Enzymes are highly selective and substrate-specific catalysts that work by lowering activation energy for reactions thus increasing the rate of metabolic reactions. In enzymatic reactions, substrates are molecules binding onto enzymes' active sites to form enzyme-substrate complexes (Cornish-Bowden, 2004). Lactose is a disaccharide sugar commonly found in milk and lactase is the enzyme responsible for catalyzing lactose into its subsequent monosaccharide products; glucose and galactose. In line with this, lactose intolerance is the inability to digest lactose; lactose intolerant individuals have insufficient levels of lactase and symptoms include flatulence, diarrhea, rumbling stomach, and vomiting as well (Wilson, 2005).
There are several factors that affect enzymatic reactions. According to Dunaway-Mariano (2008), enzymatic activities are affected by temperature, pressure, chemical environment such as pH, and substrate concentration as well (Dunaway-Mariano, 2008). To determine the optimal conditions for enzymatic activity, the enzyme, lactase was tested under four conditions; different temperatures, pH, substrates, and…… [Read More]
Lipases digest fat and fat soluble vitamins. Enzyme.com reports, "Lipase deficient people have decreased cell permeability, meaning nutrients cannot get in and the waste cannot get out of the cell. For example, diabetics are lipase deficient and cannot get glucose into their cells, and wastes or unwanted substances cannot get out." Heart disease can come from this.
Cellulase deficiency can lead to sugar or gluten intolerance. Enzyme.com writes, "Cellulase deficiency is a malabsorption syndrome (impaired absorption of nutrients, vitamins, or minerals from the diet by the lining of the small intestine) with its many symptoms of lower abdominal gas, pain, bloating and problems associated with the jejunum and pancreas as well as nervous system conditions such as ell's Palsy, Tic and facial neuralgia."
Ethnicity can be related to deficiencies of the body. Emedicine.medscape.com (2010) reports, "Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency is most common in Canadian Eskimos and natives of Greenland. They cannot…… [Read More]
Doctor Determine Treatment for a Diagnosis of Hereditary Fructose Intolerance:
Explain how enzymes are involved in processes such as the breakdown of fructose.
The enzymes work as a lock and key process where the relevetn active part of the enzyme fits into the substrate (i.e. The molecule on which the enzyme acts) and activates it. There are various active sites on the enzyme and only the enzyme that will 'fit' in the substrate will work. After part of enzyme matching with substrate, enzyme breaks down substrate into two smaller products.
The following image illustrates:
(adapted from http://waynesword.palomar.edu/molecu1.htm)
At times the process can be blocked by an impediment that stops the 'key' from 'turning, as happens in the case of a lack in aldolase B. which can prompt hereditary fructose intolerance
Explain how a deficiency in aldolase B. can be responsible for hereditary fructose intolerance.
Hereditary fructose intolerance is a disease…… [Read More]
Explain how enzymes are involved in processes such as the breakdown of fructose.
Enzymes are integral to processes such as the breakdown of fructose, a monosaccharide. Thus, a deficiency in enzymes can cause malabsorption of fructose or other sugars. Chemically, enzymes are complex proteins. Some enzymes like fructokinase transform molecules into available energy via processes of metabolism. For example, fructokinase and aldolase B. are enzymes involved in the breakdown of fructose. Any imbalance or absence of these and other enzymes can lead to fructose intolerance in the person, leading to a number of medical symptoms. When fructose cannot be metabolized by enzymes, it may lead to reduced absorption of water in the intestines, which in turn may lead to "bloating, diarrhoea or constipation, flatulence, and stomach pain due to muscle spasms. (Breakspear Medical Group, n.d.).
Found throughout the human body, enzymes can be considered to be chemical catalysts that…… [Read More]
Temperature on Enzyme Activity
Tube 2, #4: Place the tube in an incubator (or water bath) at 37 degree centigrade. After 15 minutes, what change do you now observe?
After 15 minutes the milk became partially solid.
Tube 3, #4: Add three drops of warmed rennin and return the tube to an incubator (or water bath) at 37 degree centigrade. After 15 minutes, what change do you now observe?
After 15 minutes, the milk remains liquid with no solidifying taking place.
Table 5.1 Rennin Experiment
Tube Results Explanation
Refrigerated rennin - (tube 2) 0 Enzyme not active at low temperature.
Warmed rennin - (tube 1) ++ Enzyme effective at 37c temperature.
Boiled rennin - (tube 3) 0 Enzyme not active at high temperature,
Enzyme denatured at high temperature.
Graph: Effect of Temperature on Enzyme Activity.
What happens at the active site of an enzyme?
The active site is…… [Read More]
Acid Denaturation of Catalase
The enzyme catalase is an integral component of endogenous antioxidant defenses in both plants (Blokhina, Virolainen, and Fagerstedt, 2003) and animals (Hermes-Lima and Zeneno-Savin, 2002). These defenses are required to keep reactive oxygen species (OS) in check, otherwise accumulation would result in harm to cells and tissue. OS species include the superoxide radical (O2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (HO), singlet oxygen, ozone, lipid peroxides, and nitric oxide. However, under conditions of oxidative stress, OS species can accumulate and threaten cellular and tissue health. For example, hypoxia causes H2O2 to accumulate in the roots and leaves of some plants (reviewed by Blokhina, Virolainen, and Fagerstedt, 2003) and in mammalian cells, over 100 genes involved in antioxidant defense are induced (reviewed by Hermes-Lima and Zeneno-Savin, 2002).
