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hat are the primary strengths and weaknesses of the code?
In the General Motors (GM) Code of Conduct (COC) it is clear "ho" must adhere to the COC (GM, 2016). This code has strength because "consultants, agents, sales representatives, distributors, independent contractors and contract workers" are expected to follow the COC (GM, p. 5).
Since ethics means "doing the right thing at all times" (chron.com) another positive COC aspect is in the "Equal Employment Opportunity" section: GM mentions federal laws pertaining to discrimination on page 6. Employees may not discriminate against another worker based on "age, race, color, sex, religion, national origin, disability, sexual orientation" (GM, p. 6) These categories are standard; but GM also includes "gender identity," which is worthy of praise in a time when several states have passed legislation allowing / promoting discrimination (i.e., so-called "bathroom laws") against transgender citizens.
One potential weakness…
Chron.com. (2015). Workplace Ethics & Behavior. Retrieved May 6, 2016, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com .
General Motors. (2016). Winning With Integrity. Code of Ethics. Retrieved May 6, 2016,
from: http://www.gm.com .
Markkula Center for Applied Ethics. (2015). Ethics in Organizations. Retrieved May 6, 2016,
From this broader perspective and in their planning and operations they have changed the term 'stockholder' to 'stakeholder' to cover employees, customers, suppliers and the community at large. With the growing complexity and dynamism brought about in business, organizations understood they required more guidance to guarantee that their dealings aligned with the overall good and did not pose any harm to others and with this was born business ethics. (McNamara, 2007)
Currently, ethics in the workplace is managed through the application of code of ethics, codes of conduct, contribution of ethicists and ethics committee, polices and procedures, procedures to solve ethical dilemmas, besides training in ethics. There are several benefits of managing ethics as a program. Ethics program help in (i) establishing organizational roles to manage ethics (ii) scheduling the current assessment of ethics needs (iii) set up needed operating values and behavior (iv) streamlining organizational behaviors with operating values…
Ferrell, O.C; Ferrell, Linda. (2005) "Fulfilling Our Obligations: Perspectives on Teaching
Business Ethics" Kennesaw State University Press.
Lovitky, Jeffrey. a; Ahern, Jack. (1999, Mar) "Designing Compliance Program that foster ethical behavior." Healthcare Financial Management, vol.53, no.3, pp: 17-20.
McNamara, Carter. (2007) "Complete Guide to Ethics Management: An Ethics Toolkit for Managers" Retrieved 18 November, 2007 at http://www.managementhelp.org/ethics/ethxgde.htm
These days the business world has gone global, which has strengthened the ethics debate. Making payments in order to get business is ordinary practice in a lot of developing markets in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe, and some companies feel indebted to play the game in order to compete and many of these companies have paid the ultimate price (George, 2008).
The only way to build a great global company is with a single global standard of business practice that is dynamically communicated and meticulously enforced. Applying situation ethics in developing countries is the quickest way to destroy a global organization. Operating ethically necessitates much more than a code of conduct. The CEO and top administration must connect with employees around the world to insist on transparency and compliance. Otherwise, they will never know what's going on. The company must have a tight system of monitoring and…
George, B. (2008). Ethics must be global, not local. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/managing/content/feb2008/ca20080212_394828.htm
How GE builds global leaders: A conversation with Chief Learning Officer Susan Peters.
(2010). Retreived from http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article.cfm?articleid=2488 ]
Pike, M. (n.d.). Business ethics foundations: Key elements of an ethics program. Retreived from http://www.ethicsedge.com/remotearticle.htm
" All of those excuses are rationalizations that people use to try to convince themselves (and others) that they have not violated ethical rules when they have.
Contemporary society is full of examples of unethical behavior on may levels, although there are also examples of improvements in many professional industries since the field of ethics has become more prominent. The history of commercial business and industry proves that people will try to do almost anything they can get away with to make a profit. In fact, laws develop for exactly this reason: to address practices that have already been tried. The recent headlines involving the Bernard Madoff scandal and others like Enron demonstrate that ethical values are always capable of being violated even at the highest levels of modern business. In response to corporate scandals and other types of serious ethical violations, lawmakers and industry regulators have continually improved laws…
The concept of ethical behavio is one in which thee is no definite pespective. Each individual has vaying belief and values in egads to ethical behavio. These values and beliefs subsequently fom the foundation by which the concept of "ethics" is ceated. This concept of ethics is then used as a basis to conduct oneself though vaious cicumstances. What may seem unethical to one individual is indeed ethical to anothe. In many cicumstances, a cedible case can be made in distinguishing both unethical and ethical activity in egads to a cetain situation. This scenaio epesented by the pofessional counselo is no diffeent in this egad. Depending on the viewpoints and the undelying values of the individual assessing the situation, compelling points can be made fo eithe ethical o unethical behavio. It is my contention howeve, that actions on the pat of the counselo ae indeed unethical
As a pofessional…
references and anticipations in career counseling: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 39, 46-55
Ethical behavior, especially in the medical community, is important in all aspects, but especially in the treatment of patients. All patients, no matter what their religious affiliations or beliefs, deserve the best possible treatment within their own particular guidelines. Treating members of the Jehovah's Witness religion is a task that while not commonplace, will certainly be touched upon by most members of the nursing community.
Looking for guidelines regarding the ethical treatment of different sects will oftentimes result in an administrator providing ethical standards that nurses for a particular institution will be required to follow. As one early study determined "the health care administrator has responsibilities to self, to the organization, to the clientele served by the organization, and to the employees who provide services at the organization" (Badzek, Mitchell, Marra, Bower, 1998).
More recently the American Nurses Association has brought forth a Code of Ethics for nurses.…
American Nurses Association (2012) Nursing world, accessed on May 6, 2012 at: http://www.nursingworld.org/codeofethics
Badzek, L.A., Mitchell, K., Marra, S.E., Bower, M.M., (1998) Administrative Ethics and Confidentiality/Privacy Issues, ANA Periodicals, Vol. 3, No. 3
New York Organ Donors Network (2012) Religious viewpoints, accessed on May 6, 2012 at: http://www.donatelifeny.org/just-for-you/religious-leaders-amp-clergy/religious-viewpoints/?gclid=CIfroauh7K8CFbMEQAodzQ4c0Q
Runde, M.; (2007) End of life decision making, Sault Area Hospital, accessed on May 6, 2012, at: www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/.../ccs.../sah_eol_learn.pdf
Ethics and ethical behavior can be taught, just as one can teach right and wrong to a child. A child without such an education is more likely to stumble into deviant behavior, and the same goes for an adult who is not trained in ethics and what constitutes ethical behavior. The whole point of Socrates’ teaching the youth of Athens was to train their minds and wills so that they can pursue the higher, nobler truths and live a life that aligned with the Good. Were ethics and ethical behavior incapable of being taught, Socrates would not have succeeded in laying the foundation of Western philosophy, his pupil Plato would not have succeeded in his school, and Aristotle would not have proceeded with his framework for virtue ethics and the school of character formation and education (Holyoke, Brown & LaPira, 2015).
