Enzymes Essays (Examples)

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Enzyme Deficiency Cause Ailments or

Words: 660 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56418955



Lipases digest fat and fat soluble vitamins. Enzyme.com reports, "Lipase deficient people have decreased cell permeability, meaning nutrients cannot get in and the waste cannot get out of the cell. For example, diabetics are lipase deficient and cannot get glucose into their cells, and wastes or unwanted substances cannot get out." Heart disease can come from this.

Cellulase deficiency can lead to sugar or gluten intolerance. Enzyme.com writes, "Cellulase deficiency is a malabsorption syndrome (impaired absorption of nutrients, vitamins, or minerals from the diet by the lining of the small intestine) with its many symptoms of lower abdominal gas, pain, bloating and problems associated with the jejunum and pancreas as well as nervous system conditions such as ell's Palsy, Tic and facial neuralgia."

Ethnicity can be related to deficiencies of the body. Emedicine.medscape.com (2010) reports, "Congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency is most common in Canadian Eskimos and natives of Greenland. They cannot…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Enzymes.com. (2010). "Enzyme deficiencies" Retrieved on April 19, 2010 from  http://www.enzymes.com/enzyme_deficiencies.html 

Emedicine.medscape.com. (2010). Retrieved on April 19, 2010 from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/931041-overview
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Enzymology and Catalytic Mechanism Carbohydrate Metabolism ATP

Words: 1091 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14480472

Doctor Determine Treatment for a Diagnosis of Hereditary Fructose Intolerance:

Explain how enzymes are involved in processes such as the breakdown of fructose.

The enzymes work as a lock and key process where the relevetn active part of the enzyme fits into the substrate (i.e. The molecule on which the enzyme acts) and activates it. There are various active sites on the enzyme and only the enzyme that will 'fit' in the substrate will work. After part of enzyme matching with substrate, enzyme breaks down substrate into two smaller products.

The following image illustrates:

(adapted from http://waynesword.palomar.edu/molecu1.htm)

At times the process can be blocked by an impediment that stops the 'key' from 'turning, as happens in the case of a lack in aldolase B. which can prompt hereditary fructose intolerance

Explain how a deficiency in aldolase B. can be responsible for hereditary fructose intolerance.

Hereditary fructose intolerance is a disease…… [Read More]

Sources

Berg JM, Tymoczko JL, Stryer L. (2002) Biochemistry. 5th edition. New York: WH Freeman

Cross NC, de Franchis R, Sebastio G, et al. (1990). Molecular analysis of aldolase B. genes in hereditary fructose intolerance. Lancet 335 (8685): 306 -- 9

Huntington's Disease Outreach Project for Education at Stanford Coenzyme Q10: An Antioxidant Drug

http://www.stanford.edu/group/hopes/treatmts/antiox/ceq1.html
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Enzymology and Catalytic Mechanism Carbohydrate Metabolism Adenosine Triphosphate ATP

Words: 752 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44116037

Biology

Explain how enzymes are involved in processes such as the breakdown of fructose.

Enzymes are integral to processes such as the breakdown of fructose, a monosaccharide. Thus, a deficiency in enzymes can cause malabsorption of fructose or other sugars. Chemically, enzymes are complex proteins. Some enzymes like fructokinase transform molecules into available energy via processes of metabolism. For example, fructokinase and aldolase B. are enzymes involved in the breakdown of fructose. Any imbalance or absence of these and other enzymes can lead to fructose intolerance in the person, leading to a number of medical symptoms. When fructose cannot be metabolized by enzymes, it may lead to reduced absorption of water in the intestines, which in turn may lead to "bloating, diarrhoea or constipation, flatulence, and stomach pain due to muscle spasms. (Breakspear Medical Group, n.d.).

Found throughout the human body, enzymes can be considered to be chemical catalysts that…… [Read More]

References

Breakspear Medical Group (n.d.). Fructose metabolism -- acumen. Retrieved online: http://www.breakspearmedical.com/files/documents/fructosemetabolism230910_AM_.pdf

"Citric Acid Cycle Summary." Retrieved online: http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/612citricsum.html

"Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and other Energy-Releasing Pathways," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lecturesf04am/lect12.htm

United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation (n.d.). What is mitochondrial disease? Retrieved online:  http://www.umdf.org/site/c.8qKOJ0MvF7LUG/b.7934627/k.3711/What_is_Mitochondrial_Disease.htm
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Biology Lab

Words: 387 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14235508

Temperature on Enzyme Activity

Tube 2, #4: Place the tube in an incubator (or water bath) at 37 degree centigrade. After 15 minutes, what change do you now observe?

After 15 minutes the milk became partially solid.

Tube 3, #4: Add three drops of warmed rennin and return the tube to an incubator (or water bath) at 37 degree centigrade. After 15 minutes, what change do you now observe?

After 15 minutes, the milk remains liquid with no solidifying taking place.

Table 5.1 Rennin Experiment

Tube Results Explanation

Refrigerated rennin - (tube 2) 0 Enzyme not active at low temperature.

Warmed rennin - (tube 1) ++ Enzyme effective at 37c temperature.

Boiled rennin - (tube 3) 0 Enzyme not active at high temperature,

Enzyme denatured at high temperature.

Graph: Effect of Temperature on Enzyme Activity.

Laboratory Review

What happens at the active site of an enzyme?

The active site is…… [Read More]

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Effect of an Acidic Fluid on Enzymatic Activity

Words: 1243 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17603372

Acid Denaturation of Catalase

The enzyme catalase is an integral component of endogenous antioxidant defenses in both plants (Blokhina, Virolainen, and Fagerstedt, 2003) and animals (Hermes-Lima and Zeneno-Savin, 2002). These defenses are required to keep reactive oxygen species (OS) in check, otherwise accumulation would result in harm to cells and tissue. OS species include the superoxide radical (O2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical (HO), singlet oxygen, ozone, lipid peroxides, and nitric oxide. However, under conditions of oxidative stress, OS species can accumulate and threaten cellular and tissue health. For example, hypoxia causes H2O2 to accumulate in the roots and leaves of some plants (reviewed by Blokhina, Virolainen, and Fagerstedt, 2003) and in mammalian cells, over 100 genes involved in antioxidant defense are induced (reviewed by Hermes-Lima and Zeneno-Savin, 2002).

Some enzymes are able to withstand extreme conditions, in terms of pH and temperatures. Although catalase activity has been studied extensively…… [Read More]

References

Blokhina, Olga, Virolainen, Eija, and Fagerstedt, Kurt V. (2003). Antioxidants, oxidative damage and oxygen deprivation stress: A review. Annals of Botany, 91, 179-194.

Goldblith, Samuel A. And Proctor, Bernard E. (1950). Photometric determination of catalase activity. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 187(2), 705-709.

Hermes-Lima, Marcelo and Zeneno-Savin, Tania. (2002). Animal response to drastic changes in oxygen availability and physiological oxidative stress. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C, 133, 537-556.

Macherey-Nagel. (2011). Quantofix Peroxide 1000: Quick and easy determination of peroxide. MN-Net.com. Retrieved 5 Oct. 2012 from  http://www.mn-net.com/tabid/10332/default.aspx .
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Amidation of Peptides

Words: 6068 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94362858

Amidation of Peptides in Humans

Modern biotechnology has experienced dramatic leaps in the body of knowledge concerning molecular processes in peptides and how they work. Many of these processes rely on amidation of peptides to achieve increasingly important medical and commercial applications. Peptides are created when two or more amino acids are covalently joined by peptide bonds, a process termed post-translational modification. One increasingly valuable application of post-translational modification is amidation. This paper provides an overview of peptides and their role in biological processes, how amidation of peptides works and its importance, and a description of the two functional domains of the PAM enzyme (PHM and PAL) and the roles they play in amidation. An assessment of whether amidation prevents C-terminal degradation is followed by a discussion of which peptides/proteins are susceptible to C-terminal degredation by carboxypeptidase. An analysis of whether E. coli can be modified to perform amidation will…… [Read More]

References

Allen, J.M. (1963). The nature of biological diversity. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Audesirk, T. & Audesirk, G. (1993). Biology: Life on Earth, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Bradbury, A.F. & Smyth, D.G. (1988). Biosynthesis of peptide neurotransmitters: studies on the formation of peptide amides. Physiol Bohemoslov, 37(3), 267-74.

Brighton, P.J., Szekeres, P.G. & Willars, G.B. (2004). Neuromedin U. And Its Receptors: Structure, Function, and Physiological Roles. Pharmacological Review, 56, 231-248.
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Porcine Pancreatic Amylase Effects of

Words: 1225 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33513859

For the temperature portion of the investigation (conducted first), eight test tubes were placed in four temperature controlled water baths ranging from water and crushed ice (2( C) to near boiling (98(). The other baths were kept at room temperature (23( C) and an intermediary between this and boiling (75( C). Test tubes were left in the baths for ten minutes, until their temperatures at equalized. Starting with the coldest bath, the amylase mixture was poured into the starch solution and briefly stirred. Leaving the test tube in the bath, a single drop was removed every ten seconds using a plastic pipette and placed into a well containing the iodine solution. When the color remained orange, the reaction had been completed, and the time (i.e. length of reaction) was noted. This same process was repeated with the other three sets of test tubes at the other temperatures, washing and replacing…… [Read More]

References

Allsands. (2007). "Amylase Enzyme: The Effects Of Temperature." Accessed 11 May 2009.  http://www.allsands.com/science/amylaseenzymeh_wpp_gn.htm 

Nuffiled. (2009). "Investigating the effect of pH on amylase activity." Accessed 11 May 2009. http://www.practicalbiology.org/areas/intermediate/bio-molecules/factors-affecting-enzyme-activity/investigating-the-effect-of-ph-on-amylase-activity,51,EXP.html

Worthington. (2009). "Introduction to enzymes." Accessed 11 May 2009.  http://www.worthington-biochem.com/introbiochem/lifeProcesses.html 

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Transcription Is a Process That Genetic Information

Words: 3089 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29595548

Transcription is a process that genetic information on the DNA copies into NA and the DNA acts as the template for the new molecules of NA. Transcription process begins with the DNA double helix unwinding as the hydrogen bonds holding the opposing bases breaks and the DNA strands are uncoupled. The process occurs within the cytoplasm of a prokaryote and in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Transcription process consists of three steps; initiation, elongation, termination, and are regulated by transcription factors that include protein products of the genes. The protein products regulate at postranscriptional levels every time.

