Epidemic Essays (Examples)

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Pharmaceutical Companies Intellectual Property and

Words: 2455 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4041602

As a result, this protection was removed to increase the supply and ensure that the public has access to affordable drugs. ("Pharmaceutical Companies," n.d., pp. 97-99)

Some of the negative implications of this decision are that there could be large amounts of generic drugs produced. This is because the various protections were removed to the point, that a number of players could begin manufacturing the medication. Over the course of time, this could destroy any kind of financial incentive in these areas. Once this occurs, it means that any kind of profit motives for these firms to sell drugs in these areas will decrease. This is when the available supply could decline, because there is too much competition. ("Pharmaceutical Companies," n.d., pp. 97-99)

At the same time, the quality of products could be inferior. This is because many firms will have select procedures in place to ensure that everyone is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Global Report. (2009). UNAIDS. Retrieved from:  http://www.unaids.org/globalreport/documents/20101123_GlobalReport_full_en.pdf 

Pharmaceutical Companies. (n.d.)., 94 -- 103.

Hunter, S. (2003). Black Death. New York, NY: McMillian

Poku, N. (2005). AIDS in Africa. Cambridge: Poulty.
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Pox Americana The Great Smallpox

Words: 1109 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94289853

The discussion of the effects of smallpox, however, brings into light the fact that War and the events surrounding the War were only small part of the colonists' lives. Despite the War, the colonists had to live their daily lives and endure practical and everyday affairs such as work and disease. Fenn in her book does an excellent job of placing these factors in focus.

If there is a criticism of the book it must be in its failure to provide any new information regarding the conduct of the War itself. Although she does add smallpox to the equation she offers little beyond that fact. Like most authors, she tends to glorify the efforts of the colonists and, by doing so, fails to offer a pragmatic view of the conflict. In what could have been an interesting angle in the book Fenn briefly makes mention of the possibility that the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fenn, Elizabeth a. Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775-82 (New York: Hill and Wang, 2001).

Flight, Colette. "Silent Weapon: Smallpox and Biological Warfare," BBC History retrieved on March 15, 2012,  http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/coldwar/pox_weapon_01.shtml .

Kipple, K. Plague, Pox & Pestilence (New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 1997).

Ramenofsky, Ann F. Vectors of Death: The Archaeology of European Contact" (Albuquerque, NM 1987).
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Sociological Problem in the U S

Words: 1638 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41684237

Childhood Epidemic

Obesity is a significant problem for today's American children. In fact, the NCCC calculates that more than 23 million children and teenagers are overweight. Since 1980, the obesity rate amongst children has more than doubled and amongst children aged 2-5 years almost tripled, whilst it has more than tripled in adolescents aged 12-19 years (Ogden et al., 2008.).

The problems of childhood obesity in children include the following:

Obese children are at a higher risk for asthma

Obese children are more likely to suffer from psychosocial problems, fatty liver, orthopedic-related problems and sleep apnea

Childhood obesity has also corresponded with a rise in with type 2 diabetes, particularly among adolescent minority populations

Obese children are found to be at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure and abnormal glucose tolerance

The causes of childhood obesity have been reduced to various…… [Read More]

References

Arizona law blog http://blog.sdsfamilylaw.com/child-custody-debate-state-intervention-to-remove-obese-children-from-their-homes/

Building a healthier America http://www.buildinghealthieramerica.org/index.asp?Type=B_BASIC&SEC={FEB23E39-070A-4D02-8B7B-D9E360BDFF8B}

Boon, R & Clysedale, P (2005) Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 45

Cleveland.com (December 04, 2011) Childhood obesity: Government was wrong to intervene in Cleveland Heights casehttp://blog.cleveland.com/letters/2011/12/childhood_obesity_government_w.html
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Obesity in Bellingham WA a

Words: 1811 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38967722

The other 48 have their own standards and only 2/3 of them require, according to the 2010 report of the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. This report said that almost 2/3 of high school students do not get enough exercise and more than a third watch TV for at least 3 hours a day. The report recommends students to perform PE or at least an hour each day, 150 minutes a week for elementary-age students, and 225 minutes for middle and high school students. Washington State schools are required 100 minutes of PE per week in the first to 8th grades. However, they are not required daily recess or a report card for each school. It also recommends that PE classes be handled by certified and licensed PE teachers. ut this is not always complied with. In 2010, parents sued the school board for allowing non-certified specialists to…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CDC (2011). Overweight and obesity. Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity: National Center for Chronic Disease, Prevention and Health Promotion.

Retrieved on April 13, 2012 from  http://www.cdc.gov /obesity/stateprograms/fundedstates/washington.html

-. Strategies and solutions. Retrieved on April 14, 2012 from  View Full Essay -->
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America's Top Cop Reversed the

Words: 940 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78430180

and, who knows, maybe even the country" (pg. xi). Bratton's highly inspirational language demonstrates that while although there are problems with the current system as it is, these problems can indeed be fixed. The reader is made to feel that despite these problems being pervasive the criminal justice system on both a state and federal level, the opportunity to combat these problems is within our reach. We just have to work together.

Also important in the Turnaround is how Bratton addresses the racial tensions and other key issues (such as gender and sex inequalities) in our country and throughout the criminal justice system. Bratton poignantly notes: "Our statistics told us clearly that a large percentage of the crime in New York was being perpetrated by blacks and Hispanics. This was a fact. But what also need to be understood was that most of the victims were also blacks and Hispanics.…… [Read More]

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Attitude Against Spam Together With

Words: 311 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58437571

But this email will be from a recognizable company, rather than obvious Spam, so they will open the email. Such emails may even be welcome, if the subject heading proclaims a discount or a special offer for the return consumer.