Such education would help professionals to evaluate and respond…
Unethical ehavior During Negotiations: How to Avoid it, How to Engage With It
One of the challenges of negotiating is that what constitutes ethical behavior can be quite relative and differ between the worldview of the negotiating partners. For example, many people consider bluffing to be a form of lying (even though it is an acceptable practice in many venues such as poker). For others, bluffing is a natural aspect of the negotiation process, an ethical form of deception which "must be regarded as a strategy in a game where business ethics must not be confused with private life ethics" (Alavoine n.d. 4). This separation between personal and negotiation roles often depends on the cultural context of the negotiators: in some cultures, bluffing is integrated into the process of negotiation; in others, extreme forms of bluffing are frowned upon, and when there is a difference in the worldview between the…
Alavoine, Claude. n.d. Unethical practices in negotiations. The confrontation between internal and external factors. IPAG Business School. Available:
[3 Jan 2013]
The unethical side of negotiation. n.d. Negotiations.com. Available:
The infamous O.J. Simpson murder trial turned out to be a good case in point of what an officer should not do with regards to a criminal case. As the lead investigator looking into the murders of Mr. Goldman and Ms. Simpson, Detective Mark Fuhrman was a great example of ineptitude. There is a deep rooted theory that Det. Fuhrman planted evidence at the crime scene and falsified official police reports and other papers in an attempt to avoid the justice system and get a conviction against Mr. Simpson. Even though Det. Fuhrman never openly confessed to these things, the transcript of his testimony shows this to be the case. When asked during the trial if he did these things, he invoked his 5th amendment rights and refused to answer the questions. The belief is that if he hadn't done such things he would have just said so (Belrad, 2009).…
Belrad, Bryan. (2009). Mark Fuhrman and the OJ Simpson murder trial: A study in officer testimony. Retrieved from http://www.helium.com/items/846239-mark-fuhrman-and-the -
Brennan, Warren O. (2010). Mark Fuhrman and the OJ Simpson murder trial: A study in officer testimony. Retrieved from http://www.helium.com/items/1848468-oj
Unethical ehavior Memo
This memorandum is in response to recent inquires made concerning the suspected continuance of unethical practices within the company. As you are undoubtedly aware, unethical behavior can be extremely detrimental to a company's future. It makes performance exceedingly difficult to measure, and it can cause various crucial entities within a company to malfunction, thus effectively crippling the firm's ability to operate and meet the needs of clients (Rosanas & Velilla, 2005). Knowing this, such disreputable activity can be particularly challenging to remedy, especially when trying to simultaneously run a profitable company. Fortunately, through my research and internal examination I have pinpointed certain areas that need immediate attention. These departments include: accounts receivable, accounts payable and sales. My conversations with the principals of the aforementioned areas have revealed that the underlying problems in these sectors are cause for intense scrutinization. Restructuring and ulterior management techniques should…
Bellizzi, J.A., & Hite, R.E. (1989). Supervising Unethical Salesforce Behavior. The Journal of Marketing, 53 (2), 36-47.
Brockmann, R.J., & Rook, F. (1989). Technical Communication and Ethics. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Gehrke, J. (2011). 8 Steps to Prevent Common Ethical Lapses in Organizations. Retrieved February 28, 2011, from http://ezinearticles.com/?8-Steps-to-Prevent-Common-Ethical-Lapses-in-Organizations&id=934381
Hyatt, J. (2007). Unethical Behavior: Largely Unreported in Offices and Justified by Teens . Retrieved March 1, 2011, from http://www.thecro.com/node/612
unethical accounting practices and behavior. Unethical behavior occurs when there is a combination of motive and opportunity, along with a lack of integrity.
Situations that contribute to ethical lapses in accounting occur because of the very nature of accounting fraud being a white collar, non-violent crime. Accounting provides an opportunity to "cook the books" and exercise one's greed without pointing a gun or breaking into someone's house. Accounting crimes are tempting because nobody seems to be getting hurt (Xaxx, 2011).
There are people, who under other circumstances would never seek out a crime to commit, will submit to the temptation to commit accounting crimes just because the opportunity presents itself. Accounting often deals with large sums of money, some of which may be easily hidden, siphoned off, or removed with little likelihood of detection. Some people find this amount of temptation hard to resist, especially if they see themselves as…
Burch, C. (2011). Ethical financial reporting. Hock Accountancy Training. Retrieved October 10, 2011 from: http://www.scribd.com/doc/16961650/Ethical-Financial-Reporting-Article
Castellano, J.F., Rosenzweig, K., & Roehm, H.A. (2004). How corporate culture impacts unethical distortion of financial numbers: Managing by objectives and results could be counterproductive and contribute to a climate that may lead to distortion of the system, manipulation of accounting figures, and, ultimately, unethical behavior. Management Accounting Quarterly. Retrieved October 10, 2011 from: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0OOL/is_4_5/ai_n6276425/?tag=content;col1
Jacobsen, R. (2008) Unethical behavior in the workplace. Retrieved October 10, 2011 from: http://ezinearticles.com/?Unethical-Behavior-In-The-Workplace&id=954264 .
Xaxx, J. (2011). What are the causes of ethical lapses in accounting? Houston Chronicle Small Business website. Retrieved October 10, 2011 from:
To Natacha Saintjean
It is true that women are taught to be loving and caring, that these are traits that are socialized into female children. As a result, it may seem that all women are innately more loving and caring. Yet research also seems to suggest that there may be an evolutionary or biological component to the tendency of women to develop nurturing behaviors (Gilligan 1982; Noddings, 2010). The ability to bear children predisposes the female to nurture and preserve life, rather than resort to violence as a means of conflict resolution. The question then becomes why males are socialized to be aggressive, or whether their biology predisposes them.
Likewise, men and women are socialized differently with regards to acceptable or normative behaviors. It is true that women are freer to express different emotional states like crying without stigma, whereas crying can be stigmatized behavior in a man. Given the…
Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women’s development (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Retrieved from http://courseweb.stthomas.edu/sjlaumakis/Reading 4-GILLIGAN.pdf
Noddings, N. (2010). The maternal factor: Two paths to morality [Electronic version]. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Retrieved from https://library.ashford.edu/ezproxy.aspx?url=http%3A//site.ebrary.com/lib/ashford/detail.action?docID=10675800&p00=maternal+factor%3A+two+paths+morality
Ethical Behavior Theory in Organizations
This analytical research report discusses the debatable issue of the much-needed ethical behavior in working milieu. The research paper highlights the fundamental characteristics, a well-drafted research design, a separate section of suggestions; a orks Cited an appendix featuring important data and relevant diagrams pertaining to the organizational behavior theory and the underlying ethical issues. The orks Cited nine sources in MLA format.
ETHICS AND ORGANIZATIONS
Ethics and ethical behavior: a challenge for organizations
UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS
Reasons for unethical behavior in organizations
Prevalent justifications of unethical behavior
Results from Baucus and Near's research model
SOCIAL SYSTEMS AND BEHAVIORS
NEED FOR ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORAL THEORY
hat is organizational behavior?
Purpose of organizational behavior
An overview of organizational behavior and its cardinal components
Basic models of organizational behaviors
PRAGMATIC SUGGESTIONS FOR AMELIORATION
Drucker P. Claremont Graduate Univ., Managing Oneself., Harvard Business
Review, 03-01-1999, pp 65.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Ethical behavior of a person or a corporation greatly affects the stakeholders with which that person is involved. Often, people and companies take serious consideration when it comes to those stakeholders, and they work to take good care of the people who are involved with them (Keller, 2002). There have been cases, though, where ethical behavior has been ignored in the name of profit. Eventually, most companies and people who ignore their ethics are caught and punished, but not before they end up harming the financial and emotional lives of many of their stakeholders. Plato once said that the nature and the origin of justice was that men who were capable of doing wrong to other people would often do so. He also said that men who did not have enough strength to keep themselves from being harmed by others would not do harm to other people.
In other words,…
Anderson, A.A. (1999). Downsizing and the Meaning of Work. Babson College Business Ethics Program.
Keller, K.W. (2002). What does a business owe the community? The Signal.
Ethical Behaviors of Mattel in the Toy Industry
The ethicacy of corporate behaviors are influenced by a myriad of factors yet most strongly reflect the internal culture, alignment of leadership to vision, and accumulated trade-offs made by management over years of ethical decisions, trade-offs and outcomes. In the study Mattel, Inc.: Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP) - A life-cycle analysis of a company-based code of conduct in the toy industry (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011) the authors successfully provide insights into the moral and ethical dilemmas of operating a multinational corporation (MNC) that is highly dependent on Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP). The life-cycle analysis of company-based code of conduct also illustrates how creating a solid ethical foundation using a Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) platform is only as effective as the aligning of senior management, vision and mission, and manufacturing, sourcing, supply chain and distribution is (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011). When…
Gordley, J., & Cecil, S. (1998). Good faith and profit maximization. Review of Business, 19(4), 11-17.
Heinze, E. (2010). The meta-ethics of law: Book one of Aristotle's Nicomachean ethics. International Journal of Law in Context, 6(1), 23-44.
Kielsgard, M.D. (2011). Universalism and human rights in the 21st century. Asia Pacific Law Review, 19(2), 155-176.
Machan, T.R. (2004). Aristotle and the moral status of business. Journal of Value Inquiry, 38(2), 217-223.
