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Espionage has largely been a part of the way in which foreign affairs and foreign policy was conducted especially during the Cold War period. The double agents as well as intelligence spies were regarded as some of the smartest and at the same time dangerous people in history. The topic of this research is Alger Hiss, one of the most representative figures of American intelligence that would ultimately be accused of being a spy for the U.S.S.. At the time in which the rivalry between the U.S. And the U.S.S.. was at its peak, during the Cold War.
The resources used for this research are both academic as well as part of the actual trials that Hiss was subject to. More precisely, there are documents from the NSA Archives that are taken into account and analyzed as well as testimonies of the people that were part of the Alger Hiss…… [Read More]
history evolution espionage. Pay attention spies reasoning willingness assume role. This paper cite assigned readings incorporate thoughts deemed relevant forum discussion. Questions discussed forum class participation: Is spying ? Should a spy/source considered a traitor country? How mitigate risks engaging types individuals? If refer books "The Moral Dilemmas Spying" hy Spy? Espionage Age Uncertainty."
hile espionage involves a complex system in the present and while it has come to be a large industry, the first records of espionage are nonetheless impressive and demonstrate that people have been acquainted with this concept long before modern times. Spies need to be looked at from a more general perspective in order for someone to be able to identify them and the jobs they are assigned. Espionage does not only involve collecting information, as it also relates to how individuals can put across false information in order to influence their enemies to focus…… [Read More]
Corporate espionage is and interesting topic and it mirrors espionage that is conducted by governments except for the fact that the activities are directed at commercial purposes as opposed to national security or other related items. Corporate espionage, also called industrial or economic espionage, encompasses a wide range of different activities that involve the illegal acquisition of trade secrets or other corporate information that can be used for financial gain by some other party. The most common forms will covertly uncover information about designs, methods, formulas, manufacturing processes, research, or future plans. Such information can be acquired by disloyal employees, students, private firms, online, or through many other such activities.
There is also a fine line between legally acquiring information and doing so in an illegal fashion and the rules that govern such questions vary significantly by location. The difference between competitive intelligence and corporate espionage would seem obvious: one…… [Read More]
Over the last several years, cyber espionage has become a major problem that is impacting a variety of organizations. This is because hackers and other groups are actively seeking to exploit vulnerabilities in security networks. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than the below tables (which are illustrating the motivations and targets of attacks).
Motivations behind Attacks on Computer Networks
Cyber Warfare / Espionage
("Cyber Attack Statistics," 2012)
Distribution of Targets
Government / Infrastructure / Defense / Law Enforcement / Economic
E Commerce / Sports / Political / News Media
("Cyber Attack Statistics," 2012)
These figures are showing how cybercrime and espionage are areas that are continually being exploited by hackers. What makes this troubling is the fact that organized groups could target specific infrastructure projects that are vulnerable. When this happens, classified information is stolen…… [Read More]
Corporate Espionage Defense: Don't Become a Statistic
One does not really know what to make of it, and this was not given any great importance till sometime back. This was due to the fact that communications were then based on direct methods over which people had control. Today with the advent of the Internet and the World Wide Web, the spread of information is very high, and often information is beyond the control of the people whose information is being spread. The importance of corporate espionage has been proved through the efforts of certain individuals who found out all the "hidden" information to meet a challenge. The methods depended on easily available information. At the same time, the technique is not new and has been the reason for the development of industry in United States. The practitioners are also now easily available from the retired employees of the defense services.…… [Read More]
The structure of society forced them into a survival situation
C. Holding different values such as these enforces the differences between these groups.
1. The Samurai would never hide his weapon from the enemy for an advantage. The Samurai will betray his own weakness to uphold ceremony and honor.
2. The Ninja would hide his weapon or anything else to survive.
III. Samurai warriors, in general, followed the moral code of ushido which did not allow espionage-like behavior, while that specific set of codes did not parallel the beliefs of the Ninja.
A. The ushido moral code set many guidelines for the Samurai.
1. ushido value, fearlessly facing enemy in battle and showing kindness.
2. The supreme honor was to die serving one's lord.
3. Serving one's lord was the ultimate priority over all other loyalty
. The Ninja did not follow the ushido code.
1. The Ninja were forced…… [Read More]
Cyber-Crime, Cyber-Terrorism, Cyber-Espionage, and Cyber-Warfare
Threats, isks, and Vulnerabilities
In the contemporary business and IT (information technology) environments, increasing number of business organizations are investing in the IT tools to enhance competitive market advantages. Integrating the IT tools in a business model has become a crucial strategy that organizations can employ to achieve a market success. While IT tools deliver several market benefits for businesses, nevertheless, businesses face enormous risks when integrating IT tools in their business model. A business faces a threat that involves a potential violation of security with intent to exploit a vulnerability and cause harm to the business market advantages. A vulnerability is the weak aspect of organizational IT asset, which can be exploited to cause a threat to an organization. On the other hand, an asset is any tangible or intangible materials that can add values to an organizational mission or a business operation.
A…… [Read More]
Covert Navy Tactics and Strategies: Naval Intelligence
The history of naval espionage runs as complicated as the conflicts that sparked the very need for it. As world powers began to develop highly specialized naval forces, these navies began to play a crucial role in the collection of intelligence and covert actions that took place both during wars and during times of peace. In lieu of German and Japanese naval threats, ritish and American naval forces began to work in the intelligence fields, eventually establishing naval intelligence agencies that were crucial in collecting and acting on information during World War II, the Cold War, and beyond.
