epidemiology changed and evolved from the 1900s to the present? What effects have these changes had in your area of health care?
More than a hundred years ago, the primary focus of epidemiology was on containing the spread of epidemics such as cholera, tuberculosis, and polio. Knowledge about disease transmission, improved sanitation, and vaccinations have made many of these diseases either manageable or eradicated them. Today, the primary challenge for epidemiology is the shift to focusing on lifestyle-related complaints such as obesity, inactivity, and smoking which cause chronic illnesses such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Often, these can be more difficult to treat given that the lifestyle changes that they require both individuals and government to make are more complex and far-reaching than simply improving sanitation or getting vaccinated.
As a result, there is a greater need to educate the public and to encourage changes in habits and behavior,…… [Read More]
Argument Analysis" "The Cohabitation Epidemic"
In "The Cohabitation Epidemic," Neil Clark Warren argues that cohabitation between unmarried couples is an unhealthy situation that is decreasing the livelihood and well being of people in the contemporary context. Warren's argument is based on the idea that [state here the most important premises or assumption of the argument, or the basic strategy of his argument]. More specifically, in a part of his argument Warren assumes that [or something like this] [state problematic assumption]. I will argue that this move is problematic. In particular, is will show that ... [state main idea of your disagreement].
I will begin by explaining Warren's argument. He argues for this main thesis: that cohabitation rates are increasing, changing the nature of society, which is essentially endangering the health and welfare of future generations of Americans. Warren is essentially documenting a major rift in the structure of…… [Read More]
European Epidemics on Native American Lifestyles
When the Europeans arrived in America, the Native Americans were a settled agricultural people. These Indians relied heavily on corn, beans and squash and their diet was supplemented through the gathering of wild plants and hunting. (Geier, 1991)
Hundreds of thousands of Native Americans lived in America with the greatest diversity - as many as 120 - of languages, dialects, and cultures of any comparably sized are in the world. For example, Indians in the far north had very different languages and cultures from the central and southern tribes.
Tribes traded with each other but were self-sufficient for the most part. With bountiful game, fish, and plants available and a moderate climate, most Indians bands led stable, productive and peaceful lives.
The tranquil lifestyle of the Indians changed dramatically with the introduction of European settlers. Many hunters and trappers were attracted to America by…… [Read More]
aters' illustrious footsteps. Local sports leaders and teams might like to engage in 'shape up' campaigns, such as rewarding students who do a required number of 'steps' per day.
Up until this point, unfortunately, North Carolina's emphasis as a state has been on monitoring student's weight, rather than changing their behaviors. The "Healthy Schools, Healthy eight" initiative focuses on providing toolkits to track student's BMIs and identify them as obese. Tracking BMIs (Body Mass Indexes) in rapidly-growing children can be difficult, however, and rather than identification, promoting healthy eating and movement for all children, before they become obese, rather than targeting obese students in the initiative and separating them during this emotionally fraught time from their peers might seem the better solution. But some individual school districts have provided shining lights in how to cope with the crisis. "Cumberland County recently received recognition for its "Shape Up, Live Healthy" district-wide…… [Read More]
One year later the casualty number doubled again with more than 4,000 victims of the disease.
At this time Americans continued to blame homosexuals while the CDC fought against that belief with public service messages aimed at all people who were sexually active whether they were gay or straight.
In 1986 the epidemic has begun to grow. President onald egan mentioned it publically for the first time as part of the Agenda for the Future discussions.
By this time there had been more than 16,000 deaths because of AIDS.
The public began to accept the fact that it is not a gay disease and extreme fear takes hold as people worry they can get it from sharing a glass or a spoon. The United States shut the borders to all HIV infected travelers and immigrants due to public outcry (SO LITTLE TIME (http://www.aegis.com/topics/timeline/default.asp).
Number of known deaths in U.S.…… [Read More]
HIV / AIDS epidemic among the homeless
HIV, the epidemic that seems to have no end, rears it head year after year causing catastrophic damage. Now more than ever, all individuals regardless of race or demographics must be weary of the devastation this virus can cause. One social economic class that is particularly prone to this epidemic is that of the homeless community. According the center for disease control and prevention, the African-American community accounts for nearly 46% of people living with a HIV diagnosis (1). Of those, 23% are homeless. What is even more mindboggling is the fact that the African-American community only accounts for 13% of the current U.S. population.
Estimated ates of New HIV Infections,
by ace/Ethnicity and Gender, 2006
(Source: CDC. Subpopulation Estimates from the HIV Incidence Surveillance System -- United States, 2006. MMW. 2008; 57(36):985 -- 989)
Obviously, the best way to mitigate the risk…… [Read More]
Identification of Key Results
Results of this research highlight the need for a comprehensive approach to addressing the public health concern of obesity. Although obesity and its defining features like BMI are causally related to lifestyle factors like diet and activity levels, the research shows that the situation is more complex than that. There is a range of socioeconomic, ethnic, cultural, and political variables that also affect the prevalence of the disease. Identifying these outlying variables may be the key to resolving the obesity epidemic.
The obesity ecological model (OEM) has proven to be one of the most effective strategies for epidemiological analysis because it takes into account environmental and personal factors (Egger, Swinburn & Rossner, 2003). Using a multifactorial model like the OEM allows epidemiologists to take into account factors like age, race, socioeconomic class status, and compounding medical conditions. Key results of the study are as follows.