Immanuel Kant, an 18th century German philosopher, established a set of categorical imperatives on how one should conduct their lives, one of them being treat people as an end, and never as a means to an end (Johnson, 2010). A more recent duty-based theory is by British philosopher W.D. oss, which emphasizes prima facie duties. Like those before him, oss argues that our duties are part of the fundamental nature of the universe. oss claims his list of duties reflects our actual moral convictions. They are 1) fidelity - the duty to keep our promises, 2) reparation - the duty to compensate others when we harm them, 3) gratitude - the duty to thank those who help us, 4) justice - the duty to recognize merit, 5) beneficence - the duty to improve the conditions of others, 6) self-improvement - the duty to improve our virtue and intelligence, and 7)…
Fieser, J. (2009). Ethics. Internet encyclopedia of philosopy. Retrieved November 27, 2010, from http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/
Johnson, R. (2010, Summer). Kant's moral philosophy. The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Edward N. Zalta, (ed.). Retrieved November 27,2010, from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2010/entries/kant-moral/
Skelton, a. (2010, Fall). William Davis Ross. The Stanford encyclopedia of philosopy. Edward N. Zalta, (ed.) Retrieved November 27, 2010, from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2010/entries/william-david-ross/
Uzgalis, W. (2010, Summer). John Locke. Ethics. The Stanford encyclopedia of philosopy. Edward N. Zalta, (ed.) Retrieved November 27, 2010, from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2010/entries/locke/
On the subject of shareholders and adverse publicity, in the book Corporate Ethics and Corporate Governance, the authors mention how much investors / shareholders "hate" surprises, in particular when the surprises are caused by the "unethical behavior of senior managers…" (Zimmerli, et al., 2007, p. 155). In today's mass media environment it is a sure thing that some blogger, local newspaper reporter or national cable news talking head is going to find out that company X has hired a lobbying firm to basically bust the competition. hen this story hits the 24-hour news cycle -- and the media today is extremely competitive, so it is a given that several media outlets will dig deeper into the story and be less than objective in their reports -- the shareholders will be hit with the surprise they did not want to be hit with.
An embarrassing public relations disaster like this…
Baglini, Norman a. (2001). Ethical Behavior, Corporate Culture and Financial Services. The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance, 26(3), 367-372.
Zimmerli, Walther Christoph, Zimmerli, Walther C., Richter, Klaus, and Holzinger, Markus.
(2007). Corporate Ethics and Corporate Governance. New York: Springer.
Here, Aristotle recognizes the variances which appear
to define our establishment of the means to pursuing happiness, musing that
"the characteristics that are looked for in happiness seem also, all of
them, to belong to what we have defined happiness as being. For some
identify happiness with virtue, some with practical wisdom, others with a
kind of philosophic wisdom, others with these, or one of these, accompanied
by pleasure or not without pleasure; while others include also external
prosperity." (Aristotle, I: 8) Aristotle uses this as a divining rod for
dissecting the various relationships which are perpetuated amongst
individuals. His argument engages in the dialectical process to discern
that which is 'good' apart from that which is 'evil' or 'neutral.' Through
such an engagement, he achieves a satisfactorily defended notion of 'good':
"Aristotle identifies the distinctively human phenomenon of
action arising from reason as the function of the human being:…
Eliot, G. (1872). Middlemarch. Penguin Classics.
McNickle, D. (1936). Surrounded. University of New Mexico Press.
Rachels, James. (1993). The Utilitarian Approach. The Elements of Moral
Philosophy, pg. 91-101. New York: McGraw Hill.
Rachels, James. (1993). Kant and Respect for Persons. The Elements of
Moral Philosophy, pg. 127-138. New York: McGraw Hill.
Ethical behavior is essential to conduct in business. In that business executives employ ethical behavior, relationships are predicated on trust and the maintenance of standards. However, the standards that are agreed to by a business are not established in a vacuum; they must be grounded in commonly held social principles in order to be valid in the context of a business environment. Many communities in the United States are predicated on a Christian value system. Even when community residents do not profess faith in the teachings of Christ, the residual effect of centuries of Christianity creates an intuitively Christian world-view in America and many other countries.
However, common perceptions about Christianity and the perceived adverse effects of 'fundamentalism' within Christian communities has resulted in a re-questioning of Christianity in the workplace; active measures have already been taken to eradicate it from many schools. However, the manager is still able to…
Whereas Hess implies that individual and social interests are in accordance, Burkett points out that certain businesses consistently act unethically and are able to get away with it. He likens this to a personal struggle with vice and a test of the Christian's faith; we see that Burkett assumes that his audience is Christian and that they are faced with temptations to engage in un-Christian behavior that may seem financially or socially amenable. Ultimately, Christianity is more than just a methodology of business conduct as are the conventional ethics of business. It is fortunate that the latter, in principle, attemps to accommodate the former.
Larry Burkett. Business by the Book. Thomas Nelson; 1998.
Peter Hess. Management: Responsibilities for Performance. McGraw-Hill; 1996.
Ethical Business Behavior at CVS
CVS is a pharmaceutical health care company that engages in the provision of mail order pharmacy, specialty pharmacy, retail pharmacy and retail clinic care. The company has a wide range of network outlets and a customer base that requires strict adherence to the industry's laws and regulations. The company has a set of guidelines to facilitate ethical business practice in operation across all its branches.
The corporation has in place a program on compliance and integrity owing to the vastness of its operations. The integrity and compliance program seek to ensure that the company's operations are responsive to the dynamics of the environment. The integrity and compliance program provide a code of conduct, procedures, policies and training regarding ethical behaviors. The company requires all its employees and branches to cooperate with investigations relating to compliance and regulations. The integrity and compliance program also provide incentives…
Ethical Behavior, Habits and Customs
In order to behave ethically, one must first understand ethics -- what the concept signifies and entails. Broadly, ethics is differentiating right from wrong, and ethical conduct is acting in keeping with ethics. According to Anderson, ethical conduct involves applying reflective intelligence for revising one's judgments, considering the ramifications of one's action. Habits, meanwhile, refer to socially-influenced inclinations towards specific ways of reacting to the context or specific kinds of activity. Habits direct impulses along specified pathways, towards particular goals, by engraining application of specific means and prescribing particular behavior in particular situations. Although we all have our own unique habits, customs or habits we share as a community or population are most salient. These customs are transmitted from one generation to the next via socialization. Customs result from activity. Although habits encompass socially-significant notions and purposes, they work beneath an individual's consciousness. Habits recede…
Anderson, Elizabeth. "Dewey's Moral Philosophy." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 20 January 2014. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/dewey-moral/ . Accessed 12 September 2016.
Mohamad, Ahmad J. "Shakespeare's Others." July 2011. University of Amsterdam. http://dare.uva.nl/cgi/arno/show.cgi?fid=352550 . Accessed 12 September 2016.
Porter, Jean. "Moral Mistakes, Virtue and Sin: The Case of Othello." Studies in Christian Ethics, Vol 18, No. 2, 2005, pp. 23-44, http://sce.sagepub.com/content/18/2/23.full.pdf+html . Accessed 12 September 2016.
Ethics and Nursing
One of the complexities of 21st century medicine is the evolution of nursing care theories in combination with a changing need and expectation of the stakeholder population. Nurses must be advocates and communicators, but must balance these along with an overall philosophy of ethics while still remaining mindful of budgets and the need for the medical institution to be profitable. It seems as if these issues comprise a three-part template for nursing: respect for patient value & individuality, education of patients, and cognition and respect for the realities of contemporary medicine. When there are issues surrounding unethical behavior, the standard view is that the issue is one of ignorance (unaware of the issue or policy), failure (sloppy medical work), or intent (purposeful negativity). Instead, Christopher Meyers (2004) believes that it is more the culture of the institution that frames ethical behavior than it is anything more purposeful.…
Gaudine, A., et.al. (2011). Ethical Conflicts With Hospitals: The Perspective of Nurses
And Physicians. Nursing Ethics. 18 (6): 756-66.
Meyers, C. (2004). Institutional Culture and Individual Behavior: Creating an Ethical
Environment. Science and Engineering Ethics, 10 (1): 269-76.