Navies were not always associated with intelligence gathering and covert strategy. The move into intelligence was a long one. Early on in the United States' Navy's history, there was a development of covert tactics in order to maneuver around stronger naval forces. "The United States…… [Read More]
Culture of the Cold War
Espionage and the threat of nuclear drove the two superpowers. According to Whitfield, this is the point in time that highlighted the belief about other communist agents infiltrating the United States. This led to panic among government and military officials. Once this occurred, is when there was massive response to this threat leading to a Red Scare. (Whitfield, 1996, pp. 27 -- 56)
True, with the character Mickey Spillane, Mike Hammer, is using him to show a loner who is patriotic. Yet, he is also above the law. As, he supports a variety of different anti-communist themes to include: helping U.S. troops in Korea and American involvement in Vietnam. Shows like this, encouraged people to do their part and report anyone they believed was a communist. (Whitfield, 1996, pp. 153-178)
The five pieces of evidence that were used to illustrate the popularity of the U.S.…… [Read More]
.....motif of surveillance features prominently in Captain America: Civil War. More importantly, the film features the ability of a powerful state entity to control the behavior of its citizens. The types of surveillance and brainwashing depicted in Captain America: Civil War are completely different from those used by the American government. However, the methods of surveillance used by the American government to spy on its own people may be no less sinister. The methods of surveillance used by the government cannot directly control peoples' minds and behavior of individuals, but can control other dimensions of the daily lives of citizens. Captain America: Civil War can be viewed as a metaphor and warning to Americans about the extent, purpose, and meaning of government surveillance in daily life. The film can also be instructional, showing that Americans can empower themselves against encroaching infringements on their rights.
Because Captain America: Civil War is…… [Read More]
S. stays one step ahead of the hackers. This is not easy, but the DoD could not have possibly thought it would be.
Proper defenses, enhanced offensive capabilities and strategies to reduce risk by taking some sensitive data offline will all work to deliver better results in e-spionage of the United States. The Internet has become globalized, and nothing can take that back. That there are threats as the result of globalization is nothing new -- it is simply another arena for age-old international political traditions. How we manage the threats and take advantage of the opportunities is the most important aspect to this problem -- and this means proper isolating and neutralizing of viral threats. By addressing the issue of e-spionage effectively, the Internet can still be viewed as a net benefit for the United States.
Callaham, J. (2012). New Internet Explorer vulnerability used to deliver "Poison…… [Read More]
On the other hand, hittaker Chambers was "a contributing editor of Time (...) from 1925 to April 1938, (he) had been a Communist, a writer of radical literature, an editor of the Communist Daily orker. He had also been what was then vaguely known as a Communist courier."
The major starting point of the case was Chambers' disappointment with the communist doctrine and the dual attitude Stalin had when signing the 1939 pact with the Nazi leadership. Therefore, according to Time Magazine, he "abandoned the party in revulsion and despair, and became a determined enemy of Communism." Consequently, outraged by the dramatic turn that the soviet politics had taken, he began expressing his views on the collaborators of the soviet regime in the U.S. It is in this way that Chambers contacted Berle, who, after the discussion he had with the former communist partisan, wrote in his notes from September…… [Read More]
Alfred Hitchcock's fascination with psychology and the manipulation of the human mind greatly influenced early spy-thriller masterpieces. During his British sound film period, Hitchcock explored the effect of being unwillingly pulled into a psychologically complex environment has on an individual and the consequences that he or she must deal with. These concepts can be found in The 39 Steps (1935) and in The Lady Vanishes (1938), both spy-thrillers that highlight the dangers of espionage and serve as a warning of the impending social and political threat posed by spies. Hitchcock's infusion of psychoanalytic concepts, and the influence thereof, emerge through The 39 Steps's and The Lady Vanishes's narratives, characters, and film structure and style.
Thriller films aim to "promote intense excitement, suspense, a high level of anticipation, ultra-heightened expectation, uncertainty, anxiety, and nerve wracking tension" (Dirks). The 39 Steps, a tale of an innocent man, Richard Hanney (Robert Donat), is…… [Read More]
Blanton, Thomas. (2006, February 4). iretap debate deja vu. National Security Archive.
Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB178/index.htm
Congresswoman calls alleged wiretap 'abuse of power' (2009, April 2009). CNN.com
Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/04/21/harman.wiretap/
Lewis, Neil A. & Mark Mazzetti. (2009, April 20). Lawmaker is said to have aided lobbyists.
The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/21/us/politics/21harman.html?_r=1&em
Maclin, Tracey. (2009). iretapping and electronic surveillance. Law Library.
Crime and Justice: Volume 4. Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://law.jrank.org/pages/2323/iretapping-Eavesdropping.html
iretapping and Eavesdropping -- contemporary legal status. (2009). Law Library.
Crime and Justice: Volume 4. Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://law.jrank.org/pages/2319/iretapping-Eavesdropping-contemporary-legal-status-wiretapping-eavesdropping.html
iretapping and Eavesdropping - early restrictions on electronic surveillance. Law Library.
Crime and Justice: Volume 4. Retrieved April 22, 2009 at http://law.jrank.org/pages/2318/iretapping-Eavesdropping-Early-restrictions-on-electronic-surveillance.html
iretapping and eavesdropping - The impact of electronic surveillance on personal privacy.
Law Library. Crime and Justice: Volume 4. Retrieved April 22, 2009
A…… [Read More]
For a criminal investigator, analyzing key evidence is an important part in being able to establish a pattern of behavior for the suspect. The film the Breach, is discussing the obert Hanssen case and its long-term impacts on U.S. national security. To fully understand how criminal investigators were able to catch him requires carefully examining the film. This will be accomplished by focusing on: the facts of the case, the parties involved, the victim's information, the suspects, the evidence, investigative mistakes, procedural errors, interview mistakes and the life of obert Hanssen. Together, these different elements will highlight how a series of critical blunders led to one of the largest national security breaches in U.S. history.
