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Ethical Concerns in Criminal Justice: Police Brutality
In the field of criminal justice, it is important to be mindful of the moral or ethical problems which might arise. In a perfect world, police officers, prosecuting attorneys, judges, and juries would always act above board and with the singular interest of seeking out justice. However, this is a highly imperfect world and every society has had an incidence at some point in their history wherein someone abused their position in the process of criminal justice for their own ends. Those involved in criminal justice must be ever mindful of these past abuses and keep a watchful eye on their cohorts to ensure that the occurrence of similar unethical behaviors is kept to a minimum in the future. One of the most controversial aspects of criminal justice in recent years has been the question of police brutality and the consequences of officer's…
Byers, B. (2002). Ethics and criminal justice: some observations on police misconduct. Crime and Justice International. Sam Houston University, Texas. (18:68).
Krupanski, M. (2012). Policing the police: civilian video monitoring of police activity. Global Minds.
Locke, H. (1966). Police brutality and civilian review board: a second look. 625.
Skolnick, J. (1995). Community-oriented policing would prevent police brutality. Policing the Police. Greenhaven: San Diego, CA. 45-55.
Ethical Concerns and the IB Process
In this course, the issue studied was emergency management and trauma centers in the State of Connecticut. By studying this issue, the researcher was exposed to human subjects. Permission to study them had to come from those subjects or those authorized to give consent for those subjects, but the idea of studying humans for a research project also must be addressed by the IB process. There are some concerns with that, especially where quantitative research into this issue is conducted. The kind of study conducted should, allegedly, regulate whether IB is necessary, and that have been concerns in the past that the IB regulations are too strict and that the process is overused. These concerns have come about mostly as an argument regarding what constitutes research into human subjects. Certainly, clinical trials of medications or procedures would be considered human subject research, but the…
Part 56 - Institutional Review Board. (1991). Food and Drug Administration (United States).
Pope, T.M. (2009). Multi-institutional healthcare ethics committees: The procedurally fair internal dispute resolution mechanism. 31 Campbell Law Review, 257-331.
Ritchie, D., & Shopes, L. (2003). Oral history excluded from IRB review: Application of the department of health and human services regulations for the protection of human subjects at 45 CFR part 46, subpart A to oral history interviewing. Oral History Association.
Psychology is a term derived from two Greek words that translate to life explanation, which makes it an important element of daily life. The field of psychology can be described as a discipline that focuses on the study of mind and behavior (Stangor, 2010, p.7). This discipline is characterized by several concepts and approaches that are used by psychologists in understanding human behavior. Since psychology is a broad field, psychologists not only use these concepts and approaches but also conduct scientific research that enables them to understand human behavior. Some of the most common psychological concepts that are used to modify or change an individual's behavior include operant conditioning, positive and negative punishment, and positive and negative reinforcement.
Operant condition can be described as a learning method that is used to modify or change a person's behavior through experiences and consequences. While it is part of the process…
Stangor, C. (2010). Introduction to psychology. Washington, DC: Flat World Knowledge, L.L.C.
Ethical Concerns in Healthcare Marketing
The healthcare environment/setting is characterized by several ethical concerns or challenges, which have tremendous impacts on patients and their families as well as other stakeholders. The existence of numerous ethical concerns in the healthcare setting is attributable to the fact that nearly every decision made relating to delivery of patient care has ethical implications. The implications in turn have significant effects on patients, healthcare leaders, and healthcare providers. In the past few years, ethical concerns have characterized the healthcare setting because of the increased demands for accessibility and affordability of care as well as improved quality of care. These have become major factors in the healthcare setting because of the increase in patient populations and their demands.
One of the ethical concerns in the healthcare field is how to balance profits and the provision of healthcare to patients (Kreimer, 2010). While healthcare organizations have the…
Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (2015, November 16). A Healthy Bottom Line: Profits or People? Retrieved from Santa Clara University website: https://www.scu.edu/ethics/focus-areas/bioethics/resources/a-healthy-bottom-line-profits-or-people/
Kreimer, S. (2010, July 7). Five Ethical Challenges in Healthcare. Retrieved May 22, 2017, from https://www.amnhealthcare.com/latest-healthcare-news/five-ethical-challenges-healthcare/
relationship risk insurance. 2. Determine ethical concerns health care management / administrators professionals contend resulting supply demand insurance. 3.
elationship between risk and insurance
isk is defined as the potential of a certain activity or action that would lead to any loss occurring Seog, 2010.
The term risk can also express the probability of a particular outcome occurring following a particular exposure. The potential losses that might occur due an unfavorable cause are also referred to as risk. The probability that damage, liability, loss, injury, or another negative occurrence that is mostly caused by internal or external vulnerabilities, and can be avoided by taking some preemptive actions is also referred to as risk. In insurance terminology, risk is defined as the situation where there is some probability of an action that is known occurring, but when it might occur in unknown. For example, a person might fall sick, but when…
Dionne, G. (2000). Handbook of insurance. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Finn, M.J., & University, M.S. (2007). Health Care Demand in Michigan: An Examination of the Michigan Certificate of Need Acute Care Bed Need Methodology. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University.
Mankiw, N.G. (2009). Principles of economics. Cheriton House, North Way, Andover, Hampshire, SP10 5BE: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Paolucci, F. (2011). Health Care Financing and Insurance: Options for Design. London WC1X 8HB: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Medical Coding Ethics
Ethical Concerns in Health Care Delivery: Focus on Medical Coding and Billing Practices
The objective of this study is to examine ethical concerns medical coding and billing in the physician office. Medical coding and billing has become very complex in light of health care reform. Recently, Christopher Gregory ayne, reported to be "dubbed the Rock Doc" was arrested on a dozen charges of Medicare fraud" when he was accused of fraudulently billing for "physical therapy procedures, such as massages and electrical stimulation, that were not necessary or in some instances had been provided at his prior medical practice in Miami." (eaver, 2013, p.1) It appears that where this doctor failed is billing for physical therapy when his staff was not properly accredited for providing these treatments.
