the role of ecosystem goods and services in the support of economic activities, and the relation of the use of ecosystem goods and services to sustainability. The variety of ecosystem goods and services is broad, however, most sustainability methods have not considered their contribution well. Consider that these are all ecosystem goods or services that play a role in sustainability: 1) The provisioning of water, food, and biomass; 2) the regulation of pests…
Ecological accounting is a particular version of external reporting that focuses on the conversion of monetary environmental costs to physical flows. The practicality of this approach to accounting is that environmental impacts are expressed in terms of measures of emissions and discharges. The value-add of products and services is countered by using ecological accounting, which attempts to measure the ways in which products or processes generate pollution.
The author discusses three areas related to internal reporting: 1) Pollution prevention and product costing; 2) pollution prevention and planning; and, 3) pollution prevention and performance assessment. A substantive issue for an increasing number of industries -- particularly in the European Union where environmental regulations are stricter than they are in the United States -- is the life cycle recycling requirements in which manufacturers are responsible for the end product when the useful -- original intended -- life ends. Many companies now must attend to the life cycle costing and life cycle analysis for products they have produced. Life cycle costing incorporates measures of product costs for research and development, acquisition of raw materials, actual manufacturing, transportation of finished goods, usage by consumers or supply chain, and, ultimately, disposal.
As the author clearly states: "The major point of life-cycle costing is that there are many costs incurred before and after manufacturing that do not get charged to the product using conventional costing systems" (Lanen, 1994, p. 4). Life-cycle analysis enables the inclusion of costs associated with liabilities in phases far from the actual period of manufacturing. Future issues include consideration of the relation between market valuation and liabilities, and the effect of disclosure policies on costs.
Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in Le oy, New York, 2011, a mysterious medical
The relationship between an environmental agent and a health problem discussed within this document is the effect of air pollution on asthma. This effect is certainly a noxious one, as certain air pollutions have been known to cause asthma in those who did not previously have this condition, exacerbate it in those that did, and induce asthma attacks. In researching this relationship it is necessary to provide a brief overview of both asthma and air pollution. It is also prudent to discuss some of the more salient health disparities that emerge within a population that is related to aspects of genetics or environment.
Asthma is the constriction of the respiratory system with mucus. It is a serious cause of childhood morbidity (Islam et al., 2007, p. 957). Symptoms of asthma include difficulty breathing and coughing,…
Centers for Disease Control National Asthma Control Program. (2010). Asthma's impact on the nation. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/impacts_nation/asthmafactsheet.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency. (No date). Asthma and outdoor air pollution. www.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health-prof/Asthma_Flyer_Final.pdf
Islam, T., Gauderman, J., Berhane, K., McConnell, R., Avol, E., Peters, J., Gilliland, F.D. (2007). Relationship between air pollution, lung, function and asthma in adolescents. www.thorax.bmj.com. Retrieved from http://thorax.bmj.com/content/62/11/957.full.pdf+html
Natural Resources Defense Council. (2005). Asthma and air pollution. www.nrdc.org. Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/health/effects/fasthma.asp
As a brief introduction of this study, environmental psychology pertains to the Correlational approach and linkages that are focused on the relationship between human being and their environment. This is a scientific study that are focused on the importance of natural environments that can be utilized by human beings that are focused on the development and manipulation of prioritization of certain issues and challenges affecting the environment. In this manner, the existence of the environment is influential to the world of humans for the fact that the degree of the environment's capability improves the welfare of the society to make the quality of life achieved. The concept of environmental psychology has an interest for applying the principles of design that can be made as an important structure in the environment according to Davis (2011). This can be in the form of architectural design and infrastructures that involves the…
Davis, John (2011). Ecopsychology and environmental psychology. Accessed: http://www.johnvdavis.com/ep/index.htm.
Edgerton, Eddie (2009). Environmental Psychology. Available: http://www.c-s-p.org/flyers/9781847182180-sample.pdf.
Evans, Gary (2007). Environmental Stress. Accessed: http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~scohen/environstress.pdf.