Some enzymes are able to withstand extreme conditions, in terms of pH and temperatures. Although catalase activity has been studied extensively…… [Read More]
Amidation of Peptides in Humans
Modern biotechnology has experienced dramatic leaps in the body of knowledge concerning molecular processes in peptides and how they work. Many of these processes rely on amidation of peptides to achieve increasingly important medical and commercial applications. Peptides are created when two or more amino acids are covalently joined by peptide bonds, a process termed post-translational modification. One increasingly valuable application of post-translational modification is amidation. This paper provides an overview of peptides and their role in biological processes, how amidation of peptides works and its importance, and a description of the two functional domains of the PAM enzyme (PHM and PAL) and the roles they play in amidation. An assessment of whether amidation prevents C-terminal degradation is followed by a discussion of which peptides/proteins are susceptible to C-terminal degredation by carboxypeptidase. An analysis of whether E. coli can be modified to perform amidation will…… [Read More]
For the temperature portion of the investigation (conducted first), eight test tubes were placed in four temperature controlled water baths ranging from water and crushed ice (2( C) to near boiling (98(). The other baths were kept at room temperature (23( C) and an intermediary between this and boiling (75( C). Test tubes were left in the baths for ten minutes, until their temperatures at equalized. Starting with the coldest bath, the amylase mixture was poured into the starch solution and briefly stirred. Leaving the test tube in the bath, a single drop was removed every ten seconds using a plastic pipette and placed into a well containing the iodine solution. When the color remained orange, the reaction had been completed, and the time (i.e. length of reaction) was noted. This same process was repeated with the other three sets of test tubes at the other temperatures, washing and replacing…… [Read More]
Transcription is a process that genetic information on the DNA copies into NA and the DNA acts as the template for the new molecules of NA. Transcription process begins with the DNA double helix unwinding as the hydrogen bonds holding the opposing bases breaks and the DNA strands are uncoupled. The process occurs within the cytoplasm of a prokaryote and in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Transcription process consists of three steps; initiation, elongation, termination, and are regulated by transcription factors that include protein products of the genes. The protein products regulate at postranscriptional levels every time.
Initiation of transcription begins with enzyme NA polymerase that identifies and attaches to DNA at the promoter and transcription of the DNA template starts. An initiation complex forms by association of 50 proteins different from each other required by NA polymerase II. NA polymerase synthesizes polynucleotides of NA from the template of DNA.…… [Read More]
Lipids and Proteins
Lipids are fats and they are important to our health. When chemically digesting these lipids or fats, these molecules are broken down into smaller ones that can be more readily passed through the digestive system and into the bloodstream. This fat is transformed into triglycerides and can be used by the body for energy at a later time.
Lipids like almost all food is first mechanically digested by the mouth. During this process the first chemical reaction begins when the saliva begins to break down the fat. As the fat is digested, enzymes called lipases within the mouth and stomach break the bonds of the lipid molecules an prepare them for absorption. The gall bladder and pancreas becomes involved in this process as bile salts are released from these organs and secreted in the small intestine. These chemicals signal to further digest the food by breaking…… [Read More]
elationship between cardiac arrest and coronary cardiac disease
The heart is an essential organ in the human body, it keeps the individual alive. Understanding how the heart operates and functions is essential to help protect your heart from heart disease. Cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease are significant heart related illness that has a high mortality rate. It is important for individuals with pre-existing heart disease to understand the symptoms of cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease, since these are both leading causes of fatality in the United States. Understanding how the heart works, the individuals risk for heart disease, and how to prevent or delay heart disease is essential. In this paper I will address the relationship between cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease. I will also explain how the heart functions and discuss some ways of preventing cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease.
Cardiac…… [Read More]
Based on the results of these assays, S. flexneri can often be identified, although additional kits may be required. The simplest way, however, may be the novel approach through multiplex PCR (mRPC). It is possible to identify Shigella species through mPCR techniques by identifying pathogenicity islands associated with Shigella and S. flexneri.
6. How could you create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin? (You need to include techniques, steps, enzymes, etc.)
In order to create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin, scientists would first need to incorporate the human fibrin gene within the corn plant genome. The incorporated human gene would require regulation and promoter sequences that would function within the plant cell. Proper splicing sequences would also be required or removal of the introns altogether.
The delivery of transgenes into the corn plant could be accomplished through electroporation into corn protoplasts…… [Read More]
These cells have an enzyme on their surface that attracts fat. The number and distribution of adipose cells has a genetic component, and is usually determined in early childhood.
Describe the major metabolic diseases associated with lipid metabolism, transport and storage for humans?
Diseases associated with lipid metabolism, transport and storage included: high cholesterol, combined hyperlipidemia, familial hypercholesterolemia, high density lipoprotein, and hypertriglyceridemia,
How do unsaturated and saturated fatty acids differ from each other?
Saturated fats contain carbon atoms with a single bond between them and as many hydrogen atoms as possible bonded to the carbon atoms. Saturated fats contain carbon atoms with a double bond, and can therefore absorb more hydrogen atoms. Healthy diets are low in saturated fats, since they raise blood cholesterol levels.
What are the roles of Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) in humans?
There are two essential fatty acids: the omega-3 fatty acids and the moega-6…… [Read More]
(1989). These researchers investigated skeletal muscle adaptations in response to acclimatization at high altitude. Samples of muscle extracted before reaching high altitude and after returning to sea-level showed that maximal activities of enzymes, such as those representative of beta-oxidation, were unchanged. However, after exposure to extremely high altitude hypoxic conditions, reductions were observed in succinic dehydrogenase, citrate synthetase and hexokinase. The findings of this study did not support the researchers' hypothesis that extremely hypoxic conditions elicit changes that are adaptive toward maximizing oxidative function at the intracellular level (Green et al., 1989).
Donoghue, S., Fatemian, M., Balanos, G.M., Crosby, A., Liu, C., O'Connor, D., Talbot, N.P., obbins, P.A. "Ventilatory Acclimatization in esponse to Very Small Changes in PO2 in Humans." Journal of Applied Physiology 98 (2005): 1587-91.