Health Care Coding and Billing Changes
It was reported by Gunderman (2013) that October 1, 2014 is the deadline on implementing…
American Health Information Management Association Standards of Ethical Coding. (2008) AHIMA House of Delegates. "AHIMA Standards of Ethical Coding. Sept 2008. Retrieved from: http://library.ahima.org/xpedio/groups/public/documents/ahima/bok2_001166.hcsp?dDocName=bok2_001166
Know your ethical obligations regarding coding and documentation (2009) Association of Clinical Documentation Improvement Specialists, August 4, 2009 HCPro. Retrieved from: http://www.hcpro.com/HOM-236942-5728/know-your-ethical-obligations-regarding-coding-and-documentation
Weaver, J. (2013) Miami Beach's 'Rock Doc' busted on Medicare fraud charges. The Miami Herald. Retrieved from: http://www.miamiherald.com/2013/09/30/3660611/miami-beachs-rock-doc-busted-on.html#storylink=cpy
Sufficient documentation a major hurdle for ICD-10 (2013) APCs Insider. Retrieved from: http://www.hcpro.com/HIM-297687-859/Sufficient-documentation-a-major-hurdle-for-ICD10.html
Care Technology and Ethical Concerns
Complete APA eference
Fed'n of State Med. (2014, April 26). State Medical Board's Appropriate egulation of Telemedicine (SMAT) Workgroup, Model Policy for the Appropriate Use of Telemedicine Technologies in the Practice of Medicine. etrieved from www.fsmb.org/pdf/FSMB_Telemedicine_Policy.pdf
Briefly description of the project
Under telemedicine, one gets multiple practice spheres for healthcare lawyers, including reimbursement, payment, abuse and fraud, privileging and credentialing, privacy, peer view, licensing, as well as regulatory compliance. There is need for healthcare proponents have got to comprehend telemedicine as well as its complex framework in order to serve the growing area better. Advancement in technology, expanding healthcare accessibility within the framework of the "Affordable Care Act," emphasizing on affordable quality of care, as well as the propagation of movable medical tools have placed telemedicine at the frontline of healthcare delivery. Since it began over 5 decades ago, range of telemedicine has broadened and…
Fed'n of State Med. (2014, April 26). State Medical Board's Appropriate Regulation of Telemedicine (SMART) Workgroup, Model Policy for the Appropriate Use of Telemedicine Technologies in the Practice of Medicine. Retrieved from www.fsmb.org/pdf/FSMB_Telemedicine_Policy.pdf
Kadzielski, M. A., & Kim, J.-Y. (2014, July 29). Telemedicine: Many Opportunities, Many Legal Issues, Many Risks. Retrieved from Pepper Hamilton: http://www.pepperlaw.com/publications/telemedicine-many-opportunities-many-legal-issues-many-risks-2014-07-29/
bioethical concerns regarding the use of human stem cells involve their source and their research implications. Ethical issues surrounding the source of human embryonic stem cells used in research has historically evoked the most intense debates and other ethical issues have surfaced concerning the origin of other human embryonic stem cell -- like cells that have the capability to differentiate into all different types of human tissue.
From the time human embryonic stem cells were first isolated and cultured in 1998 human embryonic stem cell research has been generated vast controversy (Cohen, 2007). Much of the controversy is related to the historical public suspicion concerning the potential negative impact of scientific progress and research centered around genetic cloning. Human embryonic stem cell research has become equated with fears about human cloning, the modification of human biological material, and myths of regenerative immortality in wealthy people. All of these vague fears…
Byrne J.A., Pedersen, D., Clepper, D., Nelson, M.., Sanger, W., Gokhale, S., Wolf, D. & Mitalipov, S. (2007). Producing primate embryonic stem cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Nature, 450 (7169), 497 -- 502.
Chung, L., Klimanskaya, I., Becker, S., Marh, J. et al. (2006). Embryonic and extraembryonic stem cell lines derived from single mouse blastomeres. Nature, 439(7073), 216 -- 219.
Cohen, C.B. (2007). Renewing the stuff of life: Stem cells, ethics, and public policy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hyun, I. & Jung, K.W. (2006). Human research cloning, embryos, and embryo-like artifacts. Hastings Center Report, 36(5), 34 -- 41.
However, some identifying information is necessary to evaluate the length of time the subject has spent at an institution, their department, professors' publishing records, and other issues that arise when conducting the review process of professors and evaluating teaching records.
Additionally, if subjects are considered to have been given a negative post-tenure review by faculty members or students, the professors might have an alternative view they wish to share with the researches. Allowing professors, students, and administrators to give anecdotal evidence to add context to the statistics compiled about departments that conduct post-tenure review and those departments that do not is essential. But the selected interviews must be balanced demographically so that a variety of views and voices are representative. Subjects must be assured that their results are confidential and any obvious identifiers are not recorded in the report, otherwise they may be less than candid.
Ethical Aspects in esearch Studies
The essential aspects of research are the concern and respect that the researchers offer to the participants. esearch is aimed at producing insights that are beneficial to the society. However, the research should be conducted ethically. The ethical concern in research adduces that it should not advance a society at the detriment of others especially the participants in the research. Ethics in research is vital because it guides the working principles of the researcher for the research to conform to the required standards. This is the case especially when research subjects in health or medical research are often human beings. Therefore, it is vital to respect these individuals. The guiding principles in research ethics focus on preserving the rights and dignity of the research participants. In this regard, ethics focus on ensuring consent is obtained, no harm is done, the participant's privacy is respected, and…
Austin, W. (2007). The Ethics of Everyday Practice: Healthcare Environments as Moral Communities. Advances in Nursing Science, Volume 30 - Issue 1 - p 81-88.