Initiation of transcription begins with enzyme NA polymerase that identifies and attaches to DNA at the promoter and transcription of the DNA template starts. An initiation complex forms by association of 50 proteins different from each other required by NA polymerase II. NA polymerase synthesizes polynucleotides of NA from the template of DNA.…… [Read More]

References

Latchman, D. (2009). Eukoryotic Transcription Process. New York: Cengage Learning.

Alvis, F. (2010). New Approach to Translation Process. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Singer, M. (2011). Genes and Genomes. New York: Cengage Learning.

Campbell, M. (2009). Biochemistry. London: Oxford University Press.
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Digestive Processes

Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15094204

Lipids and Proteins

Lipids

Lipids are fats and they are important to our health. When chemically digesting these lipids or fats, these molecules are broken down into smaller ones that can be more readily passed through the digestive system and into the bloodstream. This fat is transformed into triglycerides and can be used by the body for energy at a later time.

Lipids like almost all food is first mechanically digested by the mouth. During this process the first chemical reaction begins when the saliva begins to break down the fat. As the fat is digested, enzymes called lipases within the mouth and stomach break the bonds of the lipid molecules an prepare them for absorption. The gall bladder and pancreas becomes involved in this process as bile salts are released from these organs and secreted in the small intestine. These chemicals signal to further digest the food by breaking…… [Read More]

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Cardiac Arrest

Words: 3253 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91083108

Heart Disease

elationship between cardiac arrest and coronary cardiac disease

The heart is an essential organ in the human body, it keeps the individual alive. Understanding how the heart operates and functions is essential to help protect your heart from heart disease. Cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease are significant heart related illness that has a high mortality rate. It is important for individuals with pre-existing heart disease to understand the symptoms of cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease, since these are both leading causes of fatality in the United States. Understanding how the heart works, the individuals risk for heart disease, and how to prevent or delay heart disease is essential. In this paper I will address the relationship between cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease. I will also explain how the heart functions and discuss some ways of preventing cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease.

Cardiac Arrest

Cardiac…… [Read More]

References

Antonini-Canterin et. al. (2009). Association between carotid and coronary artery disease in patients with aortic valve stenosis: an angiographic study. Angiology 60 (5) 596-600

CDC. (2010). Heart disease. Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/ 

Dewey et. al. (2004). Coronary artery disease: new insights and their implications for radiology. European Radiology. 14 (6) 1048-1054

Escolar et. al. (2006). New imaging techniques for diagnosing coronary artery disease. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 174 (4) 487-495
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Aerobic Respiration Produces the Most

Words: 1435 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81140583

Based on the results of these assays, S. flexneri can often be identified, although additional kits may be required. The simplest way, however, may be the novel approach through multiplex PCR (mRPC). It is possible to identify Shigella species through mPCR techniques by identifying pathogenicity islands associated with Shigella and S. flexneri.

6. How could you create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin? (You need to include techniques, steps, enzymes, etc.)

In order to create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin, scientists would first need to incorporate the human fibrin gene within the corn plant genome. The incorporated human gene would require regulation and promoter sequences that would function within the plant cell. Proper splicing sequences would also be required or removal of the introns altogether.

The delivery of transgenes into the corn plant could be accomplished through electroporation into corn protoplasts…… [Read More]

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Lipids How Are Lipids Processed

Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12769004

These cells have an enzyme on their surface that attracts fat. The number and distribution of adipose cells has a genetic component, and is usually determined in early childhood.

Describe the major metabolic diseases associated with lipid metabolism, transport and storage for humans?

Diseases associated with lipid metabolism, transport and storage included: high cholesterol, combined hyperlipidemia, familial hypercholesterolemia, high density lipoprotein, and hypertriglyceridemia,

How do unsaturated and saturated fatty acids differ from each other?

Saturated fats contain carbon atoms with a single bond between them and as many hydrogen atoms as possible bonded to the carbon atoms. Saturated fats contain carbon atoms with a double bond, and can therefore absorb more hydrogen atoms. Healthy diets are low in saturated fats, since they raise blood cholesterol levels.

What are the roles of Essential Fatty Acids (EFA) in humans?

There are two essential fatty acids: the omega-3 fatty acids and the moega-6…… [Read More]

References

No Author Given (2007). Intestinal Uptake of Lipids, retrieved 6/20/2007 at  http://web.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/lipoproteins.html .

No Author Give (2007) Enzymes and Digestion of Lipids, retrieved 6/20/2007 at http://www.afs.ttu.edu/home/swkim/ANSC3301/001/11%20Lipid-Dig-001.pdf

No Author Given (2007). Lipids - 1, retrieved 6/20/2007 at http://scidiv.bcc.ctc.edu/rkr/Biology130/lectures/pdfs/lipids130.pdf
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Acclimatization Ascending to Higher Altitudes

Words: 1766 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71284850

(1989). These researchers investigated skeletal muscle adaptations in response to acclimatization at high altitude. Samples of muscle extracted before reaching high altitude and after returning to sea-level showed that maximal activities of enzymes, such as those representative of beta-oxidation, were unchanged. However, after exposure to extremely high altitude hypoxic conditions, reductions were observed in succinic dehydrogenase, citrate synthetase and hexokinase. The findings of this study did not support the researchers' hypothesis that extremely hypoxic conditions elicit changes that are adaptive toward maximizing oxidative function at the intracellular level (Green et al., 1989).

eference

Donoghue, S., Fatemian, M., Balanos, G.M., Crosby, A., Liu, C., O'Connor, D., Talbot, N.P., obbins, P.A. "Ventilatory Acclimatization in esponse to Very Small Changes in PO2 in Humans." Journal of Applied Physiology 98 (2005): 1587-91.

Green, H.J., Sutton, J.., Cymerman, A., Young, P.M., Houston, C.S. "Operation Everest II: Adaptations in Human Skeletal Muscle." Journal of Applied Physiology…… [Read More]

Reference

Donoghue, S., Fatemian, M., Balanos, G.M., Crosby, A., Liu, C., O'Connor, D., Talbot, N.P., Robbins, P.A. "Ventilatory Acclimatization in Response to Very Small Changes in PO2 in Humans." Journal of Applied Physiology 98 (2005): 1587-91.

Green, H.J., Sutton, J.R., Cymerman, A., Young, P.M., Houston, C.S. "Operation Everest II: Adaptations in Human Skeletal Muscle." Journal of Applied Physiology 66.5 (1989): 2454-61.

Hoppeler, H., Vogt, M. "Muscle Tissue Adaptations to Hypoxia." The Journal of Experimental Biology 204 (2001): 3133-9.

Hoppeler, H., Vogt, M., Weibel, E.R., Fluck, M. "Response of Skeletal Muscle Mirochondria to Hypoxia." Experimental Physiology 88.1 (2003): 109-19.
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Living Organisms Are All Around

Words: 990 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5362034

The Golgi receives new proteins and lipids from the ER, finishes them up, addresses them and sends them to their final destination. In this way, the Golgi could be the postal service of the city. Lysosomes get rid of unusable waste within the cell and recycles those materials that can be reused, making it the recycling and garbage center of the city. Mitochondria are where ATP, the main energy molecule, is made. It could be considered the city's power plant. Then we have the cell's cytoskeleton, which gives the cell its shape, strength and its ability to move. It can be looked at as the roadways and bridges of the city. ("Chemical Composition of the Body," 2005)

Cells do not act alone and have help from things like enzymes to complete their job. Enzymes are proteins make chemical reactions within cells occur faster ("Chemical Composition of the Body," 2005). ithout…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Biology-Online. (2005, May 15) "Chemical composition of the body." Retrieved December 2, 2011 from www.biology-online.org/9/1_chemical_composition.htm.

Farabee, M.J. (2010a, May 18) Online Biology Book. "Introduction: The nature of science and biology." Retrieved December 1, 2011 from www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookintro.html .

(2010b, May 18) Online Biology Book. "Chemistry II: Water and organic materials." Retrieved December 2, 2011 from www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookchem2.html .

Whitmarsh, John and Govindjee. (1995) "Photosynthesis." Encyclopedia of Applied Physics.(Vol. 13): 513-532. VCH Publishers, Inc.
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Genetic Influence of MDMA Neurotoxicity MDMA Neurotoxicity

Words: 1921 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57050778

Genetic Influence of MDMA Neurotoxicity

MDMA Neurotoxicity

Ecstasy [(±)-3.4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA, XTC, X, E] is one of the most popular drugs of abuse in the world (Capela et al., 2009, p. 211). Often used in social settings, such as the so-called 'raves' or all night dance parties, ecstasy has been reported to lower barriers to intimacy, increase the pleasure derived from friendships, enhance social interactions, and increase energy (euphoria) (Peters and Kok, 2009, p. 242).

In the U.S., MDMA is classified as a schedule 1 drug due its addictive potential, lack of therapeutic utility, dubious safety profile, and neurotoxic potential (Capela et al., 2009, p. 212) and its use has been illegal since 1985. The safety concerns of MDMA include the potential for a negative therapeutic outcome (Parrott, 2007) and its neurotoxicity (Capela et al., 2009). Apparently, the use of MDMA in a psychotherapy setting can produce a negative outcome that…… [Read More]

References

Capela, Joao P., Carmo, Helena, Remiao, Fernando, Bastos, Maria L., Meisel, Andreas, and Carvalho, F. (2009). Molecular and cellular mechanisms of ecstasy-induced neurotoxicity: An overview. Molecular Neurobiology, 39, 210-271.

Carmo, Helena, Brulport, Marc, Hermes, Matthias, Oesch, Franz, Silva, Renata, Ferreira, Luisa M. et al. (2006). Influence of CYP2D6 polymorphism on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('ecstasy') cytotoxicity. Pharmakogenetics and Genomics, 16, 789-799.

Esse, Katherine, Fossati-Bellani, Marco, Traylor, Angela, and Martin-Schild, Sheryl. (2011). Epidemic of illicit drug use, mechanisms of action/addiction and stroke as a health hazard. Brain and Behavior, 1, 44-54.