First,…… [Read More]
Jacme d'Agramont: Regimen of Protection against Epidemics
The objective of this study is to answer the following questions: (1) According to Jacme, what is the "pestilence"? How does his definition of pestilence fit into the "Western traditional medicine" framework? (2) How does Jacme explain how plague is caused? What is the "Western traditional medicine" rationale behind his explanation of the plague causation? (3) What is the "Western traditional medicine" rationale behind Jacme's explanation of the symptoms of the plague? And (4) What is the "Western traditional medicine" rationale behind Jacme's advice for avoiding (or surviving) the plague?
Jacme states that pestilence arises from diverse changes in the air "as well as in its qualities as in its substance causing diverse properties from which arise "diverse consequences." Jacme writes that pestilence is a "contra-natural change of the air in its qualities or in its substance; from which arise in living…… [Read More]
Pharmaceutical Companies, Intellectual Property, and the Global AIDS Epidemic
For this case study, six questions had been asked. The first one is: Should pharmaceutical companies distribute drugs at low cost in third world countries? What are the pros and cons of such an approach? The second one is: What are the principal arguments of pharma companies who oppose making exception to IP laws for developing countries? What are the arguments by NGOs and others for a differential treatment? The third question is: What impact would you expect South Africa's decision to levy duties on drug imports from Western nations to have on the international distribution of drugs to South Africa? The fourth question is: In June 2002, the WTO extended the transition period during which least-developed countries (LDCs) had to provide patent protection for pharmaceuticals. In your opinion, do you think this is an appropriate change in policy, or a…… [Read More]
Drug Epidemic at Manalapan HS in Manalapan, NJ
In most high schools, drugs are a common rite of passage. As a matter of fact, the problem is so serious that it has reached epidemic levels. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse - NIH (2014), 22.1%, 16.3%, and 22.7% of high school students (seniors) in 2013 admitted to binge drinking, cigarette smoking and marijuana smoking, respectively.
Prescription drugs are also being abused at an alarming rate. For instance, "in 2013, 15.0% of high school seniors used a prescription drug non-medically…" (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2014). One of the prescription drugs most abused, as the National Institute on Drug Abuse (2014) further points out, was Adderall. The said prescription drug is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Other commonly abused prescription drugs are products with dextromethorphan as a component and Vicodin.
In a study conducted by…… [Read More]
child obesity, which has become an epidemic in the current epoch of technological advancements and innovations. Since obesity is escalating at an unprecedented rate specifically amongst the teenagers and children; thus, thus research proposal intends to carry out a comprehensive research to identify its causes. This paper highlights the plan of the research process in detail that include the aims and objectives of the study, methodology, data collection techniques, risks involved in carrying out the research, ethical and legal considerations, and strategies that can ensure the validity and effectiveness of the research.
esearch Design and Data Collection Techniques
Strategies to Ensure Validity and Efficacy of the Study
Ethical and Legal Considerations
Barriers to carry out the esearch Study
By looking at the historical context, once can simply claim that being fat was considered a symbol of being healthy. However, this perception over time has changed…… [Read More]
The Psychology of Obesity
Obesity is a significant public health problem. Due to negative nutritional habits, a lack of exercise and a greater proclivity toward lifestyle decisions which expose individuals to lesser physical activity, America is suffering an obesity epidemic with extensive implications to its national well-being. Obesity is proven to have a direct link to heart disease, high blood pressure and certain types of diabetes according to the Centers for Disease Control. (CDC1,1) The strains on the individual's health that are prompted by obesity can significantly reduce treatment options for these consequences while simultaneously increasing the individual's likelihood for premature mortality. These effects intercede with a disturbing set of indicators as to the increasing psychological propensity of individuals, families and especially toward behavior which is conducive to obesity. The wide permeation of the obesity problem in American is a product of psychological conditioning resulting from a combination…… [Read More]
Obesity reached epidemic proportions by the end of the twentieth century, with as many as thirty percent of adults and sixteen percent of children living in the United States being overweight ("Overweight and Obesity"). Being overweight is not just a matter of personal appearance. Rather, a range of health problems from heart disease to diabetes can be directly caused by eating too much, especially too much of the wrong foods. Fast food, junk food, and processed foods, available in huge portions for cheap prices, are driving factors in the American economy. However, because being overweight is a major cause of disease, obesity becomes an economic problem in America, taxing the medical system with unnecessary and preventable problems. Obese individuals essentially steal treatment services from individuals who suffer from diseases that could not be prevented through lifestyle changes. Overeating is also a slap-in -- the face for those who cannot…… [Read More]
Diseases that are not native to a certain population and are introduced by outsiders or foreigners can have devastating effects. Native populations are vulnerable to germs and viruses brought in by outsiders because they lack the immunological strength and ability to combat these illnesses. Such was the case during the conquest of both North and South America during early colonial times. The native population was blindsided and crippled by the various diseases that the white man brought with them.
