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Espionage Essays (Examples)

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Internet the Globalization of the
Words: 1813 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 25210521
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S. stays one step ahead of the hackers. This is not easy, but the DoD could not have possibly thought it would be.

Proper defenses, enhanced offensive capabilities and strategies to reduce risk by taking some sensitive data offline will all work to deliver better results in e-spionage of the United States. The Internet has become globalized, and nothing can take that back. That there are threats as the result of globalization is nothing new -- it is simply another arena for age-old international political traditions. How we manage the threats and take advantage of the opportunities is the most important aspect to this problem -- and this means proper isolating and neutralizing of viral threats. By addressing the issue of e-spionage effectively, the Internet can still be viewed as a net benefit for the United States.

orks Cited:

Callaham, J. (2012). New Internet Explorer vulnerability used to deliver "Poison…

Works Cited:

Callaham, J. (2012). New Internet Explorer vulnerability used to deliver "Poison Ivy" trojan. Retrieved November 30, 2012 from 

Grow, B., Epstein, K. & Tschang, C. (2008). The new e-espionage threat. Business Week. Retrieved November 30, 2012 from 

Richmond, S. (2012). German government warns users off Internet Explorer. The Telegraph. Retrieved November 30, 2012 from 

Chaudhury, D. (2009). China's e-spionage. India Today. Retrieved November 30, 2012 from

Alger Hiss There Have Been
Words: 5142 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53211884
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On the other hand, hittaker Chambers was "a contributing editor of Time (...) from 1925 to April 1938, (he) had been a Communist, a writer of radical literature, an editor of the Communist Daily orker. He had also been what was then vaguely known as a Communist courier."

The major starting point of the case was Chambers' disappointment with the communist doctrine and the dual attitude Stalin had when signing the 1939 pact with the Nazi leadership. Therefore, according to Time Magazine, he "abandoned the party in revulsion and despair, and became a determined enemy of Communism." Consequently, outraged by the dramatic turn that the soviet politics had taken, he began expressing his views on the collaborators of the soviet regime in the U.S. It is in this way that Chambers contacted Berle, who, after the discussion he had with the former communist partisan, wrote in his notes from September…

Works Cited

Abrahamsen, David. Nixon vs. Nixon: An Emotional Tragedy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1976

Adolf Berle's Notes on his Meeting with Whittaker Chambers. Responses, reflections, and occasional papers. Avaliable on Internet, . Accessed 15 October 2006

Crowell, William P. Remembrances of Venona. Available from Internet, Accessed 15 October 2006

Excerpts from Grand Jury Hearings Relating to the Alger Hiss Case December, 1948. Available from Internet, Accessed 15 October 2006.

Style of Hitchcock in His British Period
Words: 1713 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 12745472
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Alfred Hitchcock's fascination with psychology and the manipulation of the human mind greatly influenced early spy-thriller masterpieces. During his British sound film period, Hitchcock explored the effect of being unwillingly pulled into a psychologically complex environment has on an individual and the consequences that he or she must deal with. These concepts can be found in The 39 Steps (1935) and in The Lady Vanishes (1938), both spy-thrillers that highlight the dangers of espionage and serve as a warning of the impending social and political threat posed by spies. Hitchcock's infusion of psychoanalytic concepts, and the influence thereof, emerge through The 39 Steps's and The Lady Vanishes's narratives, characters, and film structure and style.

Thriller films aim to "promote intense excitement, suspense, a high level of anticipation, ultra-heightened expectation, uncertainty, anxiety, and nerve wracking tension" (Dirks). The 39 Steps, a tale of an innocent man, Richard Hanney (Robert Donat), is…

Works Cited

The 39 Steps. Dir. Alfred Hitchcock. United Kingdom: Gaumont British, 1935. DVD.

Dirks, Tim. "Thriller-Suspense Films." AMC Filmsite. Web. 24 September 2012.

"Hitchcock and Psychoanalysis, 1." Catholic University of America. Web. 24 September 2012.

The Lady Vanishes. Dir. Alfred Hitchcock. United Kingdom: United Artists, 1938. DVD.

Wiretaps and Electronic Surveillance Wiretapping
Words: 1723 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 78982168
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orks Cited

Blanton, Thomas. (2006, February 4). iretap debate deja vu. National Security Archive.

Retrieved April 22, 2009 at

Congresswoman calls alleged wiretap 'abuse of power' (2009, April 2009).

Retrieved April 22, 2009 at

Lewis, Neil A. & Mark Mazzetti. (2009, April 20). Lawmaker is said to have aided lobbyists.

The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2009 at

Maclin, Tracey. (2009). iretapping and electronic surveillance. Law Library.

Crime and Justice: Volume 4. Retrieved April 22, 2009 at

iretapping and Eavesdropping -- contemporary legal status. (2009). Law Library.

Crime and Justice: Volume 4. Retrieved April 22, 2009 at

iretapping and Eavesdropping - early restrictions on electronic surveillance. Law Library.

Crime and Justice: Volume 4. Retrieved April 22, 2009 at

iretapping and eavesdropping - The impact of electronic surveillance on personal privacy.

Law Library. Crime and Justice: Volume 4. Retrieved April 22, 2009


Works Cited

Blanton, Thomas. (2006, February 4). Wiretap debate deja vu. National Security Archive.

Retrieved April 22, 2009 at 

Congresswoman calls alleged wiretap 'abuse of power' (2009, April 2009).

Retrieved April 22, 2009 at

Film Review of the Movie the Breach
Words: 1356 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Film Review Paper #: 31436172
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For a criminal investigator, analyzing key evidence is an important part in being able to establish a pattern of behavior for the suspect. The film the Breach, is discussing the obert Hanssen case and its long-term impacts on U.S. national security. To fully understand how criminal investigators were able to catch him requires carefully examining the film. This will be accomplished by focusing on: the facts of the case, the parties involved, the victim's information, the suspects, the evidence, investigative mistakes, procedural errors, interview mistakes and the life of obert Hanssen. Together, these different elements will highlight how a series of critical blunders led to one of the largest national security breaches in U.S. history.

The Facts of the Case

In the film, Eric O'Neal is assigned to work undercover as a clerk for obert Hanssen. Set in the late 1990s, O'Neal's job is to keep an eye on…


Breach. (2010). IMDB. Retrieved from: 

Barkin, S. (2011). Fundamentals of Criminal Justice. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Vulnerable Areas of Industrial Security Operations Industrial
Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71708544
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Vulnerable Areas of Industrial Security Operations:

Industrial security has become one of the most important aspects in the business world because of the need to protect the business' assets and enhance productivity. The need for industrial security is also fueled by the growth of the industrial sector that is constantly changing. The backbone of the every industrial environment or sector is security because of the vulnerable areas within these sectors. Some of the threats that a business is likely to face in industrial operations include sabotage, espionage, competition, utility industry security issues, and transportation challenges.