Graetz, Ken. (2009). Environment Learning Moments. Retrieved from: http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERM0663.pdf .
Environmental Case Study (Alberta's Oil Sands)
Alberta's Oil Sands represents one of the international environmental problems facing Canada and close to seventy countries across the globe. Albert's Oil Sands proves to be a new course of political conflict within the setting of Canada and at the international level. Oil Sands development is responsible for rapid economic growth of Alberta. This creates ethical or moral dilemma because there is a massive risk in association with the development of Oil Sands within the province. Oil Sands contribute towards ecological harm thus having a negative impact on the living conditions of the individuals in the province and the entire planet. This ethical dilemma leads to mobilization processes by environmental entities to help alleviate the situation. This is because some prominent political outfits such as Peter Lougheed recognize that the rate of the development of the oil sands in Alberta is not socially or…
Brown, Jordan. "The Pembina Institute: Balancing Environmental Policy with Oil Sands Development in an Industry-Oriented Economy." Undercurrent 6.2 (2009): 7-16. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.
Dunbar, R.B. Existing and Proposed Canadian Commercial Oil Sands Projects. Calgary: Strategy West, April 2008. Available at:
Fairley, Peter. "Alberta's Oil Sands Heat Up." Technology Review 114.6 (2011): 52. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 31 July 2012.
Pasqualetti, Martin J. "The Alberta Oil Sands From Both Sides Of The Border." Geographical Review 99.2 (2009): 248-267. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.
Current events of the environmental ethics
Some of the major current events concerning the environmental ethics are the issue of global warming. One of the leading researchers (in the causes and effects of climate change; and in the field of allergies) in Europe has discovered that the burning of the fossil fuel that has increased over the recent past has resulted into the increase of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide facilitates the growth of the ragweed- an invasive plant- moreover; the hay fever is triggered of by this plant's pollen grains. Both early and long seasons of allergy are caused by the bloom of the birch trees as a result of the warmer temperatures (White, 1967).
Non-environmentally friendly behaviors currently such as the increased acts of war has not only affected the environment by impoverishing the natural resources but has also caused stress in…
Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. California: Houghton Mifflin.
Van, W., & Peter C. (1997). Primitives in the Wilderness: Deep Ecology and the Missing
Human Subject. New York: SUNY Press.
Varner, G. (1998). In Nature's Interests? Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental
The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.
Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.
It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while…
Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.
Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.
Dannreuther, Roland (ed.) European Union Foreign and Security Policy (Routledge, 2004) Chapter 11
Deudney, D. The case against linking environmental degradation and national security, Millennium, 19:3 (1990), pp.461-76.
Environmental and Organizational
Individual Commitment to Environment
Contribute to Profits
Environmental vs. Organizational Pressure
Change is disruptive and can be the source of much anxiety and stress. egardless of these fears, changes within organizations are inevitable and are guaranteed to happen sooner or later. To better manage these changes it is helpful to compare and contrast the different types of pressures an individual may feel when working in a corporate environment. The purpose of this essay is to discuss these pressures in an organizational and environmental context to decipher their influence on organizations. For purposes of this essay I will utilize my job working for Astra Zeneca as a guide to explain these influences and how change can best be managed.