Consumers may also be receptive to email that is not merely advertising. Consumers who are part of a target group, as a result of their past Internet purchases or because they agree to be part of a special 'rewards' program, may enjoy subscribing to an emailed newsletter of information and special promotions. A Borders consumer may eagerly open an email that offers an interview with his or her favorite offer, and a 20% off coupon for that author's new book.

Such forms of email marketing, even in the age of viruses and Spam, show that email marketing is not dead. In fact, such targeted and selected campaigns may be more…… [Read More]

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Southeast Asia SARS Outbreak of

Words: 3971 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26991402

Several international conferences planned for China were postponed or changed venues

Yu p. 91)

SARS also had some positive effects in terms of media coverage. Studies claim that the outbreak in 2003 not only emphasized the importance of good media coverage in alerting the international community to epidemics but also "... raised standards of government preparedness and border control." (ibid) The importance of rapid communication and the role of the media became evident during the epidemic. This was also to show up the lack of media awareness in China. In this regard the epidemic highlighted the importance and value of the independent media in China, which was able to act in a way that alerted the international community to the epidemic.

In recent years, so-called "fringe media" publications have emerged in China. These fringe media are less controlled by government; these independent publications enjoy more autonomy than mainstream media and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Altman L.K. Chinese bat identified as home of SARS virus

The New York Times, 2005. Accessed October 7, 2005. http://www.iht.com/articles/2005/09/30/news/sars.php

Basic Information About SARS, CDC, 2005. Accessed October 5, 2005.  http://www.cdc.gov /ncidod/sars/factsheet.htm http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002020361

Bi, Jianhai. "China's SARS Crisis: Jianhai Bi Discusses China's Efforts to Containthe SARS Virus' Spread and the Consequences for Chinese Politics." New Zealand International Review 28.5 (2003): 16+.
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Government Sponsored Health Center and Emergencies

Words: 3797 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34571706

Governmental healthcare centers concentrate on providing primary care to individuals and to control and manage the spread of infectious diseases and to manage natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs from one country to another. This can be specifically applied in developed nations, where social, economic and political factors are most likely to influence public health policies and centers and their accessibility and availability (Christian et al., 2008). This research proposal concentrates on presenting an overview and detailed background of health centers in English-speaking countries. The countries selected are Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States.

Chapter One:

Introduction

Governmental health care centers concentrate on the provision of primary care to individuals and on controlling and managing the spread of infectious diseases and managing responses to natural disasters (Christian et al., 2008). However, in the public domain, health care differs --…… [Read More]

References

About NHS hospital services. (2013). National Health Service. Retrieved from http://www.

nhs.uk/NHSEngland/AboutNHSservices/NHShospitals/Pages/HospitalsSummary.aspx.

Christian MD, Devereaux AV, Dichter JR, et al. (2008). Definitive care for the critically ill during a disaster: current capabilities and limitations: from a Task Force for Mass Critical

Care summit meeting, January 26 -- 27 2007 Chicago, IL. Chest. Vol. 133(Suppl):8S -- 17S.
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Childhood Obesity in Australia Childhood

Words: 2730 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22024766



Development of Policy esponses

The first step in the development of these policy strategies was to identify that a problem existed with childhood obesity and frame the problem so that it could brought to light and intervention strategies debated. While some of the framing of this issue may have been based upon misinformation, policymakers did attempt to frame the problem which is in line with the Australian policy development cycle. This initial framing is an example of how misinformation can lead to poor policy decisions. When looking at childhood obesity from a policy perspective it is imperative to understand the difference between obesity prevention and obesity treatment and this has often been confused in attempts to develop policies for the Australian people (O'Dea 2005).

The Australian policy cycle is comprised of stages including problem identification, analysis of policy options, policy instrument, consultation, coordination, decision, implementation, and evaluation. While this policy…… [Read More]

References

Coveney, J. 2008. The government of girth. Health Sociology Review, 17, pp. 199-213.

De Silva, A.M., Bolton, K., Haby, M., Kremer, P., Gibbs, L., Waters, E., and Swimburn, B. 2010. Scaling up community-based obesity prevention in Australia: background and evaluation design of the Health Promoting Communities: Being Active Eating Well initiative. BMC Public Health, 10, pp. 65.

Henderson, J., Coveney, J., Ward, P., and Taylor, A. 2009. Governing childhood obesity: Framing regulation of fast food advertising in the Australian print media. Social Science & Medicine, 69(9), pp. 1402-08.

Hesketh, K., Waters, E., Green, J., Salmon, L., and Williams. 2005. Healthy eating, activity and obesity prevention: a qualitative study of parent and child perceptions in Australia. Health Promotion International, 20(1), pp. 19-26.
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air traffic

Words: 28110 Length: 102 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54322150

air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).

In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…… [Read More]

References

Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)

Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.

Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2 (Accessed: 28 November 2011)

Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
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Public Policy on People With AIDS

Words: 1586 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95659724

Public AIDS Policy -- And the Band Played on, for Republicans and Democrats alike, during this public health crisis of the 1980's

Today, it hard to remember a day before 'AIDS alks' through Central Park, before television advertisements in the voice of hoopi Goldberg proclaimed that "AIDS affects everyone," before AIDS became a public health enemy 'Number One.' But one must look back to the days when AIDS was a disease of secrecy and shame to truly learn from the illness, as it exists today. Most of us of Generation Y mercifully cannot even remember a time when AIDS was not even a name, but something called 'the gay cancer.' During America of the 1980's the disease of Acquired Immune Deficiency Disorder, it was thought only to affect those marginalized by society because of their sexuality.

Randy Shilt's book And the Band Played On acts as an important journalistic and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played On.

Siplan, P. Aids & The Policy Struggle In the U.S. Georgetown Press, 2000.
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American Civil Rights History Has

Words: 2247 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74971377

C. Mayor Adrian Fenty made HIV / AIDS the most important public health priority (Greenberg et al., 2009). Funding from the CDC allowed for a partnership between the D.C. Department of Health's HIV / AIDS Administration and the George Washington University School of Public Health and Healthy Services, which was responsible for the Epidemiology Annual eport for 2007 -- the first to be published for D.C. since 2002 (Greenberg et al., 2009). The Department of Health also initiated a routine HIV screening campaign to help provide testing resources and lower stigma, titled "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" (Greenberg et al., 2009).

Efforts to address the epidemic in D.C. included a combination of increased resource availability and educational services as offered by public health departments. The "Come Together DC -- Get Screened for HIV" campaign provided approximately 73,000 tests in 2008, which was a 70% testing increase from…… [Read More]

References

Brown, M., & Henriquez, E. (2008). Socio-demographic predictors of attitudes towards gays and lesbians. Individual Differences Research, 6(3), 193-202.

CDC HIV Fact sheet. (2011, November 07). HIV in the United States. Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/resources/factsheets/us.htm

CDC Fact sheet. (2011, September). HIV and AIDS among gay and bisexual men. Retrieved from
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Ghost Map Written by Steven Berlin Johnson

Words: 1237 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39389694

Ghost Map, written by Steven Berlin Johnson, is a book that is based on the most terrifying epidemic which broke out in London. This book describes how the city and science was changed after this epidemic. This book is indeed a must read because the writer of this book describes one of the most deadly outbreaks of cholera on Victorian London, in relation to how it changed the cities, our scientific approach towards the disease in the modern world and much more. The idea of gemeinschaft was incorporated in this piece of writing, describing how an epidemic affects a city of traditions, values, language and common (Cities, 2001).

There are two main people that have been talked about in this book and play the central protagonists. The first one is Dr. John Snow and the second one is everend Henry Whitehead. The map of the cholera cases is created by…… [Read More]

References

"Cities." (2001) World of Sociology, Gale. Farmington: Gale. Credo Reference

"Cholera." (2010) Black's Medical Dictionary, 42nd Edition. London: A&C Black.

Kohn, George Childs (2008). Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence: From Ancient Times to the Present. New York: Facts on File. pp. 46
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Symptoms and Psychosocial Aspect of the Disease

Words: 2502 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56663190

symptoms and psychosocial aspect of the disease as well as what treatments are available. The writer examines one epidemic from history to detail the way syphilis affected society at the time compared to how it affects society today. There were five sources used to complete this paper.

Over the last two or three decades the discovery and growth of the AIDS epidemic have effectively squashed concerns and knowledge about other STD's. This does not mean they are not around however, and it actually serves to open the doors for some of them to become more prevalent again as the focus is taken off of them and place on AIDS. One STD that has been around for many years and at one time was considered as dangerous as AIDS is today is Syphilis. Syphilis has been wreaking havoc on the world for hundreds of years and it is still one of…… [Read More]

References

From mercury to malaria to penicillin: The history of the treatment of syphilis at the Mayo Clinic, 1916-1955 by Jeffrey S. Sartin, MD and Harold O. Perry, MD http://www.imsdocs.com/syphilis.htm

The Great Scourge': Syphilis as a medical problem and moral metaphor, 1880-1916

Lesley A. Hall http://homepages.primex.co.uk/~lesleyah/grtscrge.htm

ORIGINS OF SYPHILIS
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Young Adult Is Advantageous Historical

Words: 984 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2408900

A work of non-fiction does not have to be about a person, however. Non-fiction work can include theories of social studies, presented in interesting and new ways. Non-fiction is tremendously helpful in lesson planning because the prose elucidates issues in subjects like science and social studies.

Question 6: Although she is not remembered as a major figure in the Civil Rights Movement, Marian Anderson's life contributed to some of the reforms that African-American citizens demanded. Discuss how her voice "challenged" a nation.

Marian Anderson was an accomplished African-American singer. Anderson broke the color barrier in the arts, just as Jackie Robinson did in sports. Anderson's success challenged prevailing social norms, as she became a visible figure in America's most elite concert halls. Anderson began indirectly using her voice as a political tool, channeling her success into achieving broader civil rights goals.

Question 7: Describe how the city of Philadelphia, its…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Library Association. "Terms and Criteria." Retrieved Dec 8, 2009 from http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/alsc/awardsgrants/bookmedia/newberymedal/newberyterms/newberyterms.cfm

"Yellow Fever Attacks, 1793" Eye Witness to History. Retrieved Dec 8, 2009 from  http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/yellowfever.htm
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Herpesvirus 3 One of the

Words: 1514 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51794917

Further research is needed for determination of type and strain, as well as longitudinal graphing of various populations at risk for HHV-3. In addition, dormancy issue and likelihood of shingles is an important area of future research (Orrin and Goldman, 2006). Additionally, when chickenpox becomes fatal in children, it appears that the liver becomes compromised, either with anti-inflammatory drugs or through burdening it with other toxins. Further research into this phenomenon is clearly necessary (Krasner 1999).