The white man overpowered the Indigenous populations of America with their superior weaponry and battle tactics. These two factors contributed greatly to the white man's dominance, another factor that contributed was, undoubtedly the spread of disease and germs. Some of the diseases that were introduced to the native population by Europeans included: smallpox, measles, typhus, and venereal diseases (Ashburn 199). Small pox was one of the diseases that absolutely decimated the…… [Read More]
pressure people into accepting the idea that being slim and looking good are essential steps in a person's journey to happiness. Either because of the profits they can gain from the 'industry' of looking good or simply because they want to promote healthy practices, numerous individuals have gotten actively involved in providing advice to the masses with regard to what attitudes they need to take in order to lose weight. The present day obesity epidemic needs to be addressed from several perspectives, as simply promoting healthy eating habits and physical exercise seems to have a limited positive effect on the general public. The 'trend' is rapidly progressing and it would be safe to say that the number of obese people is going to increase as long as society continues to use strategies it is currently using with the purpose of fighting it (Burton, Creyer, Kees, & Huggins, p.1669).
Among the…… [Read More]
Childhood Obesity Focused on 6 to 11-Year-Olds in Tyler, Texas
Obesity is associated with a condition of calorific imbalance in which the ratio of consumption of calories consumed and the ones expended is skewed such that the amount of the ones spent is much lower than the amount consumed. The condition is influenced by a range of factors that include genetics, behavioral patterns, and environmental influences. In data availed by the Centre for Disease Control, children between the age of 6 to 11 with obesity condition stood at 7% in 1980 and increased to almost 18% in 2012. In 2014, figures from the Obesity Prevalence Map from the CDC showed that all states had obesity prevalence rates of 20% and above. Three of the states reflected an alarming 35% prevalence in their populations. The state of Texas was rated as having 30 to 35% people with obesity. Two states among…… [Read More]
" (Dietz, 1998). Obese children are often taller than their non-overweight peers, and are apt to be viewed as more mature. This is an inappropriate expectation that may result in adverse effects on their socialization. (Dietz, 1998). Overweight children and adolescents report negative assumptions made about them by others, including being inactive or lazy, being strong or tougher than others, not having feelings and being unclean. (American Obesity Association, 2000).
This epidemic did not occur overnight. Obesity and overweight are chronic conditions.
This study was concerned with genetics, family dynamics and parenting, and nutrition and dietary intake, all three of which contribute to childhood obesity. Specifically the researcher will attempt to determine what factors are contributing to the nations epidemic rises in obesity among children and what the effects are of the growing girth that is plaguing the nations children. The objective of the research study will be…… [Read More]
Healthy People 2020 and Diabetes
Diabetes is a community health problem that is also a Healthy People 2020 priority area. abish (2007) has cited it as a growing epidemic occurring all over the world. Because diabetes has been linked to obesity, poor diet and lack of exercise, it is reasonable to arrive at the conclusion that if people ate better and exercised more the rising spread of diabetes could be reversed. his is the contention of researchers such as Davis (2008) and Cunninghamm-Myrie, heall, Younger et al. (2015). In short, diabetes is impacting everyone. All who consume "fast food" type of diets are at risk of developing diabetes according to these studies.
he public health leadership problem related to this health issue is that public health leaders appear all too willing to simply treat the symptoms of diabetes instead of attacking the causes of the disease. Better leadership in this…… [Read More]
cDonalds' themselves have faced the fact that children need to learn a healthy food choice early on to lead healthy and productive lives. It is fallacy to believe that it is up to a fast food corporation to instill diet habits in children, and it should be noted that Disney Theme Parks would continue to have cDonalds on the premises, (Abramowitz, 2006). Ultimately, it is up to parents to teach children about healthy food choices and dictate what children should or should not eat.
Children are highly impressionable consumers. "Children see 40,000 advertisements a year on television alone" (Gavin, 2005.) arketing food toward children is by no means solely done via the fast food industry and processed food producers believe that children represent the largest untapped market for the purchase of their products. As a result, more and more advertisers are focusing food commercials on children, who have difficulty discerning…… [Read More]
Smith and Kidron, the end of the Cold War ironically initiated a series of belligerent conflicts across the globe. The international news media reported shocking brutality that ravaged osnia-Herzegovina, Chechnya, and especially in Rwanda, where nearly 800,000 people were slaughtered during the brief six-week period in 1994. Despite the sharp increase in human casualties lost to warfare, states hardly lifted a finger to stop it. udgets for military spending were curtailed, the production of nuclear weapons slowed, and the United Nations embarked on more peace operations than ever before. However, the events of September 11 abruptly terminated the United States' passivity; policymakers quickly approved dramatically increased budgets for military operations while thousands of troops boarded ships and airplanes to be dropped off in the most perilous war zone of the new millennium. Though incessant warfare may seem inevitable in many parts of the world, including Georgia and Iraq, there is…… [Read More]
Sex and AIDS: a Study in Contrasts
AIDS is one of the most hotly debated topics of modern times. Whether it is a question of what should be done to help those who have the disease, what may be done to prevent others from contracting it, or of the many moral arguments pro and con regarding the lifestyle or lifestyles that results in its spread, it is definitely a subject that is viewed from many, often widely-differing angles. What one newspaper or magazine can cover as a matter of science, another can describe as a cultural inspiration, or a religious sin. Film, television, radio, and the arts all play their role in constructing what we see as the impact of this dread disease. For the purposes of this paper, we shall take a look at AIDS and how it is depicted in one geographically small urban area: the New York…… [Read More]
Speaking Truth to Health Policy: Helping Veterans eadjust
Every day, at least 20 combat veterans commit suicide in the United States, or one veteran every 65 seconds (Shane & Kime, 2016). This alarming trend is attributable in large part to the symptoms that many people suffer from after experiencing traumatic episodes in their lives. Drawing on the sources of power enumerated by Mason, Gardner, Hopkins Outlaw and O'Grady (2016).This paper provides a current description concerning the health policy adopted by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) in response to this nation-wide problem to determine how the situation could benefit from having nurses speak truth to power. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning this issue are presented in the conclusion.