The banking sector is one of the industries that are likely to experience several vulnerabilities in the operations of the banks. As one of the major players in the American banking industry, Bank of America has some vulnerable areas. First, the financial institution is likely to experience espionage, which involves technical means and attempts by…


McGlasson, L. (2011, January 3). Top 9 Security Threats of 2011. Retrieved May 5, 2013, from 

Strohm, C. & Engleman, E. (2012, September 28). Cyber Attacks on U.S. Banks Expose

Vulnerabilities. Retrieved May 5, 2013, from

Counterintelligence and Predicting Terrorism

Sovereign states have always had a vested interest in accurately predicting the course of future events, from the ancient espionage of medieval courts to the advanced intelligence agencies used today, but the process of anticipating and neutralizing threats on a preemptive basis has proven to be exceedingly difficult in the age of modern terrorism. Western powers explicitly targeted by Al-Qaeda and other jihadist organizations, including the United States, Great Britain, and other industrialized nations, have been forced to exist in a state of perpetual tension, knowing that the next spectacularly-scaled attack is inevitable but lacking the specific foresight needed to prevent its occurrence. With billions of dollars being invested annually to fund counterterrorism intelligence operations, and scant evidence that these efforts have constituted an efficient and effective use of valuable resources, many governments have begun to reassess this philosophy of preventative vigilance. The incredible complexity of…


Kluger, Jeffrey. "Why We Worry About The Things We Shouldn't And Ignore The Things

We Should." TIME Magazine, November 26, 2006, (accessed February 16, 2013).

McNeill, Jenna B., James J. Carafano and Jessica Zuckerman. "30 Terrorist Plots Foiled: How

the System Worked." The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder # 2405, 11-19,  (accessed February 15, 2013).

Categories of Crime
Words: 1089 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 93043572
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The current designation of the major categories of crime in the U.S. can be traced to England following the Norman Conquest in 1066. Prior to this period the Church was the primary regulator of morality, but over time the Church began to lose control over the lives of people and the local governments began making regulations (Dworkin, 1978). After 1066 Henry II institutionalized law throughout England in order that it would be "common" to the country and he reinstated the jury system. Judges went from London across Great Britain to see cases and they would discuss cases with one another upon returning. This developed "case" law and judges used case law to decide future cases allowing the law to be "common" throughout England. Statutory law did not occur for several hundred years later. There were three basic crimes under the common law: treason (high and petty), felonies (with and…


Dworkin, R.M. (1978). Taking rights seriously. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Gaines, L.K. & Miller, R.L. (2006). Criminal justice in action: The core. Belmont, CA:


Robinson, P.H. & Dubber, M.D. (2010). An introduction to the Model Penal

George Tenet and the Last Great Days
Words: 1659 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 90759891
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George Tenet and the Last Great Days of the CIA, in Stillman

The cross-coded ethical dilemmas facing former CIA Director George Tenet and its impact

The operations of an intelligence agency and its governance are different from the everyday administration of public services and bureaucracies. The fact that the agency -- C.I.A was dealing with espionage and intelligence gathering in states that are hostile to the U.S. And the way the offices of the President and the general U.S. administrators considered it just another branch of the U.S. Government led to its downfall. The loss of credibility is more because of creating an ethic and work protocol that could not be sustained. Although the death of the CIA has been attributed to George Tenet, in reality it was a system that was bound to collapse and tenet was just the last scapegoat. Analysis will reveal that the bureaucratic system and…


Alexander, Jennifer; Nank, Renee. (2009) "Public -- Nonprofit Partnership Realizing the New

Public Service" Administration & Society, vol. 41, no. 3, pp: 364-386.

Bannink, Duco; Ossewaarde, Ringo. (2012) "Decentralization New Modes of Governance

and Administrative Responsibility" Administration & Society, vol. 44, no. 5, pp: 595-624.

Mass Politics in Europe at the End
Words: 1470 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37859780
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Mass politics in Europe at the end of the 19th Century had turned away from the liberalism of the intellectual and capitalist elites in the direction of populist movements that described themselves as socialist, social democratic or nationalist. Frequently they rejected liberal rationalism and science as well in favor of emotion, mystical symbols, charismatic leaders and demagogues. Among these were the Christian Social Party of Karl Lueger in Austria, which Adolf Hitler admired as a young man and later imitated, and the Action Francaise in France, led by Charles Maurras, Maurice Barras and Eduard Drumont. This early fascist movement thrived in after a Jewish officer in the French Army, Alfred Dreyfus, was falsely convicted of espionage and sentenced to prison on Devil's Island. For Emile Zola and the French Left, overturning this unjust conviction was the most important cause of the era, but for the nationalist and anti-Semitic Right it…


Burns, Michael. France and the Dreyfus Affair: A Documentary History. Bedford/St. Martin's, 1999.

Schorske, Carl E. Fin-de-Siecle Vienna: Politics and Culture. NY: Vintage Books, 1981.

Philosophers' View of Knowledge
Words: 2262 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49075423
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Industrial Espionage

Information is an element that can make an astounding difference in terms of succeeding, or attaining a profit, and failure, or attaining a loss in the realm of business. According to obinson (2003), when a trade secret is stolen, it can either level the playing field, or worse, tip it in favor of the competitor. This aspect is even more intricate as trade secrets are sought after not just by rivaling companies but also by foreign countries as well (obinson, 2003). This is done with the hope that the embezzled corporate data and information can be employed to enhance the competitive advantage of that country in the international marketplace (obinson, 2003). Even though plenty of information collection is attained by scrutinizing and going over public records such as filings and databases, the paramount way of getting proper information is simply by taking it (obinson, 2003).

Industrial espionage as…


Edwards, C. (2000). Retrieved 20 August 2015 from: 

Edwards, C. (2001). High-Tech Spy vs. Spy. Retrieved 20 August 2015 from 

Edwin, F. (1997). Economic Espionage: Security Missions Redefined. Public Administration Review. Vol. 57, No. 4, pp. 303-308

Foreign Spies Stealing U.S. economic secrets in cyberspace. (2011). Report to Congress on foreign economic collection and industrial espionage, 2009-2011

Female Humint Intel Collectors as Well as
Words: 6406 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95551522
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female HUMINT Intel collectors as well as the utilization of female HUMINT Intel collectors during WWI and the Cold War Era. Specifically, their use in the form of secretaries and teletypes. It will go systematically during both wars, analyzing the use of the two main categories of secretaries and teletypes. The literature review also brings to light any possible gaps in literature on what lacked from the records of HUMINT Intel collectors and any possible roles they may have played other than teletypes and secretaries.

HUMINT, a term used to define human intelligence, remains essentially any Intel collected from human sources. Within America, the NCS (National Clandestine Service), a branch of the CIA, makes up most if not all of the collection of HUMINT (Schnell, 2013). Specifically, any interpersonal communication or contact signifies HUMINT. SIGNIT, MASINIT, or IMINT are more technical intelligence collection disciplines that rely on signals, imagery, and…


Adams, J. (2014). Strategic intelligence in the Cold War and beyond.

Dower, J. (2010). Cultures of war. New York: W.W. Norton.