IV: How to influence stakeholders and shareholders to behave ethically
It would be perfectly normal for any organization or individual that is often faced with ethical dilemmas to be assisted by someone who is experienced in decision making and who is better qualified to deal with ethical dilemmas. Shareholders often tend to be biased in decision making, as they are aware that their wealth can be put at serious risk if they perform a wrong move. In contrast, stakeholders are more likely to behave objectively when they know that their decisions will not necessarily affect their social position. Thus, stakeholders can behave more ethically than shareholders, but the downside on this is that the former have more chances of performing mistakes, as they know that the risks involved in most conditions that they encounter are lesser on their side.
In particular situations, stakeholders can feel more inclined to behave unethically,…
1. Klein, Linda S. "Ethical Decision Making in a Business Environment," Review of Business 13.3 (1991).
2. Sauer, Wolfgang "Also a Concrete Self-Interest," UN Chronicle Sept.-Nov. 2002.
Linda S. Klein, "Ethical Decision Making in a Business Environment," Review of Business 13.3 (1991).
Wolfgang Sauer, "Also a Concrete Self-Interest," UN Chronicle Sept.-Nov. 2002.
Our society values tolerance, diversity, and the American Dream. Illegal immigration is not immoral, nor even unethical except for the fact that working illegally breaks the law. Following the law is usually considered a moral and ethical act. Firms that hire illegal immigrants may do so in spite of how the general culture feels about the behavior. A firm that values profit, for example, might hire illegal immigrants in order to pay them less than minimum wage and save labor costs. or, a firm that values human rights might help their illegal immigrant employees apply for residency. In either case, the firm's values do not necessarily correspond with those of the dominant culture. Basically, individuals and firms often act with self-interest in mind rather than obey the moral and ethical codes of the society.
ieselman, D. (2005). What are values? University of Cincinnati. etrieved July 4, 2007 at http://www.magazine.uc.edu/0805/whatarevalues.htm…
Rieselman, D. (2005). What are values? University of Cincinnati. Retrieved July 4, 2007 at http://www.magazine.uc.edu/0805/whatarevalues.htm
Values, Morals, and Ethics." Changing Minds. Retrieved July 4, 2007 at http://changingminds.org/explanations/values/values_morals_ethics.htm
The three basic ethical theories share a number of similarities, because they each attempt to describe and explicate the ethical decisions made by humans as well as the logic (or illogic) that is used to inform any particular behavior. Utilitarianism offers what is perhaps the most sound ethical theory due to the way it chooses for itself the goal of its efforts, but it is hampered by disagreement regarding the precise execution of the theory. A deontological theory of ethics may be useful for formulating general rules regarding proper behavior, and as such is popular is the workplace, but these rules are not universally applicable and in some cases can actually lead to unethical behavior if followed without fail. Finally, while virtues-based ethics purports to offer individuals instruction for the cultivation of ideal behavioral traits, by definition it cannot offer a universal ethical norm, as it is based…
Begley, A.M. (2005). Practising virtue: A challenge to the view that a virtue centred approach to ethics lacks practical content. Nursing Ethics, 12(6), 622-37.
Broad, C. (1930). Five types of ethical theory. New York: Routledge.
Darwall (Ed.). (2003). Virtue ethics. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
DeConinck, J.B., & Lewis, W.F. (1997). The influence of deontological and teleological considerations and ethical climate on sales managers intentions to reward or punish sales force behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(5), 497-506.
Ethical issues are now just as much of a concern as they were thirty years or more ago. (Qian, Gao, Yao & odriguez) Ethics are a clear set of principles dealing with what is considered appropriate behavior in-group and individual counseling. These standards were created not only to protect clients, but also to protect counselors. As a counselor, a fine line can easily be crossed if the counselor and/or the client do not follow and understand basic rules that are in place regarding ethical interactions between clients and counselors. It is evident that no matter what area of counseling one chooses to go into, there are always concerns and issues with ethical boundaries, and what is and is not acceptable. (Justice & Garland) Every Human interaction involves the interpretation of roles and interpersonal boundaries. These roles dictate what behavior is appropriate and inappropriate professionally and personally. In the current essay,…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American School Counselor Association. (2004). Ethical standards for school counselors. Retrieved September 15, 2011, from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=173
Aoyagi, M, & Portenga, S 2010, 'The role of positive ethics and virtues in the context of sport and performance psychology service delivery', Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41, 3, pp. 253-259, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 September 2011.
Bodenhorn, N 2006, 'Exploratory Study of Common and Challenging Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Professional School Counselors', Professional School Counseling, 10, 2, p. 195, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 September 2011.
Ethical Training -- Successes and Failures
Ethical Training: Successes and Failures
Ethics are often thought of as black and white, but that is really not the case. There are many shades of grey, and what is ethical in some instances may not be ethical in others. Additionally, there are concerns when it comes to what one person thinks is ethical vs. what another would find ethical. That is often why there are so many discrepancies and issues to consider when one talks about ethics. It is not just a simple issue where a person can say that something is always ethical or not ethical. Instead, the situation must be considered, as well as the people and the circumstances surrounding everything. In many cases, the issue comes down to ethical training, which does not always work out well. The plan is to train people to act ethically, but training someone to…
Becker, L.C. & Becker, C.B. (2002). Encyclopedia of Ethics (2nd ed.). NY: Routledge.
Singer, P. (2000). Writings on an ethical life. London: Harper Collins Publishers.
The role of ethics in healthcare is to mitigate risks and ensure oversight of each strategic process area, ensuring patient treatment quality consistency and transparency. The American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE) Code of Ethics and its self-assessment provide foundational insights into how ethical decisions can be more effectively made and how decision making can align effectively to the ACHE standards. Ethics are the foundation of patient trust and need to be the catalyst of transparency throughout a healthcare provider organization to the practice level and ultimately solidifying patient and healthcare provider collaboration to common goals (Higgins, Gross, Hackett, 2000). In the highest-performing healthcare providers, there is a tight alignment of patient expectations and the need for transparency on the one hand, and the ethics and willingness of a healthcare provider to disclose data and knowledge necessary to keep treatment plans progressing (Frederick, Wasieleski, Weber, 2000). In addition…
Ehlen, K.J., & Sprenger, G. (1998). Ethics and decision making in healthcare. Journal of Healthcare Management, 43(3), 219-21.
Frederick, W.C., Wasieleski, D., & Weber, J. (2000). Values, ethics, and moral reasoning among healthcare professionals: A survey. HEC Forum, 12(2), 124-40.
Higgins, W., Gross, J.W., & Hackett, K.L. (2000). Ethical guidance in the era of managed care: An analysis of the American College of healthcare executives' code of ethics. Journal of Healthcare Management, 45(1), 32-42; discussion 43-5.
Weil, Peter A, PhD., F.A.C.H.E., Kimball, P.A., & Lerner, Wayne M, Dr. P.H., F.A.C.H.E. (2010). The volunteer activities of healthcare Executives/Practioner Application. Journal of Healthcare Management, 55(2), 115-29; discussion 129-31.
Emphasize the importance of courtesy, organization, and calmness to all staff members. These qualities on the part of the staff can reinforce the importance of generally good and ethical behaviour to the tourists, which may then carry over to their behaviour in the destination country.
Maintain a neutral stance on the culture of the destination country or countries. Making clear that all cultures have equal value and that ethical behaviour must be expected of all visitors. It must also be clear through explicit instructions and by example that tourists often have greater power than the people they are visiting and so must act with respect and restraint.
Obey the laws, regulations, customs, and traditions of both departure and destination countries. This is clearly linked to the above. (Fennell: 2006; Fennell & Malloy: 2007).
Charter airline companies are private corporations, which ensures that those who own them (either directly or indirectly…
Fennell, D.A. (2006). Tourism Ethics. Clevedon, England: Channel View.
Fennell, D.A. And Malloy, D.C. (2007). Codes of Ethics in Tourism: Practice, Theory and Synthesis. Clevedon, England: Channel View.
Holden, a. (2005). Tourism Studies and the Social Sciences. Oxon, England: Routledge.