The environment contains the organization and is large in size and scope, and, in theory affecting everyone who…
Angell, L (1999). Environmental and Operations Management Face the Future. Decisions Sciences, May 1999. Retrieved from http://www.decisionsciences.org/DecisionLine/Vol30/30_3/pom30_3.pdf
Delmas, Magali A. And Michael Toffel. "Institutional Pressures and Organizational Characteristics: Implications for Environmental Strategy." The Oxford Handbook of Business and the Natural Environment. Bansal, Pratima, and Andrew Hoffman, Eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. 229-247
Donovan, F. (2013). Organizational pressures creating schizophrenia within IT. Fierce Enterprise Communications, 30 Mar, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.fierceenterprisecommunications.com/story/gartner-organizational-pressures - creating-schizophrenia-within-it/2013-03-30
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
Environmental isk Analysis Process
Environmental isk Analysis (EA) is "a process for estimating the likelihood or probability of an adverse outcome or event due to pressures or changes in environmental conditions resulting from human activities" (Ministry of Environment, Land, and Parks, 2000). EA should be a scientific process, when that is possible. "In general terms, risk depends on the following factors: How much of a chemical is present in an environmental medium (e.g., soil, water, air), how much contact (exposure) a person or ecological receptor has with the contaminated environmental medium, and the inherent toxicity of the chemical" (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). All of these factors help the assessor determine the "potential adverse effects that human activities have on the living organisms that make up ecosystems. The risk assessment process provides a way to develop, organize and present scientific information so that it is relevant to environmental decisions"…
Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. (2009, June). Ecological risk assessments.
Retrieved January 7, 2013 from Department of Environmental Conservation website: http://dec.alaska.gov/spar/csp/guidance/eco_risk.pdf
Ministry of Environment, Land, and Parks. (2000, July). Environmental risk assessment (ERA):
An approach for assessing and reporting environmental conditions. Retrieved January 7,
Obama Turns to Web to Illustrate the Effects of a Changing Climate
This article discusses how the use of technology and the internet can aid in the overall global warming education process. The article explains how President Obama is using a mobile app to depict the effects of global warming in local communities. Through technology, Obama hopes to create awareness of the overall global warming issue, and its impact on communities. The article states that out that individuals given a list of 20 issues, rank global warming as 19th. Through the use of the app, the Obama administration hopes to create an overall sense of urgency within the general public.
A particularly interesting aspect of the article was the amount of detailed coordination needed to produce the app. The mobile app is unique in that it attempts to depict the impact global warming has on communities' overtime. As…
Linear systems are constructed with layers of natural materials with low permeability. Leachate collection system is designed to remove liquid that is found in the liners. Waste is placed above the collection leachate system in layers.
Modern landfills are now built in locations which protect environment and human health as well as having structural integrity. There is restriction of the construction of modern landfills in floodplains, wetland or fault areas (epa, 2010). Once the modern landfills reach the height which is permitted it is closed down an engineered in such a way that it prevents the infiltration of water through the installation of a cap low in permeability which is same as the linear system. On top of the low-permeability barrier there is a granular drainage layer that diverts water from the top of the landfill. There is a protection cover at the filter blanket's top as well as top…
Repa, E. (2010). Modern Landfills. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&sqi=2&ved=0CHUQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.greenkerala.net%2Fpdf%2Fkey_issue_on_open_dumps.pdf&ei=Vy9uUcyuBamy7AbDo4GYBQ&usg=AFQjCNFUTQkrQnIxwkIgJOzwJtptbNSfGw&bvm=bv.45368065,d.ZWU
Republic Services, (2013). Solar-Gas Innovation. Retrieved April 18, 2012 from http://www.republicservices.com/Corporate/Planet/SustainabilityProjects/San-Antonio-Atlanta.aspx
Skye, J. (2011).Environmental problems: Landfills. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Environmental_Problems:_Landfills
Firstly, it is crucial to raise awareness and to actually make people listen, care and then act accordingly. verybody needs to understand that the environment should be everyone's concern because it truly affects all of us as we are all inhabitants of the same planet. This is achieved through information which in turn, is achieved through long-term campaigns which have the mission to reach as many people as possible. This is where the civil society needs to really step in and help improve the quality of information as not everything we hear or see on television is actually scientific information. In fact, spreading untrue or simply unscientific information can be very harmful to society and its attitude towards the environment because people do not know what to believe. On the other hand, there is the danger of over exposing a certain topic, in this case environmental issues, which leads to…
Europa (4 April 2007).