The condition currently known as posttraumatic stress disorder is certainly not a new construct. In World War I, the condition was termed "shell shock" and in World…… [Read More]
Obesity is a significant problem for today's American children. In fact, the NCCC calculates that more than 23 million children and teenagers are overweight. Since 1980, the obesity rate amongst children has more than doubled and amongst children aged 2-5 years almost tripled, whilst it has more than tripled in adolescents aged 12-19 years (Ogden et al., 2008.).
The problems of childhood obesity in children include the following:
Obese children are at a higher risk for asthma
Obese children are more likely to suffer from psychosocial problems, fatty liver, orthopedic-related problems and sleep apnea
Childhood obesity has also corresponded with a rise in with type 2 diabetes, particularly among adolescent minority populations
Obese children are found to be at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure and abnormal glucose tolerance
The causes of childhood obesity have been reduced to various…… [Read More]
The other 48 have their own standards and only 2/3 of them require, according to the 2010 report of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. This report said that almost 2/3 of high school students do not get enough exercise and more than a third watch TV for at least 3 hours a day. The report recommends students to perform PE or at least an hour each day, 150 minutes a week for elementary-age students, and 225 minutes for middle and high school students. Washington State schools are required 100 minutes of PE per week in the first to 8th grades. However, they are not required daily recess or a report card for each school. It also recommends that PE classes be handled by certified and licensed PE teachers. ut this is not always complied with. In 2010, parents sued the school board for allowing non-certified specialists to…… [Read More]
and, who knows, maybe even the country" (pg. xi). Bratton's highly inspirational language demonstrates that while although there are problems with the current system as it is, these problems can indeed be fixed. The reader is made to feel that despite these problems being pervasive the criminal justice system on both a state and federal level, the opportunity to combat these problems is within our reach. We just have to work together.
Also important in the Turnaround is how Bratton addresses the racial tensions and other key issues (such as gender and sex inequalities) in our country and throughout the criminal justice system. Bratton poignantly notes: "Our statistics told us clearly that a large percentage of the crime in New York was being perpetrated by blacks and Hispanics. This was a fact. But what also need to be understood was that most of the victims were also blacks and Hispanics.…… [Read More]
But this email will be from a recognizable company, rather than obvious Spam, so they will open the email. Such emails may even be welcome, if the subject heading proclaims a discount or a special offer for the return consumer.
Consumers may also be receptive to email that is not merely advertising. Consumers who are part of a target group, as a result of their past Internet purchases or because they agree to be part of a special 'rewards' program, may enjoy subscribing to an emailed newsletter of information and special promotions. A Borders consumer may eagerly open an email that offers an interview with his or her favorite offer, and a 20% off coupon for that author's new book.
Such forms of email marketing, even in the age of viruses and Spam, show that email marketing is not dead. In fact, such targeted and selected campaigns may be more…… [Read More]
Governmental healthcare centers concentrate on providing primary care to individuals and to control and manage the spread of infectious diseases and to manage natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs from one country to another. This can be specifically applied in developed nations, where social, economic and political factors are most likely to influence public health policies and centers and their accessibility and availability (Christian et al., 2008). This research proposal concentrates on presenting an overview and detailed background of health centers in English-speaking countries. The countries selected are Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Governmental health care centers concentrate on the provision of primary care to individuals and on controlling and managing the spread of infectious diseases and managing responses to natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs --…… [Read More]
Development of Policy esponses
The first step in the development of these policy strategies was to identify that a problem existed with childhood obesity and frame the problem so that it could brought to light and intervention strategies debated. While some of the framing of this issue may have been based upon misinformation, policymakers did attempt to frame the problem which is in line with the Australian policy development cycle. This initial framing is an example of how misinformation can lead to poor policy decisions. When looking at childhood obesity from a policy perspective it is imperative to understand the difference between obesity prevention and obesity treatment and this has often been confused in attempts to develop policies for the Australian people (O'Dea 2005).
The Australian policy cycle is comprised of stages including problem identification, analysis of policy options, policy instrument, consultation, coordination, decision, implementation, and evaluation. While this policy…… [Read More]
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…… [Read More]
Public AIDS Policy -- And the Band Played on, for Republicans and Democrats alike, during this public health crisis of the 1980's
Today, it hard to remember a day before 'AIDS alks' through Central Park, before television advertisements in the voice of hoopi Goldberg proclaimed that "AIDS affects everyone," before AIDS became a public health enemy 'Number One.' But one must look back to the days when AIDS was a disease of secrecy and shame to truly learn from the illness, as it exists today. Most of us of Generation Y mercifully cannot even remember a time when AIDS was not even a name, but something called 'the gay cancer.' During America of the 1980's the disease of Acquired Immune Deficiency Disorder, it was thought only to affect those marginalized by society because of their sexuality.