Krippendorf, J. (1987) the Holiday Makers: Understanding the Impact of Leisure and Travel. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
The Definition of Ethics
In practically all areas of society ethical subjects are rapidly increasing. Professionals in the health field struggle with ethical questions in relation to abortion, transplants, birth control, informed consent, life-support systems, malpractice suits, patient privacy, human genetics, and high costs of insurance, as well as care on the whole. Ethical matters in relation to nuclear power accidents, oil spills, disposal of industrial waste, defense weaponry, lead and asbestos poisoning, acid rain, as well as ecological balance challenge those in technology, science, and industry. People in the political ground deal with ethical queries in relation to unemployment, homelessness, foreign policy decisions, Social Security, welfare reform, electioneering costs, law enforcement practices, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) activities, racial and gender discrimination, immigration control, drugs, crime, and lobbying actions. The legal profession is blamed of unethical customs like engaging in doubtful plea-bargaining practices, motivating a harmful litigious spirit,…
Arnett R.C. (1992). Dialogic education: Conversation about ideas and between persons. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
Berlo D.K. (1960). Dimensions for evaluating the acceptability of message sources. Public Opinion Quarterly, 33, 563-576.
Bauer R.A. (1964). The obstinate audience: The influence process from the point-of-view of social communication. American Psychologist, 19, 319-328.
Converse E.J., Campbell D.T., Miller R.D. And Stokes L. (1960). Nonreactive measures in the social sciences. (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Ethical and Socially esponsive Business
Ethics in business has a human aspect and is directly related to the success of any business. This therefore means that corporate leaders in organizations have to be very careful about the ethical conduct of their business and how they address any ethical problem that comes up. This paper will look at the code of ethical conduct for a selected company.it will give a description of key areas of the selected company's code of conduct that have a significant importance to the business.it will also give an explanation of the key steps the company should take in order to ensure that its employees follow this code of conduct. Finally suggestions will be given on ways through which the company can take part in socially responsive activities within he community where it carries out its operations.
Chipotle Mexican Grill, Inc. is a restaurant that is committed…
Is it ethical to encourage Hindus to eat beef-containing McDonald's products, even if the consumer is free to choose to do so? Is it ethical to alter the healthy French relationship to food, to sell quickly consumed 'food on the go' burgers in that nation? Or to market beauty products in Asia that stress the loveliness of the wider estern eye-shape that Asian women cannot attain, without plastic surgery? If the marketing campaign is fully effective, the culture of the nation will be changed, even though stockholders may profit.
Any business boss can make a strong case for the view that agonizing over the impact of one's business decisions on the health of a competitor weakens your effectiveness," scoffs one industry analyst. (Parry, 2003) but while behaving unethically in the short run may reap rich marketing rewards, one could counter that a culturally exploitative and damaging campaign could generate such…
Boyd, Stephen. (Feb 2005) "Word of Mouth -- Marketing Code of Ethics." (Parry, 2004) Get Real. Retrieved 26 Mar 2005 at http://www.corante.com/getreal/archives/2005/02/09/word_of_mouth_marketing_code_of_ethics.php
Parry, Mike. (2004) "Moral Philosophy and Business." Philosophos. Retrieved 26 Mar 2005 at http://www.philosophos.com/philosophy_article_45.html
Sriniva, Tulasi. (3 April 2004) "When food defines culture: The gastronomic landscape that we inhabit is shifting." Deccan Herald. Retrieved 26 Mar 2005 at http://www.deccanherald.com/deccanherald/apr302004/liv3.asp
Ethical and Legal obligations in financial reporting is extremely important in today's world, fraught as it is with corporate frauds and accounting scams and scandals of every other sort. One Company, the Thornburg Investment Company, has taken a firm stand on financial reporting within its company, wherein all concerned officials are expected to report accurately, any actual, as well as suspected violations and breaches in the laws and rules and regulations of the company, to the appropriate personnel, immediately. (Code of Business Conduct and Ethics) Another Company, the 'Trinity Capital Corporation' stresses the importance of adhering to the rules and regulations created by the Company so that the company's loyalty to its numerous shareholders may be apparent. Where financial reporting is concerned, all the employees of the firm are expected to comply with the generally accepted rules laid down by the accounting principles of the United States of America, so…
"Accounting Concepts, underlying assumptions, principles, and conventions" Retrieved From
http://www.quickmba.com/accounting/fin/concepts / Accessed on 20 June, 2005
"Business Conduct and Ethics Policy" Retrieved From
http://www.lanb.com/tcc/bcecharter.asp Accessed on 19 June, 2005
This is dangerous for both clients and workers. When this becomes an issue in the human service field is when an organization is charged with a client that cannot be left alone. At this point in time, certain managers may desire to force employees to stay on the clock or to work while off the clock, but making such workplace violations can lead to an unsafe environment in which both client and worker are at risk. In addition, safety and OSHA workplace violation are an ethical problem that put many at risk, especially when one is working in a dangerous or medical field. Thus, workplace violations on the part of both workers and managers can be dangerous for all involved.
In conclusion, the field of human services is reserved for those who wish to provide care to others. Although this field is the perfect fit for those who genuinely have…
Department of Transportation. (2001). Preventing Sexual Harassment: A Fact Sheet For
Employees. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://www.dotcr.ost.dot.gov/Documents/complaint/Preventing_Sexual_Harassment.htm
National Organization for Human Services (1996). Ethical Standards of Human Services
Professionals. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://www.nationalhumanservices.org/%5Btitle%5D-22
Ethical Issues in Marketing Field
Ethics can be defined as standards employed by people to choose the right course of action amongst diverse, often conflicting possibilities. Ethics are reliant on a logical and rational set of principles to arrive at a decision, which in essence, is a cognitive procedure or practice. Ethical standards are an imperative element for any company or organization, especially in contemporary times, where a progression of the internet and information is accessible to any individual and as such individuals are prone to being online for extended periods (Sandilands, 2016). Ethics impact a business in various ways. One of the ways is the manner in which organizations carry out their advertising. Majority of the businesses will need to advertise their products or services with the principal aim of increasing their customer base, and thereby, their revenues. Businesses are obligated to undertake such activities ethically. Ethical advertising is…
Anastasia. (2015). Social Responsibility & Ethics in Marketing. Retrieved from: https://www.cleverism.com/social-responsibility-ethics-marketing/
Carroll, A., Buchholtz, A. (2012). Business and Society: Ethics, Sustainability, and Stakeholder Management. Cengage Learning.
McKenzie, N., Baker, R. (2016). Surf clothing label Rip Curl using 'slave labour' to manufacture clothes in North Korea. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 16 June 2016 from: http://www.smh.com.au/business/surf-clothing-label-rip-curl-using-slave-labour-to-manufacture-clothes-in-north-korea-20160219-gmz375.html
Sandilands, T. (2016). Marketing Issues That Have Ethical Implications. Chron. Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com /marketing-issues-ethical-implications-24089.html
The program focuses on building an ethical culture, but does not appear to specifically address fraud risk assessments, controls over fraud prevention or other SOX provisions.
3) the company currently focuses on training and enculturation to sensitize its employees to ethical issues. One suggestion would be to align executive compensation with the objectives of the shareholders. Options only bring about temporary alignment, so shares or other long-term strategies should be used instead. This will help management to focus on both ethics and profitability. Another suggestion would be to build upon their existing program by creating job-specific training as well as corporate-wide training. This way the scenarios that the workers are exposed to are specific to situations they might see, which will bring the message closer to home.