Dunivin, K. (1991). Adapting to a man's world: United States air force Female Officers. Defense Analysis, 7(1), 97. Retrieved from,. (2015). Elite Intelligence Operatives - Joint Support Group. Retrieved 21 March 2015, from

Varnava 2012 Commented on the Multifaceted Intelligence
Words: 4590 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2365970
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Varnava (2012) commented on the multifaceted intelligence attributes that went into making the construct of British Intelligence gathering in Cyprus, a successful vocation in World War II. This review aims to explore the implications of the role played by local, civil populace in thwarting attempts by military in allowing intelligence inputs through counter-espionage on British and Middle East territories. The review revisits some work on the First World War British efforts on counter espionage measures in Cyprus after 1916. The work will add to the literature on intelligence activities, attempted during the WW1 (Varnava, 2012).

According to Constantinou's (2013) paper, the role played by diplomatic strategies that extrapolates intelligence-gathering process makes it successful. Diplomacy is a means of making skilled, persistent advocacy towards obtaining solutions of complex situations. It fails to make most of its capabilities. The epistemology (of diplomacy) in the context of humanism, above the dimension of intelligence…


Alfonso, K.L. (2010). Femme fatale 2010. AIR AND SPACE POWER JOURNAL MAXWELL AFB AL.

Blair, J. (2011). Hesitation kills: A female Marine officer's combat experience in Iraq. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Carreiras, H. (2006). Gender and the military: Women in the armed forces of western democracies. Routledge.

Clandestine Women: Spies in American History (2014) National Women's History Museum. Retrieved from:

Ends Justifying Means
Words: 2056 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83933607
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John Le Carre's classic spy novel, The Spy Who Came in from the Cold, is set in 1963 at the height of the Cold War. The novel's protagonist, Alec Leamas, is a seasoned and distinguished British agent who has come to have significant and important reservations about the morality of his job after he loses an agent in the field. Due to the ever-louder rumblings of his conscience, he returns to his home base with the idea in mind that he will resign from his commission and stop his activities in espionage. His boss, Control, however, persuades him to undertake one final mission to bring down the head of the enemy espionage unit in East Germany. In convincing Leamas to undertake this mission, Control appeals to him by saying that the ends will justify his seemingly unethical method. This moral appeal would be an example of a utilitarian morality. While…

Human Aspects in Cyber and IT Security
Words: 1757 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 93880048
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Human Aspects in IT and Cybersecurity

An innovation in IT (information Technology) has revolutionized the method organizations store, record and retrieve information. Moreover, a large percentage of business organizations has taken the advantages internet technology to offer their businesses online where customer's data such as credit cards, SSN (social security number), tax information, and other personal information are recorded in the organizational databases. A major benefit that internet technology offers to organizations is that it assists businesses to transact businesses globally without establishing entities in other countries. The strategy has assisted organizations to achieve competitive market advantages. Despite the benefits associated with IT, businesses face the ethical implications in business transactions because they are faced with a hacking dilemma.

The primary goal of ethics is to promote ethical practices that will enhance availability, confidentiality, and integrity of organizational informational resources. To achieve this objective, employees are to demonstrate a highest…

Resources Management Association.

Whitman, M.E. & Mattord, H.J. (2014). Principles of Information Security. New York. Cengage Learning.

Security Policies Given the Highly
Words: 749 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16853775
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If not, what other recommendations would you make to Harold? Explain your reasons for each of recommendations.

No, the actions that were taken by Harold are not adequate. The reason why, is because he has created an initial foundation for protecting sensitive information. However, over the course of time the nature of the threat will change. This could have an impact on his business, as these procedures will become ineffective. Once this occurs, it means that it is only a matter of time until Harold will see an increase in the number of cyber attacks. At first, these procedures will help to prevent hackers from accessing the company's files. Then, as time goes by they will be able to overcome his defenses. This increases the chances that he will see some kind of major disruptions because of these issues. ("Security Policies," n.d, pp. 281 -- 302) ("Computer-ased Espionage," n.d, pp.…


Computer-Based Espionage. (n.d.). (365 -- 391).

Security Policies (n.d.). (281 -- 302).

British Counter-Intelligence Did British Counter-Intelligence
Words: 1679 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82487495
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Earlier in this paper it was revealed that a small unit within the Security Service was originally doing the work; but soon the espionage unit had grown to more than 1,400. On page 848 Major Vernon Kell began -- what later became an out-of-control behemoth organization -- with just "a room, a desk and a filing cabinet"; when Kell asked for a clerk to assist him, the bureaucracy was surprised that "…such extravagance was necessary" (Hiley, 848).

This juxtaposition is by way of explaining how, as the fear of the Germans expanded, and as the list of suspected spies grew enormously huge, and paranoia became so powerful that peace groups and labor groups came under suspicion, civil liberties were shoved aside. On page 853 Hiley notes that prior to October 1911, in order to open a letter that was passing through the Royal Mails, a warrant had to be signed…

Works Cited

Hiley, Nicholas. (1985). The Failure of British Counter-Espionage against Germany, 1907-

1914. The Historical Journal, 28(4), 835-862.

Hiley, Nicholas. (1986). Counter-Espionage and Security in Great Britain during the First

World War. The English Historical Review, 101(400), 635-670.

Friend or Foe
Words: 1340 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41494059
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Israel collects intelligence on American foreign policy related to Israel and the Middle East, as well as on scientific and technological developments, including those from the private sector. The gathering of intelligence from a foreign ally is neither an unusual nor new practice. Moreover, the United States reciprocates the favor and likewise gathers intelligence on Israel. The Untied States certainly cannot expect Israel or any other nation to refrain from using surveillance, while at the same time gathering intelligence against those very same nations. For Israel, areas of general interest for Israeli intelligence collectors include military and economic policy and of course, intelligence services themselves such as the CIA (Caramela, 2014). Intelligence is used to bolster Israel's own national security, military, and technological capabilities. The methods Israel uses to gather intelligence are varied and range from computer hacking to communications surveillance. easons for gathering intelligence on an ally are…


Caramela, S. (2014). The impact of Israeli intelligence collection on the United States. Retrieved online: 

Giraldi, P. (2008). The spy who loves us. The American Conservative. 2 June, 2008. Retrieved online: 

Ketcham, C. (2009). Israeli spying in the United States. Counterpunch. Retrieved online: 

Nakamura, D. & DeYoung, K. (2013). Obama defends U.S. intelligence-gathering tactics. The Washington Post. 1 July, 2013. Retrieved online:

Media Theory Essay
Words: 1325 Length: Pages Document Type: Paper #: 38166825
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Cyberterrorism, illegal (and legal) espionage, piracy, and cybercrimes differ from their pre-digital counterparts in serious and meaningful ways. For one, the nature of online social interactions diverges from that of face-to-face or even voice-only interactions due to the shields of anonymity. Second, technological prophylactics ranging from encryption to skillful network architecture can add multiple levels of protection to shield perpetrators while exposing the weaknesses in a less advanced consumer public. Third, the rapid advancement of artificially intelligent systems creates new possible realities and problems, as non-human actors become part of increasingly complex systems. Finally, digital media has enabled formal and informal surveillance and other forms of illicit behavior, transforming the relationship between actors and objects in ways that could alter political and social realities. Actor-network theory is an ideal lens and process by which to better understand the complex gamut of cybercrime. Developed initially in the 1980s and solidified…