Green, H.J., Sutton, J.., Cymerman, A., Young, P.M., Houston, C.S. "Operation Everest II: Adaptations in Human Skeletal Muscle." Journal of Applied Physiology…… [Read More]
The Golgi receives new proteins and lipids from the ER, finishes them up, addresses them and sends them to their final destination. In this way, the Golgi could be the postal service of the city. Lysosomes get rid of unusable waste within the cell and recycles those materials that can be reused, making it the recycling and garbage center of the city. Mitochondria are where ATP, the main energy molecule, is made. It could be considered the city's power plant. Then we have the cell's cytoskeleton, which gives the cell its shape, strength and its ability to move. It can be looked at as the roadways and bridges of the city. ("Chemical Composition of the Body," 2005)
Cells do not act alone and have help from things like enzymes to complete their job. Enzymes are proteins make chemical reactions within cells occur faster ("Chemical Composition of the Body," 2005). ithout…… [Read More]
Genetic Influence of MDMA Neurotoxicity
Ecstasy [(±)-3.4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA, XTC, X, E] is one of the most popular drugs of abuse in the world (Capela et al., 2009, p. 211). Often used in social settings, such as the so-called 'raves' or all night dance parties, ecstasy has been reported to lower barriers to intimacy, increase the pleasure derived from friendships, enhance social interactions, and increase energy (euphoria) (Peters and Kok, 2009, p. 242).
In the U.S., MDMA is classified as a schedule 1 drug due its addictive potential, lack of therapeutic utility, dubious safety profile, and neurotoxic potential (Capela et al., 2009, p. 212) and its use has been illegal since 1985. The safety concerns of MDMA include the potential for a negative therapeutic outcome (Parrott, 2007) and its neurotoxicity (Capela et al., 2009). Apparently, the use of MDMA in a psychotherapy setting can produce a negative outcome that…… [Read More]
The mechanical and chemical digestion of carbohydrates starts in the mouth. Chewing also termed as mastication ensures that the carbohydrates crumble down into smaller pieces. There are salivary glands within the oral cavity that secrete saliva which coats the food. Saliva comprises of an enzyme salivary amylase which breaks down the bods that are found between monomeric sugars like disaccharides, oligosaccharides and starches. It also breaks down amylose and amylopectin into small glucose chains referred to as dextrin and maltose. About 5% of starches are broken down within the mouth. There is also production of mucus by mucus cells within the salivary glad which helps the food to stick together and also lubricates food hence help in swallowing. At this stage the food is known as bolus and it is forced into the pharynx with the help of the tongue (Swartz, 2012).
During swallowing, the food passes through the…… [Read More]
When the body can not break down food by the physical means it has, the body must therefore use chemical digestion to help finish the job. Chewing food with teeth is an example of physical digestion, but that is just the beginning of the process. Chemical digestion is also occurring at this starting point where digestive juices begin to counteract with the food to begin to break it down into a digestible matter.
As the digestive fluids begin to act upon the food, the small molecules are being transformed into other elements to fuel the body. Some food such as proteins, carbohydrates lipids or fats are too large to be simply absorbed by the body and chemical digestion directly affects how these molecules are digested. The main reason why these types of foods cannot be readily absorbed, is because they are insoluble in water. In other words they…… [Read More]
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…… [Read More]
IV. TESTING ON HUMANS
The only thing that is lacking at this point according to all reports is for testing on humans to be completed. The Time Asia articles states: "The last step for the ace-2 inhibitor, as for any drug, is human clinical trials. ecause the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires such rigorous testing, this is by far the most expensive part of drug development. So for human trials in some cases, Millennium has formed partnerships with large pharmaceutical companies that have the necessary resources and will share in any eventual profits." (2001)
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
According to the work entitled: "rave New Pharmacy" published in Time Asia (2001) "When the human genome was sequenced...scientists finally gained access to the full text of God's reference manual; the 3 billion biochemical 'letters' that spell out our tens of thousands of genes. These genes, strung out along the 46 chromosomes…… [Read More]
If there is disulfiram in the patient's system, it takes about 5-10 minutes for the effects of the drug to form the outward symptoms of a severe hangover. These symptoms last from 30 minutes to several hours, and may include flushing, rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, throbbing headaches, mental confusion and even circulatory collapse. There is no known tolerance to the drug, the longer it is taken, the stronger the effects. Because of its molecular make up, it is absorbed slowly through the digestive tract with the effects lasting up to two weeks after the initial doses. This makes the issue of informed consent very important for this substance (Wright and Moore).
The efficacy of the drug is debatable. On one hand, the biological and chemical effects of are proven. One study showed that there is about a 50% compliance rate in a supervised atmosphere,…… [Read More]
Glycogen storage diseases are caused by inherited mutations that alter the enzymatic activity of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis (Wolfsdorf and Weinstein, 2003). The disorders can be roughly divided into those that primarily affect glycogen storage in the liver, resulting in the prototypical symptom of hypoglycemia, and those that affect glycogen storage in muscle tissue and therefore causing muscle weakness.