No author. (2008) Sarbanes-Oxley. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://thecaq.aicpa.org/Resources/Sarbanes+Oxley/
No author. (2008). Federal Sentencing…
No author. (2008) Sarbanes-Oxley. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://thecaq.aicpa.org/Resources/Sarbanes+Oxley/
No author. (2008). Federal Sentencing Guidelines. Ethics Resource Center. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://www.ethics.org/erc-publications/federal-sentencing-guidelines.asp
The published codes of ethics for different professions try to make it clear that "professional" in that occupation will not misuse that power, and especially that the use will not be made for personal gain. Of course, in totality, the codes of ethics should provide guidance about the values to be upheld in the profession, specific ethical principles and specific standards. (Professional code of Ethics)
Since there is a wide variation in codes for different professions, it is required that codes from some professions be looked at to decide the ethical standards of a profession. However, studying ethical codes does not mean that the individual will be following the codes and behaving in an ethical manner. This is mentioned clearly in the code for National Association of Social Work as "a code of ethics cannot resolve all ethical issues or disputes or capture the richness and complexity involved in striving…
An Overview of Morality and ethical systems" Retrieved at http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/415/415lect01.htm. Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Dean, John. W. (26 March, 2004) "A Closer Look at the Case from Which Justice Scalia Has
Refused To Rescue Himself." Retrieved at http://writ.news.findlaw.com/dean/20040326.html . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
Etzioni, Amitai. (4 August, 2004) "When It Comes to Ethics, B-Schools Get an F" Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&contentId=A38323-2002Aug2¬Found=true . Accessed on 30 July, 2005
ethical issues for business organizations in the twenty-first century. The forces of globalization have increased the degree to which diverse groups in society have grown dependent on one another. Hence, their expectations influence the freedoms and responsibilities of other groups. The expectations of various stakeholders have placed greater responsibilities on business organizations to be ethical in their communication with their stakeholders. Business organizations are under growing pressure to be ethical in their employment practices and in the sourcing of raw materials and labour for their operations. In addition, they are expected to recognize their responsibility towards the economic and social development of the communities where they operate and those that they influence through their operations. Hence, business organizations are also responsible to act ethically in relation to their use of the resources of the environment and to the extent that they influence it in adverse ways, such as by polluting…
Alder, C.S., & Gilbert, J. (2006). Achievign ethics and fairness in hiring: Going beyond the law. Journal of business ethics, Vol. 68, pp. 449-464. doi: 10.1007/s10551-006-9039-z.
Dresp-Langley, B. (2008). The communication contract and its ten ground clauses. Journal of business ethics, Vol. 87, pp. 415-436. doi: 10.1007/s10551-008-9929-3.
Duska, R.F. (2006). Contemporary reflections on business ethics. Springer Publications.
Low, W., & Davenport, E. (2009). Organizational leadership, ethicsand the challenges of marketing fair and fair trade. Journal of business ethics, Vol. 86, pp. 97-108. doi: 10.1007/s10551-008-9763-7.
Creating an ethical foundation is crucial for success within a changing consumer environment (Driscoll & Hoffman 2000). As more and more consumers become concerned with organization's social and environmental responsibilities, organizations with clear unethical or deviant behaviors are seeing sharp declines in terms of consumer reputations. The modern market place is dictating higher standards for corporate responsibility and organizational ethics weaved within the framework of businesses. This is the reasons why Trudel & Cotte describe companies with greater ethical foundations as being more productive in terms of charging higher premiums. Essentially, consumers are willing to pay more for ethical products; "It seems that once companies hit a certain ethical threshold, consumers will reward them by paying higher process for their products" (Trudel & Cotte 2008). Consumers clearly notice the effort of creating an ethical foundation within production efforts (Lecture 1). Yet, the levels of ethical responsibility placed into…
Driscoll, Dawn-Marie & Hoffman, W. Michael. (2000). Ethics Matters: How to Implement Values-Driven Management. Brentley College Center for Business Ethics.
Lecture 1. (2012). Ethical Issues in Organizational Communication.
Lecture 2. (2012). Ethical Issues in Organizational Communication.
Lecture 3. (2012). Ethical Issues in Organizational Communication.
Ethical Issue Business discusses questions Mayor Bob Filner San Diego sexually harassing staff. • hat basis issue? • Identify ground rules manifested situation. He mayor San Diego sexually harassing staff, terminated city council .
Ethical behavior in the context of Bob Filner's sexual harassment charges
There is much controversy concerning San Diego Mayor Bob Filner on account of the public official being accused of having sexually harassed several of his employees. hile Filner claims to be innocent and believes that his current condition resulted from a series of rumors involving unspecified individuals. In spite of the fact that several female staff initially preferred to remain anonymous, evidence seemed credible and Filner was called out to respond to these allegations. Filner apparently abused his position and attempted to exploit female employees he was in charge of thinking that he would escape without being penalized as a result of this act.
Montoya, K. Bob Filner Apologizes, Resigns as Mayor of San Diego -- Kacey Montoya Reports. Retrieved August 30, 2013, from http://ktla.com/local-news/stories/san-diego-mayor-bob-filner-admits-sexual-harassment/#ixzz2dUWl5U7P .
Wicks, D. Small Business > Business & Workplace Regulations > Workplace Harassment Ethical Implications of Sexual Harassment in the Workplace. Retrieved August 30, 2013, from
ethical issues is the only way to devise a personal moral code that can carry into one's professional life. It is helpful to imagine hypothetical moral dilemmas or reflect on known dilemmas prior to being placed in a position of having to make moral decisions. We need to "face up to the hard questions," and risk the "intellectual, psychological, and emotional discomfort" of doing so (Jones & Carlson, 2004, p. 6). Doing the right thing depends largely on experience, though, which is why it can be of great help to think clearly about all potential problems, situations, and outcomes and put those thoughts into action. Unless we have thought something through in our head first, we may never have a blueprint of ethical behavior.
Compromising personal values and interests is never easy. However, I do understand where Jones & Carlson (2004) are coming from. The authors note that students are…
Jones, J.R. & Carlson, D.P. (2004). Reputable Conduct. 2nd Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Martin, K. (2001). The powerful role of ethics in corrections. Retrieved online: http://www.corrections.com/articles/7890-the-powerful-role-of-ethics-in-corrections
Asked by Friends to Overlook Shoplifting in a Store
Like many students, to supplement my income I worked in a jewelry store in a local mall. The store did exceptionally good business during the holiday season with many married couples choosing to get their wedding bands just before the holidays or right after. There was often a rush of customers during the big sales the Friday after Thanksgiving and throughout the holiday season which unfortunately met more customers would try to walk out with expensive merchandise without first paying. One of my friends came into the store and asked to see a gold necklace worth over $500. It was 14K gold and had a very unique design which made it immediately recognizable. My friend wanted to get it for his girlfriend, but did not have the money. Their efforts to get the necklace made me face a very…
Nursing Ethical Theories
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Significance of Moral in Nursing
Deontology vs. Utilitarianism
Justice Ethics vs. Care Ethics
Conflict of ights
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Moral philosophy has moved from addressing Plato's question of what makes the good person, to Kant's query as to the right thing to do, to Buber's concern with relationship. Whether referring to business ethics' interest in relationships between corporations and consumers; legal ethics' focus on relationships among the legal system, clients, and society; or nursing ethics' consideration of the relationship between patient and nurse; ethics and morality are conceptualized and actualized on the playing field of relationship.
The nature of nursing as a moral endeavor is an assumption embedded in any philosophical or theoretical consideration of the discipline and practice of nursing. An the goal of nursing is a moral one, namely, the good of…
Bandman, E.L., & Bandman, B.(1995). Nursing ethics through the lifespan (3rd ed.). Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange
Buber, M.(1965). Between man and man (R.G. Smith & M.Friedman, Trans). New York: Macmillan. (Original work published 1947).
Carper, B. (1979). The ethics of caring. Advances in Nursing Science, 1(3), 11-19
Cooper, M.C. (1991). Principle-oriented ethics and the ethic of care: A creative tension. Advances in Nursing Science, 14(2), 22-31.
Did he have the right to make such promises knowing that the company may be moving to Mexico? The simple answer is no. It was unethical to make such promises knowing full well that the company may be moving to Mexico. However, it is not always simple. He made the promises knowing that the company MIGHT move to Mexico. The negotiations are still ongoing so at the time the promises were made he had no concrete knowledge that a move would be taking place. Because he had no knowledge of an actual move being planned, and only knew it was being negotiated he was under no legal obligation to not make those promises. Luckily ethical obligations and legal obligations are often two different things. Ethical obligations are not as concrete nor do they require proof beyond the shadow of a doubt. It is without question that the promises this company…
ERWIN, WESLEY J. Supervisor Moral Sensitivity. Counselor Education and Supervision; 12/1/2000;
Kensicki, Peter R. 'Utmost Good Faith' Implies Good Ethics. National Underwriter Property & Casualty-Risk & Benefits Management; 7/31/2000;
Reamer, Frederic G.,the Social Work Ethics Audit: A Risk-Management Strategy.