Bernadette M.M. & Ellen F.O. (2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing and health care: a guide to best practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Carol J.H. (2013). Professional Issues in Nursing: Challenges and Opportunities. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Corey-L., Patricia M., Anita J., Marlene Z., & Alison M. (1999). Healthcare Reform: Its Effects on Nurses. Journal of Nursing Administration, Volume 29 - Issue 3 - pp 30-37.
Ethical issues are now just as much of a concern as they were thirty years or more ago. (Qian, Gao, Yao & odriguez) Ethics are a clear set of principles dealing with what is considered appropriate behavior in-group and individual counseling. These standards were created not only to protect clients, but also to protect counselors. As a counselor, a fine line can easily be crossed if the counselor and/or the client do not follow and understand basic rules that are in place regarding ethical interactions between clients and counselors. It is evident that no matter what area of counseling one chooses to go into, there are always concerns and issues with ethical boundaries, and what is and is not acceptable. (Justice & Garland) Every Human interaction involves the interpretation of roles and interpersonal boundaries. These roles dictate what behavior is appropriate and inappropriate professionally and personally. In the current essay,…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American School Counselor Association. (2004). Ethical standards for school counselors. Retrieved September 15, 2011, from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=173
Aoyagi, M, & Portenga, S 2010, 'The role of positive ethics and virtues in the context of sport and performance psychology service delivery', Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41, 3, pp. 253-259, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 September 2011.
Bodenhorn, N 2006, 'Exploratory Study of Common and Challenging Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Professional School Counselors', Professional School Counseling, 10, 2, p. 195, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 September 2011.
Ethical Practices ithin Business
BP Struggles to Resolve Sustainability Disaster
Over the past 20th century and in the 21st century, ethics has neither been an option nor a luxury. It has not only become a moral or legal responsibility, but has also been an organizational priority within all sets of work groups, including both public and private institutions, organizations and companies. Ethical practices have also become the only strategy to combat the growing impatience within the society, as well as their responsible competitions and/or actions. These ill and unethical acts may in the long run impoverish a section of the regional economy through various organizations while enriching the crafty economies. Organizational leaders must thereby keep abreast of the rapidly changing technological advancements together with their possible effects on globalization, competitor products and services, opportunities, and threats that their organizations may face. Over a century, BP, the formerly Anglo-Persian Oil Company…
Carl, Safina. BP Struggles to Resolve Sustainability Disaster. Annual Report and Form- Case
4, 32:2, (2012),342-352.
Ethical Behavior Theory in Organizations
This analytical research report discusses the debatable issue of the much-needed ethical behavior in working milieu. The research paper highlights the fundamental characteristics, a well-drafted research design, a separate section of suggestions; a orks Cited an appendix featuring important data and relevant diagrams pertaining to the organizational behavior theory and the underlying ethical issues. The orks Cited nine sources in MLA format.
ETHICS AND ORGANIZATIONS
Ethics and ethical behavior: a challenge for organizations
UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS
Reasons for unethical behavior in organizations
Prevalent justifications of unethical behavior
Results from Baucus and Near's research model
SOCIAL SYSTEMS AND BEHAVIORS
NEED FOR ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORAL THEORY
hat is organizational behavior?
Purpose of organizational behavior
An overview of organizational behavior and its cardinal components
Basic models of organizational behaviors
PRAGMATIC SUGGESTIONS FOR AMELIORATION
Drucker P. Claremont Graduate Univ., Managing Oneself., Harvard Business
Review, 03-01-1999, pp 65.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Emphasize the importance of courtesy, organization, and calmness to all staff members. These qualities on the part of the staff can reinforce the importance of generally good and ethical behaviour to the tourists, which may then carry over to their behaviour in the destination country.
Maintain a neutral stance on the culture of the destination country or countries. Making clear that all cultures have equal value and that ethical behaviour must be expected of all visitors. It must also be clear through explicit instructions and by example that tourists often have greater power than the people they are visiting and so must act with respect and restraint.
Obey the laws, regulations, customs, and traditions of both departure and destination countries. This is clearly linked to the above. (Fennell: 2006; Fennell & Malloy: 2007).
Charter airline companies are private corporations, which ensures that those who own them (either directly or indirectly…
Fennell, D.A. (2006). Tourism Ethics. Clevedon, England: Channel View.
Fennell, D.A. And Malloy, D.C. (2007). Codes of Ethics in Tourism: Practice, Theory and Synthesis. Clevedon, England: Channel View.
Holden, a. (2005). Tourism Studies and the Social Sciences. Oxon, England: Routledge.
Krippendorf, J. (1987) the Holiday Makers: Understanding the Impact of Leisure and Travel. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
For example, the plants produced through genetic modification can pollinate with the conventionally produced plants and can make them genetically modified as well. (Kaplan 1-15)
In addition to that, the genetically modified crops that were developed with a strong ability to resist herbicides, so that a large amount of strong weed killers can be used of them, have enabled the weeds to develop strong resistance against the herbicides and hence these genetically modified crops have led towards the production of 'super weeds' which are very difficult to control. There is a high probability that the genetically modified plants will lead towards the development of the 'super viruses' as the genes from the plants, which are designed to resist strong viruses, travel to other plants. (Kaplan 1-15)
Exclusion of People from the Experiment
If we keep aside the above discussed threats, another issue that confronts the genetic modification of plant is…
Bhuiya, Shayla. "Ethical Concerns in Development, Research and Consumption of Genetically Engineered Crops." Synesis: A Journal of Science, Technology, Ethics, and Policy, 3. (2013): 60-64. & lt;http://www.synesisjournal.com/vol3_g/Bhuiya_2012_G60-65.pdf>.