EFEENCES

Arvin, a. And a. Gershon, eds. Varicella-Zoster Virus: Virology and Clinical

Management. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Varicella-Chickenpox. April 2009. Cited in:

http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/

"Chickenpox -- Healthier You." CPM Medica. 2008. Cited in:

http://www.healthieryou.com/chickpox.html

Krasner, G. "Chickenpox: Why Do Children Die?" Coalition for Informed Choice.

1999, Cited in:

http://www.garynull.com/documents/Vaccines/ChickenPoxWhy.htm

Orrin, S. And G. Goldman. The Chickenpox Vaccine: A New Epidemic of Disease and Corruption. Viritualbookworm.com, 2006.

Poland, G. "The…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Arvin, a. And a. Gershon, eds. Varicella-Zoster Virus: Virology and Clinical

Management. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Varicella-Chickenpox. April 2009. Cited in:

 http://www.cdc.gov /vaccines/
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Agency Interview

Words: 899 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94719826

obesity epidemic is a relatively recent social problem in America. As Ambinder notes in a useful summary article for the Atlantic Monthly, rates of obesity in America were stable from 1960 to 1980, "but then from 1980 to 2000 they doubled" (Ambinder 2010). The declaration of an epidemic was made by the Surgeon General the following year in 2001, and by 2008, "68% of American adults were overweight and 34% were obese" (Ambinder 2010). Astonishingly, while the U.S. government had provided information on nutrition for a very long time, the government was slow to issue official guidelines for physical fitness and its role in combating obesity: this was finally done in 2008, when the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued their first-ever "Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans," in which they noted "we clearly know enough now to recommend that all Americans should engage in regular physical activity to…… [Read More]

References

Ambinder, M. (April 13, 2010). Beating obesity. Atlantic Monthly. Accessed 20 April 2014 at:  http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2010/05/beating-obesity/308017/ 

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2008). 2008 physical activity guidelines for Americans. Accessed 20 April 2014 at: http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/guidelines/
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Lyme Disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Words: 2271 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88656588

What the Tick? Tick Born Diseases in America

Introduction

Part predator, part parasite, the tick is considered by many as America’s most harmful bug. Living in humid and overgrown areas, these critters make rural America more prone to acquiring the various diseases these ticks carry. From Lyme disease to Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, ticks are the proliferators of zoonotic diseases in North America (Edlow, 2004). These diseases do not have vaccines and are difficult to manage once the person is infected. This essay will cover tick-borne diseases, why they became such a major issue in recent times, existing treatment for the infections, and predictions of epidemics.

Background

There are 20+ tick borne diseases in the U.S.A. Of the most reported, Lyme disease infects an estimated 300,000 people annually (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Health and Medicine Division, Board on Global Health, Forum on Microbial Threats, 2016). In fact,…… [Read More]

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Spread of HIV AIDS

Words: 2485 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18313481

In addition to that sex tourism occurs in a manner that is generally difficult to legitimately police efficiently. Tourist will come to a country on business and while there they engage the locals in any number of activities.

Economically both sex and romance tourism provides income for the persons engaged in the practice. In Jamaica where the "rent a dread" practice is dominant many young men depend on the largess of foreign women for their successful living. Many also tie their future fortunes to the women falling in love with them and taking them back to Europe or America. In depressed areas sex is a major income earner for persons who have nothing else to trade.

The sex trade in its multiple manifestations provides income for some and pleasure for others. The immediate challenge is that it represents the bankruptcy of the individual and the country when the last resort…… [Read More]

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Tennessee H1N1 Issues in Healthcare

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21571645

While it is important in such widespread and far-reaching networks to ensure that individual elements within the network are empowered to make decisions as they see fit, it is even more important that each node in the network is given access to all relevant information in a current and comprehensive manner (Porche, 2004). A plan needs to be in place for dealing with these health issues that takes the potentials of each entity's position in the public healthcare network into account, such that there is greater consistency and efficiency in the decisions made by each of these individual entities (Porche, 2004). If all counties or health districts/departments had similarly understood the potentials of the mist-form vaccine, as one key example, the vaccine shortages for the population at large would not have been as severe even though certain high priority could not have utilized this vaccine (Giles & Howitt, 2011). Furthermore,…… [Read More]

References

CDC. (2010). 2009 H1N1 Flu. Accessed 15 October 2012.  http://www.cdc.gov /h1n1flu/" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Social Personal -- Obesity Academic Subject Health

Words: 686 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85732892

Social: Personal -- Obesity Academic Subject: Health Possible academic topics: Is obesity a health epidemic? Has treatments obesity successful? How food environment affected obesity? Unit II Posted: Tuesday, November 20, 2012 hen engaging academic writing, determine purpose analyze audience academic writing, begin academic language, exhibits common features mentioned LBCH Chapter 10