Randy Shilt's book And the Band Played On acts as an important journalistic and…… [Read More]
C. Mayor Adrian Fenty made HIV / AIDS the most important public health priority (Greenberg et al., 2009). Funding from the CDC allowed for a partnership between the D.C. Department of Health's HIV / AIDS Administration and the George Washington University School of Public Health and Healthy Services, which was responsible for the Epidemiology Annual eport for 2007 -- the first to be published for D.C. since 2002 (Greenberg et al., 2009). The Department of Health also initiated a routine HIV screening campaign to help provide testing resources and lower stigma, titled "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" (Greenberg et al., 2009).
Efforts to address the epidemic in D.C. included a combination of increased resource availability and educational services as offered by public health departments. The "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" campaign provided approximately 73,000 tests in 2008, which was a 70% testing increase from…… [Read More]
Ghost Map, written by Steven Berlin Johnson, is a book that is based on the most terrifying epidemic which broke out in London. This book describes how the city and science was changed after this epidemic. This book is indeed a must read because the writer of this book describes one of the most deadly outbreaks of cholera on Victorian London, in relation to how it changed the cities, our scientific approach towards the disease in the modern world and much more. The idea of gemeinschaft was incorporated in this piece of writing, describing how an epidemic affects a city of traditions, values, language and common (Cities, 2001).
There are two main people that have been talked about in this book and play the central protagonists. The first one is Dr. John Snow and the second one is everend Henry Whitehead. The map of the cholera cases is created by…… [Read More]
A work of non-fiction does not have to be about a person, however. Non-fiction work can include theories of social studies, presented in interesting and new ways. Non-fiction is tremendously helpful in lesson planning because the prose elucidates issues in subjects like science and social studies.
Question 6: Although she is not remembered as a major figure in the Civil Rights Movement, Marian Anderson's life contributed to some of the reforms that African-American citizens demanded. Discuss how her voice "challenged" a nation.
Marian Anderson was an accomplished African-American singer. Anderson broke the color barrier in the arts, just as Jackie Robinson did in sports. Anderson's success challenged prevailing social norms, as she became a visible figure in America's most elite concert halls. Anderson began indirectly using her voice as a political tool, channeling her success into achieving broader civil rights goals.
Question 7: Describe how the city of Philadelphia, its…… [Read More]
Further research is needed for determination of type and strain, as well as longitudinal graphing of various populations at risk for HHV-3. In addition, dormancy issue and likelihood of shingles is an important area of future research (Orrin and Goldman, 2006). Additionally, when chickenpox becomes fatal in children, it appears that the liver becomes compromised, either with anti-inflammatory drugs or through burdening it with other toxins. Further research into this phenomenon is clearly necessary (Krasner 1999).
Arvin, a. And a. Gershon, eds. Varicella-Zoster Virus: Virology and Clinical
Management. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Varicella-Chickenpox. April 2009. Cited in:
"Chickenpox -- Healthier You." CPM Medica. 2008. Cited in:
Krasner, G. "Chickenpox: Why Do Children Die?" Coalition for Informed Choice.
1999, Cited in:
Orrin, S. And G. Goldman. The Chickenpox Vaccine: A New Epidemic of Disease and Corruption. Viritualbookworm.com, 2006.
Poland, G. "The…… [Read More]
obesity epidemic is a relatively recent social problem in America. As Ambinder notes in a useful summary article for the Atlantic Monthly, rates of obesity in America were stable from 1960 to 1980, "but then from 1980 to 2000 they doubled" (Ambinder 2010). The declaration of an epidemic was made by the Surgeon General the following year in 2001, and by 2008, "68% of American adults were overweight and 34% were obese" (Ambinder 2010). Astonishingly, while the U.S. government had provided information on nutrition for a very long time, the government was slow to issue official guidelines for physical fitness and its role in combating obesity: this was finally done in 2008, when the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued their first-ever "Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans," in which they noted "we clearly know enough now to recommend that all Americans should engage in regular physical activity to…… [Read More]
What the Tick? Tick Born Diseases in America
Part predator, part parasite, the tick is considered by many as America’s most harmful bug. Living in humid and overgrown areas, these critters make rural America more prone to acquiring the various diseases these ticks carry. From Lyme disease to Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, ticks are the proliferators of zoonotic diseases in North America (Edlow, 2004). These diseases do not have vaccines and are difficult to manage once the person is infected. This essay will cover tick-borne diseases, why they became such a major issue in recent times, existing treatment for the infections, and predictions of epidemics.
There are 20+ tick borne diseases in the U.S.A. Of the most reported, Lyme disease infects an estimated 300,000 people annually (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Health and Medicine Division, Board on Global Health, Forum on Microbial Threats, 2016). In fact,…… [Read More]
In addition to that sex tourism occurs in a manner that is generally difficult to legitimately police efficiently. Tourist will come to a country on business and while there they engage the locals in any number of activities.
Economically both sex and romance tourism provides income for the persons engaged in the practice. In Jamaica where the "rent a dread" practice is dominant many young men depend on the largess of foreign women for their successful living. Many also tie their future fortunes to the women falling in love with them and taking them back to Europe or America. In depressed areas sex is a major income earner for persons who have nothing else to trade.