Glycogen torage Disease Type-I (von Gierke Disease)
Glycogen storage disease type-I (GD-I) can be broken down into at least two distinct autosomal recessive diseases (Wolfsdorf and Weinstein, 2003). Type-Ia disease involves mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase or LC37A4) and type-Ib involves mutations in the glucose-6-phosphate transporter-1 (G6PT1 or MIM232220) gene. Type-Ia is by far the most common, representing 80% of all GD-I patients. Over 70 mutations in gene encoding G6Pase have been identified that impair its function and therefore the ability of the liver to mobilize glycogen…… [Read More]
Experimental Design for Hypothetial Researh Study
Reent researh has emerged whih suggests that the ingestion of hoolate may lead to improved ognitive funtion within the realm of memorization and retention of information. Establishing a onlusive link between ertain hemial omponents found in hoolate and the improvement of memory funtion would be a signifiant point of progress for medial siene, espeially when the impat of Alzheimer's disease, early-onset dementia and other memory-redution ailments on senior itizens is fully onsidered. By expanding on the work of Jones and Wilson (2011) -- who improved soring on math tests two hours after subjets ate hoolate -- it may be possible to identify the partiular enzymes released during digestion whih serve to alter fundamental aspets of memory. Researh published by Wong, Hideki, Anderson, and Skaarsgard (2009) -- whih suggests that the impat of hoolate on memory improvement ours more frequently for women -- an also…… [Read More]
Again, all groups were by the end of the study essentially the same in that they had each served as controls, placebo recipients, and recipients of either one or two interventional medicines. The same periods of medication and testing were utilized for all participants in all groups of the study throughout the period during which the research took place.
According to the researchers, the completion of a crossover study such as this by forty-five participants is equivalent to 80% power at 5% statistical significance that the results could be extrapolated to the wider population. Though a higher level of certainty could be desired, this study's findings are still worthwhile.
The results are presented as average rates of the effects of the varying interventions (or lacks thereof) among the participants during the different phases of the trial. The differences between these averages were compared as different levels of…… [Read More]
Medically, certain conditions must be ruled out before Linda is
transported for psychiatric admission. High on the list of differential
diagnosis is head injury, electrolyte imbalance, thyroid disorder,
metabolic disturbance, nutritional issues, and toxic substance ingestion.
If the history appears clear that Linda has not experience psychosis,
hallucination or delusion before, these and other conditions must be ruled
out before a psychiatric diagnosis is given.
Of primary concern is the safety for Linda and the staff. One person
should be encouraged to establish a relationship with Linda in the medical
setting, communicating with her but allowing adequate escape distance
should her demeanor or threat level change. Linda should be spoken to in a
soft, quiet voice in a secure setting. She should be provided choices
regarding voluntarily taking medications. Conversation with Linda should
be simple and to the point, avoiding prolonged or argumentative
conversations. It may require limit setting to…… [Read More]
The inquiry cited above makes use of the functions of analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Analysis is the act of reviewing and comparing data. In the inquiry of the herbicides, the analysis occurs with the review of prior evaluations and inquires. This analysis of studies regarding the effect of atrazine allowed the inquiry to come up with its hypothesis and thus direct the actual experiment. Without an analysis of the original, existing data the concept of comparing use of atrazine, isoxaflutale and a mix of both would not have been thought of.
The concept of synthesis refers to the integration of two or more existing elements in order to create something new. In the inquiry, there are numerous levels of synthesis. First and foremost is the agricultural practice of combining atrazine with isoxaflutale as a method of creating a new, supposedly less toxic herbicide that would comply with the regulations issued…… [Read More]
correctly identify opportunities and threats to the products of soap and laundry detergent. Specifically, three marketing environment forces will be identified that impact this type of products. These include environmental quality factors such as sewage treatment and other environmental pollution issues in the detergent manufacturing plants, allergies to chemicals or other ingredients in the products themselves and product changes dictated by various changes in washing machines. In the essay, the author will also describe each force and analyze why and how it will impact the soap and detergent industry.
One of the primary issues that the soap and laundry detergent is the issue of pollution in the manufacture of the product. hether from a desire to avoid running afoul of government fines and regulation, to avoid litigation from issues related to pollution or to avoid bad public relations or "ecotage" (actual sabotage by environmental radicals) this issue is probably the…… [Read More]
Monosodium glutamate, otherwise known as MSG, is a commonly discussed food additive used throughout the world today. While some countries use it minimally, and place high restrictions on its use, other countries use it on a consistent basis, in many foods. This paper will examine MSG, and its uses. Additionally, this paper will examine each step of how MSG is made, using fermentation. The discussion will include technical details of the process, the equipment commonly used, the use of enzymes and bacteria, as well as an examination of the product packaging and quality control procedures. Finally, this paper will include a brief description of the market of MSG, and the socio-economic aspects of the product.
Monosodium glutamate, or MSG, is the sodium salt of glutamic acid. Glutamate is an amino acid that occurs naturally in many foods known for their flavor, such as tomatoes and mushrooms. Additionally, glutamate is found…… [Read More]
When DNA is damaged, cells can react through cell cycle checkpoints which allows repair to begin before further division can occur. There is also the prokaryotic SOS response which changes gene expression in bacteria as a result of DNA damage. This response is regulated by the production of certain proteins. Moreover, eukaryotic cells also react to DNA damage through producing proteins that begin the process of DNA repair.
8. Mice are often the favored mammalian in the testing of aging interventions. This is often because of the fact that there are many mice easily available for testing but also the fact that "generation time is short" (Yuan et al. 2011). Essentially, the aging process and testing in interventions can be done on a much shorter time scale then with tests using monkeys.
9. Enzymes may change the transcription patterns of a cell by adding chemical groups to histone proteins. This…… [Read More]
conflict which has repercussions in the present time or one that is indeed actual. The following chosen conflict can actually be regarded as conflictive on two grounds which makes it all the more so important. First, hydraulic fracturing has been demonstrated to have severe environmental consequences on a negative scale which subsequently affect people's well-being. Second, as a technological development of the twentieth century, hydraulic fracturing, provided that the aforementioned is indeed true, would constitute reasonable grounds to estimate that the effects of industrialization have been detrimental to the common interest of the mere population while it has only boosted more financial benefits for the rich. The two grounds mentioned before make hydraulic fracturing a very current dangerous conflict which is why it has been chosen here. Moreover, certain companies seem to be given the right to drill internationally while the population is not made aware of the consequences, especially…… [Read More]
Acidic Fluid on Enzymatic Activity
The aim of the experiment is to investigate the effect of an acidic fluid on enzymatic activity.