Kaplan, David. What's Wrong with Genetically Modified Food?. Brooklyn: Polytechnic University, 2004. 1-15. Retrieved from http://www.csid.unt.edu/files/What's%20Wrong%20With%20Genetically%20Modified%20Food.pdf
Kitzinger, Jenny and Charlie Davison. Public perceptions of social and ethical issues around genetically modified foods: a focus group study. Cardiff: Cardiff University, 2001. 6-32. Retrieved from http://cf.ac.uk/jomec/resources/GMREPFIN.pdf
Krimsky, Sheldon. Ethical Issues Involving Production, Planting and Distribution of Genetically Modified Crops. Medford: Tufts University, 2000. 11-26. Retrieved from http://www.tufts.edu/~skrimsky/PDF/GMOethics.PDF
Leaving the Chinese market would mean, that company could take a major loss and it may affect the competitiveness of the firm in the global marketplace. That being said, this action would deal with the ethical dilemma, but at a high price. Working behind the scenes with the Chinese government, could mean that company officials, can slowly influence public policy on human rights. Where, government officials will not feel the public pressure to change. This could help to address the ethical dilemma. However, if these concerns are addressed in the wrong way, this could outrage the government. At which point, they could impose severe restrictions on the company.
Select the most appropriate action and justify it.
The most appropriate action that the company could take would be to: work from behind the scenes with the Chinese government. Where, there would be an emphasis on addressing this issue in non-confrontational way.…
Censorship in China. (2010). Amnesty International. Retrieved from http://www.amnestyusa.org/business-and-human-rights/internet-censorship/page.do?id=1101572
Who We Are. (2010). Amnesty International. Retrieved from http://www.amnesty.org/en/who-we-are
Maloney, L. (2008). Globe Trekkers. Multi-Family Executive. Retrieved from http://www.multifamilyexecutive.com/development/globe-trekkers-us-firms-expand-overseas.aspx
Utilitarian Abortion Considerations:
The utilitarian perspective applied to the abortion issue would focus on whether
permitting or prohibiting elective abortion would contribute more positively the interests of society Mill, 2003 p160). The principal difference between the utilitarian and deontological perspectives is that utilitarianism is wholly unconcerned with the underlying motivation for decisions. Whereas deontological formalism values the state of mind of the individual, utilitarianism focuses on the ultimate consequences of the act, irrespective of motivation Russell, 2002 p 99).
Within the utilitarian ethical perspective, rule utilitarianism would promote the choice associated with the overall benefit to others and to society if it were adhered to religiously in all circumstances, irrespective of isolated cases in which the rule produced a negative result Russell, 2002 p101-2). For example, in a society where relative birth and death rates were such that the continuation of society were in jeopardy, the utilitarian perspective might require…
(Dershowitz, 2002 p112).
Therefore, the contemporary utilitarian approach to morality in human life is to consider other definitions of "goodness" and "benefit" rather than equating morality with the interests of the greatest number. In many respects, that is the perspective exemplified by the modern American justice system (Dershowitz, 2002 p112). Under that view, the moral rightness or wrongness of elective abortion would seek to weigh the manner in which permitting abortions might benefit society and how that decision would affect all of the individuals directly involved in specific situations. If the initial assumption is that society is benefited by the respect for the autonomous rights of individuals to make personal decisions about abortion without interference from the state, utilitarianism would support the freedom to make that decision.
Under the act utilitarianism perspective, therefore, certain types of abortions (such as in cases of rape, incest, or medical necessity for the life of the mother)
What does the patient have the right to know?
What the patient has the right to know (regarding genetic tests) is: a complicated matter and many people, including experts, have varying opinions. The information patients receive from genetic testing can have significant consequences, especially if it leads a pregnant woman to have an abortion. The ethical principles that arise in situations like this are varied and are often in conflict with each other. The ethical decisions in genetic counseling would be fairly cut and dry if the principle of autonomy was the only one that was considered. However, by doing this a counselor may be ignoring the other ethical concerns like: what is best for society and being fair to other people (regarding who the patient's decisions are affecting).
Who should have decision making power in our society on issues of genetic / medical testing?
Regarding the "Dwarfism…
Biesecker, Barbara. "Future Directions in Genetic Counseling: Practical and Ethical Considerations." Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8.2 (1998). 145-160. Web.
Flackelman, Kathy. "Beyond the genome: the ethics of DNA testing." Science News. 5 Nov. 1994: 66-70. Print.
Flackelman, Kathy. "DNA dilemmas: readers and 'experts' weigh in on biomedical ethics." Science News. 5 Nov. 1994: 64-66. Print.
1). This is a problem that needs to be addressed by adding more training to the budget. The problem is, most hospitals' budgets are already spread too thin. Therefore, hospital administrators need to work harder to find sources to help fund their activities.
Nurses have more power and responsibility than ever before to ensure that they are making honest reports about their patients. They may be in a rush to get home and not feel like entering all of the proper data into the computer. Or, they may take shortcuts in the use of other technologies. It is a nurse's ethical responsibility, however, to ensure honesty in all that she does. This includes 'blowing the whistle' when she sees that other nurses are not being honest or are misusing technology.
This can be extremely difficult, however, considering that nurses often suffer negative repercussions for 'whistleblowing'. A study conducted…
Birdi, K., Clegg, C.W., Patterson, M.A., Robinson, A., Stride, C.B., Wall, T.D., & Wood, S.J. (2008). The impact of human resource and operational management practices on company productivity: A longitudinal study. Personnel Psychology, 61, 467-501.