The Facts of the Case
In the film, Eric O'Neal is assigned to work undercover as a clerk for obert Hanssen. Set in the late 1990s, O'Neal's job is to keep an eye on…… [Read More]
Vulnerable Areas of Industrial Security Operations:
Industrial security has become one of the most important aspects in the business world because of the need to protect the business' assets and enhance productivity. The need for industrial security is also fueled by the growth of the industrial sector that is constantly changing. The backbone of the every industrial environment or sector is security because of the vulnerable areas within these sectors. Some of the threats that a business is likely to face in industrial operations include sabotage, espionage, competition, utility industry security issues, and transportation challenges.
The banking sector is one of the industries that are likely to experience several vulnerabilities in the operations of the banks. As one of the major players in the American banking industry, Bank of America has some vulnerable areas. First, the financial institution is likely to experience espionage, which involves technical means and attempts by…… [Read More]
Counterintelligence and Predicting Terrorism
Sovereign states have always had a vested interest in accurately predicting the course of future events, from the ancient espionage of medieval courts to the advanced intelligence agencies used today, but the process of anticipating and neutralizing threats on a preemptive basis has proven to be exceedingly difficult in the age of modern terrorism. Western powers explicitly targeted by Al-Qaeda and other jihadist organizations, including the United States, Great Britain, and other industrialized nations, have been forced to exist in a state of perpetual tension, knowing that the next spectacularly-scaled attack is inevitable but lacking the specific foresight needed to prevent its occurrence. With billions of dollars being invested annually to fund counterterrorism intelligence operations, and scant evidence that these efforts have constituted an efficient and effective use of valuable resources, many governments have begun to reassess this philosophy of preventative vigilance. The incredible complexity of…… [Read More]
The current designation of the major categories of crime in the U.S. can be traced to England following the Norman Conquest in 1066. Prior to this period the Church was the primary regulator of morality, but over time the Church began to lose control over the lives of people and the local governments began making regulations (Dworkin, 1978). After 1066 Henry II institutionalized law throughout England in order that it would be "common" to the country and he reinstated the jury system. Judges went from London across Great Britain to see cases and they would discuss cases with one another upon returning. This developed "case" law and judges used case law to decide future cases allowing the law to be "common" throughout England. Statutory law did not occur for several hundred years later. There were three basic crimes under the common law: treason (high and petty), felonies (with and…… [Read More]
George Tenet and the Last Great Days of the CIA, in Stillman
The cross-coded ethical dilemmas facing former CIA Director George Tenet and its impact
The operations of an intelligence agency and its governance are different from the everyday administration of public services and bureaucracies. The fact that the agency -- C.I.A was dealing with espionage and intelligence gathering in states that are hostile to the U.S. And the way the offices of the President and the general U.S. administrators considered it just another branch of the U.S. Government led to its downfall. The loss of credibility is more because of creating an ethic and work protocol that could not be sustained. Although the death of the CIA has been attributed to George Tenet, in reality it was a system that was bound to collapse and tenet was just the last scapegoat. Analysis will reveal that the bureaucratic system and…… [Read More]
Mass politics in Europe at the end of the 19th Century had turned away from the liberalism of the intellectual and capitalist elites in the direction of populist movements that described themselves as socialist, social democratic or nationalist. Frequently they rejected liberal rationalism and science as well in favor of emotion, mystical symbols, charismatic leaders and demagogues. Among these were the Christian Social Party of Karl Lueger in Austria, which Adolf Hitler admired as a young man and later imitated, and the Action Francaise in France, led by Charles Maurras, Maurice Barras and Eduard Drumont. This early fascist movement thrived in after a Jewish officer in the French Army, Alfred Dreyfus, was falsely convicted of espionage and sentenced to prison on Devil's Island. For Emile Zola and the French Left, overturning this unjust conviction was the most important cause of the era, but for the nationalist and anti-Semitic Right it…… [Read More]
Information is an element that can make an astounding difference in terms of succeeding, or attaining a profit, and failure, or attaining a loss in the realm of business. According to obinson (2003), when a trade secret is stolen, it can either level the playing field, or worse, tip it in favor of the competitor. This aspect is even more intricate as trade secrets are sought after not just by rivaling companies but also by foreign countries as well (obinson, 2003). This is done with the hope that the embezzled corporate data and information can be employed to enhance the competitive advantage of that country in the international marketplace (obinson, 2003). Even though plenty of information collection is attained by scrutinizing and going over public records such as filings and databases, the paramount way of getting proper information is simply by taking it (obinson, 2003).
Industrial espionage as…… [Read More]
female HUMINT Intel collectors as well as the utilization of female HUMINT Intel collectors during WWI and the Cold War Era. Specifically, their use in the form of secretaries and teletypes. It will go systematically during both wars, analyzing the use of the two main categories of secretaries and teletypes. The literature review also brings to light any possible gaps in literature on what lacked from the records of HUMINT Intel collectors and any possible roles they may have played other than teletypes and secretaries.