Enzymes are the class of molecules referred as proteins having one or more chains of amino acids, which are joined together by peptide bonds. The role of an enzyme is to speed up or catalyze the chemical reactions as well as reducing the amount of energy that an enzyme needs to enhance a chemical reaction. (Al-Hakimi, 2008). In other words, enzymes are the protein molecules found in living cell used to speed up a reaction in the cell. Catalyze is an example of an enzyme found on liver and potato. However, the level of enzyme activity is affected by factors such as PH, temperature and salinity. (El-Beltagin, Mohamed, Mekki, et al. 2011). For example, PH has the ability to affect the state of ionization of basic or acidic…… [Read More]
al., 1993; Forman & Dickinson, 2003). Though nitric oxide is not involved in as many individual processes as hydrogen peroxide, or at least a lower number of processes have been identified in current research, its presence in too great an abundance can disrupt proper signaling and trigger alternative signaling pathways other than those normally utilized in redox signaling (Forman & Dickinson, 2003). These redox signaling pathways have the potential to promote the continued production of reactive oxygen species rather than contributing to the continued progression of the optimal redox signaling cascade, in which the production of O, H2O2, and other reactive oxygen species would be signaled to cease and normal intercellular environments would resume (Forman & Dickinson, 2003).
Research into the complexities of redox signaling in wound response and its implications for the healing process remains ongoing, and many current findings are still the product of a great deal…… [Read More]
Mold Spore Trapping
Current Scientific Knowledge
People are exposed to aeroallergens in a variety of settings, both at home and at work. Fungi are ubiquitous airborne allergens and are important causes of human diseases, especially in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These diseases occur in persons of various ages.
Airborne spores and other fungi particles are ubiquitous in nonpolar landscapes, especially amongst field crops, and often form the bulk of suspended biogenic debris. The term mold often is used synonymously with the term fungi. A more precise definition would specify that molds lack macroscopic reproductive structures but may produce visible colonies. Respiratory illness in subjects exposed to rust and dark-spored imperfecti fungi was described more than 60 years ago, and physicians worldwide now recognize a sensitization to diverse fungi.
Since fungus particles commonly are derived from wholly microscopic sources, exposure hazards are assessed largely through direct sampling of a…… [Read More]
Pharmacokinetics explains the process by which a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated from the body. These processes are dependent on the amount of the drug administered, the method of administration (which affects the rate of absorption, biotransformation, and even excretion), and how the drug binds in the tissues. In essence, a drug's ability to transverse the cellular membranes depends on its solubility and molecular size and shape. The passive diffusion of the drug across cellular membranes depends on its lipid solubility as well as concentration gradients outside and inside the cellular membrane and the pH differences across the membrane. Active transport of the drug occurs when the drug is actually moved by components of the membrane. This can allow a drug move against concentration and electrochemical gradients but it requires energy, can be selective, and can be inhibited by similar molecules. The absorption rate is influenced…… [Read More]
The pancreas is an important source of digestive enzymes and fluids, and plays a critical role in regulating blood sugar levels through the production of insulin and glucagon (NDDIC, 2012). Should the pancreas become inflamed there is the risk that the digestive enzymes will become activated within the pancreas, resulting in self-digestion. This disease is known as pancreatitis and even mild cases require hospitalization. This essay will review what is known about pancreatitis in the United States and the clinical guidelines for diagnosis and treatment.
Pancreatitis Pathophysiology, Epidemiology, and Etiology
The digestive enzymes produced by a healthy pancreas are secreted into the small intestine as zymogens, which are enzymes that have their catalytic domain blocked by a peptide group (Berg, Tymoczko, and Stryer, 2002). The intestinal brush border cells secrete enteropeptidase, which removes the peptide blocking the catalytic domain of trypsin. Trypsin then activates the digestive enzymes secreted by…… [Read More]
Antimicrobial Agents in Household Use: Triclosan
Describe how Triclosan works on a molecular level. Explain how Triclosan differs from soap and bleach in its antimicrobial activity.
Triclosan blocks the active site of the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase enzyme (EN), this is the vital enzyme in the synthesis of fatty acid in bacteria (Levy et a, 1999). Blocking this active site by triclosan leads to the inhibition of the enzyme thus preventing the synthesis of the fatty acid by the bacteria, a process needed for building cell membranes and reproduction. Given the fact that this EN enzyme exists in humans, triclosan has been considered to be relatively friendly to humans. Due to its strong nature of inhibition, powerful antibacterial action can be achieved using only a small amount of triclosan.
Triclosan differs from soap and bleach in the mechanism of action. Levy et al. (1999) also clarify that whereas triclosan interferes…… [Read More]
Inheritable neuropathies are among the globe's healthcare challenges today. Although their incidence is not as high, one in every 2500 people, as compared to other major healthcare problems, their symptoms, and consequences are equally fatal. Charcot Marie Tooth disease is among the inherited neuropathies, which has significantly shown potential and fatal consequences to people. Notably, the disorder does not have any known cure, but there are numerous therapies to control the disease. Although this is the current case, advancements in medicine, are gradually bearing fruits because experts have discovered a way to diagnose some types of these deadly disorders. Other types of neuropathy disorders include hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNNP), hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN), and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN or hereditary sensory neuropathy). In a second part of this paper is an experiment to detect HaeIII in given human DNA samples. Owing to…… [Read More]
Though there are state laws and federal laws that militate against discrimination at any levels, the application of this law is a challenge and the patients end up being discriminated against anyway. The victims will most likely end up in nursing homes where they will receive treatment but this separates them from the family life.