Bodenheimer, T., MacGregor, K., and Stothart, N. (2005). Nurses as leaders in chronic care. British Medical Journal, 330(7492), 612-613.
Carver, L. & Candela, L. (2008) Attaining organizational commitment across different generations of nurses. Journal of Nursing Management, 16 (8), 984-991.
Charette, R. (2006, June) EHRs: Electronic Health Records or Exceptional Hidden Risks? Communications of the ACM, 49(6),120.
Wit the help of these assistants, I will also ascertain that the following does not exist; implicit value judgments in questions, leading questions, context effects and so forth. Since people like to present themselves in a positive light when filling in surveys, I will stress the need for an honest response and will also assure the participants that come the end of the study and following interpretation of these results, the feedback will be trashed or they can receive their answers returned to them as given would they so wish.
The consent form attached to the questionnaire will emphasize anonymity and confidentiality. After the survey is complete, debriefing will occur where I can address any questions or concerns the participant has would be mailed to respondents. I may conduct this debriefing on the online environment where I originally found my participants.
As regards my attempts in finding the particular sites…
Breakwell, G.S., Hammond, S., & Fife-Schaw, C. (2000). Research methods in psychology. London: SAGE.
As the narrow policy discussions regarding Physician-Assisted Suicide continue, we ought to encourage all presently existing and legal methods of reducing the painful sufferings during the last phase of life.
Drickamer, Margaret, a; Lee, Melinda. a; Ganzini, Linda. (1997, Jan 15) "Practical Issues in Physician-Assisted Suicide" Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 126, no. 2, pp: 146-151.
Emauel, Ezekiel. (1997, Mar) "Whose right to die?" The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 17, no. 2, pp:
Hayden, Laurel a. (1999, Apr) "Ethical Issues: Helping Patients with End-of-Life Decisions"
The American Journal of Nursing, vol. 99, no. 4, pp: 2401-2403.
Kaplan, Kalman. J; Harrow, Martin; Schneiderhan, Mark. E. (2002, Spring) "Suicide, physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in men vs. women around the world: The degree of physician control" Ethics and Medicine, vol. 21, no. 1, pp: 14-20.
Quill, Timothy E; Meier, Diane. E; Block, Susan. D; Billings, Andrew. J. (1998, Apr) "The
Debate over Physician-Assisted…
Drickamer, Margaret, a; Lee, Melinda. a; Ganzini, Linda. (1997, Jan 15) "Practical Issues in Physician-Assisted Suicide" Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 126, no. 2, pp: 146-151.
Emauel, Ezekiel. (1997, Mar) "Whose right to die?" The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 17, no. 2, pp:
Hayden, Laurel a. (1999, Apr) "Ethical Issues: Helping Patients with End-of-Life Decisions"
The American Journal of Nursing, vol. 99, no. 4, pp: 2401-2403.
ethical dilemmas surround surrogacy and the donation of egg and/or sperm? Because surrogates are paid, is this a practice that exploits the poor, such as surrogate mothers in ndia? Why or Why not?
Egg donation and surrogacy raises ethical dilemmas on all four basic principles of medical ethics: autonomy, justice, beneficence, and non-maleficence.
Autonomy -- .
Consent has to be given freely and with full volition of the surrogate mother. Yet, most times, intense pressure is involved aside from the fact that poor women in ndia may capitulate to the need for money and be taken in by the huge sums offered. The emotional and medical pressures are immense, but these women are often grossly misinformed about the situation that they are bound to undergo. Their poverty hampers them from making the clear, informed decisions that they would otherwise need to in order to undergo the procedure. Whilst most egg…
International Journal of Health Services, 20, 373 -- 392
What Are the Ethical Concerns Regarding Egg Donation? http://www.stanford.edu/class/siw198q/websites/reprotech/New%20Ways%20of%20Making%20Babies/eggethic.htm
Perloe, M. (nd) Eight is Enough: Balancing the risks of advanced fertility treatment. Georgia Reproductive Specialists. http://www.ivf.com/eightenough.html )
Johnson and Johnson have a written ethical policy that mandates the patient's welfare and well being to be the highest priority in the business.
n addition the policy calls for the fair and ethical treatment of physicians that will recommend and prescribe their products.
t is our fundamental responsibility to place the well-being of the patient first by appropriately balancing risks and benefits and to ensure that the best interests of patients and physicians who use our products receive utmost consideration (Johnson www.jnj.com/community/policies/research_development_conduct.htm).
t is our responsibility to help ensure access to our products in the communities where we develop them (Johnson www.jnj.com/community/policies/research_development_conduct.htm)
t is our responsibility to ensure all Company-based, medically relevant product information is fair and balanced, accurate and comprehensive, to enable well-informed risk-benefit assessments about our products (Johnson www.jnj.com/community/policies/research_development_conduct.htm)."
The responsibly to challenge each other with regard to things such as ethical concerns and medical concerns.
In Johnson and Johnson employees are encouraged to come forward any time they feel something is being done that does not put the best interest of the client first. At Dow Jones they had top company management show up every three years to ask if there was anything suspicious going on.
If Dow Jones wanted to act more ethically they should have provided a much more open and more often evaluation of the company ethics position and practice. Instead of waiting three years for discussions on ethics there should have been monthly meetings in which employees were encouraged to come forward without fear of reprisal.
In addition it would have behooved the company to come forward in the 1970's when it was first aware of the possible problems with the implants. Instead the company waited until health issues did arise and then tried to claim there was not enough proof that the implant had caused them.
ethical concerns when it comes to conducting human research. This paper presents those concerns and reviews the regulatory protocols that the United States employs in order to meet high ethical and legal standards.