Parrott, A.C. (2007). The psychotherapeutic potential of MDMA (3.4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine): An evidence-based review. Psychopharmacology, 191, 181-93.
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Chemical Digestion

Words: 613 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42959598

Physiology

The mechanical and chemical digestion of carbohydrates starts in the mouth. Chewing also termed as mastication ensures that the carbohydrates crumble down into smaller pieces. There are salivary glands within the oral cavity that secrete saliva which coats the food. Saliva comprises of an enzyme salivary amylase which breaks down the bods that are found between monomeric sugars like disaccharides, oligosaccharides and starches. It also breaks down amylose and amylopectin into small glucose chains referred to as dextrin and maltose. About 5% of starches are broken down within the mouth. There is also production of mucus by mucus cells within the salivary glad which helps the food to stick together and also lubricates food hence help in swallowing. At this stage the food is known as bolus and it is forced into the pharynx with the help of the tongue (Swartz, 2012).

During swallowing, the food passes through the…… [Read More]

References

Swartz, A. (2012). Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates. Retrieved September 25, 2014 from http://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/an-introduction-to-nutrition-s08-02-digestion-and-absorption-of-ca.html
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Eating Food Chemically Explained

Words: 519 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3121888

Chemical Digestion

When the body can not break down food by the physical means it has, the body must therefore use chemical digestion to help finish the job. Chewing food with teeth is an example of physical digestion, but that is just the beginning of the process. Chemical digestion is also occurring at this starting point where digestive juices begin to counteract with the food to begin to break it down into a digestible matter.

As the digestive fluids begin to act upon the food, the small molecules are being transformed into other elements to fuel the body. Some food such as proteins, carbohydrates lipids or fats are too large to be simply absorbed by the body and chemical digestion directly affects how these molecules are digested. The main reason why these types of foods cannot be readily absorbed, is because they are insoluble in water. In other words they…… [Read More]

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Living Things Are Characterized by the Following

Words: 4492 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61564004

living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.

iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.

Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.

Atoms are the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from  http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
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Genome Project on Drug Design

Words: 1163 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47141523



IV. TESTING ON HUMANS

The only thing that is lacking at this point according to all reports is for testing on humans to be completed. The Time Asia articles states: "The last step for the ace-2 inhibitor, as for any drug, is human clinical trials. ecause the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires such rigorous testing, this is by far the most expensive part of drug development. So for human trials in some cases, Millennium has formed partnerships with large pharmaceutical companies that have the necessary resources and will share in any eventual profits." (2001)

SUMMARY & CONCLUSION

According to the work entitled: "rave New Pharmacy" published in Time Asia (2001) "When the human genome was sequenced...scientists finally gained access to the full text of God's reference manual; the 3 billion biochemical 'letters' that spell out our tens of thousands of genes. These genes, strung out along the 46 chromosomes…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Drug Design in the Fast Lane: Speeding Drug Design (nd)

http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=zh-CN&u=http://www.roboo.com/anna/zyhy9.htm&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=2&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3DACE-2%2Binhibitor%2Band%2Bgenetic%2Bcompatibility%2Bwith%2Bdrugs%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D.

Elmer-Dewitt, Phillip (2001) The Future of Drugs. Time Asia 22 January 2001 Vol. 57, No. 3 Online available at http://www.time.com/time/asia/magazine/2001/0122/cover1.html.

Lemonick, Michael, D. (2001) Brave New Pharmacy - Time Asia 22 Jan 2001 Vol. 157. No. 3 Online available at http://www.time.com/time/asia/magazine/2001/0122/drug.impact.html
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Acetaldehyde and Anabuse Acetaldehyde Also

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89273220

al. 477-8).

If there is disulfiram in the patient's system, it takes about 5-10 minutes for the effects of the drug to form the outward symptoms of a severe hangover. These symptoms last from 30 minutes to several hours, and may include flushing, rapid heart rate, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, throbbing headaches, mental confusion and even circulatory collapse. There is no known tolerance to the drug, the longer it is taken, the stronger the effects. Because of its molecular make up, it is absorbed slowly through the digestive tract with the effects lasting up to two weeks after the initial doses. This makes the issue of informed consent very important for this substance (Wright and Moore).

The efficacy of the drug is debatable. On one hand, the biological and chemical effects of are proven. One study showed that there is about a 50% compliance rate in a supervised atmosphere,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Chemical Summary for Acetaldehyde. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics -- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1994. Web.

Disulfiram. Drugs.com. Drug Information Online. 2011, Web.

Nakamura, K., et.al. Acetaldehyde Adducts in the Brain of Alcoholics. Archives of Toxicology. 77 (10): 591-3. 2004. Print.

Perry, L. Biology of a Hangover: Acetaldehyde. How Stuff Works. 2011. Web.
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Glycogen Storage Diseases Are Caused by Inherited

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84192366

Glycogen storage diseases are caused by inherited mutations that alter the enzymatic activity of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis (Wolfsdorf and Weinstein, 2003). The disorders can be roughly divided into those that primarily affect glycogen storage in the liver, resulting in the prototypical symptom of hypoglycemia, and those that affect glycogen storage in muscle tissue and therefore causing muscle weakness.

Glycogen torage Disease Type-I (von Gierke Disease)

Glycogen storage disease type-I (GD-I) can be broken down into at least two distinct autosomal recessive diseases (Wolfsdorf and Weinstein, 2003). Type-Ia disease involves mutations in the gene encoding the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase or LC37A4) and type-Ib involves mutations in the glucose-6-phosphate transporter-1 (G6PT1 or MIM232220) gene. Type-Ia is by far the most common, representing 80% of all GD-I patients. Over 70 mutations in gene encoding G6Pase have been identified that impair its function and therefore the ability of the liver to mobilize glycogen…… [Read More]

Since the main source of glycogen is glucose-6-phosphate, and G6Pase is critical for both glucogenolysis and gluconeogenesis, mutations causing a G6Pase deficiency result in the more severe symptoms experienced by patients with glycogen storage disease. The symptoms of GSD-Ia include hypoglycemia, growth retardation, hepatomegaly, nephromegaly, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, lactic academia, hypoglycemic seizures, and coma (Kim and Bae, 2009). GSD-1b patients also suffer from neutropenia and myeloid dysfunctions, and defects in neutrophils respiratory bursts, chemotaxis, and calcium flux . The latter renders these patients susceptible to bacterial infections, inflammatory bowel disease, and aphtous stomatitis.

The major product of glycogen metabolism is glucose-1-phosphate, which is reversibly converted to glucose-6-phosphate by phosphoglucomutase (G6P; see Figure 1). G6P can then by hydrolyzed into glucose and inorganic phosphorus by the multi-component G6Pase enzymatic complex located on the luminal surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (Rake et al., 2000). The structure of the catalytic unit (G6Pase) consists of a nine-transmembrane helical structure, with the N-terminus and four loops positioned on the ER luminal surface. One of these transmembrane sections is home to 25 missense mutations that cause GSD type Ia, suggesting the resulting amino acid changes and this transmembrane section are critical to the catalytic activity of G6Pase. Another disease-linked missense mutation is located in the N-terminus and the remaining seven missense mutations that have been identified are located in two of the four loops. The only regions not linked to disease-causing mutations are the cytoplasmic loops and one luminal loop.

Overall, the majority of GSD type Ia cases are the result of just three mutations: R83C, Q347X, and 727GT (Rake et a., 2000). All other mutations individually account for less than 5% of disease prevalence and some have only been found in one patient or family. The arginine to cysteine change that occurs in patients with the R83C mutation results in a G6Pase protein without detectable phosphohydrolase activity (Lei, Shelly, Pann, Sidbury, and Chou, 1993). The Q347X mutation results in the conversion of a glutamine codon to a stop codon, which truncates the carboxy terminal by 11 residues and completely destroys the catalytic activity of G6Pase (Lei, Pan, Shelly, Liu, and Chou, 1994). The 727GT mutation affects the splicing of exons 4 and 5, despite the retention of the wild-type splice sites, and results in a G6Pase protein truncated by 146 amino acids (Kajihara et al., 1995). Other mutations similarly have been shown to abolish or significantly diminish G6Pase
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Experimental Design for Hypothetical Research Study Recent

Words: 851 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85852922

Experimental Design for Hypothetial Researh Study

Reent researh has emerged whih suggests that the ingestion of hoolate may lead to improved ognitive funtion within the realm of memorization and retention of information. Establishing a onlusive link between ertain hemial omponents found in hoolate and the improvement of memory funtion would be a signifiant point of progress for medial siene, espeially when the impat of Alzheimer's disease, early-onset dementia and other memory-redution ailments on senior itizens is fully onsidered. By expanding on the work of Jones and Wilson (2011) -- who improved soring on math tests two hours after subjets ate hoolate -- it may be possible to identify the partiular enzymes released during digestion whih serve to alter fundamental aspets of memory. Researh published by Wong, Hideki, Anderson, and Skaarsgard (2009) -- whih suggests that the impat of hoolate on memory improvement ours more frequently for women -- an also…… [Read More]

cited in the Introduction, as the subjects who ingested chocolate before testing showing marked improvements over their baseline scores, while the control group exposed to a placebo chocolate substitute returned results which were nearly identical to their baseline. More specifically, women tested higher than their baseline at each duration interval of chocolate ingestion, and the gains experienced by women were significantly higher (on a statistical basis) than those produced by men. In terms of the previously stated hypothesis, the fact that women were consistently observed to record higher test scores after eating chocolate, and that these improvements consistently outpaced that documented in their male counterparts, would appear to suggest a biological basis for the discrepancy. Additional research must be performed from a molecular analysis standpoint to determine if a link between naturally occurring enzymes in chocolate and hormones like estrogen and progesterone which occur predominately in women. The conclusion to be drawn from this experiment is that chocolate contains a particular chemical capable of interacting with the brain on a biological level to stimulate improved cognitive function relating to memory and retention of information. Furthermore, this phenomenon has been observed to occur more frequently and more powerfully in women, suggesting that a component of female biology such as certain hormones may be producing an exaggerated effect. The null hypothesis stated prior to the experiment has been rejected, as chocolate appears to offer genuine benefits for those seeking to improve their ability to memorize facts and retain information.
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Population and Was Primarily Aimed

Words: 523 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20910016



6)

Again, all groups were by the end of the study essentially the same in that they had each served as controls, placebo recipients, and recipients of either one or two interventional medicines. The same periods of medication and testing were utilized for all participants in all groups of the study throughout the period during which the research took place.