International Issues. Environment. Retrieved September 14 from Website: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/agreements_en.htm
European Environment Agency (29 Nov. 2005). The European Environment - State and outlook 2005. Retrieved September 13, 2007 from Website: http://reports.eea.europa.eu/state_of_environment_report_2005_1/en
There are also a number of other environmental consequences to using these bags that should be considered. Plastic bags clog storm drains and they also block the natural flow of oxygen and water through the soil -- all of which contributes to placing increasing pressure on the sustainability of the environment and ecosystems. (Single-Use Plastic Shopping Bags. Presentation to the Transportation and Environment Committee, 2008)
2. The advantages of non-reusable bags
It therefore follows from the above discussion that fewer plastic bags in circulation means less toxic chemical and less pollution of the environment. As one commentator writes, "if people were to use reusable bags instead of plastic ones, dependence on these non-renewable resources would be significantly less" (Go green! Benefits of reusable bags). The increase in usage of reusable bags would also mean a significant reduction in the need for plastic -- and it must be remembered…
Benefits of Reusable. Retrieved September 4, 2009, from http://www.reusablebagsdepot.com/reusable-bag-benefits.html
Go green! Benefits of reusable bags. Retrieved September 4, 2009, from http://www.helium.com/items/976541-go-green-benefits-of-reusable-bags
Knight M. (2007) Plastic bags fly into environmental storm. Retrieved September 4,
2009, from http://edition.cnn.com/2007/TECH/11/14/fsummit.climate.plasticbags/index.html
In basic terms, environmental psychology is taken to be an interdisciplinary subject mainly concerned with the interplay between individuals and that which surrounds them. In this text, I come up with a concise and clear definition of environmental psychology as a discipline. In so doing, I will also identify the main differences and similarities between two environmental psychology theoretical approaches. Further, I will highlight the relevance of research in the environmental psychology field.
Environmental Psychology: A Concise Definition
According to Nagar (2006), the environmental psychology field was initially known as "architectural psychology." This according to the author was based on the field's roots where the focus was chiefly on features (physical) of building design and how it impacted on the behavior of humans. According to Cassidy (1997), various definitions of environmental psychology have been formulated over time by a number of authors. One of the definitions floated according…
Bell, P.A., Greene, T.C., Fisher, J. & Baum A. (2005). Environmental Psychology. Routledge.
Cassidy, T. (1997). Environmental Psychology. Behavior and Experiences in Context. Psychology Press.
Coon, D. & Mitterer, J.O. (2006). Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to Mind and Behavior. Cengage Learning.
Nagar, D. (2006). Environmental Psychology. Concept Publishing Company.
This is a pertinent observation and one that is possibly central to understanding the problem of environmental ethics today.
Bugeja goes on to state that "…the new technologies that now keep us constantly connected also keep us constantly distracted" (Bugeja, 2008). He also makes the important point that, "Digital distractions now keep us from addressing the real issues of the day. Each of us daily consumes an average of nine hours of media through myriad technological platforms…" (Bugeja, 2008). In other words, we have become distracted from the holistic view of reality by modern communications technology to the extent that we are out of contact with the environmental issues that surround us.
Bugeja is also of the opinion that this situation has deprived us of the important aspect of critical thought. Critical thinking is defined as "… the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking, and being able to…
Bugeja M. ( 2008) The Age of Distraction: The Professor or the Processor? The
Futurist, 42 (1).
Consequentialism: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/c/conseque.htm .
Environmental Ethics. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-environmental/
Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law Violation
With the current changes in weather patterns, strange climatic conditions and other uncontrollable natural disasters, there has been a lot of attention directed towards the environment and the way people may be contributing to the degradation of the environment in small ways that is summed up results into the disasters that we see on daily basis. The environment is becoming unpleasant on an increasing trend each and every day, this is a cause to worry about for each government that cares to see the consequences of our careless handling of the environment.
There are also man's contribution to the insecurity that surrounds us on a daily basis since people no longer care for the safety of the workers that work in their industries and sadly to some extent, some don care even about themselves and the safety that may be protecting their…
Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Republic of South Africa, (2012). Stepping up
Enforcement Against Environmental Crimes. Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.environment.gov.za/Services/booklets/Environmental/EnviroCrimesEMI.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1998). Final Guidance for Incorporating
Environmental Justice Concerns in EPA's NEPA Compliance Analyses Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/compliance/ej/resources/policy/ej_guidance_nepa_epa0498.pdf .