How research involving human subjects works in the U.S.
In the Journal of Clinical Pathology author M.B. Kapp explains that the issue of ethics vis-a-vis human subjects in research isn't just a concern of clinicians and scientists; rather, these issues also have importance to lawyers, philosophers, and policy makers. And there definite legal provisions that are applied regarding "…participant safety, informed consent, and confidentiality" (Kapp, 2006). Of great interest when it comes to pathologists is how human tissue specimens are handled -- whether the tissues are to be used in the present or at some point in the future.
Kapp references what the writer calls "the most salient ethical values" that come into play when research involving…
Davidson, S. (2001). Protecting Research Participants -- A Time for Change. Ethical and Policy Issues in Research Involving Human Participants. National Bioethics Advisory
Commission. Retrieved March 7, 2015, from https://bioethicsarchive.georgetown.edu .
Department of Health and Human Services. (1979). The Belmont Report. Retrieved March 8, 2015, from http://www.hhs.gov .
Kapp, M.B. (2006). Ethical and legal issues in research involving human subjects: do you want a piece of me? Journal of Clinical Pathology, 59(4), 335-339.
Their reputation suffered, although it did not seem to make a dent in their passenger traffic, something that indicates how complacent and compliant the American people have become. Most people did not even seem to care that Southwest had endangered them and only a few spoke out in blogs or in other areas when the news broke. Southwest has a serious responsibility to keep its passengers and crews safe, and they lost the trust of at least some people because of their callous disregard for safety. That is a huge moral responsibility, and Southwest has never really acknowledged their failure, which is an even larger ethical concern, it seems. In a statement before Congress, Southwest CEO Gary Kelly said, "Our compliance with certain specific Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness directives has been called into question. We have committed to a thorough review and to make any changes necessary to ensure…
Goodwyn, W. (2008). FAA whistleblowers: Southwest probes stymied. Retrieved 29 Nov. 2008 from the NPR Web site: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=89328997 .
Kelly, G. (2008). Southwest Airlines provides testimony to U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure. Retrieved 29 Nov. 2008 from the Southwest Airlines Web site: http://www.southwest.com/swamedia/trust_in_southwest.html .
Levin, a. (2008). Inspectors: FAA officials gave Southwest a pass on safety checks. Retrieved 29 Nov. 2008 from the USAToday Web site: http://www.usatoday.com/travel/flights/2008-03-09-safety_N.htm .
Wilber, D.Q. (2008). Airlines, FAA under fire on the hill: Lawmaker links safety lapses to 'cozy relationship,' will hold hearing. Retrieved 29 Nov. 2008 from the Washington Post Web site: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/04/01/AR2008040102696.html
Anna's rationale for not obtaining informed consent?
Not informing research subjects regarding one's purpose is unethical. In order to see just how unethical her decision is, Anna must understand ethical concerns linked to studies that utilize human participants. The basic principles of justice, independence, and goodness form the basis of the aforementioned ethical concerns and warrant attention (UNC Charlotte| esearch& Economic Development Centre, n.d).). Ethics guidelines and codes explain the idea of informed consent with regard to studies on human participants. This process aims at presenting adequate facts to participants to ensure they are able to decide, after acquiring an adequate grasp of the situation, whether to participate in any research venture or not, and whether to continue participating or not. It is imperative to seek informed consent for every kind of research on humans, including therapeutic, diagnostic, social, behavioral and interventional researches, as well as for studies performed locally…
Argosy University (2014).Institutional Review Board Handbook. Retrieved 7 April 7, 2017 from https://ucmrp.edmc.edu/idc/groups/webcontent/@edmc_aug/documents/webcontent/edmc-03428020.pdf
Office for the Protection of Research Subjects (OPRS)| University of Southern California (n.d) Informed Consent in Human Subjects Research. Retrieved 7 April 7, 2017 from http://oprs.usc.edu/files/2013/04/Informed-Consent-Booklet-4.4.13.pdf
Office of Research Integrity| The University of Tennessee Chattanooga (n.d) Informed CnosentConsent Requirements. Retrieved 7 April 7, 2017 from https://www.utc.edu/research-integrity/institutional-review-board/informedconsent/
UNC Charlotte| Research & Economic Development Centre (n.d). Informed Consent. Retrieved 7 April 7, 2017 from http://research.uncc.edu/departments/office-research-compliance-orc/human-subjects/informed-consent
That particular ethical concern may be harder to define precisely, simply because it may be too restrictive and no different from the types of decisions considered appropriate in the U.S. In that regard, provided it violates no domestic or foreign laws and that it is not undertaken for the purpose of shifting the environmental risk (osenstand, 2008), the relocation is no different from situating a similar plant in any local community that does not benefit from the existence of the plant.
osenstand, N. (2008). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics.…
Rosenstand, N. (2008). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics. New York:
Ethics is a term used to refer to the set of rules that help in determining right and wrong behavior during moral decision making. One of the major issues in Information Technology and Information Systems is computer ethics. This is primarily because the rapid technological advancements seem to enhance the likelihood of unethical use of computer devices and information systems. As these advancements continue to occur, it is expected that the misuse and abuse of these system will continue in the future (Masrom et. al., 2010, p.26). Therefore, IT professionals are increasingly faced with the need to promote ethical use of information systems in order to enhance information security. Some of the most common examples of unethical use of information systems include identity theft, hacking, software piracy, and spam. There is need to address these unethical practices because of their potential harm to individuals and the society.