Tracking Competitor's Customers Competitive Intelligence
Words: 895 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 48032785
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Due to these concerns and the ethicacy of industrial espionage was closely evaluated through the early 1990s by the U.S. Congress and the Economic Espionage Act of 1996 was passed to protect the rights of corporations to keep their trade secrets, confidential details about customers, pricing, and supply chain specifics protected (ichardson, Luchsinger, 2007). This has also had a significant effect on the types of advanced analytics software applications companies can use to monitor their competitors online, the use of competitive intelligence gathering practices that are potentially unethical including the purchasing of customer lists and advanced customer data from online services when the company has not released it for use in the public domain (ichardson, Luchsinger, 2007). The ethics of customer monitoring are today leaning more towards using publically available data on the Internet and in print. Using advanced analytics software it is also possible to interpolate which consumers are…


Ranjit Bose. (2008). Competitive intelligence process and tools for intelligence analysis. Industrial Management + Data Systems, 108(4), 510-528.

Christen, M., Boulding, W., & Staelin, R. (2009). Optimal Market Intelligence Strategy When Management Attention Is Scarce. Management Science, 55(4), 526-538.

Liam Fahey. (2007). Connecting strategy and competitive intelligence: refocusing intelligence to produce critical strategy inputs. Strategy & Leadership, 35(1), 4-12.

Craig S. Fleisher, Sheila Wright, & Helen T. Allard. (2008). The role of insight teams in integrating diverse marketing information management techniques. European Journal of Marketing, 42(7/8), 836-851.

Ethics After Being Rejected for
Words: 3579 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 34166874
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In 2003, he resigned both posts as news of the twin scandals emerged. The Air Force froze the contract that Druyun had negotiated, precipitating Condit's resignation and retirement.

Condit had joined Boeing in 1965 as an engineer and moved into management in 1973, working on marketing the 727. He completed an MBA at Sloan in 1975 and returned to Boeing, progressing rapidly up the ranks. By 1983, he became VP and General Manager of the 757 division before moving on to other VP posts. In 1996, he moved from President to CEO and a year later was named Chairman.

There is little to indicate that Condit himself was a significant contributor to the governance problems at Boeing. Although he was an engineer by training, he spent much of his time at Boeing in marketing. The hiring manager, Bill Erskine, who had hired Ken Branch in the first place, had just…

Works Cited:

MSN Moneycentral: Boeing. (2009). Retrieved April 6, 2009 from 

Boeing Form 10-K (December 2008).

Boeing 2002 Annual Report. Retrieved April 6, 2009 from 

Boeing 2006 Annual Report. Retrieved April 6, 2009 from

West Virginia Women During U S
Words: 5447 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20428514
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The distinction between folklore and fact is not always as lucid as it could be when researching the background of a state heroine, and the humble beginnings of Hart are no different in this respect. She was born in Raleigh, North Carolina either in 1846 or 1843 depending on which source is sought, although most popular accounts tend to credit her birth as taking place in 1846 (akeless 1970, 69). y most accounts she was as wild as the Virginian territory she moved to when she arrived in Tazewell county as an infant, and she would never learn to read or write. Descended from Scottish and Irish lineage, Hart was said to have moved in with her sister Mary and her husband William when she was still a child, where she roamed her Roane County environs, perfecting her skill with firearms and horseback riding.

Hart's deadly defiance of Union loyalists…


Lady, Claudia L. "Five Tri-State Women During The Civil War." West Virginia History. Volume 43, Number 3 pp.189-226 and Volume 43, Number 4 pp. 303-321, 1982

Stutler, Boyd B. West Virginia in the Civil War, Charleston, Education Foundation, Inc., pp. 43-48, 1963.

"Roane County Girl Served as Confederate Spy, Scout," Charleston Daily Mail, 4-18- 1963.

Boyd, Belle. Belle Boyd in Camp and in Prison. Introduction by George Augusta Sala. New York: Blelock & Company, 1865

Intelligence the Creation and Performance
Words: 364 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5903504
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By 1945, the OSS was abolished and by 1947 the National Security Act had completely transferred the task of espionage and intelligence from military to civilian hands ("United States Intelligence"). This transfer set the stage for the successes and failures of the U.S. intelligence community during the early Cold ar. It meant that U.S. intelligence was much more greatly coordinated and more aggressively implemented during that period to some apparent success. But it also meant that these new civilian agencies did not have the legacy of experience with espionage that existed within the military intelligence community. The end result was a higher degree of coordination during the early Cold ar, which improved the level of intelligence and communication and helped create the U.S.'s first true intelligence community.

orks Cited

United States Intelligence, History." Espionage Information: Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security. 2007. 4 Oct. 2007

Works Cited

United States Intelligence, History." Espionage Information: Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security. 2007. 4 Oct. 2007 .

Conflict Resolution Methods Might Snow
Words: 2427 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50245491
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Contrasting this from a personal standpoint, only in the most emotionally charged and toxic personal situations are there feelings of this level, rejoicing in the failure of others. In personal relationships this is especially troublesome as the medium of exchange, unlike business using money, is emotion and what is left of trust in a relationship. That makes the wishing of failure in addition to winning the conflict especially toxic and even potentially dangerous. As one divorcee had on her license plate holder "Happiness is seeing your Ex-on a milk carton," the damaging aspects of this dynamic is dangerous in interpersonal relationships.

It is far more common in business where salaries, sales, and bonuses are seen as a direct reflection of the value of the managers involved, and the loss of these is seen as even greater victory for the person in the conflict.

Case: The Great Wall and the Firewall…


Financial Times (2007) - Chinese Military hacked into Pentagon. Demetri Sevastopulo. Washington D.C. Published: September 3, 2007. Accessed from the Internet on September 19, 2007 from location:

Persistent Threat Information Security Advanced Persistent
Words: 2653 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 87393063
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They include the use of stealthy tactics, tools and techniques in order to avoid detection by antimalware software. The second goal is to create a backdoor that allows the attackers to gain greater access to the compromised software especially if other access points are discovered or patched. The third goal is to initiate the primary mission of the attackers which may be to steal sensitive information, monitor communications or simply to disrupt operations. The last goal is to leave the compromised computer without being detected McAfee, 2010()

Effect of APT on the National Security

Advanced persistent threats are designed to steal sensitive information by stealthily innovatively and tactically evading the detection by common malware software. Advanced persistent attacks are usually targeted to be large-scale attacks. The main goal or objective of the attack is to steal intellectual property from the compromised computers. There have been cases reported where organizations have…


Andress, J. (2011). Attacker Sophistication Continues to Grow? ISSA Journal, June (2011), 18-25.

Knapp, E.D. (2011). Industrial Network Security: Securing Critical Infrastructure Networks for Smart Grid, SCADA, and Other Industrial Control Systems. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.

McAfee. (2010). Advanced Persistent Threats. Santa Clara, CA: McAfee.