Obesity -- one of the most horrible health epidemics today

There is presently much controversy regarding obesity and its current status, as while many prefer to believe that it is an isolated condition, others consider that it is a health epidemic. Society is generally inclined to neglect obesity and considers malnutrition to be much more important in comparison to it. More and more parts of the world are affected by the malady and it is gradually becoming obvious that the masses need to get actively involved in combating it using any means they have available. Many tend to believe…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Brody, Jane E., "Attacking the Obesity Epidemic by First Figuring Out Its Cause," NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/13/health/13brody.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

Neergaard, Lauran, "No end to U.S. obesity epidemic, forecast shows," Retrieved November 27, 2012, from the MSNBC Website: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/47324248/ns/health-diet_and_nutrition/t/no-end-us-obesity-epidemic-forecast-shows/#.ULTak6y6dHU
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HIV AIDS on American Society What

Words: 3463 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33384543

HIV / AIDS on American Society

hat is HIV and where did it come from? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (a primary source) explains that HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus, and once a person acquires this virus, "…you have it for life" (CDC). There is no effective cure, that is the bad news; but the better news according to the CDC is that HIV "…can be controlled" because there is a treatment called antiretroviral therapy (ART) (CDC). In fact while just a few years ago a person with HIV could expect to have full-blown AIDS within a few years, but with the ART treatment, many HIV sufferers can expect to have "…a nearly normal life…" (CDC).

The source of HIV is believed to be chimpanzees in est Africa, and how this came about related to the fact that Africans hunted the chimpanzees for food and at…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Administration on Aging. (2011). Older Adults and HIV / AIDS. Retrieved August 26, 2013, from  http://www.aoa.gov .

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). What is HIV? Retrieved August 26, 2013,

From http://www.ced.gov/hiv/basics/whatishiv.html.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). What Persons Aged 50 and Older Can Do.
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Public Health Threats in the 21st Century

Words: 1571 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69466037



Conclusion

This key characteristics of community-based participatory research were shown to include the equitable involvement of all stakeholders, including community members, organizational representatives, and researchers in ways that allow all partners to contribute to the enhancement of community health initiatives. The seven major steps used in an outbreak investigation and the various components of TB prevention and control in the U.S. were outlined. An analysis concerning the greatest future challenges to tobacco cessation interventions showed that nicotine is highly addictive, but that these challenges can be mitigated through enhanced healthcare curricular offerings and various evidence-based strategies. The differences in eligibility criteria between Medicaid and Medicare were shown to relate to target group and that there would be a need for these programs throughout the 21st century. Finally, because oral diseases affect lower-income people more frequently, they are regarded as a neglected epidemic that can have profound adverse healthcare consequences if…… [Read More]

References

CDC tuberculosis guidelines. (2014). Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved April 25, 2014

from  http://www.cdc.gov /tb/publications/guidelines/default.htm" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Born to Be Big Childhood

Words: 2102 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85178688

People can exercise their free choice at the grocery store by choosing organic foods, although because of generally higher costs of organic products, this will not be a solution for everyone. People in lower socioeconomic groups often get food at discount chains or even food pantries where organics are not even a choice at all.

There is no incentive for makers of agricultural chemicals to modify their products in response to charges about obesogens. As the documentary films the Future of Food and King Corn pointed out, the use of pesticides is very big business. Though detrimental effects of pesticides and genetically-modified seeds and food have been shown, further research is needed to prove the link between pesticides and genetic modifications that lead to obesity in infants and children. When and if that link is proven, the public will have to demand that the government take action. Consumer advocate organizations…… [Read More]

References

Adler, N.E., & Stewart, J. (2009). Reducing obesity: motivating action while not blaming the victim. Milbank Quarterly 87 (1), pp. 49-70. Retrieved from Academic Search

Premier database December 29, 2010.

Baillie-Hamilton, P.F. (2002). Chemical toxins: a hypothesis to explain the global obesity epidemic. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 8 (2), pp. 185-192.

DOI: 10.1089/107555302317371479. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database December 29, 2010.
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Business Law During the Consumer Movement of

Words: 1307 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49860033

Business Law

During the consumer movement of the 1960s and 1970s, Congress enacted a substantial amount of legislation to protect "the good of the people." There is only one problem with consumer protection laws -- they are slow to react and even harder to enforce. As a result of this situation, corporations are allowed to profit at the expense of consumers' health. The resistance comes in a number of stages. The first is denial of the problem, wherein the corporations argue that there is not enough evidence to link their products with the negative outcomes that are being reported. Then there is the lobbying that causes politicians to defer action until a later date, or ignore the call to action altogether. Too often, when statutes are enacted, corporations fight them to the end, resulting in flawed legislation that either has loopholes, require interpretation from the judicial branch or is difficult…… [Read More]

References:

Bray, G., Nielsen, S. & Popkin, B. (2004). Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 79 (4) 537-543.