HUMINT, a term used to define human intelligence, remains essentially any Intel collected from human sources. Within America, the NCS (National Clandestine Service), a branch of the CIA, makes up most if not all of the collection of HUMINT (Schnell, 2013). Specifically, any interpersonal communication or contact signifies HUMINT. SIGNIT, MASINIT, or IMINT are more technical intelligence collection disciplines that rely on signals, imagery, and…… [Read More]
Varnava (2012) commented on the multifaceted intelligence attributes that went into making the construct of British Intelligence gathering in Cyprus, a successful vocation in World War II. This review aims to explore the implications of the role played by local, civil populace in thwarting attempts by military in allowing intelligence inputs through counter-espionage on British and Middle East territories. The review revisits some work on the First World War British efforts on counter espionage measures in Cyprus after 1916. The work will add to the literature on intelligence activities, attempted during the WW1 (Varnava, 2012).
According to Constantinou's (2013) paper, the role played by diplomatic strategies that extrapolates intelligence-gathering process makes it successful. Diplomacy is a means of making skilled, persistent advocacy towards obtaining solutions of complex situations. It fails to make most of its capabilities. The epistemology (of diplomacy) in the context of humanism, above the dimension of intelligence…… [Read More]
John Le Carre's classic spy novel, The Spy Who Came in from the Cold, is set in 1963 at the height of the Cold War. The novel's protagonist, Alec Leamas, is a seasoned and distinguished British agent who has come to have significant and important reservations about the morality of his job after he loses an agent in the field. Due to the ever-louder rumblings of his conscience, he returns to his home base with the idea in mind that he will resign from his commission and stop his activities in espionage. His boss, Control, however, persuades him to undertake one final mission to bring down the head of the enemy espionage unit in East Germany. In convincing Leamas to undertake this mission, Control appeals to him by saying that the ends will justify his seemingly unethical method. This moral appeal would be an example of a utilitarian morality. While…… [Read More]
Human Aspects in IT and Cybersecurity
An innovation in IT (information Technology) has revolutionized the method organizations store, record and retrieve information. Moreover, a large percentage of business organizations has taken the advantages internet technology to offer their businesses online where customer's data such as credit cards, SSN (social security number), tax information, and other personal information are recorded in the organizational databases. A major benefit that internet technology offers to organizations is that it assists businesses to transact businesses globally without establishing entities in other countries. The strategy has assisted organizations to achieve competitive market advantages. Despite the benefits associated with IT, businesses face the ethical implications in business transactions because they are faced with a hacking dilemma.
The primary goal of ethics is to promote ethical practices that will enhance availability, confidentiality, and integrity of organizational informational resources. To achieve this objective, employees are to demonstrate a highest…… [Read More]
If not, what other recommendations would you make to Harold? Explain your reasons for each of recommendations.
No, the actions that were taken by Harold are not adequate. The reason why, is because he has created an initial foundation for protecting sensitive information. However, over the course of time the nature of the threat will change. This could have an impact on his business, as these procedures will become ineffective. Once this occurs, it means that it is only a matter of time until Harold will see an increase in the number of cyber attacks. At first, these procedures will help to prevent hackers from accessing the company's files. Then, as time goes by they will be able to overcome his defenses. This increases the chances that he will see some kind of major disruptions because of these issues. ("Security Policies," n.d, pp. 281 -- 302) ("Computer-ased Espionage," n.d, pp.…… [Read More]
Earlier in this paper it was revealed that a small unit within the Security Service was originally doing the work; but soon the espionage unit had grown to more than 1,400. On page 848 Major Vernon Kell began -- what later became an out-of-control behemoth organization -- with just "a room, a desk and a filing cabinet"; when Kell asked for a clerk to assist him, the bureaucracy was surprised that "…such extravagance was necessary" (Hiley, 848).
This juxtaposition is by way of explaining how, as the fear of the Germans expanded, and as the list of suspected spies grew enormously huge, and paranoia became so powerful that peace groups and labor groups came under suspicion, civil liberties were shoved aside. On page 853 Hiley notes that prior to October 1911, in order to open a letter that was passing through the Royal Mails, a warrant had to be signed…… [Read More]
Israel collects intelligence on American foreign policy related to Israel and the Middle East, as well as on scientific and technological developments, including those from the private sector. The gathering of intelligence from a foreign ally is neither an unusual nor new practice. Moreover, the United States reciprocates the favor and likewise gathers intelligence on Israel. The Untied States certainly cannot expect Israel or any other nation to refrain from using surveillance, while at the same time gathering intelligence against those very same nations. For Israel, areas of general interest for Israeli intelligence collectors include military and economic policy and of course, intelligence services themselves such as the CIA (Caramela, 2014). Intelligence is used to bolster Israel's own national security, military, and technological capabilities. The methods Israel uses to gather intelligence are varied and range from computer hacking to communications surveillance. easons for gathering intelligence on an ally are…… [Read More]
Cyberterrorism, illegal (and legal) espionage, piracy, and cybercrimes differ from their pre-digital counterparts in serious and meaningful ways. For one, the nature of online social interactions diverges from that of face-to-face or even voice-only interactions due to the shields of anonymity. Second, technological prophylactics ranging from encryption to skillful network architecture can add multiple levels of protection to shield perpetrators while exposing the weaknesses in a less advanced consumer public. Third, the rapid advancement of artificially intelligent systems creates new possible realities and problems, as non-human actors become part of increasingly complex systems. Finally, digital media has enabled formal and informal surveillance and other forms of illicit behavior, transforming the relationship between actors and objects in ways that could alter political and social realities. Actor-network theory is an ideal lens and process by which to better understand the complex gamut of cybercrime. Developed initially in the 1980s and solidified…… [Read More]
Due to these concerns and the ethicacy of industrial espionage was closely evaluated through the early 1990s by the U.S. Congress and the Economic Espionage Act of 1996 was passed to protect the rights of corporations to keep their trade secrets, confidential details about customers, pricing, and supply chain specifics protected (ichardson, Luchsinger, 2007). This has also had a significant effect on the types of advanced analytics software applications companies can use to monitor their competitors online, the use of competitive intelligence gathering practices that are potentially unethical including the purchasing of customer lists and advanced customer data from online services when the company has not released it for use in the public domain (ichardson, Luchsinger, 2007). The ethics of customer monitoring are today leaning more towards using publically available data on the Internet and in print. Using advanced analytics software it is also possible to interpolate which consumers are…… [Read More]
In 2003, he resigned both posts as news of the twin scandals emerged. The Air Force froze the contract that Druyun had negotiated, precipitating Condit's resignation and retirement.