Environmental and Organizational Pressures Sample
Create a table where at least three (3) organizational pressures and at least three (3) environmental pressures in the organization are illustrated and rank those pressures according to their influence.
Carbon emissions and overall sustainability
anking and promotion characteristics with the military.
Dependency on natural resources and their overall depletion
The ability to attract, hire and retain talented individuals to serve in the military
Identifying and using alternative energy and packaging solutions
Cultural sensitivity and its meaning within the organization.
Describe in detail the environmental and organizational pressures that exist in the organization and how they have evolved over time.
In regards to organization pressures within the military, much has changed due to varying societal norms. What was once deemed unacceptable by society has now become acceptable for society overall. As such, these changes have manifested themselves in…
1) Visser, Wayne, Dirk Matten, Manfred Pohl, and Nick Tolhurst (Editors) (2007). The A to Z. Of Corporate Social Responsibility. London, England; New York, NY: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-72395-1
2) Armstrong, Scott (1977). "Social Irresponsibility in Management." Journal of Business Research (Elsevier North-Holland Inc.) 15: 115 -- 203. http://marketing.wharton.upenn.edu/ideas/pdf/armstrong2/social.pdf .
3) Kalinda, B. (Ed.). Social Responsibility and Organizational Ethics. (2001). Encyclopedia of Business and Finance (2nd ed., Vol. 1). New York: Macmillan Reference
Meanwhile, if a teacher used the book, Awareness to Citizenship: Environmental Literacy for the Elementary Child, and uses it fully in developing a philosophy of teaching, a child will never be scared because the information is down-to-earth, well-presented, and family-friendly. The authors insist that teachers need not "know everything or be able to identify everything," but on the other hand, they should explore environmental issues with their students, and "always be thinking about how they might encourage students...by introducing nature-related materials, nature-related themes and concepts, [and] student centered activities" (Basile, et al., 20).
A good philosophy to develop is that nature is always all around us; Basile encourages her students to observe and make journal entries about what they "see and hear in the schoolyard" (21). This engenders a sense that the environment isn't some vague place "out there," but rather, that conservation and ecology are right here in the…
Basile, Carole; White, Cameron; & Robinson, Stacey. (2000). Awareness to Citizenship:
Environmental Literacy for the Elementary Child. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, Inc.
Bowers, C.A. (1995). Educating For An Ecologically Sustainable Culture: Rethinking Moral
Education, Creativity, Intelligence, and Other Modern Orthodoxies. Albany, NY: State
Environmental Stewardship Project Proposal
What is Environmental Stewardship?
What are the problems?
Why do we need to be concerned about Air Pollution?
A proposed Innovative Strategy for Pollution Awareness
Today Environmental stewardship is on the rise and really needed in the community. This is because an increasing amount of people are out there making knowledgeable choices in their what they do every day, such as in the work places, and communities. These choices are considered to be good for the environment, for their finances, and for complete quality of life. By most, these actions are probably looked at as being inspiring because it shows and evidence of a developing societal commitment to environmental stewardship.
This report gives an outline of what I believe is the next step in a continuing evolution of policy objectives from pollution control to pollution sustainability and prevention. It likewise gives a reflection on the important…
Ayres, J.R. (2012). Air pollution and health. London: Imperial College Press.
Berry, T. (2009). The Christian Future and the Fate of the Earth. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.
Boff, L. (2009). Cry of the Earth, Cry of the Poor. Maryknoll: Orbis.
Bourne, J. (2009). Understanding Leicestershire & Rutland Place-Names, Heart. Wymeswold: Leicestershire.
He did clean up the area around the store from garbage lying around but never did anything apart from that. He did express interest in being a part of any group working towards helping out with the environment. He denied that his Chinese background might have had any impact on his attitude.