Surhone, L.M., Tennoe, M.T., & Henssonow, S.F. (2010). Advanced Persistent Threat. Saarbrucken: VDM Verlag Dr. Mueller AG & Co. Kg.

Political Science Japanese Internment
Words: 5176 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76791469
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internment camps for the Japanese that were set up and implemented by president Franklin D. oosevelt. The writer explores the history leading up to the decision and the decision itself. There were six sources used to complete this paper.

When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor the American public was outraged and stunned. American citizens had lived with a false sense of security for many years that the soil of the United States was off limits. The Civil War and the American evolution were long in the past and residents believed that the world at large would be to afraid to attack a nation as strong and powerful as the United States. The attack came without warning, killing thousands who were within its grasp. When the smoke had cleared and the bombs had stopped, the nation turned a fearful eye to the white house for guidance. At the time the president was…


Japanese camps


Early Implementation of the Mass Removal

How Was the Cold War Represented in Cinema
Words: 5793 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9347766
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Cold War and Film

Generally speaking, the Cold War has been depicted as an era of spy games and paranoia in popular films from the 1960s to the present day, but the reality of the era was much more complex. The Cold War was a period of military and political tension from 1947 to 1991, or from the end of WW2 to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in which the "politics of war" masked the business and social agendas of multinationals and ideologues. The era was marked by myriad issues: East-West mistrust, proxy wars, espionage, the threat of nuclear war, domestic and foreign propaganda, the rise of the military-industrial complex and multinational corporations, assassinations, detente, de-colonization, new nationalism, neo-colonialism, the vying for control of resources, alliances (NATO, Warsaw Pact), and an inculcation of the "deep state." [footnoteRef:1] It can be divided into five basic periods: 1947-53, 1953-62, 1962-79, 1979-85,…


Dominik, Andrew, dir. Killing Them Softly. NY: Weinstein Company, 2012. Film.

Eliot, T.S. "Burnt Norton." The Four Quartets. Web. 10 May 2015.

Frankenheimer, John, dir. Seven Days in May DVD Commentary. LA: Warner Home

Business Fashion Knockoffs Perils and
Words: 2829 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70879855
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In this manner, a chain of custody could be established. if, say, Aldo's product had suddenly jumped from one step of the process to another, it might indicate that Aldo had not gone through the usual channels; had possibly stolen the idea, or copied it to a significant degree from Alexander McQueen. In either case, the designer could protect himself or herself by following the customary procedures of their marketplace.

Can Knockoffs Be Stopped?

ith so many ways to counterfeit designer fashion items like clothing, shoes, and handbags, and so few laws to prevent the actual production of pirated merchandise, stopping knockoffs would seem to be an almost impossible task. Nevertheless, knockoffs can be controlled if designers, retailers, and government authorities remain vigilant. As noted by American designers, merchandising is the key to the American design process. It is also the key to controlling the flow of counterfeit goods. hile…

Works Cited

Brenner, Susan W., and Anthony C. Crescenzi. "State-Sponsored Crime: The Futility of the Economic Espionage Act." Houston Journal of International Law 28, no. 2 (2006): 389+.

Congress Considers Fashion's Copyrights." The Washington Times, 28 July 2006, C10.

Delener, Nejdet. "International Counterfeit Marketing: Success without Risk." Review of Business 21, no. 1 (2000): 16.

Intelligence From 1936-1945 Key Analysis
Words: 334 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19356230
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Shortly after, the Navy successfully cracked the Japanese military code in Operation Magic, which allowed U.S. forces to turn the tide of the war in the Pacific by 1942 ("United States Intelligence").

One of the chief actions taken during this period was the creation of the Office of Strategic Services by FDR in 1942. During orld ar II, the OSS coordinated all of the information through collection and analysis that was used for clandestine operations up until 1945 ("United States Intelligence"). The development of the OSS, though short-lived, demonstrates that the role of the intelligence community in United States foreign policy was growing significantly. Before this period, U.S. espionage was limited at best and primarily a domestic affair. By 1945, the role of the intelligence community had greatly expanded and become a more central part of life in the United States.

orks Cited

United States Intelligence, History." Espionage Information: Encyclopedia…

Works Cited

United States Intelligence, History." Espionage Information: Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security. 2007. 4 Oct. 2007 .

U S Intelligence in China the
Words: 4682 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99778763
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The withdrawal was supposed to aid the Communists in controlling the areas vacated by the Japanese, who had succeeded in controlling vast portions of Manchuria.

Stalin's efforts were aimed at forcing "the GMD [Guomindang or Chinese Nationalist Party] to make economic concessions, to prevent a united China from allying with the United States, and to placate Washington on the international arena by giving in to American demands for withdrawal," but in actuality he not only laid the groundwork for the Communists' eventual victory, but also opened up a window for the possibility of a U.S.-Communist alliance that would have destabilized the Soviet Union's power; as will be seen, the United States failed to capitalize on this opportunity, but the fact remains that Stalin's withdrawal seems to have backfired.

Stalin's withdrawal was not directly aimed at ensuring a Communist victory, but rather was an attempt to destabilize the country so…


Ashton, S.R. "Keeping a Foot in the Door: Britain's China Policy, 1945 -- 50." Diplomacy and Statecraft 15 (2004): 79-94.

Bjorge, Gary J. "The Third Chinese Revolutionary Civil War, 1945-49: An Analysis of Communist Strategy and Leadership." The Journal of Military History 74, no. 1 (2010):


Boyd, James. "Japanese Cultural Diplomacy in Action: The Zenrin ky? okai in Inner Mongolia,

Political and Government Assessment
Words: 5499 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 59889977
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There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared lack of trust. On the other hand, if the conflict is seen in terms of a neoliberal point-of-view, Israel's military efficiency and powerfulness is a great threat for Israelis. To cut a long story short, the main goal on which all the main five parties agree is the achievement of peace between Israelis and Palestinians but it is only possible if they give up their most preferred results; Israel giving up its favorite result of unrestricted occupation of Palestinian land and Palestine holding back its preferred outcome of unconditional withdrawal. The conflict could be resolved if both parties could also find some common solutions for complex and convoluted detachable issues including "the degree of sovereignty of a Palestinian state, the distribution of…


Adler, E, ed. Israel in the World: Legitimacy and Exceptionalism. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon.: Routledge, 2013.

Aronoff, M.J. Cross-Currents in Israeli Culture and Politics. New Jersey: Transaction, Inc., 1984.

Asa-El, a. "Israel's Electoral Complex." Azure - Ideas for the Jewish Nation.  (accessed June 9, 2013).

Bard, M.G. & Schwartz, M. One Thousand and One Facts Everyone Should Know About Israel. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.

Japanese American Internment
Words: 1118 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47812012
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orld ar II as a great triumph in American history. The United States forces were victorious in both the Pacific and European Theatres of war. Two military aggressive regimes were destroyed, and peace was restored, due in large part to America's involvement. hat many people do not realize is that some of the actions of the United States were just as morally corrupt as those of the Axis powers. Similar to the Nazi's imprisonment of Jews in Europe, the U.S. government imprisoned Japanese-Americans on the est Coast. orst of all, the internment of Japanese was more of an act of racism than actual perceived threat. The premise of this paper is to prove that the internment of Japanese in 1942 was a decision motivated by race rather than defensive strategy. I will chronicle the events leading up to the internment, the presence of racism before and after the bombing of…

Works Cited

Daniels, Roger. Prisoners Without Trial. New York: Hill and Wang. 1993.