Condit had joined Boeing in 1965 as an engineer and moved into management in 1973, working on marketing the 727. He completed an MBA at Sloan in 1975 and returned to Boeing, progressing rapidly up the ranks. By 1983, he became VP and General Manager of the 757 division before moving on to other VP posts. In 1996, he moved from President to CEO and a year later was named Chairman.
There is little to indicate that Condit himself was a significant contributor to the governance problems at Boeing. Although he was an engineer by training, he spent much of his time at Boeing in marketing. The hiring manager, Bill Erskine, who had hired Ken Branch in the first place, had just…… [Read More]
The distinction between folklore and fact is not always as lucid as it could be when researching the background of a state heroine, and the humble beginnings of Hart are no different in this respect. She was born in Raleigh, North Carolina either in 1846 or 1843 depending on which source is sought, although most popular accounts tend to credit her birth as taking place in 1846 (akeless 1970, 69). y most accounts she was as wild as the Virginian territory she moved to when she arrived in Tazewell county as an infant, and she would never learn to read or write. Descended from Scottish and Irish lineage, Hart was said to have moved in with her sister Mary and her husband William when she was still a child, where she roamed her Roane County environs, perfecting her skill with firearms and horseback riding.
Hart's deadly defiance of Union loyalists…… [Read More]
By 1945, the OSS was abolished and by 1947 the National Security Act had completely transferred the task of espionage and intelligence from military to civilian hands ("United States Intelligence"). This transfer set the stage for the successes and failures of the U.S. intelligence community during the early Cold ar. It meant that U.S. intelligence was much more greatly coordinated and more aggressively implemented during that period to some apparent success. But it also meant that these new civilian agencies did not have the legacy of experience with espionage that existed within the military intelligence community. The end result was a higher degree of coordination during the early Cold ar, which improved the level of intelligence and communication and helped create the U.S.'s first true intelligence community.
United States Intelligence, History." Espionage Information: Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security. 2007. 4 Oct. 2007 http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ul-Vo/United-States-Intelligence-History.html.… [Read More]
Contrasting this from a personal standpoint, only in the most emotionally charged and toxic personal situations are there feelings of this level, rejoicing in the failure of others. In personal relationships this is especially troublesome as the medium of exchange, unlike business using money, is emotion and what is left of trust in a relationship. That makes the wishing of failure in addition to winning the conflict especially toxic and even potentially dangerous. As one divorcee had on her license plate holder "Happiness is seeing your Ex-on a milk carton," the damaging aspects of this dynamic is dangerous in interpersonal relationships.
It is far more common in business where salaries, sales, and bonuses are seen as a direct reflection of the value of the managers involved, and the loss of these is seen as even greater victory for the person in the conflict.
Case: The Great Wall and the Firewall…… [Read More]
They include the use of stealthy tactics, tools and techniques in order to avoid detection by antimalware software. The second goal is to create a backdoor that allows the attackers to gain greater access to the compromised software especially if other access points are discovered or patched. The third goal is to initiate the primary mission of the attackers which may be to steal sensitive information, monitor communications or simply to disrupt operations. The last goal is to leave the compromised computer without being detected McAfee, 2010()
Effect of APT on the National Security
Advanced persistent threats are designed to steal sensitive information by stealthily innovatively and tactically evading the detection by common malware software. Advanced persistent attacks are usually targeted to be large-scale attacks. The main goal or objective of the attack is to steal intellectual property from the compromised computers. There have been cases reported where organizations have…… [Read More]
internment camps for the Japanese that were set up and implemented by president Franklin D. oosevelt. The writer explores the history leading up to the decision and the decision itself. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor the American public was outraged and stunned. American citizens had lived with a false sense of security for many years that the soil of the United States was off limits. The Civil War and the American evolution were long in the past and residents believed that the world at large would be to afraid to attack a nation as strong and powerful as the United States. The attack came without warning, killing thousands who were within its grasp. When the smoke had cleared and the bombs had stopped, the nation turned a fearful eye to the white house for guidance. At the time the president was…… [Read More]
Cold War and Film
Generally speaking, the Cold War has been depicted as an era of spy games and paranoia in popular films from the 1960s to the present day, but the reality of the era was much more complex. The Cold War was a period of military and political tension from 1947 to 1991, or from the end of WW2 to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in which the "politics of war" masked the business and social agendas of multinationals and ideologues. The era was marked by myriad issues: East-West mistrust, proxy wars, espionage, the threat of nuclear war, domestic and foreign propaganda, the rise of the military-industrial complex and multinational corporations, assassinations, detente, de-colonization, new nationalism, neo-colonialism, the vying for control of resources, alliances (NATO, Warsaw Pact), and an inculcation of the "deep state." [footnoteRef:1] It can be divided into five basic periods: 1947-53, 1953-62, 1962-79, 1979-85,…… [Read More]
In this manner, a chain of custody could be established. if, say, Aldo's product had suddenly jumped from one step of the process to another, it might indicate that Aldo had not gone through the usual channels; had possibly stolen the idea, or copied it to a significant degree from Alexander McQueen. In either case, the designer could protect himself or herself by following the customary procedures of their marketplace.