The individual from the Hispanic background was deeply involved with activities to help out with environmental issues. He is a computer Science major and manages had two websites dealing with those issues. He also maintains a blog about environmental hazards that he encounters. He takes pictures of whatever he thinks might be important and uploads them to his blog. He mentioned how he wants to use his skills in web design to reach out to students and make them aware of such issues. He has listed a lot of ways to get involved on his websites and uses…
Environmental Themes in Grapes of rath
This essay reviews environmental themes from the following five books: Dust Bowl by Donald orster, The Grapes of rath by John Steinbeck, Everglades: River of Grass by Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Killing Mr. atson by Peter Matthiessen, and River of Lakes by Bill Belleville. This paper discusses the role that culture has played in environmental issues during the past century. Five sources used. MLA format.
Humans from the very beginning of their existence have had an impact, for better or worse, on the environment. Man has for the most part tried to control the environment to suit his needs or tastes of the era. Over-grazing, over hunting, ignoring the importance crop rotations, dam building, and toxic dumping, are but a few of the ways man tries to control. Few societies have ever considered any of the above when it comes to the environment.…
Belleville, Bill. River of Lakes. University of Georgia
Douglas, Marjory Stoneman. The Everglades River of Grass.
Pineapple Press. 50th Anniversary Edition. 1997.
Environmental Challenges Facing the Current Generation
hat are the most challenging environmental issues that will face humanity over the next 50 years? And what are the best ideas for options in the face of these challenges? hat are some companies doing to mitigate (reduce, reuse, and recycle resources) the problems on a local level? These and other issues and questions will be approached in this paper.
The Main Environmental Challenges
hile there is no one single most serious environmental challenge that all scholars, scientists, researchers, policy makers, journalists and others agree on, any cursory research into future environmental challenges and issues for Planet Earth will turn up the alarming and well-documented consequences of climate change. Of course climate change is not just a future issue but very much a current worry for citizens, scientists and policy makers. Many other critical issues are related to global climate change, including the population…
Emmott, S. (2013). Humans: the real threat to life on Earth. The Guardian / The Observer.
Retrieved February 21, 2014, from http://www.theguardian.com .
Foley, J. (2012). Earth in 20 Years. University of Minnesota. Retrieved February 21, 2014, from http://www1.umn.edu .
General Motors. (2013). Innovation: Environment / Waste Reduction. Retrieved February 21,
This is an interdisciplinary field which focuses on the relationship between humans and their surroundings. It defines the term environment broadly, including natural environments, social settings, built environments, learning environments, and informational environments. When solving problems in pertaining human-environment interactions, which might be global or local, you must have a model of human nature that predicts the environmental conditions under which humans will behave in a decent and creative manner. Such a model enables one to design, manage, protect and/or restore environments that foster reasonable behavior, predict ion likely outcomes which comes about when these conditions are not met, and identifies problem situations. This field develops a model of human nature by retaining a wider and inherently multidisciplinary view. It explores two different issues such as common property resource management, view finding in complex settings, the effect of environmental stress on human performance, the characteristics of restorative environments,…
Gifford, R. (2007). Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice (4th ed.). Colville, WA: Optimal Books.