Masrom, M., Ismail, Z., Hussein, R. & Mohamed, N. (2010). An Ethical Assessment of Computer Ethics Using Scenario Approach. International Journal of Electronic Commerce Studies, 1(1), 25-36. Retrieved from http://www.academic-journals.org/ojs2/index.php/ijecs/article/viewFile/857/35
O'Brien, J. & Marakas, G.M. (2006). Management information systems with MISource 2007.
New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Whitman, M. & Mattord, H. (2011). Legal, Ethical, and Professional Issues in Information
Ethical Dilemma- A Framework
Taking into account ethical concerns is one of the key components in providing healthcare in the therapeutic nurse-patient relationship (osenbaum, 1982). Nurses face ethical uncertainty, distress and conflict in their day-to-day work. When more than one ethical value applies to a particular case, and all of them recommend following a different course of action, then an ethical dilemma exists in such a case a nurse would be not be sure of which value takes precedence (College of Nurses of Ontario, 2009). This specific case involves a 6-year-old who is by law a minor and thus a physician must obtain informed consent from their legal guardian. However, the child's primary guardian is his non-biological mother who is citing her religious reason to refuse medical treatment, while the biological father who resides in another state wants the kid to be treated, a situation that leaves the…
American Counseling Association (2005). Code of Ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author. College of Nurses of Ontario (2009). PRACTICE Standard: ethics. Retrieved 16 September 2015 from https://www.cno.org/Global/docs/prac/41034_Ethics.pdf
Forester-Miller H. & Davis T. (1996). A Practitioner's Guide to Ethical Decision Making. Retrieved 16 September 2015 from http://www.alabamacounseling.org/pdf/acaguide.pdf
Forester-Miller, H. & Rubenstein, R.L. (1992). Group Counseling: Ethics and Professional Issues. In D. Capuzzi & D. R. Gross (Eds.) Introduction to Group Counseling (307-323). Denver, CO: Love Publishing Co.
Haas, L.J. & Malouf, J.L. (1989). Keeping up the good work: A practitioner's guide to mental health ethics. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Exchange, Inc.
The three basic ethical theories share a number of similarities, because they each attempt to describe and explicate the ethical decisions made by humans as well as the logic (or illogic) that is used to inform any particular behavior. Utilitarianism offers what is perhaps the most sound ethical theory due to the way it chooses for itself the goal of its efforts, but it is hampered by disagreement regarding the precise execution of the theory. A deontological theory of ethics may be useful for formulating general rules regarding proper behavior, and as such is popular is the workplace, but these rules are not universally applicable and in some cases can actually lead to unethical behavior if followed without fail. Finally, while virtues-based ethics purports to offer individuals instruction for the cultivation of ideal behavioral traits, by definition it cannot offer a universal ethical norm, as it is based…
Begley, A.M. (2005). Practising virtue: A challenge to the view that a virtue centred approach to ethics lacks practical content. Nursing Ethics, 12(6), 622-37.
Broad, C. (1930). Five types of ethical theory. New York: Routledge.
Darwall (Ed.). (2003). Virtue ethics. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
DeConinck, J.B., & Lewis, W.F. (1997). The influence of deontological and teleological considerations and ethical climate on sales managers intentions to reward or punish sales force behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(5), 497-506.
Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference
Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…
BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from www.bacp.co.uk/admin/structure/files/pdf/9479_ethical%20framework%20jan2013.pdf
Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley
Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme
Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power
The business is also becoming one of the leading companies and a well-known case study of the fair trade principles within the market. The business is also creating a noble image within the target market through its efforts of creating awareness for paying the fair price to its coca producers. The image created by the business is significantly affecting its brand image as an ethical brand. The research of Britain (2007) is also evident of the findings presented above.
USA consumer attitudes:
According to Ma (2007) the consumers in United States are also familiar with the fair trade attitudes and principles. The young consumers are highly likely to purchase products that are manufactured by the businesses incorporating fair trade principles. The consumers of young age group prefer to value the contributions of manufacturers towards fair trade principles (Gropel, 2012). The graduates and educated high income group is also tilted towards…
Britain, G 2007, Fair trade and development: seventh report of session 2006-07, Vol. 2: Oral and written evidence (Vol. 356), Stationery Office, United Kingdom.
Clarke, N, Barnett, C, Cloke, P & Malpass, a 2007, the political rationalities of fair-trade consumption in the United Kingdom, Politics & Society, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 583-607.
De Pelsmacker, P, Driesen, L & Rayp, G 2005, Do Consumers Care about Ethics? Willingness to Pay for Fair-Trade Coffe, Journal of consumer affairs, vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 363-385.
DeCarlo, J 2011, Fair trade and how it works, the Rosen Publishing Group.
Ethical Training -- Successes and Failures
Ethical Training: Successes and Failures
Ethics are often thought of as black and white, but that is really not the case. There are many shades of grey, and what is ethical in some instances may not be ethical in others. Additionally, there are concerns when it comes to what one person thinks is ethical vs. what another would find ethical. That is often why there are so many discrepancies and issues to consider when one talks about ethics. It is not just a simple issue where a person can say that something is always ethical or not ethical. Instead, the situation must be considered, as well as the people and the circumstances surrounding everything. In many cases, the issue comes down to ethical training, which does not always work out well. The plan is to train people to act ethically, but training someone to…
Becker, L.C. & Becker, C.B. (2002). Encyclopedia of Ethics (2nd ed.). NY: Routledge.
Singer, P. (2000). Writings on an ethical life. London: Harper Collins Publishers.