Can Knockoffs Be Stopped?
ith so many ways to counterfeit designer fashion items like clothing, shoes, and handbags, and so few laws to prevent the actual production of pirated merchandise, stopping knockoffs would seem to be an almost impossible task. Nevertheless, knockoffs can be controlled if designers, retailers, and government authorities remain vigilant. As noted by American designers, merchandising is the key to the American design process. It is also the key to controlling the flow of counterfeit goods. hile…… [Read More]
Shortly after, the Navy successfully cracked the Japanese military code in Operation Magic, which allowed U.S. forces to turn the tide of the war in the Pacific by 1942 ("United States Intelligence").
One of the chief actions taken during this period was the creation of the Office of Strategic Services by FDR in 1942. During orld ar II, the OSS coordinated all of the information through collection and analysis that was used for clandestine operations up until 1945 ("United States Intelligence"). The development of the OSS, though short-lived, demonstrates that the role of the intelligence community in United States foreign policy was growing significantly. Before this period, U.S. espionage was limited at best and primarily a domestic affair. By 1945, the role of the intelligence community had greatly expanded and become a more central part of life in the United States.
United States Intelligence, History." Espionage Information: Encyclopedia…… [Read More]
The withdrawal was supposed to aid the Communists in controlling the areas vacated by the Japanese, who had succeeded in controlling vast portions of Manchuria.
Stalin's efforts were aimed at forcing "the GMD [Guomindang or Chinese Nationalist Party] to make economic concessions, to prevent a united China from allying with the United States, and to placate Washington on the international arena by giving in to American demands for withdrawal," but in actuality he not only laid the groundwork for the Communists' eventual victory, but also opened up a window for the possibility of a U.S.-Communist alliance that would have destabilized the Soviet Union's power; as will be seen, the United States failed to capitalize on this opportunity, but the fact remains that Stalin's withdrawal seems to have backfired.
Stalin's withdrawal was not directly aimed at ensuring a Communist victory, but rather was an attempt to destabilize the country so…… [Read More]
There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared lack of trust. On the other hand, if the conflict is seen in terms of a neoliberal point-of-view, Israel's military efficiency and powerfulness is a great threat for Israelis. To cut a long story short, the main goal on which all the main five parties agree is the achievement of peace between Israelis and Palestinians but it is only possible if they give up their most preferred results; Israel giving up its favorite result of unrestricted occupation of Palestinian land and Palestine holding back its preferred outcome of unconditional withdrawal. The conflict could be resolved if both parties could also find some common solutions for complex and convoluted detachable issues including "the degree of sovereignty of a Palestinian state, the distribution of…… [Read More]
orld ar II as a great triumph in American history. The United States forces were victorious in both the Pacific and European Theatres of war. Two military aggressive regimes were destroyed, and peace was restored, due in large part to America's involvement. hat many people do not realize is that some of the actions of the United States were just as morally corrupt as those of the Axis powers. Similar to the Nazi's imprisonment of Jews in Europe, the U.S. government imprisoned Japanese-Americans on the est Coast. orst of all, the internment of Japanese was more of an act of racism than actual perceived threat. The premise of this paper is to prove that the internment of Japanese in 1942 was a decision motivated by race rather than defensive strategy. I will chronicle the events leading up to the internment, the presence of racism before and after the bombing of…… [Read More]
1950s was a decade of change for the U.S. - cinema was no exception, as it modeled itself to accommodate the social changes U.S. society was going through. Films not only provide entertainment to masses but are also believed to express the general outlook of society by the way it sets and adopts trends. 50s was marked by postwar prosperity, rising consumerism, loosening up of stereotype families, baby boom and growing middle-class. It was the time of reaction to the aging cinema, especially by the freedom loving youth who were keyed up with fast food (Mc Donald's franchised in '54), credit card (first in 1950) and drive-in theaters (Filmsite.org). Young people were fed-up with the conventional illustration of men and women. With growing interest in ock-n-oll and break-free attitude prevailing, a social revolution was very much in the offering, and that was to transfer the cinema as well…… [Read More]
McCarthy and the Cold War
One aspect of history is that a country's so-called "friend" one day, can be an enemy the next and visa versa. The United States and Soviet Union during World War II joined ranks against the real threat of Nazi Germany. However, it did not take long after the end of the war for ussia and the United States to once again bully each other. Even before the final surrender of Germany in 1945, the two super powers rapidly found themselves in a new military and diplomatic rivalry. Meanwhile, in the United States, the economy was taking time to build and unemployment was growing. Thoughts of the Depression loomed in people's minds. The friction with the ussians, which would receive the name of Cold War, did not help. Yet it did create a scapegoat for fears and feelings of paranoia. As the tensions between the U.S.…… [Read More]
sorts of legal protections should UG have.