The other factor is the cost that weighs down the concerned people in terms of medical bills. It is a disease that is expensive to manage since there are numerous scans that one must get and the cost of specialized care doesn't make it any better. The good news however is that there are several organizations that have volunteered to help the victims of this disease like Hunters Hope (2009) which was purposefully formed to cater for patients of the disease in terms of support and information among many other organizations.
Alexander C. Guo,…… [Read More]
(NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)
The Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are stated to be "recommended as first-line treatment in all people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) "with or without symptoms of heart failure." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) Additionally it is stated that strong evidence exists that ACE inhibitors "...increase life expectancy in people with LVSD and reduce the risk of hospitalization -- the effect is greatest in those with more severe LVSD or more severe symptoms, but benefit occurs for all degrees of severity." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)
Prescribed for individuals who are intolerant of ACE inhibitors due to cough are
Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists which provide an alternative to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) There is stated to be evidence that AIIRAs supports life expectancy improvement and symptoms for those with heart failure due to…… [Read More]
Digestion and diabetes: Overview of the process
The digestive process begins even before food is consumed. Looking at or anticipating food causes salivation. Saliva aids digestion, along with chewing. For example, when Jane Doe looks at a plate consisting of a whole wheat turkey sandwich (garnished by vegetables and mayonnaise), potato chips, and apple juice, her body will begin to anticipate eating by secreting digestive juices. The first major involuntary muscular movement for Jane Doe will not occur until she consciously decides to swallow the food in front of her. "Although you are able to start swallowing by choice, once the swallow begins, it becomes involuntary and proceeds under the control of the nerves" (Your digestive system, 2010, NIH). The swallowed food is pushed into the esophagus, the organ that connects the teeth, mouth, and tongue through the throat to the stomach. "At the junction of the esophagus and…… [Read More]
Genetic Components of the Disease
Metabolic Components of the Disease
Causes of the disease
Symptoms of the disease
Diagnosis of the disease
Treatment of the disease
Cord lood Transfusion
Treatment for Late on-set Form
Incidence and Longevity of the disease
Krabbe disease, also referred as globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), causes a deficiency in galactocerebrosidase (GALC), the enzyme responsible for preventing a build-up of galactolipids in the brain. Without the regulation of galactolipids, the growth of the myelin sheath around the nerve cells is severely impaired. Krabbe disease usually presents in first 6 months of the life. A child in the last stages of Krabbe disease is immobilized and has decreased level of responsiveness. Most of them die at the age of 2. (Lantos, 2011)
Genetic Components of the Disease
GLD is one of the subgroup of metabolic disorders called leukodystrophies. The leukodystrophies are caused…… [Read More]
PCR GAPDH Genes Parsley
PCR Analysis of GAPDH Genes in Parsley
The purpose of this review is to consider the structure and the function of the protein glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 188.8.131.52) in Petroselinum crispum and Coriandrum sativum cells. For over three decades, GAPDH was studied for its pivotal role in glycolysis. As an abundant cell protein, it proved useful as a model for investigations examining basic mechanisms of enzyme action as well as the relationship between amino acid sequence and protein structure. Further, with the advent of molecular technology, GAPDH, as a putative 'house-keeping' gene, provided a model with which to use new methods for gene analysis to advance our understanding of the mechanisms through which cells organize and express their genetic information.
As with many things in life, what is thought to be simple and relatively straight-forward turns out to be quite complex and elaborate. In this regard,…… [Read More]
" (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003)
Prior to visualization of the molecule of interest it is necessary to "fix and section the brain tissue. Double-labeling immunofluorescence is stated to detect "localization of a protein of interest as well as the distribution of the protein relative to another marker such as a neurochemical or organelle marker." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003 Fluorescence imaging labeled tissue through use of confocal makes provision of "high-resolution analysis of the extent of colocalization, with a theoretical limit of resolution of 0.1 to 0.2 um." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003) Immunofluorescence techniques are stated to "in general...utilize secondary antibodies conjugated to a flurosphore." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003) It is important according to Volpicelli-Daley and Levey to choose flurosphores with "minimal background staining and a minimum overlap of excitation/emission spectra...when performing double labeling experiments." (2003)
IV. FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY
The work of Coling and Kachar (1997) entitled: "Theory and Application of…… [Read More]
This teatment, albeit, does not poduce 100% chitosan, but basically poduces a mixtue of 10-15% chitin plus 85-90% pue chitosan, called "pue CC." In the U.S., chitosan constitutes a mixtue of appoximately7% chitin plus appoximately 93% chitosan. Outside of cost-effectiveness, the biological effects of chitin poduced fom each souce appeas identical. "Chitosan oligosacchaides (CO) takes chitosan a big step futhe," Matsunaga (2007 explains. "When CC is ingested, a small amount of it is boken down into vey small molecula paticles by the enzymes of the body, thus poducing CO. CO can also be manufactued by using an enzymatic pocess" (Matsunaga, as cited in Levine, p. 1). The body moe eadily absobs CO, although CO contains less fibe than egula CC.