The sex trade in its multiple manifestations provides income for some and pleasure for others. The immediate challenge is that it represents the bankruptcy of the individual and the country when the last resort…… [Read More]
While it is important in such widespread and far-reaching networks to ensure that individual elements within the network are empowered to make decisions as they see fit, it is even more important that each node in the network is given access to all relevant information in a current and comprehensive manner (Porche, 2004). A plan needs to be in place for dealing with these health issues that takes the potentials of each entity's position in the public healthcare network into account, such that there is greater consistency and efficiency in the decisions made by each of these individual entities (Porche, 2004). If all counties or health districts/departments had similarly understood the potentials of the mist-form vaccine, as one key example, the vaccine shortages for the population at large would not have been as severe even though certain high priority could not have utilized this vaccine (Giles & Howitt, 2011). Furthermore,…… [Read More]
Social: Personal -- Obesity Academic Subject: Health Possible academic topics: Is obesity a health epidemic? Has treatments obesity successful? How food environment affected obesity? Unit II Posted: Tuesday, November 20, 2012 hen engaging academic writing, determine purpose analyze audience academic writing, begin academic language, exhibits common features mentioned LBCH Chapter 10
Obesity -- one of the most horrible health epidemics today
There is presently much controversy regarding obesity and its current status, as while many prefer to believe that it is an isolated condition, others consider that it is a health epidemic. Society is generally inclined to neglect obesity and considers malnutrition to be much more important in comparison to it. More and more parts of the world are affected by the malady and it is gradually becoming obvious that the masses need to get actively involved in combating it using any means they have available. Many tend to believe…… [Read More]
HIV / AIDS on American Society
hat is HIV and where did it come from? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (a primary source) explains that HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus, and once a person acquires this virus, "…you have it for life" (CDC). There is no effective cure, that is the bad news; but the better news according to the CDC is that HIV "…can be controlled" because there is a treatment called antiretroviral therapy (ART) (CDC). In fact while just a few years ago a person with HIV could expect to have full-blown AIDS within a few years, but with the ART treatment, many HIV sufferers can expect to have "…a nearly normal life…" (CDC).
The source of HIV is believed to be chimpanzees in est Africa, and how this came about related to the fact that Africans hunted the chimpanzees for food and at…… [Read More]
This key characteristics of community-based participatory research were shown to include the equitable involvement of all stakeholders, including community members, organizational representatives, and researchers in ways that allow all partners to contribute to the enhancement of community health initiatives. The seven major steps used in an outbreak investigation and the various components of TB prevention and control in the U.S. were outlined. An analysis concerning the greatest future challenges to tobacco cessation interventions showed that nicotine is highly addictive, but that these challenges can be mitigated through enhanced healthcare curricular offerings and various evidence-based strategies. The differences in eligibility criteria between Medicaid and Medicare were shown to relate to target group and that there would be a need for these programs throughout the 21st century. Finally, because oral diseases affect lower-income people more frequently, they are regarded as a neglected epidemic that can have profound adverse healthcare consequences if…… [Read More]
People can exercise their free choice at the grocery store by choosing organic foods, although because of generally higher costs of organic products, this will not be a solution for everyone. People in lower socioeconomic groups often get food at discount chains or even food pantries where organics are not even a choice at all.
There is no incentive for makers of agricultural chemicals to modify their products in response to charges about obesogens. As the documentary films the Future of Food and King Corn pointed out, the use of pesticides is very big business. Though detrimental effects of pesticides and genetically-modified seeds and food have been shown, further research is needed to prove the link between pesticides and genetic modifications that lead to obesity in infants and children. When and if that link is proven, the public will have to demand that the government take action. Consumer advocate organizations…… [Read More]
During the consumer movement of the 1960s and 1970s, Congress enacted a substantial amount of legislation to protect "the good of the people." There is only one problem with consumer protection laws -- they are slow to react and even harder to enforce. As a result of this situation, corporations are allowed to profit at the expense of consumers' health. The resistance comes in a number of stages. The first is denial of the problem, wherein the corporations argue that there is not enough evidence to link their products with the negative outcomes that are being reported. Then there is the lobbying that causes politicians to defer action until a later date, or ignore the call to action altogether. Too often, when statutes are enacted, corporations fight them to the end, resulting in flawed legislation that either has loopholes, require interpretation from the judicial branch or is difficult…… [Read More]
(Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Strategy 3: Community Food Access - Promote efforts to provide fruits and vegetables in a variety of settings, such as farmers' markets, farm stands, mobile markets, community gardens, and youth-focused gardens. (Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Action Steps: (1) Encourage farmers markets to accept Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) food package vouchers and WIC Farmers Market Nutrition Program coupons; and encourage and make it possible for farmers markets to accept Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (or SNAP, formerly the Food Stamp Program) and WIC Program Electronic enefit Transfer (ET) cards by allocating funding for equipment that uses electronic methods of payment; (2) Improve funding for outreach, education, and transportation to encourage use of farmers markets and farm stands by residents of lower-income neighborhoods, and by WIC and SNAP recipients. Introduce or modify land use policies/zoning regulations to promote, expand, and protect potential sites…… [Read More]
Community-level programs can also reach large numbers of young men. Societal homophobia may impede implementing effective prevention programs for gay youth and may discourage young gay men from accessing prevention services.