ug automatically has protection of its trade secrets, which involve confidential issues such as product plans and new designs, any sort of business proceedings, and products under development prior to patent application. ug does not need to file anything to maintain these rights other than take all reasonable precautions to keep them secret, such as informing employees that these are trade secrets, refraining from making press releases regarding these secrets, and in very sensitive areas they might consider requiring employees to sign confidentiality agreements. These reasonable measures are necessary to validate any later claim that industrial espionage had occured or intellectual property rights had been violated. ug should obviously also copyright original works in terms of form, and patent original inventions in terms of function. These protections prevent other business from using their technology. Patents for function are valid for about 17 years,…… [Read More]
Netspionage, which is basically network-enabled espionage. The case entails a high-technology corporation that is situated in California which became a victim of trade secret theft to the ussians. The instance started when authorized users realized when they opened their offices on the next working day, that their computers, that they had switched off the previous day were powered on and also files as well as folders reorganized and some open. However, this matter was brushed off with the excuse that the accessed files had no significant value in addition to the fact that the accessed systems were deemed not to have any sensitive or important information. The following weekend, a desktop unit was stolen from the company and this unit had in it stored data and files consisting of valuable information in the form of quality control measures and practices for numerous of the major products of the company. The…… [Read More]
aytheon's SWOT Analysis Detailed
One of the fundamental strengths of aytheon is its history. The company has been around since the early decades of the 20th century, and has regularly worked with different governmental agencies in both a covert and overt capacity since. As such, the company (which adopted its present name during 1959) (CorpWatch, 2007) is one of the more notable companies in the defense and aerospace industries. Its history adds to its reputation and, at this point, one can argue that its reputation influences its present regard in the business world.
Another definite strength of this company is its employees. The company has less than 100,000 employees. Moreover, it also has holdings and facilities in a worldwide capacity, which helps to keep its employment rates high. The primary boon associated with that number of employees is that the company has the manpower to keep pace with a…… [Read More]
Cyberattacks to Achieve International Threats
Cyberattacks have become a global phenomenon leading to international conflicts among individuals, organizations and in conjunction to military operations. Target of cyberattacks include banking services, critical organizational infrastructures, government networks, and media outlets. Implication of such attacks may be an attempt to achieve both financial and political objectives. Typically, some attackers have defaced websites of different organizations, damage corporate infrastructures, and shut down network systems. Many cyberattacks are political motivated, and sources of these attacks are difficult to trace because most of the attacks are often state sponsored. Cyberspace attackers employ different tactics to achieve their objectives, which include both financial and military gains.
Objective of this paper is to explore the cyber operations and some of the tools that cyber attackers use to achieve their operations.
Objectives of Cyberattacks and Tools used to achieve the Objectives
Cyberattacks are broadly described as the type of…… [Read More]
Interoffice Memorandum [ecipient Name]
MEETING THE CHINA CHALLENGE: Discussing the possibility of China and the United States escaping Thucydides' Trap.
elevant National Interests.
Vital. Prevent China and the U.S. going to war; ensure a continual alliance between China and U.S. governments.
Extremely Important. Protect U.S. citizens, embassies, personnel and other significant U.S. infrastructure within areas facing potential attack, including cyber-attacks; limit access to sensitive data and restrict the flow of information from the U.S. to China as well as regulation of airport and immigration policies.
Important. Prevent sabotage and espionage by utilization of white hat hackers and U.S. Intelligence Agencies. Continual leaking of information will hurt the U.S. government in the long run.
Analysis. China is a growing world power. Within a few decades it has generated a surge in both wealth and productivity. China has become the country that manufacturers virtually everything, from appliances to important factory equipment, and…… [Read More]
computer forensic offense. ecommendations for investigation will be addressed. Further, an example of an industrial espionage case will be cited.
This lawsuit entailed contract violation cross-claims, with the dispute between the two parties chiefly revolving around events that had transpired during the latter half of 1998. esidential Funding Corporation (FC) was requested to salvage and present related emails dated from October to December 1998, from its backup drives. The corporation's internal legal consultant discovered that the company didn't possess requisite internal resources for email retrieval from backup source in the time period allowed. Therefore, the company retained Electronic Evidence Discovery's services, for support with email retrieval. Many weeks into employing established recovery techniques, the corporation was able to present a total of 126 emails (dated between January and August 1998) as well as 2 emails dated September of the same year (Computer Forensic - Computer Forensic Case Studies…… [Read More]
The names of the characters in Spy Kids, such as Floop, give a illy onka-espionage-in-fun verbal as well as visual tone to the film, and the thumb-shaped henchmen of Floop seem like a tribute to the onka oompah-loompas.
For students of Rodriquez, Spy Kids may not be the director's most significant film, but it is an argument that the director, even when making a mainstream Hollywood genre film, has a clear vision as a filmmaker. He is unapologetic in his call for the centrality of Hispanic life and ordinary Hispanic heroism in cinema. His heroes are ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances, yet capable of showing grit and wit and rising to the occasion when needed. His heroes take themselves as well as the audience by surprise.
Ebert, Roger. Spy Kids. The Chicago Sun Times. March 30, 2001. March 15, 2010.
El Mariachi. Directed by Roger Rodriquez. 1992.…… [Read More]
This would create a reactionary agency which, rather than gathering intelligence to the extension of its security, would approach what would come to be known as the 'containment theory,' using whatever resources and tactics were at its disposal to deflect against the spread of communism.
At its time, the 1947 Act would be seen as projecting considerable vision. As one conservative think-tank reports on this idea, "until fairly recently, CIA considered its appropriate time horizon to be fairly long. It was, I believe, generally longer than the focus of either the Defense Intelligence Agency or the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR). The Directorate of Intelligence made forecasts in some areas that went out 20 years, and collectors and analysts tried to anticipate events 'over the horizon' -- situations policymakers did not then know they were likely to be worrying about in the future. CIA did this because…… [Read More]
Smith School of Business (at the University of Maryland), where she was granted an MBA (Master of Business Administration) and also the courses of the MIT Sloan School of Management, where she received a Master of Science in management.