7)

According to the researchers, the completion of a crossover study such as this by forty-five participants is equivalent to 80% power at 5% statistical significance that the results could be extrapolated to the wider population. Though a higher level of certainty could be desired, this study's findings are still worthwhile.

8)

The results are presented as average rates of the effects of the varying interventions (or lacks thereof) among the participants during the different phases of the trial. The differences between these averages were compared as different levels of…… [Read More]

References

Wald, D.; Law, M.; Mills, S.; Bestwick, J.; Morris, J. And Wald, N. (2008). "A 16-Week, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial to Quantify the Combined Effect of an Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor and a f3-Blocker on Blood Pressure Reduction." Clinical therapeutics 30(11), pp. 2030-9.
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Acute Management of the Psychotic

Words: 505 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96313902


Medically, certain conditions must be ruled out before Linda is
transported for psychiatric admission. High on the list of differential
diagnosis is head injury, electrolyte imbalance, thyroid disorder,
metabolic disturbance, nutritional issues, and toxic substance ingestion.
If the history appears clear that Linda has not experience psychosis,
hallucination or delusion before, these and other conditions must be ruled
out before a psychiatric diagnosis is given.
Of primary concern is the safety for Linda and the staff. One person
should be encouraged to establish a relationship with Linda in the medical
setting, communicating with her but allowing adequate escape distance
should her demeanor or threat level change. Linda should be spoken to in a
soft, quiet voice in a secure setting. She should be provided choices
regarding voluntarily taking medications. Conversation with Linda should
be simple and to the point, avoiding prolonged or argumentative
conversations. It may require limit setting to…… [Read More]

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Due to Run Off From

Words: 1115 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9402806



The inquiry cited above makes use of the functions of analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Analysis is the act of reviewing and comparing data. In the inquiry of the herbicides, the analysis occurs with the review of prior evaluations and inquires. This analysis of studies regarding the effect of atrazine allowed the inquiry to come up with its hypothesis and thus direct the actual experiment. Without an analysis of the original, existing data the concept of comparing use of atrazine, isoxaflutale and a mix of both would not have been thought of.

The concept of synthesis refers to the integration of two or more existing elements in order to create something new. In the inquiry, there are numerous levels of synthesis. First and foremost is the agricultural practice of combining atrazine with isoxaflutale as a method of creating a new, supposedly less toxic herbicide that would comply with the regulations issued…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Heston, Emily D., Kathleen Brundage. The Immunotoxic Effect of a Mixture of Atrazine and Isoxaflutole. Mountain State University: Department of Microbology, Immunology and Cell Biology.

Lee, Jennifer. "Popular Pesticide Faulted for Frogs Sexual Abnormalities," New York Times, 2003-06-19, p. 20.

Wackett LP, Sadowsky, MJ, Martinez B. Biodegradaton of Atrazine Degradation in Natural Environments. Biodegradation. 13: 11-19, 2002.

Walsh, Edward. "EPA Stops Short of Banning Herbicide," Washington Post, 2003-02-01, p. A14.
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Correctly Identify Opportunities and Threats to the

Words: 1160 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96385466

correctly identify opportunities and threats to the products of soap and laundry detergent. Specifically, three marketing environment forces will be identified that impact this type of products. These include environmental quality factors such as sewage treatment and other environmental pollution issues in the detergent manufacturing plants, allergies to chemicals or other ingredients in the products themselves and product changes dictated by various changes in washing machines. In the essay, the author will also describe each force and analyze why and how it will impact the soap and detergent industry.

One of the primary issues that the soap and laundry detergent is the issue of pollution in the manufacture of the product. hether from a desire to avoid running afoul of government fines and regulation, to avoid litigation from issues related to pollution or to avoid bad public relations or "ecotage" (actual sabotage by environmental radicals) this issue is probably the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Energy star. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.climate.org/climatelab/Energy_Star.

Kanerva, L. (2000). Handbook of occupational dermatology (521-522). (1st ed.). Berlin, DE: Springer-

Verlag.

Poulter, S. (2008, June 9). Spin dry:the washing machine that needs just one cup of water. Retrieved from  http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1025043/Spin-dry-The-washing-machine -needs-just-cup-water.html?ITO=1490University.
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Bioprocess of Monosodium Glutamate MSG

Words: 1940 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62730171

Monosodium glutamate, otherwise known as MSG, is a commonly discussed food additive used throughout the world today. While some countries use it minimally, and place high restrictions on its use, other countries use it on a consistent basis, in many foods. This paper will examine MSG, and its uses. Additionally, this paper will examine each step of how MSG is made, using fermentation. The discussion will include technical details of the process, the equipment commonly used, the use of enzymes and bacteria, as well as an examination of the product packaging and quality control procedures. Finally, this paper will include a brief description of the market of MSG, and the socio-economic aspects of the product.

Monosodium glutamate, or MSG, is the sodium salt of glutamic acid. Glutamate is an amino acid that occurs naturally in many foods known for their flavor, such as tomatoes and mushrooms. Additionally, glutamate is found…… [Read More]

References

Aida, K., Chibata, L. Nakayama, K., Takinami, K., and Yamada, K. 1986. Biotechnology of Amino Acid Production. Amsterdam: Elsevier, p. 215.

Ajinomoto Company, Inc. 1996. Production process of amino acids. Encyclopedia of Amino Acids. Tokyo, Japan: Ajinomoto Company, Inc.

Blue Diamond. 2004. History of MSG. Facts About MSG. Obtained October 18, 2004 from Direct Food Ingredients, LTD. Web site: http://www.directfood.net/bluediamond/history.asp.

DeSilva, F.J. 1997. Removing organics with ion exchange resin. Water Conditioning and Purification Magazine, 2, p. 5-8.
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Senescent Cells Are Essentially Cells

Words: 771 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28302829

When DNA is damaged, cells can react through cell cycle checkpoints which allows repair to begin before further division can occur. There is also the prokaryotic SOS response which changes gene expression in bacteria as a result of DNA damage. This response is regulated by the production of certain proteins. Moreover, eukaryotic cells also react to DNA damage through producing proteins that begin the process of DNA repair.

8. Mice are often the favored mammalian in the testing of aging interventions. This is often because of the fact that there are many mice easily available for testing but also the fact that "generation time is short" (Yuan et al. 2011). Essentially, the aging process and testing in interventions can be done on a much shorter time scale then with tests using monkeys.

9. Enzymes may change the transcription patterns of a cell by adding chemical groups to histone proteins. This…… [Read More]

References

Books. W.R. Clark. (2009). Human genetic diseases that mimic the aging process. Progeria? The Progeria Project Foundation. Web. http://www.progeriaproject.com/progeria/mimic.htm

Conboy, I.M., Conboy, M.J., Wagers, a.J., Girma, E.R., Weissman, I.L., & Rando, T.A. (2005). Rejuvenation of aged progenitor cells by exposure to a young systemic environment. Nature, 17(433), 760-764.

Conti, Matteo. (2008). The Selfish Cell: An Evolutionary Defeat. Springer Publishing.

McClintock, D., Ratner, D., Lokuge, M. (2007). The mutant form of Lamin a that causes Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria is a biomarker of cellular aging in human skin. PLOS One, 2(2). Web. http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0001269
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Conflict Which Has Repercussions in the Present

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66997610

conflict which has repercussions in the present time or one that is indeed actual. The following chosen conflict can actually be regarded as conflictive on two grounds which makes it all the more so important. First, hydraulic fracturing has been demonstrated to have severe environmental consequences on a negative scale which subsequently affect people's well-being. Second, as a technological development of the twentieth century, hydraulic fracturing, provided that the aforementioned is indeed true, would constitute reasonable grounds to estimate that the effects of industrialization have been detrimental to the common interest of the mere population while it has only boosted more financial benefits for the rich. The two grounds mentioned before make hydraulic fracturing a very current dangerous conflict which is why it has been chosen here. Moreover, certain companies seem to be given the right to drill internationally while the population is not made aware of the consequences, especially…… [Read More]

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Impact of Acidic Concentration on Enzymatic Activity

Words: 1154 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11910160

Acidic Fluid on Enzymatic Activity

The aim of the experiment is to investigate the effect of an acidic fluid on enzymatic activity.

Enzymes are the class of molecules referred as proteins having one or more chains of amino acids, which are joined together by peptide bonds. The role of an enzyme is to speed up or catalyze the chemical reactions as well as reducing the amount of energy that an enzyme needs to enhance a chemical reaction. (Al-Hakimi, 2008). In other words, enzymes are the protein molecules found in living cell used to speed up a reaction in the cell. Catalyze is an example of an enzyme found on liver and potato. However, the level of enzyme activity is affected by factors such as PH, temperature and salinity. (El-Beltagin, Mohamed, Mekki, et al. 2011). For example, PH has the ability to affect the state of ionization of basic or acidic…… [Read More]

Reference

Al-Hakimi A.M.A. (2008). Effect of salicylic acid on biochemical changes in wheat plants under khat leaves residues. Plant Soil Environ, 54: 288 -- 293.

El-Beltagin H. S., Mohamed, A. A., Mekki, B., et al. (2011). Differences in some constituents, enzymes activity and electrophoretic characterization of different rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars. Tom. XVIII (1): 45-52.

Lin, K. Zhang, Q. Lu, Z. et al. (2015). Effects of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid on rat

cytochrome P450 enzyme activities. Int J. Clin Exp Pathol. 8(5):5584-5590
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Prescription Nonprescription and Herbal Medications Exploring Interactions in the Geriatric Population

Words: 3992 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42847416

Prescription, Nonprescription and Herbal Medicines

Prescription, Non-prescription and Herbal Medications: Exploring Interactions in the Geriatric Population

Geriatric medicine, generally referred to as just "geriatrics" is a branch of internal medicine and health care that focuses primarily on the diagnoses, prevention, care and treatment of disease and disability in elderly patients. Elderly patients involve those senior members of the population that develop a disability, or are suffering from a disease that is a resultant of old age or is a prompt symptom of old age. Geriatrics commonly involves treatment of these old age symptoms and disabilities such as deteriorated memory, immobility, impaired vision and hearing etc. Geriatrics, in modern times, is quite advanced. Specialized services such as psycho-geriatrics, where expert psychologists focus on treating old age related depression, memory loss and other psychological conditions that occur in the elderly population, along with development of physical therapy centers whose prime focus is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Administration on Aging, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2004). A Profile of Older Americans: 2004. Pg. 3,.