This stigma has manifested itself in the forms of discrimination and fear of "people living with AIDS" (PLWAs). As a result, the social implications of the disease have been removed from people with other life threatening conditions to PLWAs. Unfortunately, they are not only faced with a terminal illness but also social isolation and constant discrimination throughout society. Various explanations have been suggested as to the underlying causes of these discriminatory stigmas. Many studies point to the relationship the disease has with deviant behavior, while others suggest that fear of contagion is the actual culprit. When examining the existing literature and putting it into societal context, it could lead one to believe that there is no one cause of…… [Read More]
Obesity in Los Angeles County
The United States, while being one of the most technologically developed countries in the world, is not a healthy nation. Typically, when we think of disease pandemics we think of things like Swine Flu, Ebola, Lyme disease, etc. However, in the 21st century, we have a new pandemic that affects our children, adults, and eventually the whole population. Because of a more sedentary lifestyle, a proclivity for fast food, a high-fat diet, and hundreds of sugary drinks, obesity is now statistically so rampant that it is having a serious effect on American's health. Almost every researcher, whether medical or academic, as well as the public health sector, agree that there are statistical links between what we ingest and the consequences to our overall health profile. Certainly, all we need to is walk down any grocery store aisle, open up most magazines and newspapers, or watch…… [Read More]
drug use and abuse in the United States and presents differing approaches that are used (or proposed) to get a handle on the problem. There is no doubt that the drug abuse issue is not new and it is not being reduced by any significant amount. This paper presents statistics and scholarly research articles that delve into various aspects of the drug abuse issue in the United States, with particular emphasis on drugs that are abused in eastern Kentucky and generally in the Appalachian communities.
History of Drug Use & Availability
The history of illegal drug use in the United States goes back to the 19th Century, according to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). The DEA has a Museum in Arlington, Virginia, that illustrates the history of drug discoveries, drug use, and drug abuse through the years. The DEA reports that morphine, heroin, and cocaine were "discovered" in the…… [Read More]
Alonso, J., Banegas, J.R., Graciani, A., Guallar-Castillon, P., Gutierrez-Fisac, J.L., Lopez-Garcia, E., & Rodriguez-Artalejo, F. (2007). Relationship between obesity, hypertension and diabetes, and health-related quality of life among the elderly. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, 14(3): 456-462.
This study examined health-related quality of life among elderly people living with obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. The results found that obesity in elderly women and diabetes in elderly men are the two factors that were most closely and dramatically related to a reduced health-related quality of life. Obese elderly women with hypertension and diabetes should the greatest decline in health-related quality of life. The researchers conclude by stating that these high-risk groups are in need of special attention and further research.
This article pertains to my research because it discusses the impact obesity has on the elderly population. As well, it discusses the implications of this epidemic for health care professionals.…… [Read More]
It is as such necessary to assess it in light of the negative consequences it might generate, the resources available to the company so that it reduces the threat of the problem and finally, the criteria which need to be satisfied in order to state that the problem has been resolved (Principia Cybernetica Web).
a) Problem components: different views manifested primarily in cultural barriers (such as language barriers); lack of experience in the field of delivery services; the role of women in the workplace is still decreased and it has only improved recently as a result of the epidemics and the necessity for more labor force; gender discrimination could raise problems and it must be limited, if not at all eliminated. Bribery is also a growing problem in the region and the efforts of the delivery subsidiary could be easily compromised -- these problem components also represent the reasons as…… [Read More]
The colorful and rich culture and heritage should be used to counter such menaces by the community or non-governmental organizations working for the prevention and awareness of AIDS/HIV.
Latino is a large group comprising further sub-categories like Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent that identify as American and other Indian civilizations. Each group cannot be targeted with the same message. These different groups have different social mindsets and have different social status. For example, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent will be more aware of the issues and problems related to their health and well being then new immigrants in the country belonging to this community. The migrant people belonging to this community have more pressing needs like housing, food, and employment as compared to Chicanos who are more concerned with political implications. Hence, one message fits all strategy cannot work with…… [Read More]
The response by the United States to biorisk management at the national level provides a useful example of what can be accomplished with the right resources and vision. For instance, in December 2009, the U.S. government published its "National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats," representing the basic framework for the U.S. response to emerging bioterrorism threats. In the State of the Union address in 2010, President Barack Obama mentioned the National Strategy as an approach that "will give us the capacity to respond faster and more effectively to bioterrorism or an infectious disease." The implementation and oversight of this initiative is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of State's Biosecurity Engagement Program (BEP). This agency is tasked with promoting the National Strategy through efforts targeted at improving biorisk management and infectious disease surveillance practices around the world. To this end, the BEP has strengthened its commitment to the African continent,…… [Read More]
In order to understand the ways that different changes in the external environment will affect the demand for milk, some assumptions need to be made with respect to the milk market. e know that demand for milk will increase as wealth increases, which is the result of milk being something of a luxury item (Arnold, 2007). This means that there is some degree of correlation between wealth and milk consumption, and that implies that if wealth declines, milk consumption will also decline.
e also know that demand for milk is somewhat price inelastic. hen prices rise, people still pay them (Dohery, 2007). This is the result of two factors. The first is that there is a baseline demand for milk that is not going to be affected by price. The second is that the demand for milk is affected more by the wealth of the purchaser than the cost…… [Read More]
Obesity is a serious social problem in America. The effects of obesity in childhood are well documented in both the social science literature and medical journals. During the last 30 years, the percentage of obese children between the ages of 6 and 11 has risen 200% while the percentage of obese children between 12 and 19 has tripled (CDC, Preventing Childhood Obesity, 2010). Obesity in the nited States has increased among all cohorts and ethnicities, spans across generations, and is not limited to income or educational levels. However, the incidence of obesity among African-American women is of particular concern given the prevalence and severity of the issue in America.