In Case Histoy 1: Low Pulmonay (Lung) Function, Matsunaga (Levine, 2007) teats his fist patient, also his fathe, with the administation of CC. Pevious teatments had yielded no esults…… [Read More]
human DNA sequence composed of a series of letters such as 'accagacagt' and the objective was to decipher this jumble of letters and interpret the results. I suppose I should report that the process went smoothly and that after a bit of research I now consider myself an expert in regard to the new science of DNA Sequencing. However, I have a thousand more questions now than before I began and even the answers I came up with may or may not be correct. I do know for a fact that this is a pretty new art or science and its potential seems limitless. "DNA itself has thus far shown only modest evidence of possessing any intrinsic catalytic activities, although the prospect that more will be discovered in the future is surely plausible." (Cantor & Smith, 1999, xv)
The internet has made so many sites and processes available to the…… [Read More]
Milk from the cow is one of the most versatile and important substances in the human diet as well as in the diets of many animals and in particular in the diet of poultry that are being raised as layers, broilers or for other purposes. The fact that this milk can be processed into many different forms adds to its versatility and provides a wide array of by-products from which specialized uses can be determined. Understanding the basic array of materials that can be obtained from processing milk is the first step in understanding how those products can be used in the diets of poultry. The next step of understanding the relationship between dairy by-products and the benefits they can provide to poultry comes through examining the nutritional content of those by-products for the feeding and development of poultry. As these two explanations are provided it becomes evident in…… [Read More]
Fruit is an integral part of certain types of plants' ability to reproduce by providing a means to disperse it's seeds. The process of seed dispersal involves the activity of animals; which digest the fruit and disperse the seeds in its feces. But the fruit must appear and taste agreeable to the various animals which the plant depends upon to eat the fruit and disperse the seeds. In order to accomplish this, the fruit undergoes a physiological change which allows the fruit to become softer and more edible, while simultaneously changing colors. "The cause of fruit ripening is a natural form of a chemical synthesized to make PCV (polyvinyl chloride) piping and plastic bags - namely, a gaseous hormone called ethylene." (Kendrick, 2009) It is the production of ethylene that will activate certain genes inside the fruit that will begin the ripening process.
Once the production of ethylene…… [Read More]
[hs130, section: ____ ]
Today, on the twentieth of August, I will take you on a trip inside the gastrointestinal tract, and beyond in the human body to observe the process of digestion and excretion. As simple as it may seem, this process is more than just moving down a hollow tube. To understand this more deeply, let's begin our journey!
EVIEW OF THE VIDEO TAPE:
Being reduced to eight microns in a hamburger holds the possibility of being chewed, grinded and dissolved in gastric acid. Even though I used special shield defenses, the slight possibility can still be a scary thought. Despite the risk, I felt motivated enough to allow myself to be amazed by the human body.
In about a moment, I was in the mouth of a 55-year-old man. Mixed with me, were fries, meat, lettuce, cheese, burgers and bear. Staying away from the teeth…… [Read More]
Physiological Effects of Endurance Training
Endurance training produces many physiological changes, both during training and after the training period is complete. These changes are biochemical and also involve changes in the cardio-pulmonary system. The correct way to perform endurance training has been a subject of controversy in recent years. There are many differences in training methods. These differences and the effects of endurance training will be the subject of this research. The jury is still out as to what constitutes the perfect duration and intensity of training program.
Studies have shown that a focused training program can increase maximum oxygen intake by 15-30% over a three-month period (7) and that can increase to 50% if the training is sustained for over 2 years. The body makes many metabolic adaptations as well. These adaptations drop rapidly in the first few weeks after training is stopped (1).
Duration and Intensity of Different…… [Read More]
detection of the Borna disease virus relating them to the epidemiology.
The first cases of Borna disease were descried in the 17-19th century in Southern Germany. It was discovered to e a fatal disease affecting the neurological systems of horses and sheep, (Ludwig et al., 1985; Durrwald, 1993) causing ehavioral and neurological symptoms. It was proven to e caused y a 2003]
Today it is eing realized that the scope of the disease is not limited to just a few countries as was previously elieved ut encompassed the world. Also it was realized that far from affecting just horses and sheep as was originally thought virus, the Borna Disease Virus (BDV) in the early 1900's y Zwick and his team in Giessen Germany. [Author not availale, it in fact affected other animals and even human eings.[Staeheli, Sauder; Schwemmle, et al., 2000]
Research into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the BDV…… [Read More]
Design Project -- A&P Lab
Ammonia (NH3) is produced by cells located throughout the body; most of the production occurring in the intestines, liver, and the kidney, where it is used to produce urea. Ammonia is particularly toxic to brain cells, and high levels of blood ammonia can also lead to organ failure. The imaginary organelle referred to as a hydrosome functions in a manner that decreases the blood ammonia levels in people, thereby circumventing the need for medications such as to treatment to prevent hepatic encephalopathy and conditions associated with a failing liver. The hydrosome functions similarly to a primary lysosome, also containing a highly acidic interior with lytic enzymes called hydrolases. However, the waste disposal that the hydrosome conducts serves to convert ammonia to a water-soluble waste that is then excreted by the kidneys.
About this Organelle
I came up with the idea for this organelle…… [Read More]
, 2006). He visualized and described the malignancy process. He suggested that early that "cells of tumors with unlimited growth" would develop with the elimination of chromosomes, which inhibit the growth. The multiple genetic alterations in these inhibiting chromosomes are today known as TSGs. The theory supposes that cancer arises from functional defect or absence of one or more TSGs. Clinical trials of TSG gene replacement therapy for breast cancer include the viral wild-type p53, Rb, and mda7. Molecular chemotherapy involves the introduction of suicide genes. The concept evolved from the assumption that cancer cells could be made more sensitive to chemotherapeutics or toxins by introducing "suicide genes." It was a concept initiated in the late 80s. Suicide gene therapy is categorized into toxin gene therapy and enzyme-activating pro-drug therapy. Suicide gene therapy is also called gene-directed enzyme pro-drug therapy or GDEPT. GDEPT treatment consists of the delivery of the…… [Read More]
(Security Guards and Gaming Surveillance Officers) Thus there is a lot of increase in demands from channel members and the possibility if that there is a demand from them to provide them with lower priced products. Even existing marketing companies like Scott Paper Company are facing this problem. There are wholesaler sponsored voluntary chains, and retailer cooperatives which are likely to put pressure on a new manufacturer. (the Environment of Marketing Channels)
With all this consideration, it is better to look at a new market and the reasons for this are that the U.S. population is increasing at the low age end and the high age end, and there are a large number of individuals of different origins. In 2000, the total population was 275 million and this shows a growth of 10.5% from 249 million in 1990. Of this lot 58.4 million Americans were below the age of 15…… [Read More]
Continued use of some anti-migraine drugs has been found to lead to what is known as "rebound headache," a condition marked by frequent and chronic headaches, especially in the early morning hours. The condition can be prevented if the patient takes the drugs only on a doctor's supervision and when taken only in minimal doses. Those suffering from frequent attacks may need preventive therapy (Robinson 1999).