Proshansky, H.M. (1987). The field of environmental psychology: securing its future
Altman, I., Christensen, K. (Eds.). 'Environment and Behavior Studies: Emergence of Intellectual Traditions,' pp. 169 -- 185
" (2007) Recommendations of this report include those as follows:
China should learn from the successes and failure of the U.S. And other developed countries in reducing the influence of energy use on air quality;
Continued dialogue and information exchange among U.S. And Chinese scientists and policy-makers should be promoted through professional organization, government support programs, and the National Academies in both countries to promote joint development of energy and pollution control strategies." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007)
Other findings of this report include the fact that "an important lesson learned is that air pollution damage imposes major economic costs, through premature mortality, increased sickness and lost productivity, as well as in decreased crops yields and economic impacts." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs,…
Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States (2007) Development, Security, and Cooperation (DSC) Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United States - Development, Security and Corporation: Policy and Global Affairs. National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council of the National Academies and the Chinese Academy of Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences. Online Pre-publication Release available at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12001&page=R2
Holder, Kevin (2007) Chinese Air Pollution deadliest in World - National Geographic News 9 July 2007. Online available at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/07/070709-china-pollution.html
Kim, Juli S. (2007)Transboundary Air Pollution - Will China Choke On Its Success? - A China Environmental Health Project Fact Sheet. 2 Feb. 2007. China Environment Forum in partnership with Western Kentucky University on the U.S. AID-supported China Environmental Health Project (CEHP)
Wang, Alex (nd) The Downside of Growth: Law, Policy and China's Environmental Crisis. Perspectives Vol. 2 No. 2. Online available at http://www.oycf.org/Perspectives/8_103100/downside_of_growth.htm
Environmental Stewardship can be simply described as "the comprehensive understanding and effective management of critical environmental risks and opportunities related to climate change, emissions, waste management, resource consumption, water conservation, biodiversity protection and ecosystem services" ("Environmental Stewardship," 2010). Thus, environmental stewardship is actually the responsibility for environmental superiority shared by everyone by whose actions the environment is affected. This sense of responsibility is that rare value that is mirrored through the choices that individuals, businesses, societies, and government make to shape the environment, society, and economy (Johnson, 2005). Environmental stewardship can also be regarded as a behavior that is exhibited by means of incessant upgrading and enhancement of environmental performance along with a dedication to "efficient use of natural resources, protection of ecosystems, and, where applicable, ensuring a baseline of compliance with environmental requirements" (Johnson, 2005 ).
In the contemporary society, environmental stewardship is on the increase. Nowadays, a majority…
Environmental Stewardship Strategy: Overview and Resource for Corporate Leaders. (2010). Retrieved August 18, 2012 from http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues_doc/Environment/Environmental_Stewardship_Strategy.pdf
Johnson, S.L. (2005). Everyday Choices: Opportunities for Environmental Stewardship. Retrieved August 19, 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/osem/pdf/rpt2admin.pdf
Manning, D.J. (2004). Benefits of Environmental Stewardship. Review of Business, 25 (2), Retrieved August 19, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-119108637/benefits-of-environmental-stewardship
These studies show development and growth is usually positive and normal in a home environment where there is sufficient care and/or love and in an environment that positively motivates learning and development. Conversely, the problems that can be experienced in a dysfunctional family can lead to problems even later in life. This is shown by the fact that juvenile criminals who become repeat offenders often come for broken or dysfunctional family environments.
The home and family are not the only environments that can have a profound influence on the individual. The school and educational environment is another environmental "space" that is important in normal human development. The school is an area that is particularly important in that it is an environment in which we first learn to interact and encounter the outside world. Therefore it is a crucial factor in social development. This can be seen in the fact that…
U. (Website of the European Commission, 2007).
Educational institutions have also taken an interest in the matter. Stanford University for instance has been engaged in promoting responsible behavior of the consumers. They have also conducted studies to reveal the impact of global warming and the performances achieved in reducing its negative effects. They have also promoted the sources of alternative energy (Stanford University, 1995).