Goldberg, C. & Zimmerman, R. (2011). What's making us fat? Researchers put food additives on suspect list. Common Health. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from  http://commonhealth.wbur.org/2011/08/food-additives-obesity 

Hellmich, N. (2009). Rising obesity will cost U.S. health care $344 billion a year. USA Today. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/weightloss/2009-11-17-future-obesity-costs_N.htm

Miller, R. & Jentz, G. (2010). Business law today: 9th edition. South-Western/Cengage Learning.
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Prevention of Childhood Obesity in

Words: 3571 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75541450

(Institute of Medicine, 2009)

Strategy 3: Community Food Access - Promote efforts to provide fruits and vegetables in a variety of settings, such as farmers' markets, farm stands, mobile markets, community gardens, and youth-focused gardens. (Institute of Medicine, 2009)

Action Steps: (1) Encourage farmers markets to accept Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) food package vouchers and WIC Farmers Market Nutrition Program coupons; and encourage and make it possible for farmers markets to accept Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (or SNAP, formerly the Food Stamp Program) and WIC Program Electronic enefit Transfer (ET) cards by allocating funding for equipment that uses electronic methods of payment; (2) Improve funding for outreach, education, and transportation to encourage use of farmers markets and farm stands by residents of lower-income neighborhoods, and by WIC and SNAP recipients. Introduce or modify land use policies/zoning regulations to promote, expand, and protect potential sites…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berkowitz, Bobbie and Borchard, Marleyse (2009) Prevention of Childhood Obesity Advocating for the Prevention of Childhood Obesity: A Call to Action for Nursing. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. ANA Periodicals Vol 14 -- 2009 No 1 Jan'09http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol142009/No1Jan09/Prevention-of-Childhood-Obesity.aspx

Dehghan, Mahshid, Akhtar-Danesh, Noori, and Merchant, Anwar T. (2005) Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention. Nutrition Journal 2 Sept 2005. Online available at: http://www.nutritionj.com/content/4/1/24

National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 http://obssr.od.nih.gov/news_and_events/news.aspx

Local Government Actions to Prevent Childhood Obesity (2009) Institute of Medicine. September 2009. Report Brief. Online available at: http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/20090901iombrief.pdf
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AIDS on Gay the Community

Words: 1427 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52104630

Community-level programs can also reach large numbers of young men. Societal homophobia may impede implementing effective prevention programs for gay youth and may discourage young gay men from accessing prevention services.

This stigma has manifested itself in the forms of discrimination and fear of "people living with AIDS" (PLWAs). As a result, the social implications of the disease have been removed from people with other life threatening conditions to PLWAs. Unfortunately, they are not only faced with a terminal illness but also social isolation and constant discrimination throughout society. Various explanations have been suggested as to the underlying causes of these discriminatory stigmas. Many studies point to the relationship the disease has with deviant behavior, while others suggest that fear of contagion is the actual culprit. When examining the existing literature and putting it into societal context, it could lead one to believe that there is no one cause of…… [Read More]

References

Conduct Unbecoming: Gays and Lesbians in the U.S. Military: Vietnam to the Persian Gulf. New York: St. Martin's, 1993.

Hodgson, I. Culture, meaning and perception: explanatory models and the delivery of HIV care. Abstract MoPeD2772, XIIIth International AIDS Conference, Durban, South Africa, 2000. Available at www.brad.ac.uk/staff/ijhodgson/summaries/Publications/durban2000.htm.

Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played on: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic. New York: St. Martin's, 1987.

UNAIDS (United Nations Joint Programme on HIV / AIDS). 2002. Report on the Global HIV / AIDS Epidemic, 2002. Switzerland: UNAIDS.
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Prevention of Obesity

Words: 3241 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94190461

Obesity in Los Angeles County

The United States, while being one of the most technologically developed countries in the world, is not a healthy nation. Typically, when we think of disease pandemics we think of things like Swine Flu, Ebola, Lyme disease, etc. However, in the 21st century, we have a new pandemic that affects our children, adults, and eventually the whole population. Because of a more sedentary lifestyle, a proclivity for fast food, a high-fat diet, and hundreds of sugary drinks, obesity is now statistically so rampant that it is having a serious effect on American's health. Almost every researcher, whether medical or academic, as well as the public health sector, agree that there are statistical links between what we ingest and the consequences to our overall health profile. Certainly, all we need to is walk down any grocery store aisle, open up most magazines and newspapers, or watch…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

About Health People. (2012, December 17). Retrieved from HealthyPeople.gov: http://healthypeople.gov/2020/about/default.aspx

Executive Order on Physical Fitness. (2010, June 22). Retrieved from The President's Council on Physical Fitness: http://www.fitness.gov/about/order/index.html

Overweight and Obesity, (2008) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Retrieved

from:  http://www.cdc.gov /nccdphp/dnpa / obesity / economic_consequences.htm
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Drug Abuse in Eastern Kentucky

Words: 3027 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29623389

drug use and abuse in the United States and presents differing approaches that are used (or proposed) to get a handle on the problem. There is no doubt that the drug abuse issue is not new and it is not being reduced by any significant amount. This paper presents statistics and scholarly research articles that delve into various aspects of the drug abuse issue in the United States, with particular emphasis on drugs that are abused in eastern Kentucky and generally in the Appalachian communities.

History of Drug Use & Availability

The history of illegal drug use in the United States goes back to the 19th Century, according to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). The DEA has a Museum in Arlington, Virginia, that illustrates the history of drug discoveries, drug use, and drug abuse through the years. The DEA reports that morphine, heroin, and cocaine were "discovered" in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2008). Drugs and Crime Facts / Drug Use / Youth. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://bjs.ojp.usdog.gov.

Drug Enforcement Agency. (2012). Illegal Drugs in America: A Modern History. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from  http://www.deamuseum.org .

Grant, Judith. (2007). Rural women's stories of recovery from addition. Addiction Research and Theory, 15(5), 521-541.