Social Work; 7/1/2000;
[electronic resource] Journal of Business Ethics
Lin, C. And Ding, C.(2003) "Modeling Information Ethics: The Joint Moderating ole of Locus of Control and Job Insecurity," Journal of Business Ethics, 48:(4), 335- 346.
Molander, E. A 1987), 'A Paradigm for Design, Promulgation and Enforcement of Ethical Codes', Journal of Business Ethics 6, 619-631.
Paradice, D. B (1990) 'Ethical Attitudes of Entry- Level MIS Personnel', Information and Management 18, 143-151.
Parker, D. B (1981) 'Ethical Dilemmas in Computer Technology', in Ethics and the Management of Computer Technology (Proceedings of the Fourth National Conference on Business Ethics, Bentley
Pierce, M.A. And J.W. Henry (1996)'Computer Ethics: The ole of Personal, Informal, and Formal Codes', Journal of Business Ethics 15, 425 -- 437.
Pierce, M.A. And J.W. Henry (2000)'Judgements about Computer Ethics: Do Individual, Co-worker, and Company Judgements Differ? Do Company Codes Make a Difference?
Quinn, J. (1997) "Personal Ethics and Business Ethics: The Ethical…
Bass, K., Barnett, T., and Brown, G.(1999) "Individual Difference Variables, Ethical Judgments, and Ethical Behavioral Intentions." Business Ethics Quarterly, 9:(2),, 183- 205.
Barnes, R. F (1990), 'The Making of an Ethics Code', Bulletin of the American Society
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Cassell, C., Johnson, P., and K. Smith (1997) 'Opening the Black Box: Corporate Codes of Ethics in the Organizational Context', Journal of Business Ethics 16, 1077 -- 1093.
Within the specific business climate, a major reason attesting to the value of the lessons learnt is represented by the role of the organizational culture. The organizational culture can be defined as the "values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization. Organizational culture is the sum total of an organization's past and current assumptions, experiences, philosophy, and values that hold it together, and is expressed in its self-image, inner workings, interactions with the outside world, and future expectations" (Business Dictionary).
The organizational culture is as such the nucleus of any company and it impacts the means in which the employees work and function and also the means in which the organizational objectives are met. An organizational culture focused on ethical behavior will function in an ethical manner and will as such create a positive reputation and positive results, whereas a company with an…
Organizational culture, Business Dictionary, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/organizational-culture.html last accessed on November 18, 2011
Borderud, S.R., 2009, The ethical framework
Trevino, L.K., Nelson, K.A., Developing ethical organizations: ethics as organizational culture
International medical Laboratories, acronymed as IML, is one of the largest manufacturers of biomedical equipments. The unique selling point of IML is completing heart surgeries using high class equipments. John Cannon is the man behind the structure of the German section of the company (Morris, 1997). John now aims to increase his market reach by approaching surgeons based in Germany. He targets all the clinics and hospitals of this area. John is also the marketing manager of this line of product so it is his responsibility to increase yhe company's reach in international lands. As John plans to expand the company's reach, he will need to address issues of quality, reliability and economic nationalism (Morris, 1997).
In order to establish the credibility of IML, John sets up a meeting with the known cardiovascular surgeon of the region, Dr. Hans ombach. John is sure that if Mr. ombach agrees to go…
1) Morris, T. (1997). The Prominent Dr. Rombach. Case Research Journal, 117-121. (Case Study File Provided By Customer)
2) Dyck, B., & Neubert, M. (2008). Management: Current Practices and New Directions. Cengage Learning.
3) Writer Thoughts
4) Williams, J. (n.d.). Business Ethics Policies & Procedures. Retrieved February 18, 2015, from
Like any other business, multinationals face a myriad of challenges that hamper ideal growth and development of such organizations. The increasingly competitive landscape has made these multinational companies (MNCs) strive hard to survive in the market. egulatory, cultural differences and the uncertain market outlook elucidates these challenges in MNCs. Organizational theorists have established a number of challenges that affect these firms, some which are different from those of domestic firms. Cross-cultural differences have emanated as a major hurdle concerning MNCs. Market liberalization and globalization have fueled a number of risks, some which are unique to MNCs (Cullen & Parboteeah, 2009).
The dynamic and turbulent business environment has presented several challenges, some that were never experienced before. The developing nations have upgraded their productive capabilities as they can now offer technologically sophisticated products and services. In this case, they have increased competition unlike in the previous years. In the…
Cullen, P.P. & Parboteeah, K.P. (2009). International Business: Strategy and the Multinational Company. New York: Routledge
Halbert, T. & Ingulli, E. (2014). Law and Ethics in the Business Environment. New York: Cengage Learning
Ethical Dilemma: Comparison to Behavior of Abramoff in Washington Circles
The objective of this study is to consider the work of Jack Abramoff, which was illegal although the company for whom he worked was completely satisfied with his work. Abramoff was a lobbying and had the ability to get laws passed. In addition, this study will detail an ethical dilemma the writer has faced at work or home and consider the decisions that were made that resulted in one part being hurt or offended regardless of the choice made. The situation will be described and the choice that the writer was faced with and why the course of action taken was chosen. The situation described in this study involves an ethical dilemma in the family, which was experienced by the writer of this work.
Following the death of the writer's mother, the youngest sister of the writer, upon having…
Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference
Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…
BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from www.bacp.co.uk/admin/structure/files/pdf/9479_ethical%20framework%20jan2013.pdf
Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley
Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme
Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power
Ethical Awareness Inventory esults and Analysis
esults of my Ethical Awareness Inventory described my ethical perspective to be character-based, wherein I evaluate people more on their ethical character than their present actions. Basically, the results determined me as an individual who can see past ethical or unethical actions, and identify an ethical or unethical person based on his/her overall character. Since my ethical perspective is character-based, I value in people the qualities of integrity, honesty, and wisdom. For me, a person with a strong ethical character is one who would be capable of discernment and would not have difficulties knowing what is right and what is wrong. It goes without saying then, that I myself is an individual who has developed an ethical character over time. I consider myself to be an individual with integrity, and I expect other people to develop this integrity as well.
The results are indeed…
Abbott, A. (1983). "Professional Ethics." The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 88, No. 5.
Brown, M. (2006). "Ethical leadership: a review and future directions." The Leadership Quarterly, No. 17.
The business is also becoming one of the leading companies and a well-known case study of the fair trade principles within the market. The business is also creating a noble image within the target market through its efforts of creating awareness for paying the fair price to its coca producers. The image created by the business is significantly affecting its brand image as an ethical brand. The research of Britain (2007) is also evident of the findings presented above.
USA consumer attitudes:
According to Ma (2007) the consumers in United States are also familiar with the fair trade attitudes and principles. The young consumers are highly likely to purchase products that are manufactured by the businesses incorporating fair trade principles. The consumers of young age group prefer to value the contributions of manufacturers towards fair trade principles (Gropel, 2012). The graduates and educated high income group is also tilted towards…
Britain, G 2007, Fair trade and development: seventh report of session 2006-07, Vol. 2: Oral and written evidence (Vol. 356), Stationery Office, United Kingdom.
Clarke, N, Barnett, C, Cloke, P & Malpass, a 2007, the political rationalities of fair-trade consumption in the United Kingdom, Politics & Society, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 583-607.
De Pelsmacker, P, Driesen, L & Rayp, G 2005, Do Consumers Care about Ethics? Willingness to Pay for Fair-Trade Coffe, Journal of consumer affairs, vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 363-385.
DeCarlo, J 2011, Fair trade and how it works, the Rosen Publishing Group.
Describe in detail
Teleological, deontological, and virtue ethics: A comparison
Teleological ethics are also called consequence-based ethics. Teleological ethical systems emphasize the results of ethical decisions, versus the moral principles behind such decisions. Utilitarianism is an excellent example of teleological ethics. The stress in utilitarianism is doing the greatest good for the greatest number of people, versus setting a precedent for all ethical actions. "It denies that moral rightness depends directly on anything other than consequences, such as whether the agent promised in the past to do the act now" (Armstrong 2011). What is good for the greatest number of people one day may not be the case several years from now, or even to morrow.