The governments in several American states have also formed alliances to fight off the malign effects of global warming. "As more and more states band together to fight global warming, their efforts are moving beyond mere symbolism and becoming big enough to make a real dent in the problem [...] More than half of the nation's 50 states -- including populous California, Texas and New York -- have joined together in regional coalitions aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions from power plants, boosting the use of…
Kelly, E., March 25, 2007, States Work to Reduce Global Warming, Gannett News
1995, Avoiding Global Warming, Stanford University, http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/progress/avoid.htmllast accessed on October 31, 2008
2008, Ambitious Targets Agreed to Reduce Global Warming, Website of the European Commission, http://ec.europa.eu/news/environment/070309_1_en.html . Ast accessed on October 31, 2008
Threat of Climate Change, EcoBridge, http://www.ecobridge.org/content/g_tht.html . Ast accessed on October 31, 2008
Environmental Case Study
Ten years ago, the United States Environmental Protection Agency established the Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Sulfur Control equirements. The rule accomplished a comprehensive single national program to control emissions of heavy-duty vehicles by regulating the both the vehicles and the diesel fuel used in the engines. The aim was to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOX ) by 2.6 million, non-methane hydrocarbons by 115,000 tons, and particulate matter by 109,000 tons by 2030. By 2006, most areas of the country sold only ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. By 2007, the only new diesel engines sold required ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. One looming problem was that diesel engines are durable and have a long product life -- the change to cleaner engines would take until about 2020.
Diesel fuel is the cause of one-third of the nitrogen oxide (NOX) and one-fourth of the particulate matter…
Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Sulfur Control Requirements, EPA420-F-00-057. (2000, December). United States Environmental Protection Agency, Air and Radiation Office of Transportation and Air Quality Retrieved http://www.epa.gov/otaq/highway-diesel/regs/f00057.pdf
Puget Sound Clean Air Agency Diesel Solutions Case Study, Pollution Prevention (P2). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Retrieved http://www.epa.gov/p2/
On the prevention side, there needs to be research about the most infectious diseases, widespread vaccination against the most threatening animal borne pathogens, monitoring and intelligence to identify potential threats, and education about bioterrorism at all levels of government (RAND, 2). On the response side, early detection, early containment, treatment plans, stockpiles of vaccines and drugs, and an animal depopulation and disposal plan are all necessary (RAND, 2).
The government has passed a number of laws to help address potential threats and be ready in the event of an attack. For example, the Bioterrorism Preparedness Act tightens control of certain toxins and threatening agents and expands agricultural security. The FDA and USDA have both passed rules to increase record-keeping and monitoring related to potentially dangerous agents. Homeland Security has been authorized to increase agricultural border inspections, with the assistance of the USDA. These inspections identify and quarantine potential threats. (Monke…
Gonzales, Alberto, Regina Schofield, and Glenn Schmitt. Agroterrorism -- Why We're Not Ready: A Look at the Role of Law Enforcement. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, 2006. Print.
Monke, Jim. Agroterrorism: Threats and Preparedness. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service, 2004. Print.
RAND National Defense Research Institute. Agroterrorism: What Is the Threat and What Can Be Done About it? Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2003. Print.
As Andresen points out, their quasi-legal or soft status renders intergovernmental groups legally powerless in general. Thus, intergovernmental groups need to bolster their efficacy by linking more strongly with local and state law enforcement organizations.
Another weakness of intergovernmental environmental organizations that Biermann points out in "The Case for a orld Environment Organization" is the poor communication and coordination between existing organizations. A plethora of related institutions may be working on the same environmental issue without pooling resources, when it would be far more efficient and effective to tackle global environmental threats in a cooperative manner. Likewise, Biermann cites capacity building as a key aspect of institutional coordination and cooperation.
Perceived legitimacy of intergovernmental environmental organizations is also a major concern, as many developing nations may be viewing the UNEP and other groups as being representative of estern (U.S./European) hegemony (Biermann). How to allocate funding is another critical concern, reflecting…
Andresen, Steinar. The effectiveness of UN environmental institutions. Int Environ Agreements (2007) 7:317 -- 336.
Bauer, Steffen and Biermann, Frank. Does Effective International Environmental Governance Require a World Environment Organization? The State of the Debate Prior to the Report of the High-Level Panel on Reforming the United Nations. Global Governance Working Paper No 13. Amsterdam, Berlin, Oldenburg, Potsdam: The Global Governance Project. 2004. Available at www.- glogov.org
Biermann, Frank. The Case for a World Environment Organization. Environment, Nov2000, Vol. 42 Issue 9, p22, 10p
Najam, Adil. "The Case Against a New International Environmental Organization." Global Governance 9(2003): 367-384.