Professionally speaking, Fiorina occupied various secretarial positions; she was also a teacher of English in Italy and a receptionist. Her fruitful career began in 1980 when she joined at&T, where after various positions, came to be the company's Senior Vice President. In 1999 she joined Hewlett-Packard as Chief Executive Officer, but was forced to leave in 2005. After her departure from HP, Fiorina engaged in personal and political actions, such as the edition of her book Tough Choices: A Memoir, or campaigning with presidential candidate John McCain (Jacoby, 2008).
Carly Fiorina possesses numerous skills which qualify her for the leader's position. First of all, she has extensive knowledge and expertise, backed…… [Read More]
hile most see these and other similar reforms as necessary, serving merely as a legal upgrade for law enforcement, one provision of the act's section regarding wireless communication has created much controversy. This section allows foreign intelligence agencies to wiretap citizen's phones and computers without a court order. Bringing the country back to the short-lived standard of 1928, when a fraction of the technology that is used on a regular basis today was even invented, this portion of the act leaves room for the undocumented surveillance of United States citizens (Podesta). Similarly, President George . Bush announced that in the days and months following the September 11th terrorist attacks he ordered the wiretapping of several United States residents without approval from congress, admitting and defending his expansion of the role of executive. Thus, while both public and private wiretapping have a long history of use in the United States, the…… [Read More]
According to Mctiernan (1997), "James Fenimore Cooper's the Spy is interesting precisely because no genre had yet hardened around spying when he wrote it. Cooper relies instead on the conventions of other genres -- primarily, the domestic romance and the historical adventure, which, unlike spy fiction, did not evolve in part to justify the dishonesty and covert manipulation central to espionage" (3).
As noted above, Cooper was also able to draw on the inspiration of an unspoiled American wilderness that few people today can imagine without his help. It is this aspect of Cooper's early works, perhaps, that continue to make them popular today just as they did in his own time. As Ringe (1962) advises, though, this is unfortunate because Cooper matured as a writer over the years and some of his best work was during the last part of his career. "Ironically, Cooper is best known for what…… [Read More]
The historical experiences of Cuba, Chile, Turkey, and even the Iran Contra affair fueled the discussions over a tighter control exercised over the Agency's structure and strategies. However, the Cold War demanded for secret operations especially taking into account the high degree of uncertainty that characterized the political environment at the time. The ideological confrontation between the West and Communist forces was often defused on the territories of third parties and the advantage of information and influence played a crucial role.
The period following the Watergate scandal weighted heavily on the evolution of the CIA. Richard Nixon, along with his Secretary of State, Kissinger was the proponents of an increased power given to the CIA because the presidential control could thus be exercised without any legislative hindrance from the Congress. The 1971 presidential decision to gather the budgets of all national intelligence services under a single unitary one was just…… [Read More]
As the Cold War began, U.S. found itself in a war with the U.S.S.R. On several levels and the only method that could have given U.S. The supremacy it desired was through the good use of intelligence. Espionage, military, industrial, and technological developments were all part of the weapons used during the Cold War. This is why the intelligence revolution was very much needed and useful in the end.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the CIA was one of the most respected organizations in the U.S., given its role in resisting against the expansion of influence of the Soviet Union and the spread of communism. These were the main missions of the organization. As the results of having a well-organized and well-trained intelligence agency paid off and as U.S. managed to prove itself superior to the Soviet Union in many instances, CIA became the main instrument for guiding the U.S.…… [Read More]
Obviously, other countries need to know more about how to become democracies, and we can help them move in that general direction."(Selle, 50)
However, his works remain within the domain of popular fiction, in which the suspense and the intricate and entertaining plot constitute the most important elements. The main attractiveness of his work is thus the technological paraphernalia that accompanies the plots and the operations described in the novels. The extreme accuracy of these descriptions are what caused Clancy to be termed as the inventor of the technothriller, as Garson defines it:
The technothriller] may concern all forms of nuclear weaponry, missiles, submarines, aircraft. Perhaps it foregrounds computers that reach beyond human ability to solve problems. Laboratories with scientists -- biologists, chemists, physicists, archaeologists -- study unknown and as yet unsolved questions of existence, DNA, germs, viruses, extinct species."(Garson, 35)
The projection of science and technology in the future…… [Read More]
The involvement of these women typifies the West Virginia attitude of resistance and resentment of its occupation by Union loyalists during the Civil War.
West Virginia's History of Resistance in the Civil War
A. In 1861 West Virginia succumbs to Union loyalists and fosters resentment to the North and solidifies its allegiance to the Confederacy.
. The efforts of Stonewall Jackson in Western Virginia and Virginia proper are considerably supported by women supporters, properly detailed below.
A. Hart became involved with the Mocassin Rangers until 1862 as a spy, scout and guide who saved the lives of several Confederate soldiers.
. Hart was actively sought after and imprisoned for her success with the Confederacy.
C. Hart escaped prison and killed a guard to resume her martial activities with the Confederacy.
Isabelle "elle" oyd
A. oyd came from a long lineage of Confederacy supporters…… [Read More]
First Amendment, the Constitution, and the Supreme Court
Freedom of and from religion and freedom of speech are the distinct provisions of the First Amendment; it gives citizens of the United States the unalienable human right to assembly and speech. However, the language is intentionally vague. The framers of the Constitution, anticipating unknown applications of the amendment, gave power to the Supreme Court to act as ultimate arbiter in matters involving its provisions. The Constitution of the United States is a living document and the interpretation of its amendments by the Supreme Court changes over time. Freedom of speech and the press, and religious freedom, are exercised according to the Supreme Court's rulings in cases that come before it. Exploration of these cases illuminates the evolving meaning of the First Amendment and the freedoms granted therein.
The First Amendment to the Constitution is partially designed to protect journalists and news-content…… [Read More]