Alavijeh, M.S., Chishty, M., Qaisar, Z.M., & Palmer, A.M. (2005 October). Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, the Blood Brain Barrier, and Central Nervous System Drug Discovery. NeuroRx, 2(40.

Aschenbrenner, D.S., & Venable, S.J. (2009). Drug Therapy in Nursing. Wolters Kluwer- Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.

George, J., Byth, K., & Farrell, G. (1990). Age But Not Gender Selectively Affects Expression of Individual Cytochrome P450 Proteins in Human Liver. Pub Med- Biochem Pharmacol, 48:365-374.
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Redox Reduction-Oxidation Redox Reactions and

Words: 1511 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81258286

al., 1993; Forman & Dickinson, 2003). Though nitric oxide is not involved in as many individual processes as hydrogen peroxide, or at least a lower number of processes have been identified in current research, its presence in too great an abundance can disrupt proper signaling and trigger alternative signaling pathways other than those normally utilized in redox signaling (Forman & Dickinson, 2003). These redox signaling pathways have the potential to promote the continued production of reactive oxygen species rather than contributing to the continued progression of the optimal redox signaling cascade, in which the production of O, H2O2, and other reactive oxygen species would be signaled to cease and normal intercellular environments would resume (Forman & Dickinson, 2003).

Conclusion

Research into the complexities of redox signaling in wound response and its implications for the healing process remains ongoing, and many current findings are still the product of a great deal…… [Read More]

Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in redox signaling in ways somewhat similar to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); both are purposefully produced toxic elements used to cleanse wound areas of infectious agents and used to signal other healing processes to start, while at the same time becoming dangerous in and of themselves if not properly regulated (Nunoshiba et. al., 1993; Forman & Dickinson, 2003). Though nitric oxide is not involved in as many individual processes as hydrogen peroxide, or at least a lower number of processes have been identified in current research, its presence in too great an abundance can disrupt proper signaling and trigger alternative signaling pathways other than those normally utilized in redox signaling (Forman & Dickinson, 2003). These redox signaling pathways have the potential to promote the continued production of reactive oxygen species rather than contributing to the continued progression of the optimal redox signaling cascade, in which the production of NO, H2O2, and other reactive oxygen species would be signaled to cease and normal intercellular environments would resume (Forman & Dickinson, 2003).

Conclusion

Research into the complexities of redox signaling in wound response and its implications for the healing process remains ongoing, and many current findings are still the product of a great deal of conjecture. Still, enormous advancements have been made in this area of biochemical knowledge. As redox signaling and other aspects of wound healing are better understood, more effective methods for dealing with infections and slow healing times can be developed, and many in the world will truly experience better living through chemistry in a very direct way.
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Mold Spore Analysis and Toxicity

Words: 4404 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11291106

Mold Spore Trapping

Current Scientific Knowledge

People are exposed to aeroallergens in a variety of settings, both at home and at work. Fungi are ubiquitous airborne allergens and are important causes of human diseases, especially in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These diseases occur in persons of various ages.

Airborne spores and other fungi particles are ubiquitous in nonpolar landscapes, especially amongst field crops, and often form the bulk of suspended biogenic debris. The term mold often is used synonymously with the term fungi. A more precise definition would specify that molds lack macroscopic reproductive structures but may produce visible colonies. Respiratory illness in subjects exposed to rust and dark-spored imperfecti fungi was described more than 60 years ago, and physicians worldwide now recognize a sensitization to diverse fungi.

Since fungus particles commonly are derived from wholly microscopic sources, exposure hazards are assessed largely through direct sampling of a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brinton, W.T., Vastbinder, E.E., Greene, J.W., Marx, J.J., Hutcheson, R.H., Schaffner, W. (1987). An outbreak of organic dust toxic syndrome in a college fraternity. Journal of the American Medical Association 258:1210-1212.

Ceigler, A., & Bennett, J.W. (1980). Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicoses. Bio-Science 30:512-515.

CDC. 1994. Acute pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, January 1993-November 1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 1994; 43:881-3.

CDC. 1997. Update: Pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, Ohio, 1993-1996. MMWR 1997; 46:33-35.
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Drug Influence on Body and What the Body Does to the Drug

Words: 1301 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2539530

Drug Action

Pharmacokinetics explains the process by which a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated from the body. These processes are dependent on the amount of the drug administered, the method of administration (which affects the rate of absorption, biotransformation, and even excretion), and how the drug binds in the tissues. In essence, a drug's ability to transverse the cellular membranes depends on its solubility and molecular size and shape. The passive diffusion of the drug across cellular membranes depends on its lipid solubility as well as concentration gradients outside and inside the cellular membrane and the pH differences across the membrane. Active transport of the drug occurs when the drug is actually moved by components of the membrane. This can allow a drug move against concentration and electrochemical gradients but it requires energy, can be selective, and can be inhibited by similar molecules. The absorption rate is influenced…… [Read More]

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Pancreatitis the Pancreas Is an Important Source

Words: 1866 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45816680

Pancreatitis

The pancreas is an important source of digestive enzymes and fluids, and plays a critical role in regulating blood sugar levels through the production of insulin and glucagon (NDDIC, 2012). Should the pancreas become inflamed there is the risk that the digestive enzymes will become activated within the pancreas, resulting in self-digestion. This disease is known as pancreatitis and even mild cases require hospitalization. This essay will review what is known about pancreatitis in the United States and the clinical guidelines for diagnosis and treatment.

Pancreatitis Pathophysiology, Epidemiology, and Etiology

The digestive enzymes produced by a healthy pancreas are secreted into the small intestine as zymogens, which are enzymes that have their catalytic domain blocked by a peptide group (Berg, Tymoczko, and Stryer, 2002). The intestinal brush border cells secrete enteropeptidase, which removes the peptide blocking the catalytic domain of trypsin. Trypsin then activates the digestive enzymes secreted by…… [Read More]

References

Amerine, Emmie. (2007). Get optimum outcomes for acute pancreatitis patients. Nurse Practitioner, 32(6), 44-48.

Andris, Abby. (2010). Pancreatitis: Understanding the disease and implications for care. AACN Advanced Critical Care, 21(2), 195-204.

Banks, Peter A. And Freeman, Martin L. (2006). Practice guidelines in acute pancreatitis. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 101, 2379-2400.

Berg, J.M., Tymoczko, J.L., and Stryer, L. (2002). Biochemistry, 5th Edition. New York, NY W.H. Freeman. Retrieved 18 Feb. 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books / NBK22589/.
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Antimicrobial Agents in Household Use Triclosan

Words: 746 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2679510

Antimicrobial Agents in Household Use: Triclosan

Describe how Triclosan works on a molecular level. Explain how Triclosan differs from soap and bleach in its antimicrobial activity.

Triclosan blocks the active site of the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase enzyme (EN), this is the vital enzyme in the synthesis of fatty acid in bacteria (Levy et a, 1999). Blocking this active site by triclosan leads to the inhibition of the enzyme thus preventing the synthesis of the fatty acid by the bacteria, a process needed for building cell membranes and reproduction. Given the fact that this EN enzyme exists in humans, triclosan has been considered to be relatively friendly to humans. Due to its strong nature of inhibition, powerful antibacterial action can be achieved using only a small amount of triclosan.

Triclosan differs from soap and bleach in the mechanism of action. Levy et al. (1999) also clarify that whereas triclosan interferes…… [Read More]

References

Bester, K. (2003) "Triclosan in a sewage treatment process balances and monitoring data," Water

Research, 37(16): 3891-3896.

Levy, C.W. et al. (1999). "Molecular Basis of Triclosan Activity," Nature, 398, 383-384.

Lindstrom, A. et al. (2002) "Occurrence and Environmental Behavior of the Bactericide
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Human Genetics Inheritable Neuropathies Are Among the

Words: 2275 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69927185

Human Genetics

Inheritable neuropathies are among the globe's healthcare challenges today. Although their incidence is not as high, one in every 2500 people, as compared to other major healthcare problems, their symptoms, and consequences are equally fatal. Charcot Marie Tooth disease is among the inherited neuropathies, which has significantly shown potential and fatal consequences to people. Notably, the disorder does not have any known cure, but there are numerous therapies to control the disease. Although this is the current case, advancements in medicine, are gradually bearing fruits because experts have discovered a way to diagnose some types of these deadly disorders. Other types of neuropathy disorders include hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNNP), hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN), and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN or hereditary sensory neuropathy). In a second part of this paper is an experiment to detect HaeIII in given human DNA samples. Owing to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brown, W.M. (1980).Polymorphism in mitochondrial DNA of humans as revealed by restriction endonuclease analysis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 6, pp. 3605-3609.

Murphy, M.S. et al. (2012). CharcoteMarieeTooth disease: frequency of genetic subtypes and guidelines for genetic testing. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 83, pp. 706-710

Orita, M et al. (1989). Detection of polymorphisms of human DNA by gel electrophoresis as single-strand conformation polymorphisms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 86, pp. 2766-2770.

Saporta, S.D. A et al., (2011).Charcot Marie Tooth (CMT) Subtypes and Genetic Testing Strategies. Ann Neurol, 69(1), pp. 22 -- 33
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Krabbe Disease Also Known as

Words: 1669 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11188228

Though there are state laws and federal laws that militate against discrimination at any levels, the application of this law is a challenge and the patients end up being discriminated against anyway. The victims will most likely end up in nursing homes where they will receive treatment but this separates them from the family life.

The other factor is the cost that weighs down the concerned people in terms of medical bills. It is a disease that is expensive to manage since there are numerous scans that one must get and the cost of specialized care doesn't make it any better. The good news however is that there are several organizations that have volunteered to help the victims of this disease like Hunters Hope (2009) which was purposefully formed to cater for patients of the disease in terms of support and information among many other organizations.