1950's Cinema
Words: 2695 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64317266
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Cinema 1950s

1950s was a decade of change for the U.S. - cinema was no exception, as it modeled itself to accommodate the social changes U.S. society was going through. Films not only provide entertainment to masses but are also believed to express the general outlook of society by the way it sets and adopts trends. 50s was marked by postwar prosperity, rising consumerism, loosening up of stereotype families, baby boom and growing middle-class. It was the time of reaction to the aging cinema, especially by the freedom loving youth who were keyed up with fast food (Mc Donald's franchised in '54), credit card (first in 1950) and drive-in theaters ( Young people were fed-up with the conventional illustration of men and women. With growing interest in ock-n-oll and break-free attitude prevailing, a social revolution was very much in the offering, and that was to transfer the cinema as well…


Smith, Geoffrey Nowell. (1996). The Oxford History of World Cinema. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Rafter, Nicole. (2000). Shots in the Mirror: Crime Films and Society. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

Byars, Jackie. (1991). All That Hollywood Allows: Re-Reading Gender in 1950s Melodrama. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Wilinsky, Barbara. (1997). First and Finest: British Films on U.S. Television in the Late 1940s. Velvet Light Trap. Issue: 40. Pg 18.

Mccarthy and the Cold War One Aspect
Words: 2922 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28567492
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McCarthy and the Cold War

One aspect of history is that a country's so-called "friend" one day, can be an enemy the next and visa versa. The United States and Soviet Union during World War II joined ranks against the real threat of Nazi Germany. However, it did not take long after the end of the war for ussia and the United States to once again bully each other. Even before the final surrender of Germany in 1945, the two super powers rapidly found themselves in a new military and diplomatic rivalry. Meanwhile, in the United States, the economy was taking time to build and unemployment was growing. Thoughts of the Depression loomed in people's minds. The friction with the ussians, which would receive the name of Cold War, did not help. Yet it did create a scapegoat for fears and feelings of paranoia. As the tensions between the U.S.…


Barson, M. Red Scared (2001). San Francisco: Chronicle.

Bennett, D. (1988). Party of Fear. New York: Random House.

Halberstam, D. (1993). The Fifties. New York: Villard.

Lewis, P. The Fifties (1978) New York:. J.B. Lippincott, 1978.

Sorts of Legal Protections Should Bug Have
Words: 1755 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68510065
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sorts of legal protections should UG have.

ug automatically has protection of its trade secrets, which involve confidential issues such as product plans and new designs, any sort of business proceedings, and products under development prior to patent application. ug does not need to file anything to maintain these rights other than take all reasonable precautions to keep them secret, such as informing employees that these are trade secrets, refraining from making press releases regarding these secrets, and in very sensitive areas they might consider requiring employees to sign confidentiality agreements. These reasonable measures are necessary to validate any later claim that industrial espionage had occured or intellectual property rights had been violated. ug should obviously also copyright original works in terms of form, and patent original inventions in terms of function. These protections prevent other business from using their technology. Patents for function are valid for about 17 years,…


Copyright" Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 18 Jul 2004, 21 Sep 2004. 

Patent" Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 18 Jul 2004, 21 Sep 2004. 

Privacy" Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 18 Jul 2004, 21 Sep 2004. 

RICO (law)" Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. 18 Jul 2004, 21 Sep 2004.

Case Study of Netspionage
Words: 661 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6737323
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Netspionage, which is basically network-enabled espionage. The case entails a high-technology corporation that is situated in California which became a victim of trade secret theft to the ussians. The instance started when authorized users realized when they opened their offices on the next working day, that their computers, that they had switched off the previous day were powered on and also files as well as folders reorganized and some open. However, this matter was brushed off with the excuse that the accessed files had no significant value in addition to the fact that the accessed systems were deemed not to have any sensitive or important information. The following weekend, a desktop unit was stolen from the company and this unit had in it stored data and files consisting of valuable information in the form of quality control measures and practices for numerous of the major products of the company. The…


Boni, W. & Kovacich, G.L. (2000). Netspionage: The global threat to information. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann Publishing Co.

Robinson, S.W. (2003). CORPORATE ESPIONAGE 101. Information Security Reading Room. Retrieved from

Strengths Weaknesses Analysis for Defense Company
Words: 1287 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: SWOT Paper #: 74761225
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aytheon's SWOT Analysis Detailed


One of the fundamental strengths of aytheon is its history. The company has been around since the early decades of the 20th century, and has regularly worked with different governmental agencies in both a covert and overt capacity since. As such, the company (which adopted its present name during 1959) (CorpWatch, 2007) is one of the more notable companies in the defense and aerospace industries. Its history adds to its reputation and, at this point, one can argue that its reputation influences its present regard in the business world.

Another definite strength of this company is its employees. The company has less than 100,000 employees. Moreover, it also has holdings and facilities in a worldwide capacity, which helps to keep its employment rates high. The primary boon associated with that number of employees is that the company has the manpower to keep pace with a…


CorpWatch. (2007). Raytheon. Retrieved from 

The Associated Press. (2015). In purchase, Raytheon gets defense-grade cybersecurity. The New York Times. Retrieved from 

Sang-Hun, C. (2015). South Korea picks contractor to develop new jet fighter. The New York Times. Retrieved from 


Effects of Cyberattacks on International Peace
Words: 1233 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 74667853
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Cyberattacks to Achieve International Threats

Cyberattacks have become a global phenomenon leading to international conflicts among individuals, organizations and in conjunction to military operations. Target of cyberattacks include banking services, critical organizational infrastructures, government networks, and media outlets. Implication of such attacks may be an attempt to achieve both financial and political objectives. Typically, some attackers have defaced websites of different organizations, damage corporate infrastructures, and shut down network systems. Many cyberattacks are political motivated, and sources of these attacks are difficult to trace because most of the attacks are often state sponsored. Cyberspace attackers employ different tactics to achieve their objectives, which include both financial and military gains.

Objective of this paper is to explore the cyber operations and some of the tools that cyber attackers use to achieve their operations.

Objectives of Cyberattacks and Tools used to achieve the Objectives

Cyberattacks are broadly described as the type of…


Stallings, W. (2011). Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practice (5th Edition). Pearson Education, Inc.

Maude, F. (2011). The UK Cyber Security Strategy Protecting and promoting the UK in a digital world.UK.

UNODC (2012). The use of the Internet for Terrorist Purposes. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

China and the U S Relations
Words: 1307 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21447464
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Interoffice Memorandum [ecipient Name]

MEETING THE CHINA CHALLENGE: Discussing the possibility of China and the United States escaping Thucydides' Trap.

elevant National Interests.

Vital. Prevent China and the U.S. going to war; ensure a continual alliance between China and U.S. governments.