Havens, Jennifer R., Oser, Carrie B., and Leukefeld, Carl G. (2011). Injection risk behaviors
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Alonso J Banegas J R Graciani A Guallar-Castillon

Words: 1163 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28947565

Alonso, J., Banegas, J.R., Graciani, A., Guallar-Castillon, P., Gutierrez-Fisac, J.L., Lopez-Garcia, E., & Rodriguez-Artalejo, F. (2007). Relationship between obesity, hypertension and diabetes, and health-related quality of life among the elderly. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, 14(3): 456-462.

This study examined health-related quality of life among elderly people living with obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. The results found that obesity in elderly women and diabetes in elderly men are the two factors that were most closely and dramatically related to a reduced health-related quality of life. Obese elderly women with hypertension and diabetes should the greatest decline in health-related quality of life. The researchers conclude by stating that these high-risk groups are in need of special attention and further research.

This article pertains to my research because it discusses the impact obesity has on the elderly population. As well, it discusses the implications of this epidemic for health care professionals.…… [Read More]

Messier, SP. (1994). Osteoarthritis of the knee and associated factors of age and obesity: effects on gait. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 26(12):1446-1452.

This article is a literature review which examines old age and obesity in relation to osteoarthritis (OA) and how it affects walking mechanics. It was found that there is a strong association between knee OA and obesity among the elderly. It is unclear whether or not the reduced physical function of elderly people living with obesity and OA would improve by treating the obesity; thus, the researchers suggest further study in the area.

This article pertains to my research because it discusses the increased mobility and joint issues faced by obese elderly people.
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Business Scenanario on Parrent Company

Words: 1012 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54081385

It is as such necessary to assess it in light of the negative consequences it might generate, the resources available to the company so that it reduces the threat of the problem and finally, the criteria which need to be satisfied in order to state that the problem has been resolved (Principia Cybernetica Web).

a) Problem components: different views manifested primarily in cultural barriers (such as language barriers); lack of experience in the field of delivery services; the role of women in the workplace is still decreased and it has only improved recently as a result of the epidemics and the necessity for more labor force; gender discrimination could raise problems and it must be limited, if not at all eliminated. Bribery is also a growing problem in the region and the efforts of the delivery subsidiary could be easily compromised -- these problem components also represent the reasons as…… [Read More]

References:

Canwell, D., 1998, Marketing Campaigns, Cengage Learning EMEA

Wherther, W.B., Chandler, D., 2005, Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility: Stakeholders in a Global Environment, SAGE

2009, Our Company -- Mission, Strategy, Values, FedEx Website, http://about.FedEx.designcdt.com/our_company/company_information/mission_statement last accessed on August 10, 2009

2009, Our Customers, FedEx Multimedia Center, http://mediacenter.FedEx.designcdt.com/video/our_customers last accessed on August 10, 2009
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Latina & AIDS Hispanic Population

Words: 1617 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15524811

The colorful and rich culture and heritage should be used to counter such menaces by the community or non-governmental organizations working for the prevention and awareness of AIDS/HIV.

Ethnicity

Latino is a large group comprising further sub-categories like Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent that identify as American and other Indian civilizations. Each group cannot be targeted with the same message. These different groups have different social mindsets and have different social status. For example, people born in the U.S. Of Mexican descent will be more aware of the issues and problems related to their health and well being then new immigrants in the country belonging to this community. The migrant people belonging to this community have more pressing needs like housing, food, and employment as compared to Chicanos who are more concerned with political implications. Hence, one message fits all strategy cannot work with…… [Read More]

References

Borges-Hernandez, Adalisse, Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Rafael a. & Velez-Pastrana, Maria C. 'Family Functioning and Early Onset of Sexual Intercourse in Latino Adolescents.' Adolescence. 40.160 (2005): 777+.

Diaz, Rafael M. 'Macho, Latino HIV+'. The Advocate. 747(November 25, 1997): 9.

Peterson, John L. 'Introduction to the Special Issue: HIV / AIDS Prevention through Community Psychology'. American Journal of Community Psychology. 26.1. (1998): 1+.

Carmona, Jennifer Vargas, Mitchell-Kernan, Claudia, Newcomb, Michael D., Romero, Gloria J., Solis, Beatriz, Tucker, M. Belinda, Wayment, Heidi a. & Wyatt, Gail E 'Acculturation, Sexual Risk Taking and HIV Health Promotion Among Latinas'. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 45.4(1998): 454.
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Status of World-Level Laboratory Biorisk

Words: 2273 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6181693



The response by the United States to biorisk management at the national level provides a useful example of what can be accomplished with the right resources and vision. For instance, in December 2009, the U.S. government published its "National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats," representing the basic framework for the U.S. response to emerging bioterrorism threats. In the State of the Union address in 2010, President Barack Obama mentioned the National Strategy as an approach that "will give us the capacity to respond faster and more effectively to bioterrorism or an infectious disease." The implementation and oversight of this initiative is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of State's Biosecurity Engagement Program (BEP). This agency is tasked with promoting the National Strategy through efforts targeted at improving biorisk management and infectious disease surveillance practices around the world. To this end, the BEP has strengthened its commitment to the African continent,…… [Read More]

References

Biorisk reduction. (2011). World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int / csr/bioriskreduction/en/.

Global alert and response. (2011). World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.

who.int/csr/bioriskreduction/laboratorynetwork/en/index.html.

Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network Fact Sheet. (2011). World Health Organization.
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Economics in Order to Understand the Ways

Words: 1297 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41887473

Economics

In order to understand the ways that different changes in the external environment will affect the demand for milk, some assumptions need to be made with respect to the milk market. e know that demand for milk will increase as wealth increases, which is the result of milk being something of a luxury item (Arnold, 2007). This means that there is some degree of correlation between wealth and milk consumption, and that implies that if wealth declines, milk consumption will also decline.

e also know that demand for milk is somewhat price inelastic. hen prices rise, people still pay them (Dohery, 2007). This is the result of two factors. The first is that there is a baseline demand for milk that is not going to be affected by price. The second is that the demand for milk is affected more by the wealth of the purchaser than the cost…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Arnold, W. (2007). A Thirst for Milk Bred by New Wealth Sends Prices Soaring. New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2011.

Dohery, Regan. (2007). Milk Demand Stays Strong Despite High Prices. Reuters. Retrieved June 6, 2011.

No author. (2011). Elasticity of supply and demand. Basic Economics. Retrieved December 13, 2011 from  http://www.basiceconomics.info/elasticity-of-supply-and-demand.php 

Rittenberg Libby and T. Tregarthen. (2009). Chapter 5: Elasticity and A Measure of Response. Section 1 and 2 only. Principles of Microeconomics. FlatworldKnowledge.com. Retrieved June 6, 2011
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African-American Female Obesity

Words: 1847 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26794483

Obesity is a serious social problem in America. The effects of obesity in childhood are well documented in both the social science literature and medical journals. During the last 30 years, the percentage of obese children between the ages of 6 and 11 has risen 200% while the percentage of obese children between 12 and 19 has tripled (CDC, Preventing Childhood Obesity, 2010). Obesity in the nited States has increased among all cohorts and ethnicities, spans across generations, and is not limited to income or educational levels. However, the incidence of obesity among African-American women is of particular concern given the prevalence and severity of the issue in America.

Public health issue

More than two-thirds of Americans are now obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).

Rates of adult obesity now exceed 20% in 49 states and D.C and 25% in 40 states. By way of comparison, in 1991, rates…… [Read More]

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vital Signs: Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension -- United States, 1999 -- 2002 and 2005 -- 2008

Ward, S., Gray, A., Paranjape, A. (2008). African-Americans' perceptions of physician attempts to address obesity in the primary care setting. The Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(5), 579-584.

Coenen, K.R., Hasty, A.H. (2007). Obesity potentiates development of fatty liver and insulin resistance, but not atherosclerosis, in high-fat diet-fed agouti LDLR-deficient mice. Retrieved from:  http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/293/2/E492.short
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Popular Culture Cultural Practices and Historical Struggles

Words: 1935 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34044273

Sociology of American Eugenics and Nativism in Advertising

The study of eugenics as a valid science during the early 20th century American society are based upon two prevalent beliefs, which is the belief in " the perfectibility of the human species and a growing faith in science as the most dependable and useful form of knowledge (Microsoft Encarta 2002). Eugenics as popular science during the 20th century emerged due to the social 'landscape' of American society during that time. In an article by Garland E. Allen in the Image Archive on American Eugenics Movement entitled, "Social Origins of Eugenics," the possible social roots of eugenics is discussed in order to analyze and determine the factors that helped popularize this new kind of science, which resounds dominantly of Social Darwinism. Eugenics basically subsists to the belief that 'good' or desirable genes must prevail over 'bad' or undesirable ones in order to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Memory, The Library of Congress, "Prosperity and Thrift: The Coolidge Era and the Consumer Economy, 1921-1929." Available at  http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/coolhtml/ccpres00.html .

Dolan DNA Learning Center, Cold Spring Harbor, "Image Archive on the American Eugenics Movement." Available at  http://www.eugenicsarchive.org/eugenics/ .

Eugenics." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.

John W. Hartman Center for Sales, Advertising, and Marketing History, & the Library of Congress, "Emergence of Advertising in America, 1850-1920 and Timeline." Available at http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/eaa/timeline.html.
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Duty to Treat

Words: 2350 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68550476

goal of their ethical calling, physicians, nurses and other health care workers are obliged to treat the sick and potentially infectious patients and, in so doing, they are to take some personal risk (Murray 2003). This was the bottom line of the assessment and stand made by Dr. Henry Masur and his colleagues at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID), particularly during the outbreak of dread global SARS in Canada and Hong Kong last year. They also referred to other epidemics, such as the HIV / AIDS.

Masur emphasized that this primary goal and obligation is voluntary and sets the medical profession apart from other professions, precisely because of the involvement of some personal risk in fulfilling that obligation. esides physicians, medical professionals are nurses, dentists and health workers. Records of the first SARS outbreaks in Toronto and Hong Kong showed that a huge 50% of those…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Katz, Laura L. And Marshall B. Paul. When a Physician May Refuse to Treat a Patient. Physician's News Digest, 2000. http://www.physiciansnews.com/law.202.html

Levin, Aaron. Doctors Willing But Not Ready to Treat Deadly Bio-terror Agents. Health Behavior News Service: Center for the Advancement of Health, 2003. http://www.cfah.org/ubns/news/bioterror09-17-03.cfm

Murray, Terry. Health Care Staff Have a Duty to Treat. The Medical Post: Rogers Media, 2003. http://www.medicalpost.com/mpcontent/article.jsp.jsessionid=NJCJNDCEAGHH?content=20020515_09

Schulman, David I. The Dentist, HIV and the Law: Duty to Treat, Need to Understand. Dental Treatment Consideration, 2000. http://www.hivdent.org/dtcblaa082001.htm