Reference

Alexander C. Guo,…… [Read More]

U.S National Library of Medicine (2011). Krabbe Disease. Retrieved April, 11, 2011 from http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/krabbe-disease

University of Maryland Medical Center (2009). Krabbe disease - Overview . Retrieved April, 11,

2011 from http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/001198.htm
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Management of Left Ventricular Heart

Words: 3436 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90872428

(NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)

The Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are stated to be "recommended as first-line treatment in all people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) "with or without symptoms of heart failure." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) Additionally it is stated that strong evidence exists that ACE inhibitors "...increase life expectancy in people with LVSD and reduce the risk of hospitalization -- the effect is greatest in those with more severe LVSD or more severe symptoms, but benefit occurs for all degrees of severity." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008)

Prescribed for individuals who are intolerant of ACE inhibitors due to cough are

Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists which provide an alternative to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors." (NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement, 2008) There is stated to be evidence that AIIRAs supports life expectancy improvement and symptoms for those with heart failure due to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Clinical Practice Guideline for Heart Failure Due to Left-Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction (2000) Kaiser Diagnostic and Treatment Documents. February 2000. Online available at: http://*****/cajud/heart/leftven.html

Heart Failure: Age from 16 Years Onwards (2008) Clinical Knowledge Summaries. NHS Institute for Innovation and Improvement. Online available at: http://www.cks.nhs.uk/heart_failure_chronic/evidence/references#

NHS Confederation and BMA (2005) New GMS contract. Department of Health. www.dh.gov.uk.

NICE (2002) Guidance on the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion for smoking cessation. Technology appraisal no.39. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. www.nice.org.uk [Accessed: 19/06/2007]. [Free Full-text]
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Diabetes Digestion and Diabetes Overview of the

Words: 1058 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52659091

Diabetes

Digestion and diabetes: Overview of the process

The digestive process begins even before food is consumed. Looking at or anticipating food causes salivation. Saliva aids digestion, along with chewing. For example, when Jane Doe looks at a plate consisting of a whole wheat turkey sandwich (garnished by vegetables and mayonnaise), potato chips, and apple juice, her body will begin to anticipate eating by secreting digestive juices. The first major involuntary muscular movement for Jane Doe will not occur until she consciously decides to swallow the food in front of her. "Although you are able to start swallowing by choice, once the swallow begins, it becomes involuntary and proceeds under the control of the nerves" (Your digestive system, 2010, NIH). The swallowed food is pushed into the esophagus, the organ that connects the teeth, mouth, and tongue through the throat to the stomach. "At the junction of the esophagus and…… [Read More]

References

Type 1 diabetes. (2010). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved December 30, 2010 at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/type-1-diabetes/DS00329

Your digestive system and how it works. (2010). National Institute of Health (NIH).

Retrieved December 30, 2010 at http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd/
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Krabbe Disease

Words: 1378 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90314131

Krabbe Disease

Genetic Components of the Disease

Metabolic Components of the Disease

Causes of the disease

Symptoms of the disease

Diagnosis of the disease

Treatment of the disease

Cord lood Transfusion

Treatment for Late on-set Form

Gene Therapy

Incidence and Longevity of the disease

Socioeconomic Factors

Krabbe disease, also referred as globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), causes a deficiency in galactocerebrosidase (GALC), the enzyme responsible for preventing a build-up of galactolipids in the brain. Without the regulation of galactolipids, the growth of the myelin sheath around the nerve cells is severely impaired. Krabbe disease usually presents in first 6 months of the life. A child in the last stages of Krabbe disease is immobilized and has decreased level of responsiveness. Most of them die at the age of 2. (Lantos, 2011)

Genetic Components of the Disease

GLD is one of the subgroup of metabolic disorders called leukodystrophies. The leukodystrophies are caused…… [Read More]

Bibliography

(2011). The Case of Krabbe Disease. In J. Lantos, Dangerous and Expensive Screening and Treatment for Rare Childhood Diseases. Kansas City, Missouri.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2011, June). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved March 2013, from Krabbe Disease: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/krabbe-disease/DS00937/DSECTION=risk-factors

Orchard, P. (2013). National Marrow Donor Program. Krabbe Disease.

Rosenberg, R.N. (2008). The Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurologic and Psychiatric Disease. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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Hepatitis C Anatomy of the Liver the

Words: 522 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33410947

Hepatitis C

Anatomy of the Liver

The liver is found at the upper right hand portion of the abdominal opening just under the diaphragm, but over the stomach, right kidney and intestines. It is a cone shaped organ that weighs approximately 3 pounds and appears to be dark red in color (USC Liver Transplant Program and Center for Liver Disease, 2012).

(1) right lobe, (2) left lobe, (3) caudate lobe, (4) quadrate lobe, (5) hepatic artery and portal vein, (6) hepatic lymph nodes, (7) gall bladder

The liver has two main sources of blood; blood from the hepatic artery, which is oxygenated and nutrient-rich blood from the hepatic portal vein. The liver contains up to one pint of the host body's blood supply all the time. It has two main lobes comprising of myriad of lobules. These lobules are also linked to tiny ducts that are also linked to larger…… [Read More]

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008, June 23). Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from www.cdc.gov.

USC Liver Transplant Program and Center for Liver Disease. (2012). About the Liver. Retrieved November 17, 2012, from http://www.surgery.usc.edu/divisions/hep/abouttheliver.html
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PCR Analysis of Gapdh Genes of Parsley

Words: 1528 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13977066

PCR GAPDH Genes Parsley

PCR Analysis of GAPDH Genes in Parsley

The purpose of this review is to consider the structure and the function of the protein glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 1.2.1.12) in Petroselinum crispum and Coriandrum sativum cells. For over three decades, GAPDH was studied for its pivotal role in glycolysis. As an abundant cell protein, it proved useful as a model for investigations examining basic mechanisms of enzyme action as well as the relationship between amino acid sequence and protein structure. Further, with the advent of molecular technology, GAPDH, as a putative 'house-keeping' gene, provided a model with which to use new methods for gene analysis to advance our understanding of the mechanisms through which cells organize and express their genetic information.

As with many things in life, what is thought to be simple and relatively straight-forward turns out to be quite complex and elaborate. In this regard,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kim, E. And Archibald, J. (2009) Diversity and Evolution of Plastids and Their Genomes. Plant Cell Monograph. 1-39.

Lopez-Juez, E. 2007. Plastid biogenesis, between light and shadows. J. Exper. Bot. 58: 11 -- 26.

Martin, W., Rujan, T., Richly, E., Hansen, A., Cornelsen, S., Lins, T., Leister, D., Stoebe, B., Hasegawa, M, & Penny, D. 2002. Evolutionary analysis of Arabidopsis, cyanobacterial, and chloroplast genomes reveals plastic phylogeny and thousands of cyanobacterial genes in the nucleus. PNAS 99: 12246 -- 12251.

Plaxton, W.C. 1996. The organization and regulation of plant glycolysis. Annu. Rev. PlantPhysiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 47: 185 -- 214.
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CONNEXIN43 Expression Following Retinal Ischemia

Words: 4785 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33589871

" (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003)

Prior to visualization of the molecule of interest it is necessary to "fix and section the brain tissue. Double-labeling immunofluorescence is stated to detect "localization of a protein of interest as well as the distribution of the protein relative to another marker such as a neurochemical or organelle marker." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003 Fluorescence imaging labeled tissue through use of confocal makes provision of "high-resolution analysis of the extent of colocalization, with a theoretical limit of resolution of 0.1 to 0.2 um." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003) Immunofluorescence techniques are stated to "in general...utilize secondary antibodies conjugated to a flurosphore." (Volpicelli-Daley and Levey, 2003) It is important according to Volpicelli-Daley and Levey to choose flurosphores with "minimal background staining and a minimum overlap of excitation/emission spectra...when performing double labeling experiments." (2003)

IV. FLUORESCENCE MICROSCOPY

The work of Coling and Kachar (1997) entitled: "Theory and Application of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Apoptosis (2009) Protocol Online. Available at:  http://www.protocol-online.org/prot/Cell_Biology/Apoptosis/index.html 

Coling, Donald and Kachar, Bechara (1997) Theory and Application of Fluorescence Microscopy. Current Protocols in Neuroscience. John Wiley & Sons.

Gallagher, S., Winston, S.E, Fuller, S.A. And Hurrell, J.G.R. (2004) Immunoblotting and Immunodetection. Current Protocols in Neuroscience 2004. John Wiley & Sons.

Introduction to Immunohistochemistry (2009) IHC World Life Science Information Network. Online available at:  http://www.ihcworld.com/_intro/intro.htm
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Prebiotic Potential of Chitosans Prebiotic

Words: 6463 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28944082

1).

This teatment, albeit, does not poduce 100% chitosan, but basically poduces a mixtue of 10-15% chitin plus 85-90% pue chitosan, called "pue CC." In the U.S., chitosan constitutes a mixtue of appoximately7% chitin plus appoximately 93% chitosan. Outside of cost-effectiveness, the biological effects of chitin poduced fom each souce appeas identical. "Chitosan oligosacchaides (CO) takes chitosan a big step futhe," Matsunaga (2007 explains. "When CC is ingested, a small amount of it is boken down into vey small molecula paticles by the enzymes of the body, thus poducing CO. CO can also be manufactued by using an enzymatic pocess" (Matsunaga, as cited in Levine, p. 1). The body moe eadily absobs CO, although CO contains less fibe than egula CC.

In Case Histoy 1: Low Pulmonay (Lung) Function, Matsunaga (Levine, 2007) teats his fist patient, also his fathe, with the administation of CC. Pevious teatments had yielded no esults…… [Read More]

references and further reading you must purchase this article.

Lee, H., Park, Y., Jung, J. & Shin, W. (2003). Chitosan oligosaccharides, dp 2 -- 8, have prebiotic effect on the Bifidobacterium bifidium and Lactobacillus sp.