Extremely Important. Protect U.S. citizens, embassies, personnel and other significant U.S. infrastructure within areas facing potential attack, including cyber-attacks; limit access to sensitive data and restrict the flow of information from the U.S. to China as well as regulation of airport and immigration policies.

Important. Prevent sabotage and espionage by utilization of white hat hackers and U.S. Intelligence Agencies. Continual leaking of information will hurt the U.S. government in the long run.

Analysis. China is a growing world power. Within a few decades it has generated a surge in both wealth and productivity. China has become the country that manufacturers virtually everything, from appliances to important factory equipment, and…


Allison, G. (2015). The Thucydides Trap: Are the U.S. and China Headed for War?. The Atlantic. Retrieved 20 December 2015, from 

Clinton, H. (2015). America's Pacific Century. Foreign Policy. Retrieved 20 December 2015, from 

Hart, M. (2015). Assessing American Foreign Policy Toward China. name. Retrieved 20 December 2015, from 

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE,. (2015). IISS Shangri-La Dialogue: "A Regional Security Architecture Where Ever. Retrieved 20 December 2015, from

Digital Forensics in the Modern Age
Words: 794 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 29481573
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computer forensic offense. ecommendations for investigation will be addressed. Further, an example of an industrial espionage case will be cited.

Crimes Committed/Background

This lawsuit entailed contract violation cross-claims, with the dispute between the two parties chiefly revolving around events that had transpired during the latter half of 1998. esidential Funding Corporation (FC) was requested to salvage and present related emails dated from October to December 1998, from its backup drives. The corporation's internal legal consultant discovered that the company didn't possess requisite internal resources for email retrieval from backup source in the time period allowed. Therefore, the company retained Electronic Evidence Discovery's services, for support with email retrieval. Many weeks into employing established recovery techniques, the corporation was able to present a total of 126 emails (dated between January and August 1998) as well as 2 emails dated September of the same year (Computer Forensic - Computer Forensic Case Studies…


(n.d.). Computer Forensics Services & Electronic Discovery by ACE Data Group . Computer Forensic - Computer Forensic Case Studies -- ACE Data Group. Retrieved December 16, 2015, from

(n.d.). Electronic Discovery Law -- Legal issues, news and best practices relating to the discovery of electronically stored information. Court has Broad Discretion to Fashion Sanctions for Breach of Discovery Obligations -- Electronic Discovery Law. Retrieved December 16, 2015, from

Spy Kids 2001 A Radical
Words: 1715 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76191742
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The names of the characters in Spy Kids, such as Floop, give a illy onka-espionage-in-fun verbal as well as visual tone to the film, and the thumb-shaped henchmen of Floop seem like a tribute to the onka oompah-loompas.

For students of Rodriquez, Spy Kids may not be the director's most significant film, but it is an argument that the director, even when making a mainstream Hollywood genre film, has a clear vision as a filmmaker. He is unapologetic in his call for the centrality of Hispanic life and ordinary Hispanic heroism in cinema. His heroes are ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances, yet capable of showing grit and wit and rising to the occasion when needed. His heroes take themselves as well as the audience by surprise.

orks Cited

Ebert, Roger. Spy Kids. The Chicago Sun Times. March 30, 2001. March 15, 2010.

El Mariachi. Directed by Roger Rodriquez. 1992.…

Works Cited

Ebert, Roger. Spy Kids. The Chicago Sun Times. March 30, 2001. March 15, 2010. 

El Mariachi. Directed by Roger Rodriquez. 1992.

Mitchell, Elvis. Spy Kids. The New York Times. March 30, 2001. March 15, 2010.

Equity Theory of Motivation the
Words: 4137 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 28331334
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Smith School of Business (at the University of Maryland), where she was granted an MBA (Master of Business Administration) and also the courses of the MIT Sloan School of Management, where she received a Master of Science in management.

Professionally speaking, Fiorina occupied various secretarial positions; she was also a teacher of English in Italy and a receptionist. Her fruitful career began in 1980 when she joined at&T, where after various positions, came to be the company's Senior Vice President. In 1999 she joined Hewlett-Packard as Chief Executive Officer, but was forced to leave in 2005. After her departure from HP, Fiorina engaged in personal and political actions, such as the edition of her book Tough Choices: A Memoir, or campaigning with presidential candidate John McCain (Jacoby, 2008).

Carly Fiorina possesses numerous skills which qualify her for the leader's position. First of all, she has extensive knowledge and expertise, backed…


Adams, K., 2009, McLaren Boss Retires, Classic and Performance Car,  accessed on January 21, 2009

Williams, R., December 22, 2007, Why Mosley is Happy with the Season that Had Everything, the Guardian

Wolff, a., June 12, 2007, 'Better than Sex' That's how Formula One Phenomenon Lewis Hamilton Described Winning His First Pole, Sports Illustrated

2007, the FIA's McLaren-Monaco Statement in Full, Formula 1 Website,  accessed on January 21, 2009

Post-9 11 Expansion of Government Powers
Words: 2588 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 99946920
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hile most see these and other similar reforms as necessary, serving merely as a legal upgrade for law enforcement, one provision of the act's section regarding wireless communication has created much controversy. This section allows foreign intelligence agencies to wiretap citizen's phones and computers without a court order. Bringing the country back to the short-lived standard of 1928, when a fraction of the technology that is used on a regular basis today was even invented, this portion of the act leaves room for the undocumented surveillance of United States citizens (Podesta). Similarly, President George . Bush announced that in the days and months following the September 11th terrorist attacks he ordered the wiretapping of several United States residents without approval from congress, admitting and defending his expansion of the role of executive. Thus, while both public and private wiretapping have a long history of use in the United States, the…

Works Cited

Americans see 9/11 as most important event of their lives." 10

September 2007. 7 August 2008. .

Balz, Dan and Deane, Claudia. "Differing Views on Terrorism." The Washington Post.

11 January 2006.

James Fenimore Cooper the Life
Words: 1897 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79388459
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According to Mctiernan (1997), "James Fenimore Cooper's the Spy is interesting precisely because no genre had yet hardened around spying when he wrote it. Cooper relies instead on the conventions of other genres -- primarily, the domestic romance and the historical adventure, which, unlike spy fiction, did not evolve in part to justify the dishonesty and covert manipulation central to espionage" (3).

As noted above, Cooper was also able to draw on the inspiration of an unspoiled American wilderness that few people today can imagine without his help. It is this aspect of Cooper's early works, perhaps, that continue to make them popular today just as they did in his own time. As Ringe (1962) advises, though, this is unfortunate because Cooper matured as a writer over the years and some of his best work was during the last part of his career. "Ironically, Cooper is best known for what…

Works Cited

Becker, May Lamberton. "Introduction" to the Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1957.

Davis, Randall C. (1994). "Fire-Water in the Frontier Romance: James Fenimore Cooper and 'Indian Nature.'" Studies in American Fiction 22(2): 215.

Dekker, George and John P. Williams (Eds.). James Fenimore Cooper: The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge, 1997.