There are alternative treatment modes aimed at preventing migraine (Robinson 1999). ecause it is often linked with food allergies and intolerances, the identification and elimination of the offending foods can contain or decrease the frequency of the attacks. Herbal therapy with the use of feverfew or chrysanthemum parthenium can work this way. iofeedback training may also help prevent some vascular changes when an attack begins by increasing the flow of blood to the extremities. The patient must put the lights down low, put his…… [Read More]
Integration of Cardiovascular/Gastrointestinal Systems
Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body
The integration of the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems allow for nutrients to be introduced, broken down, and absorbed by body to maintain and promote healthy bodily functions. Independently, these systems serve separate functions, but when working in conjunction, help to transport necessary nutrients throughout the body, while maintaining and promoting homeostasis within the systems. Any imbalance within these systems will greatly affect the body, as a whole, and can lead to potentially fatal results.
Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body
The gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems of the human body help to breakdown and transport items that are ingested, such as food and medication, to the necessary parts of the body, expelling wastes that are not needed. Separately, the gastrointestinal and cardiac systems have different functions, but when the systems work in conjunction…… [Read More]
Genomes and Comparative Genomics
Over the last decade we have achieved rapid strides in the field of genetic engineering. The study of molecular biology has been fairly advanced mainly aided by the unprecedented growth in information technology. Today bio-informatics has opened new vitas for us and we are already progressing in investigating and in the comparative study of genomes. This has shed new light up on our knowledge of the evolutionary process and the important concepts such as protein folding and selective expression, which have so far eluded our understanding, are beginning to unfold. Let us have a brief overlook of the subject.
The Role of DNA
One of the greatest achievements of the twentieth century has been the unraveling of the mysteries behind the DNA and the mechanism of protein synthesis. Genes are the fundamental units of biological inheritance and are made up of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Genes are…… [Read More]
Nutrigenomics is an important field of study. It finds in roots in modern times, because of the direct relation to advances in science and technology. Nutrigenomics also straddles the nature vs. nurture divide. The publication of the relatively preliminary results of the Human Genome has given greater impetus to the idea of Nutrigenomics. One might assuredly say that the publication of the Human Genome is preliminary because the current versions of the genome are merely representatives of a very select group of individuals. (Lander et al., 2001; Venter et al., 2001) What makes individuals unique of course is the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs. It is these SNPs that give each of us our individuality. Hence each individual's genome is his or her genotype. A genotype is an individual's genome -- the genetic coding that identifies the character traits that govern existence. In the context of Nutrigenomics, a…… [Read More]
These insects run through the markets of Thailand, South Africa and South Korea offered separately as crunchy snacks to locals and bold travelers. They are highly rich in protein and may be considered as a good food supplement to boost energy. In case you can't make up your mind, a "bug-pack" may be suggested consisting of all edible insects you can munch on while appreciating great views and nature tripping. Larvae and Caterpillars of these insects were also considered as a rare delicacy, either as soup or added flavor to paste.
Farmed by an old Japanese lady in Kyushu Island, the Giant Japanese Hornet is used to make honey. This is a completely incredible honey - literally! The Giant Japanese Hornet is the largest species of wasp in the world, and it contains special enzymes in its body which are reputed to increase strength and energy levels. Giant…… [Read More]
Another hypothesis that has just began to be explored by the academic community is the possibility that flavonoids may alter growth factor signaling, thus limiting the ability of the cell to initiate rapid growth 8). Study into this area are just beginning to emerge and more information will be available in the next several years.
Potential Health Benefits
The key to solving the riddle of why persons that consume large amounts of fruits and vegetables can expect to have certain health benefits depends on the ability to understand the mechanisms at play. Let us first examine current hypothesis regarding the mechanisms that are responsible for the anti-carcinogenic effects of flavonoids. Research into the mechanisms by which certain flavonoids demonstrate anti-carcinogenic effects can be grouped into five categories. Currently these studies are at the in vitro stage, with a few animal studies in the present group. Therefore, it is not known…… [Read More]
Lactose if one of the major components of milk, and plays a crucial role in human development. This paper will examine the structure, function, physical properties, chemical properties, reactions, and everyday uses of lactose. In addition, a discussion of the common issue of lactose intolerance in humans is included.
A natural sugar found in milk, lactose is likely one of the most commonly identifiable of all milk ingredients (except perhaps calcium). Lactose makes up to 4.8 to 5.2% of milk, and 70% of the whey solids in milk.
Other carbohydrates in milk are present in small amounts, including glucose, galactose, and oligosaccharides. Milk also contains a number of other components, including water, milk lipids (which make up products like butter), and milk proteins like caseans and whey proteins (which are predominantly present in milk solids like cheese), milk enzymes (including lipoprotein lipase, plasmin, and alkaline phosphatase), and vitamins (B1 -…… [Read More]