Elsevier Science Ltd. Retrieved November 2, 2009, from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W9T-48BKR97-

2&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_search

StrId=1075134506&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersio
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DNA Sequence

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27995635

human DNA sequence composed of a series of letters such as 'accagacagt' and the objective was to decipher this jumble of letters and interpret the results. I suppose I should report that the process went smoothly and that after a bit of research I now consider myself an expert in regard to the new science of DNA Sequencing. However, I have a thousand more questions now than before I began and even the answers I came up with may or may not be correct. I do know for a fact that this is a pretty new art or science and its potential seems limitless. "DNA itself has thus far shown only modest evidence of possessing any intrinsic catalytic activities, although the prospect that more will be discovered in the future is surely plausible." (Cantor & Smith, 1999, xv)

The internet has made so many sites and processes available to the…… [Read More]

Obviously, enterokinase gene being tied to this chromosome entails a great deal of research interest into the biological functions of the gene and the manner by which it contributes to disease. Defects in PRSS7 therefore are a direct cause of enterokinase deficiency which is a life-threatening intestinal malabsorption disorder. The disorder can be characterized by severe bouts of diarrhea and failure to thrive and thus create a situation of initiating activation of pancreatic proteolytic proenzymes (trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypeptidase a).

Animals, like humans, have to handle digestion of exogenous macromolecules without destroying endogenous constituents so the serine protease or enterokinase seems to be a fundamental digestive system requirement. In other words, all vertebrates such as mice or dogs have adapted a two step enzymatic cascade that is used to change pancreatic zymogens over to active enzymes in the lumen of the gut as discovered by researchers in Pavlov's laboratory in the early 1900's. "Extracts of the proximal small intestine were shown strikingly to activate the latent hydrolytic enzymes in pancreatic fluid. Pavlov considered this intestinal factor to be an enzyme that activated other enzymes, or a 'ferment of ferments' and named it enterokinase." (Stone, 2002)

Prospects For
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Milk by Products and There Effects on Growth in Poultry

Words: 3810 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60683277

Poultry

Milk from the cow is one of the most versatile and important substances in the human diet as well as in the diets of many animals and in particular in the diet of poultry that are being raised as layers, broilers or for other purposes. The fact that this milk can be processed into many different forms adds to its versatility and provides a wide array of by-products from which specialized uses can be determined. Understanding the basic array of materials that can be obtained from processing milk is the first step in understanding how those products can be used in the diets of poultry. The next step of understanding the relationship between dairy by-products and the benefits they can provide to poultry comes through examining the nutritional content of those by-products for the feeding and development of poultry. As these two explanations are provided it becomes evident in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Attfield, Harlan H.D. Raising Chickens and Ducks. Arlington, Virginia: Volunteers in Technical

Assistance, 1990.

Bailey, JS, Roberts, T, Harvey, RB, Anderson, RC, et al. "Food Safety: Alternatives to Antibiotic Use." Poultry Science (2004).

Burrington, David. "Can-do' proteins - enzymes - Ingredient Technology." Dairy Foods, April,
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Fruit Ripening Fruit Is an Integral Part

Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93673749

Fruit ipening

Fruit is an integral part of certain types of plants' ability to reproduce by providing a means to disperse it's seeds. The process of seed dispersal involves the activity of animals; which digest the fruit and disperse the seeds in its feces. But the fruit must appear and taste agreeable to the various animals which the plant depends upon to eat the fruit and disperse the seeds. In order to accomplish this, the fruit undergoes a physiological change which allows the fruit to become softer and more edible, while simultaneously changing colors. "The cause of fruit ripening is a natural form of a chemical synthesized to make PCV (polyvinyl chloride) piping and plastic bags - namely, a gaseous hormone called ethylene." (Kendrick, 2009) It is the production of ethylene that will activate certain genes inside the fruit that will begin the ripening process.

Once the production of ethylene…… [Read More]

References

Koning, R.E. "Home Page for Ross Koning." Plant Physiology Information

Website. 1994. Web. 19 May 2012.

 http://plantphys.info/plants_human/fruitgrowripe.shtml 

Kendrick, Mandy. "The Origins of Fruit Ripening." Scientific America.
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Fantastic Voyage

Words: 1379 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44263757

Fantastic Voyage

[hs130, section: ____ ]

Today, on the twentieth of August, I will take you on a trip inside the gastrointestinal tract, and beyond in the human body to observe the process of digestion and excretion. As simple as it may seem, this process is more than just moving down a hollow tube. To understand this more deeply, let's begin our journey!

EVIEW OF THE VIDEO TAPE:

Being reduced to eight microns in a hamburger holds the possibility of being chewed, grinded and dissolved in gastric acid. Even though I used special shield defenses, the slight possibility can still be a scary thought. Despite the risk, I felt motivated enough to allow myself to be amazed by the human body.

In about a moment, I was in the mouth of a 55-year-old man. Mixed with me, were fries, meat, lettuce, cheese, burgers and bear. Staying away from the teeth…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Barrett, K., Heddwen, B., Boitano, S., & Barman, S. (2010).Ganong's review of medical physiology. (23 ed., pp. 451-489). Philadelphia: McGraw Hill.

Hansen, J.T., Koeppen, B.M., & Netter, F.H. (2002). Netter's atlas of human physiology. (5th ed., p 246 -249) Teterboro, N.J: Icon Learning Systems.

Kumar, V., Abbas, A., & Fausto, N. (2010) Robbins Basic Pathology. (8th ed., p 25-60) Philadelphia: Saunders.

Leonard, R., & Kendall, K. (2008). Dynamic swallow studies: Measurement techniques. (2 ed., pp. 292-294). San Diego: Plural Publishing.
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Physiological Effects of Endurance Training

Words: 2589 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97922192

Physiological Effects of Endurance Training

Endurance training produces many physiological changes, both during training and after the training period is complete. These changes are biochemical and also involve changes in the cardio-pulmonary system. The correct way to perform endurance training has been a subject of controversy in recent years. There are many differences in training methods. These differences and the effects of endurance training will be the subject of this research. The jury is still out as to what constitutes the perfect duration and intensity of training program.

Studies have shown that a focused training program can increase maximum oxygen intake by 15-30% over a three-month period (7) and that can increase to 50% if the training is sustained for over 2 years. The body makes many metabolic adaptations as well. These adaptations drop rapidly in the first few weeks after training is stopped (1).

Duration and Intensity of Different…… [Read More]

References

1. Acevedo EO, Goldfarb AH. Increased training intensity effects on plasma lactate, ventilatory threshold, and endurance. Med and Sci in Sports Exercise, (21), 563-568, 1998

2. Finn, C, Effects of High-Intensity Intermittent Training on Endurance Performance. Sportscience (5)(1), sport sci.org. Jour. 1-3, 2001.

3. Foss M.L., and Keteyian S.J. Fox's Physiological Basis for Exercise and Sport. WCB Boston, Mass., McGraw-Hill. 1998.

4. Hawley JA, Myburgh KH, Noakes TD, and Dennis, SC. Training Techniques To Improve Fatigue Resistance And Enhance Endurance Performance. Jour of Sports Sci, (15), 325-333, 1997.
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Detection of the Borna Disease Virus Relating

Words: 6358 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80489172

detection of the Borna disease virus relating them to the epidemiology.

The first cases of Borna disease were descried in the 17-19th century in Southern Germany. It was discovered to e a fatal disease affecting the neurological systems of horses and sheep, (Ludwig et al., 1985; Durrwald, 1993) causing ehavioral and neurological symptoms. It was proven to e caused y a 2003]

Today it is eing realized that the scope of the disease is not limited to just a few countries as was previously elieved ut encompassed the world. Also it was realized that far from affecting just horses and sheep as was originally thought virus, the Borna Disease Virus (BDV) in the early 1900's y Zwick and his team in Giessen Germany. [Author not availale, it in fact affected other animals and even human eings.[Staeheli, Sauder; Schwemmle, et al., 2000]

Research into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the BDV…… [Read More]

bibliography. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B. 44, 147-184.

3.Staeheli, P., Sauder, C. Schwemmle, M. et al.,[2000]. Epidemiology of Borna disease virus, J Gen Virol 81: 2123-2135

4.Author not available, [2003] Diagnostic Methods In Virology, accessed at  http://virology-online.com/general/Tests.htm 

5. Nakamura, K., Takahashi, H., Shoya, Y., Nakaya, T., Watanabe, M., Tomonaga, K., Iwahashi, K., Ameno, K., Momiyama, N., Taniyama, H., Sata, T., Kurata, T., de la Torre, J.C. & Ikuta, K. [2000]. Isolation of Borna disease virus from human brain. Journal of Virology 74, 4601-4611.

6. Zimmermann, W., Durrwald, R. & Ludwig, H. (1994). Detection of Borna disease virus RNA in naturally infected animals by a nested polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Virological Methods 46, 133-143
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Hepatitis C Virus

Words: 3154 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39518130

Hepatitis C

hat is the leading cause of liver disease? hat could cause so many people to require liver transplants? Most people on the street today would think that the answer to those questions would be alcoholism. And, although alcohol does do its fair share of damage to livers around the world, there is a greater source causing chronic liver disease out there.

This term paper will attempt to shed light on the hepatitis virus. The correct pronunciation would be: (h-p ? t? t-s). There are several strains of the hepatitis virus with some being non-issues and others being incurable killers. This report focuses specifically on the Hepatitis C virus which falls under the incurable killer header. This strain of the viruses can never be taken lightly.

There are many ways for an individual to acquire the hepatitis C virus into their system; however, there is currently no cure once…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Askari, Fred K., and Cutler, Daniel S. Hepatitis C, the Silent Epidemic: The Authoritative Guide. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing, 1999.

Bacteriology. Ed. IUSM Microbiology Core. IUSM Microbiology Core. 12 Apr. 2004  http://users.ipfw.edu/merkel/MicroCore.html .

Burke, William M., Vasant P. Dhopesh, and Taylor, Keitha R. "Survey of Hepatitis B and C. In Addiction Treatment Unit" American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Vol. 26. (2000).