Mctiernan, Dave. (1997). "The Novel as 'Neutral Ground': Genre and Ideology in Cooper's 'The Spy." Studies in American Fiction 25(1): 3.

Intel Reform Over the Past
Words: 3379 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80993523
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The historical experiences of Cuba, Chile, Turkey, and even the Iran Contra affair fueled the discussions over a tighter control exercised over the Agency's structure and strategies. However, the Cold War demanded for secret operations especially taking into account the high degree of uncertainty that characterized the political environment at the time. The ideological confrontation between the West and Communist forces was often defused on the territories of third parties and the advantage of information and influence played a crucial role.

The period following the Watergate scandal weighted heavily on the evolution of the CIA. Richard Nixon, along with his Secretary of State, Kissinger was the proponents of an increased power given to the CIA because the presidential control could thus be exercised without any legislative hindrance from the Congress. The 1971 presidential decision to gather the budgets of all national intelligence services under a single unitary one was just…


Alexandrovna, Larisa, Muriel Kane. New documents link Kissinger to two 1970s coups. June 26, 2007, accessed 15 October 2007, available at 

An Intelligence Community Primer. 2007, accessed 15 October 2007, available at

Federation of American Scientists. Aspin-Brown Commission on the Role and Capabilities of the United States Intelligence Community. The Need to Maintain an Intelligence Capability. 1996, accessed 15 October 2007, available at 

Goodman, Melvin a. "CIA: The Need for Reform." Foreign Policy in Focus, February 15, 2001.

U S Intelligence Revolution the Transformations
Words: 2090 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96271380
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As the Cold War began, U.S. found itself in a war with the U.S.S.R. On several levels and the only method that could have given U.S. The supremacy it desired was through the good use of intelligence. Espionage, military, industrial, and technological developments were all part of the weapons used during the Cold War. This is why the intelligence revolution was very much needed and useful in the end.

In the 1950s and 1960s, the CIA was one of the most respected organizations in the U.S., given its role in resisting against the expansion of influence of the Soviet Union and the spread of communism. These were the main missions of the organization. As the results of having a well-organized and well-trained intelligence agency paid off and as U.S. managed to prove itself superior to the Soviet Union in many instances, CIA became the main instrument for guiding the U.S.…


Kahn, David. The Code-Breakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet. New York: Scribner, 1997

Knight, Judson, CIA (United States Central Intelligence Agency), available at ;

O'Neal, Michael J., United States Intelligence, History, available at ;

O'Neal, Michael J., CIA, Formation and History, available at ;

Tom Clancy Is Considered the
Words: 1252 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65963103
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Obviously, other countries need to know more about how to become democracies, and we can help them move in that general direction."(Selle, 50)

However, his works remain within the domain of popular fiction, in which the suspense and the intricate and entertaining plot constitute the most important elements. The main attractiveness of his work is thus the technological paraphernalia that accompanies the plots and the operations described in the novels. The extreme accuracy of these descriptions are what caused Clancy to be termed as the inventor of the technothriller, as Garson defines it:

The technothriller] may concern all forms of nuclear weaponry, missiles, submarines, aircraft. Perhaps it foregrounds computers that reach beyond human ability to solve problems. Laboratories with scientists -- biologists, chemists, physicists, archaeologists -- study unknown and as yet unsolved questions of existence, DNA, germs, viruses, extinct species."(Garson, 35)

The projection of science and technology in the future…

Works Cited

Clancy, Tom. The Hunt for Red October. New York: Penguin Books, 1997

Tom Clancy." Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2007.

Garson, Helen S. Tom Clancy: A Critical Companion. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1996

Kennedy, Dana. "The Red October Surprise." Entertainment Weekly. 150.20 (1997).

Conflict Ambivalence and Hostility Endured
Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6743798
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The involvement of these women typifies the West Virginia attitude of resistance and resentment of its occupation by Union loyalists during the Civil War.

Supporting Arguments


West Virginia's History of Resistance in the Civil War

A. In 1861 West Virginia succumbs to Union loyalists and fosters resentment to the North and solidifies its allegiance to the Confederacy.

. The efforts of Stonewall Jackson in Western Virginia and Virginia proper are considerably supported by women supporters, properly detailed below.


Nancy Hart

A. Hart became involved with the Mocassin Rangers until 1862 as a spy, scout and guide who saved the lives of several Confederate soldiers.

. Hart was actively sought after and imprisoned for her success with the Confederacy.

C. Hart escaped prison and killed a guard to resume her martial activities with the Confederacy.


Isabelle "elle" oyd

A. oyd came from a long lineage of Confederacy supporters…


Lady, Claudia L. "Five Tri-State Women During The Civil War." West Virginia History. Volume 43, Number 3 pp.189-226 and Volume 43, Number 4 pp. 303-321, 1982

Stutler, Boyd B. West Virginia in the Civil War, Charleston, Education Foundation, Inc., pp. 43-48, 1963.

"Roane County Girl Served as Confederate Spy, Scout," Charleston Daily Mail, 4-18- 1963.

Boyd, Belle. Belle Boyd in Camp and in Prison. Introduction by George Augusta Sala. New York: Blelock & Company, 1865

First Amendment the Constitution and the Supreme
Words: 2383 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5017596
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First Amendment, the Constitution, and the Supreme Court

Freedom of and from religion and freedom of speech are the distinct provisions of the First Amendment; it gives citizens of the United States the unalienable human right to assembly and speech. However, the language is intentionally vague. The framers of the Constitution, anticipating unknown applications of the amendment, gave power to the Supreme Court to act as ultimate arbiter in matters involving its provisions. The Constitution of the United States is a living document and the interpretation of its amendments by the Supreme Court changes over time. Freedom of speech and the press, and religious freedom, are exercised according to the Supreme Court's rulings in cases that come before it. Exploration of these cases illuminates the evolving meaning of the First Amendment and the freedoms granted therein.

The First Amendment to the Constitution is partially designed to protect journalists and news-content…


Abrams, F. (2005). Speaking Freely: Trials of the First Amendment. New York, NY:

Penguin Group (USA).

Campbell, D.S. (1990). The Supreme Court and Mass Media: Selected Cases,

Summaries, and Analyses. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Employee E-Mail and Internet Privacy Policies the
Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15729525
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Employee E-Mail and Internet Privacy Policies

The increased usage of the Internet and e-mail has changed the way companies do business. Nearly instantaneous communication can take place globally. Information on a countless number of topics can now be accessed from anywhere around the world. These technological developments have not only helped employees increase their efficiencies, but also has given them a new means of distraction from their duties. For this reason, many companies have developed e-mail and Internet policies.

At my job, our e-mail policy states that e-mails should not include illegal or libelous statements. E-mail is to be used for business purposes only and e-mail communications are the property of the company. For this reason, the company may access sent and received from work computers at any time, this includes deleted e-mails that are stored on the company's servers. The Internet policy is similar in that the Internet is…


Fact sheet 7: Workplace privacy and employee monitoring. (2010). Retrieved 6 Dec 2010, from .

Privacy rights of employees using workplace computers in California. (2010). Retrieved 6 Dec 2010, from .