For example, no one would state that as an abstract moral principle, having to fire competent employees is a 'good thing.' However, bosses are often forced to do so, because of the…
Alexander, Larry & Michael Moore. (2007). Deontological ethics. The Stanford Encyclopedia
of Philosophy. Retrieved: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/
Armstrong, Walter. (2011). Consequentialism. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
ead the Encyclopedia of Ethical Failure. Select three of the violations discussed in the document. Explain the violation, including its U.S. Code, use examples from your own career or the document, and discuss the possible fines / imprisonment for the violation.
Three possible violations of the Encyclopedia of Ethical Failure include: bribery, fraud and gambling / other contest guidelines. In the case of bribery, the guide forbids anyone from taking kickbacks or money for special favors. In general, this can cost the government between $400 thousand and $1 million for every $115 thousand that is earned illegally. Under Section 18 U.S.C. § 201(c)(1)(B) (2003) it says that these practices, "Forbids any public official from accepting anything of value in exchange for an official act to be performed, or because of any official act already performed. Violations of this law can merit fines, imprisonment for up to 2 years,…
Encyclopedia of Unethical Failure. (2007). Department of Defense.
Bruce, A. (1998). Motivating Employees. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Nemeth, C. (2011). Private Security and the Law. Boston, MA: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann
Ethical Situations in Asset Management Service
Ethical situations that arise with asset management services
Ethical issues in business (or corporate ethics) are ethics in the form of application or professional ethics that usually evaluate the principles of ethics and the troubles associated with ethics and morals that develop in the environment of a business. This is applicable to all the components of a business and its conduct and it is very essential for all the entire staff in an organization. Ethics of business include both descriptive and normative dimensions. This specific area is normative. Academicians that seek to gain knowledge on the behavior by implementing descriptive methods in their course. The amount and range of issues in business ethics describe the link between non-economic issues and profit maximizing. Many started gaining interest in the ethics of business rapidly from 1980 to 1990. This was true in academia and corporations. For…
Buckman, J.M., & International Association of Fire Chiefs. (2006). Chief Fire officer's desk reference. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Hoffman, W.M. (2007). The ethics of accounting and finance: Trust, responsibility, and control: from the Tenth National Conference on Business Ethics. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Quorum Books.
Nash, L.L. (2008). Good intentions aside: A manager's guide to resolving ethical problems. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press.
Preston, N. (2009). Ethics for the public sector: Education and training. Annandale, N.S.W: Federation Press.
" The code also states when communicating investment information care must be taken to ensure that it is fair, accurate and complete as well as make full and fair disclosure of all matters that could reasonably be expected to impair their independence and objectivity or interfere with respective duties to their clients, prospective clients, and employer.
Evidence indicates Lehman's senior financial executives knew of the Repo 105 transactions and certified the accuracy of Lehman's financial statements and disclosures despite having full knowledge that the company had engaged in the use of these transactions to hide their toxic assets and make their financial statements appear to be in good health when, in reality, they were not. These executives were fully aware that the financial statements were misleading and did not fairly present the true position of the company.
Hiding toxic assets and releasing favorable financial statements to investors each quarter clearly…
Ahrens, Frank. "Lehmann Brothers, the Evil Repo 105s and the Danger of Off-
Balance-Sheet Deals." Washingtonpost.com, 20 April 2010. Web. 18 March 2013.
"Code of Ethics and Professional Standards" CFA Institute, Vol. 2010, No. 14, June 2010. Web. 18 March 2013.
Jeffers, Agatha E. "Lehman Brother -- the Thin Line between Aggressive Accounting and Unethical Behavior." European Journal of Management, Vol. 11, Issue 4, Winter 2011. Web. 18 March 2013.
Ethical Treatment of Prisoners
The treatment of a society's prisoners has been an issue of debate for centuries. The emotions surrounding such treatment are considerable and reaching a consensus on the best and fairest method is often difficult. Torture is considered illegal in most civilized societies and, therefore, in order to maintain an acceptable level of treatment an alternative and more humane approach must be established (Filter, 2000).
There presently exist two leading schools of moral thought: utilitarianism and deontology (Gibbs, 1977). Despite what has been characterized as great differences between the two schools they seem to agree on most substantive issues.
Utilitarianism argues that the right action is the one, out those available, that maximizes one's total happiness. In the prisoner treatment situation this results in considering the emotional pain, physical discomfort, expense, and time involved in housing the prisoner against the advantages garnered by society such as retribution,…
Bentham, J. (1988). Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Buffalo: Prometheus Books.
Filter, J.A. (2000). Prisoner's Rights: The Supreme Court and Evolving Standards of Decency. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.
Gibbs, J. (1977). Social control deterrence and perspectives of social order. Social Forces, 408-423.
Kant, I. (2010). Critique of Practical Reason. Seattle: CreateSpace.
The mall in Shanghai is not representative of all shopping experiences in China, and the questionnaire and its use of imagery and descriptions lack clarity and precision needed for more extrapolative results. The study however does underscore the role of ethicacy as a key determinant in defining if a person is going to purchase a counterfeit product or not.
Analysis of Counterfeit Luxury Goods Online:
An Investigation of Consumer Perceptions
One of the most rapidly expanding selling channels for counterfeit products are websites and e-commerce sites. On the Internet a counterfeiter can be up and running within a day or less, selling counterfeit items globally using PayPal and other well-known payment processing systems to manage transactions. This area of counterfeit luxury products selling is the subject of the study Counterfeit Luxury Goods Online: An Investigation of Consumer Perceptions (adon, 2012). The methodology is loosely defined as those customers who have…
Kozar, J.M., & Marcketti, S.B. (2011). Examining ethics and materialism with purchase of counterfeits. Social Responsibility Journal, 7(3), 393-404.
Ian Phau, Marishka Sequeira, Steve Dix, (2009) "To buy or not to buy a "counterfeit" Ralph Lauren polo shirt: The role of lawfulness and legality toward purchasing counterfeits," Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, Vol. 1 Iss: 1, pp. 68 -- 80
Phau, I., & Teah, M. (2009). Devil wears (counterfeit) Prada: A study of antecedents and outcomes of attitudes towards counterfeits of luxury brands. The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 26(1), 15-27.
Anita Radon (2012). Counterfeit luxury goods online: An investigation of consumer perceptions. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 4(2), 74-79.
The main concern in virtue ethics becomes about a person's moral character. When people choose to develop their moral character, better virtues will be created, and thus there will be more people acting in virtuous ways in all aspects of their lives -- and this includes how they treat all animals.
One example to be considered when thinking about how a person with a strong sense of virtue might behave is to counter it with how a person with a strong sense of duty might behave. From a duty sense, if one were a livestock farmer, he or she might believe that his or her duty lies in what is best for the people because, after all, the job is about raising livestock for slaughter, which will then become food for people. Therefore, the first duty would be to humans and the second duty to animals (Panaman 20008) (which may…
Garner, R. (2005). Animal ethics. Cambridge: Polity.
Gruen, L. (2011). Ethics and animals: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;
Hursthouse, R. (2000). Ethics, humans and other animals: An introduction with readings. New York: Routledge.
According to research, "Each man deserves respect because only he has had those exact life experiences and understands his emotions, motivations, and body in such an intimate matter," (ainbow 2010). Thus, Broadway was respecting the individual decisions of its players to decide whether or not the game was ok to play.
However, this was only followed outside of the United States. The decision locally was much different. Because of the nature of the young audience, there was the moral dilemma for the insertion of such sexually explicit references. And so, Broadway was not acting ethically when they failed to uphold local ethics abroad. According to research, "A winking tolerance of other's unethical behavior is in itself unethical," (Jennings 2007:14). ather than acting out of ethical obligation to others as they did to their own, Broadway let it slide and moved sales elsewhere, where they knew they could get away with…
Alexander, Larry & Moore, Michael. (2007). Deontological ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February 25, 2010 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/
Jennings, Marianne Moody. (2007). Business Ethics: Case Studies and Selected Readings. Cengage Learning Publishing.
Newton, Lisa H. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Business Ethics and Society. 10th ed. McGraw Hill.
Rainbow, Catherine. (2010). Descriptions of ethical theories and principles. Davidson College. Retrieved February 25, 2010 from http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/kabernd/indep/carainbow/Theories.htm