Hepatitis. Ed. hepatitis-central.com. hepatitis-central.com. 12 Apr. 2004 http://www.hepatitis-central.com/hbv/hepbfaq/other.html.
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Organelle Functioning in the Human Cell

Words: 1568 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89357581

a&P Lab

Design Project -- A&P Lab

Ammonia (NH3) is produced by cells located throughout the body; most of the production occurring in the intestines, liver, and the kidney, where it is used to produce urea. Ammonia is particularly toxic to brain cells, and high levels of blood ammonia can also lead to organ failure. The imaginary organelle referred to as a hydrosome functions in a manner that decreases the blood ammonia levels in people, thereby circumventing the need for medications such as to treatment to prevent hepatic encephalopathy and conditions associated with a failing liver. The hydrosome functions similarly to a primary lysosome, also containing a highly acidic interior with lytic enzymes called hydrolases. However, the waste disposal that the hydrosome conducts serves to convert ammonia to a water-soluble waste that is then excreted by the kidneys.

About this Organelle

I came up with the idea for this organelle…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Batshaw ML, MacArthur RB, Tuchman M. Alternative pathway therapy for urea cycle disorders: twenty years later. Journal of Pediatrics. 2001; 138: S46-55.

Haberle J, Boddaert N, Burlina A, Chakrapani A, Dixon M, Huemer M, Karall D, Martinelli D, Crespo PS, Santer R, Servais A, Valayannopoulos V, Lindner M, Rubio V, and Dionisi-Vici C. "Suggested guidelines for the diagnosis and management of urea cycle disorders." Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 2012: 7, 32. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-7-32. PMC 3488504. PMID 22642880 Retrieved http://www.ojrd.com/content/7/1/32

Interactive Concepts in Biochemistry - Interactive Animations. John Wiley & Sons Publishers, Inc. 2002. Retrieved  http://www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/0470003790/animations/cell_structure/cell_structure.htm 

Prasad S, Dhiman RK, Duseja A, Chawla YK, Sharma A, Agarwal R. "Lactulose improves cognitive functions and health-related quality of life in patients with cirrhosis who have minimal hepatic encephalopathy." Hepatology 2007: 45 (3): 549 -- 59.
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Genetic Pathway of Breast Cancer

Words: 2282 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53395187

, 2006). He visualized and described the malignancy process. He suggested that early that "cells of tumors with unlimited growth" would develop with the elimination of chromosomes, which inhibit the growth. The multiple genetic alterations in these inhibiting chromosomes are today known as TSGs. The theory supposes that cancer arises from functional defect or absence of one or more TSGs. Clinical trials of TSG gene replacement therapy for breast cancer include the viral wild-type p53, Rb, and mda7. Molecular chemotherapy involves the introduction of suicide genes. The concept evolved from the assumption that cancer cells could be made more sensitive to chemotherapeutics or toxins by introducing "suicide genes." It was a concept initiated in the late 80s. Suicide gene therapy is categorized into toxin gene therapy and enzyme-activating pro-drug therapy. Suicide gene therapy is also called gene-directed enzyme pro-drug therapy or GDEPT. GDEPT treatment consists of the delivery of the…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abaan, O. D and Criss, Wayne E (2002). Gene therapy in human breast cancer. 32

(2002): 283-291 Turkey Journal of Medical Science: Tubitak. Retrieved on April 15,

2010 from http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/medical/issues/sag-02-32-4-1-0204.pdf

Lowery, A.J., et al. (2009). MicroRNA signatures predict oestrogen receptor,
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Selling Detergents A Executive Summary

Words: 4551 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51304302

(Security Guards and Gaming Surveillance Officers) Thus there is a lot of increase in demands from channel members and the possibility if that there is a demand from them to provide them with lower priced products. Even existing marketing companies like Scott Paper Company are facing this problem. There are wholesaler sponsored voluntary chains, and retailer cooperatives which are likely to put pressure on a new manufacturer. (the Environment of Marketing Channels)

With all this consideration, it is better to look at a new market and the reasons for this are that the U.S. population is increasing at the low age end and the high age end, and there are a large number of individuals of different origins. In 2000, the total population was 275 million and this shows a growth of 10.5% from 249 million in 1990. Of this lot 58.4 million Americans were below the age of 15…… [Read More]

References

Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations" Retrieved from www.competition-commission.org.uk/%20rep_pub/reports/1960_1969/fulltext/032c05.pdf%20%20%20. Accessed on 18 July, 2005

Economics for Managerial Decision Making" Retrieved at http://www.uopxoverseasmil.com/syllabi/ECO533%20Sample%20Syllabus-%20May%2004.pdf. Accessed on 18 July, 2005

Enzymes: A Primer on Use and Benefits Today and Tomorrow" (June, 2001) Enzyme

Technical Association. Retrieved from www.enzymetechnicalassoc.org/benefits_paper.pdf. Accessed on 18 July, 2005
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Million Americans Suffer From Migraine

Words: 4204 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23813287

Continued use of some anti-migraine drugs has been found to lead to what is known as "rebound headache," a condition marked by frequent and chronic headaches, especially in the early morning hours. The condition can be prevented if the patient takes the drugs only on a doctor's supervision and when taken only in minimal doses. Those suffering from frequent attacks may need preventive therapy (Robinson 1999).

There are alternative treatment modes aimed at preventing migraine (Robinson 1999). ecause it is often linked with food allergies and intolerances, the identification and elimination of the offending foods can contain or decrease the frequency of the attacks. Herbal therapy with the use of feverfew or chrysanthemum parthenium can work this way. iofeedback training may also help prevent some vascular changes when an attack begins by increasing the flow of blood to the extremities. The patient must put the lights down low, put his…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cottrell, C.K. et al. (2002). Perceptions and Needs of Patients with Migraine. Health and Fitness. Journal of Family Practice. http://www.findarticles.com/articles/p/mi_m6689/is_2_51/ai_83551751

Gaby, A.R. (2003). Preventing Migraine with Coenzyme Q10. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients: the Townsend Letter Group. (http://www.findarticles.com/articles/p/mi_m)ISW/is_2003_Jan/ai_95676502

Huffman, G.B. (2002). Safety of Triptans in Migraine Therapy. American Family Physicians. The American Academy of Family Physicians. http://www.findarticles.com/articles/p/mi_m3225/is_12_65/ai_87721440

Khosh, F. et al. (2002). Natural Approach to Migraine Headaches. Townsend Letter to Doctors and Patients. The Townsend Letter Group. http://www.findarticles.com/articles/p/mi_mOISW/is_2002_August-Sept/ai_90794456
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Cardiovascular and Gastrointestinal Systems Integrated

Words: 2173 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56960433

Integration of Cardiovascular/Gastrointestinal Systems

Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body

The integration of the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems allow for nutrients to be introduced, broken down, and absorbed by body to maintain and promote healthy bodily functions. Independently, these systems serve separate functions, but when working in conjunction, help to transport necessary nutrients throughout the body, while maintaining and promoting homeostasis within the systems. Any imbalance within these systems will greatly affect the body, as a whole, and can lead to potentially fatal results.

Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body

The gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems of the human body help to breakdown and transport items that are ingested, such as food and medication, to the necessary parts of the body, expelling wastes that are not needed. Separately, the gastrointestinal and cardiac systems have different functions, but when the systems work in conjunction…… [Read More]

References:

Bowen, R 2002, Salivary glands and saliva, Colorado State University, viewed 14 September 2011,  http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/pregastric/salivary.html 

Cleveland Clinic 2005, The structure and function of the digestive system, viewed 29 September 2011, http://www.cchs.net/health/health-info/docs/1600/1699.asp?index=7041

Cotterill, S 2000, The cardiovascular system (heart and blood): medical terminology for cancer, Department of Child Health, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, viewed 14 September 2011,  http://www.cancerindex.org/medterm/medtm8.htm 

Gregory, M n.d., The circulatory system, Clinton Community College, State University of New York, viewed 15 September 2011, http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/Bio%20100/Bio%20100%20Lectures/Organ%20Systems/Circulatory%20System/Circulatory%20System.htm
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Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genomics

Words: 2012 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94040147

Genomes and Comparative Genomics

Over the last decade we have achieved rapid strides in the field of genetic engineering. The study of molecular biology has been fairly advanced mainly aided by the unprecedented growth in information technology. Today bio-informatics has opened new vitas for us and we are already progressing in investigating and in the comparative study of genomes. This has shed new light up on our knowledge of the evolutionary process and the important concepts such as protein folding and selective expression, which have so far eluded our understanding, are beginning to unfold. Let us have a brief overlook of the subject.

The Role of DNA

One of the greatest achievements of the twentieth century has been the unraveling of the mysteries behind the DNA and the mechanism of protein synthesis. Genes are the fundamental units of biological inheritance and are made up of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Genes are…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Mullis, KB (1990), Scientific American, April 1990, 56

Hecht, J., 19 May 2003, Chimps are human, gene study implies, New Scientist

Cohlan, A., 30 May 2002, "Just 2,5% of DNA turns mice into men," New Scientist

TK Attwood & DJ Parry Smith, "Introduction to bio Informatics," Published by ADDison Wesley Longman Ltd., 1999
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Nutrigenomics Is an Important Field of Study

Words: 4560 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10230829

Nutrigenomics is an important field of study. It finds in roots in modern times, because of the direct relation to advances in science and technology. Nutrigenomics also straddles the nature vs. nurture divide. The publication of the relatively preliminary results of the Human Genome has given greater impetus to the idea of Nutrigenomics. One might assuredly say that the publication of the Human Genome is preliminary because the current versions of the genome are merely representatives of a very select group of individuals. (Lander et al., 2001; Venter et al., 2001) What makes individuals unique of course is the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs. It is these SNPs that give each of us our individuality. Hence each individual's genome is his or her genotype. A genotype is an individual's genome -- the genetic coding that identifies the character traits that govern existence. In the context of Nutrigenomics, a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Antshel, K.M., & Waisbren, S.E. (2003). Timing is everything: executive functions in children exposed to elevated levels of phenylalanine. Neuropsychology, 17(3), 458-468.

Arn, P.H. (2003). Galactosemia. Curr Treat Options Neurol, 5(4), 343-345.

Buttke, T.M., & Sandstrom, P.A. (1995). Redox regulation of programmed cell death in lymphocytes. Free Radic Res, 22(5), 389-397.

Collins, F.S., Guyer, M.S., & Charkravarti, A. (1997). Variations on a theme: cataloging human DNA sequence variation. Science, 278(5343), 1580-1581.