Public health issue
More than two-thirds of Americans are now obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Rates of adult obesity now exceed 20% in 49 states and D.C and 25% in 40 states. By way of comparison, in 1991, rates…… [Read More]
Sociology of American Eugenics and Nativism in Advertising
The study of eugenics as a valid science during the early 20th century American society are based upon two prevalent beliefs, which is the belief in " the perfectibility of the human species and a growing faith in science as the most dependable and useful form of knowledge (Microsoft Encarta 2002). Eugenics as popular science during the 20th century emerged due to the social 'landscape' of American society during that time. In an article by Garland E. Allen in the Image Archive on American Eugenics Movement entitled, "Social Origins of Eugenics," the possible social roots of eugenics is discussed in order to analyze and determine the factors that helped popularize this new kind of science, which resounds dominantly of Social Darwinism. Eugenics basically subsists to the belief that 'good' or desirable genes must prevail over 'bad' or undesirable ones in order to…… [Read More]
goal of their ethical calling, physicians, nurses and other health care workers are obliged to treat the sick and potentially infectious patients and, in so doing, they are to take some personal risk (Murray 2003). This was the bottom line of the assessment and stand made by Dr. Henry Masur and his colleagues at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID), particularly during the outbreak of dread global SARS in Canada and Hong Kong last year. They also referred to other epidemics, such as the HIV / AIDS.
Masur emphasized that this primary goal and obligation is voluntary and sets the medical profession apart from other professions, precisely because of the involvement of some personal risk in fulfilling that obligation. esides physicians, medical professionals are nurses, dentists and health workers. Records of the first SARS outbreaks in Toronto and Hong Kong showed that a huge 50% of those…… [Read More]
The obesity crisis is, I believe, even more important than problems surrounding food safety-borne epidemics. Despite the recent attention given to obesity in the popular media, obesity is in some ways more difficult to treat than food safety issues. People's consciousness may be raised by a fear if becoming sick through food poisoning and throw out the offending, recalled products on their shelves if they contain salmonella or e.coli, but they seem less willing and/or able to change food habits that have been ingrained within them since childhood.
The diabetes epidemic, along with other illnesses related to obesity (like heart disease, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and osteoarthritis) will increase unless more active preventative healthcare measures are undertaken on a wide scale. Limiting the number of fast food restaurants that can be present in a specific area and near schools, along with promoting the spread of grocery stores and farmer's…… [Read More]
hen found, these labs must be dismantled by people wearing hazardous material suits." (Halperin 2006-page 1)
ith the huge budget allocated to Homeland Security, many of the tech-savvy drug producers and dealers can be tracked and busted with the same type of weaponry they use to create the drug product in the first place. Homeland Security's budget allows for the purchase and training for officials. This training allows them the capabilities to combat the ever increasing sophistry of the drug dealers.
That a high percentage of the crystal meth drug dealers also consume their product is another potentially dangerous situation. The drug itself can lead to paranoia and psychological problems and if the drug dealer is ingesting the drug the result is that many times the environment in which the drug is being produced is one of great volatility, both due to the nature of the chemicals themselves as well…… [Read More]
com. (2006) Nutritional information database retrieved 13 Dec
Fitday.com. (2006) Nutritional information database retrieved 13 Dec 2006
Severson, Kim. (13 Dec 2003) "New York Gets Ready to Count Calories."
The New York Times. Retrieved 13 Dec 2006 at
Schlosser, Eric. (2005) Fast Food Nation. New York: Harper Perennial.
"Supersize Me." (2004). Directed by Morgan Spurlock.
"Overweight and Obesity."(2006) CDC: Council for Disease Control.
Retrieved 13 Dec
2006 at… [Read More]
Healthy Food Prevent Obesity?
Now more than ever obesity has become an immense issue in the United States. What used to be a growing concern has now become a topic of constant discussion and debate. It has received great media attention, with as far as getting celebrities and athletes to sponsor healthier food and more exercise. The President and First Lady of the United States have even made it a personal concern of theirs to get America healthier. Children are at an all time high for getting Diabetes from the unhealthy food that they are eating and that are being marketed to them. Adults are getting high cholesterol levels, Diabetes, and high blood pressure, from all the unhealthy fat and high amounts of salt and sugar in the foods that they are eating. In today's society, being healthy has become not only a way of living, but also a trend.…… [Read More]
Naturally occurring trans-fatty acids are consumed in meager amounts and make up about half a percent of total energy intake including but not limited to meats and dairy products from cows, sheep, and other ruminants; these trans fats are produced by the action of bacteria in the ruminant stomach.
Therefore it is safe to assume that diet containing poly-saturated fats is a much clearer and present danger than environmental factors, which on their own cannot be discarded or disregarded.
Might there be environmental changes that go along with the homogenization of the American diet and the spread of the typical American diet around the world? What might those environmental risks be?
Yes. The whole industry and the various feeder industries associated with the fast food industry are more like to create environmental factors. For example Trans fatty acids and poly-saturated fats are the result of the specific kind of diet…… [Read More]