Ethical Issues Surrounding Abortion
Notwithstanding the laws being passed in various states against a woman's right to chose to terminate her pregnancy, the position of this paper is that Roe v. ade is the law of the land and a woman has the ethical and moral right to decide to have an abortion. There are many positions for and against Roe v. ade, and there are many ethical issues that may be (and in many cases are) embraced on both sides of the issue. But the law of the land vis-a-vis a woman's right to the privacy -- regarding her own values -- when it comes to terminating a pregnancy has been determined by the High Court. As a nurse committed to fairness and ethics in healthcare issues, while I respect the rights of others to practice their own values in opposition to Roe v. ade, I am in support…
Abort73. (2010). U.S. Abortion Statistics. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.abort73.com .
Glionna, John M. (2012). Arizona passes law restricting abortion. Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.southbendtribune.com .
Jones, K., and Chaloner, C. (2007). Ethics of abortion: the arguments for and against. Nursing Standard, 21(37), 45-48.
The mall in Shanghai is not representative of all shopping experiences in China, and the questionnaire and its use of imagery and descriptions lack clarity and precision needed for more extrapolative results. The study however does underscore the role of ethicacy as a key determinant in defining if a person is going to purchase a counterfeit product or not.
Analysis of Counterfeit Luxury Goods Online:
An Investigation of Consumer Perceptions
One of the most rapidly expanding selling channels for counterfeit products are websites and e-commerce sites. On the Internet a counterfeiter can be up and running within a day or less, selling counterfeit items globally using PayPal and other well-known payment processing systems to manage transactions. This area of counterfeit luxury products selling is the subject of the study Counterfeit Luxury Goods Online: An Investigation of Consumer Perceptions (adon, 2012). The methodology is loosely defined as those customers who have…
Kozar, J.M., & Marcketti, S.B. (2011). Examining ethics and materialism with purchase of counterfeits. Social Responsibility Journal, 7(3), 393-404.
Ian Phau, Marishka Sequeira, Steve Dix, (2009) "To buy or not to buy a "counterfeit" Ralph Lauren polo shirt: The role of lawfulness and legality toward purchasing counterfeits," Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, Vol. 1 Iss: 1, pp. 68 -- 80
Phau, I., & Teah, M. (2009). Devil wears (counterfeit) Prada: A study of antecedents and outcomes of attitudes towards counterfeits of luxury brands. The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 26(1), 15-27.
Anita Radon (2012). Counterfeit luxury goods online: An investigation of consumer perceptions. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 4(2), 74-79.
Ethical Advantages and Disadvantages of an Appointed vs. An Elected Judiciary: The Case of Justice Harry L. Carrico
Following more than four decades of noteworthy judicial service, Justice Harry L. Carrico retired simply because he finally became too old to remain on the bench after he turned 70 years old. The valuable service by Justice Carrico is a good example of one of the advantages of an appointed judiciary, but his retirement has raised some questions concerning the ethical advantages and disadvantages of an appointed vs. An elected judiciary. To gain some further insights in this area, this paper provides a review of the article, "Carrico Ending 42 Years On High Court, Virginia's Chief Justice etires After 42 Years of Judicial Service," followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
A wide range of appointed and elected approaches are in place for…
Carrico ending 42 years on high court, Virginia's Chief Justice retires after 42 years of judicial service. (2003, January 31). Richmond Times Dispatch.
Dubofsky, J.E. (2007). Judicial performance review: A balance between judicial independence and public accountability. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 34(1), 315-317.
Tarr, G.A. (2007). Designing an appointive system: The key issues. Fordham Urban Law,
Ethical Issues in Nursing
The scenario in this study involves a nurse who has intentionally disregarded the elderly patient's expressed wishes to receive pressure area care. The patient finds the procedure uncomfortable, embarrassing, and painful. The nurse continues to turn the patient in spite of the patient's wishes. This study will answer if the nurse is justified in turning the patient and if so, on what ethical grounds and if not then why not. This case will be discussed in light of the principles of bioethics and at least one ethical issue.
The work of Lakeman (2000) entitled "Nurses as Tools: Instrumentality and Implications for Nursing Ethics" states "Nurses are left in a particularly compromised position when required to administer compulsory treatment. The task of administering the treatment is often left to nurses who are legally required to follow "doctor's orders." There is little room for conscientious objection by…
Browning, J.S. (2007) Ethical Issues in Nursing Practice; Identifications and Comparisons Across Clinical Specialty. Ethical Issues. 12 Jul 2007. Retrieved from: http://stti.confex.com/stti/congrs07/techprogram/paper_32839.htm
Johnstone, M.-J. (1999). Bioethics: a nursing perspective. (3rd ed.). Sydney: Harcourt Saunders.
Jonsen, AR, Siegler, M and Winslade, WJ (1998) Clinical Ethics: A Practical Approach to Ethical Decisions in Clinical Medicine, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1998.
Kurtz, R.J., & Wang, J. (1991). The caring ethic: more than kindness, the core of nursing science. Nursing Forum, 26(1), 4-8.
ead the Encyclopedia of Ethical Failure. Select three of the violations discussed in the document. Explain the violation, including its U.S. Code, use examples from your own career or the document, and discuss the possible fines / imprisonment for the violation.
Three possible violations of the Encyclopedia of Ethical Failure include: bribery, fraud and gambling / other contest guidelines. In the case of bribery, the guide forbids anyone from taking kickbacks or money for special favors. In general, this can cost the government between $400 thousand and $1 million for every $115 thousand that is earned illegally. Under Section 18 U.S.C. § 201(c)(1)(B) (2003) it says that these practices, "Forbids any public official from accepting anything of value in exchange for an official act to be performed, or because of any official act already performed. Violations of this law can merit fines, imprisonment for up to 2 years,…
Encyclopedia of Unethical Failure. (2007). Department of Defense.
Bruce, A. (1998). Motivating Employees. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Nemeth, C. (2011). Private Security and the Law. Boston, MA: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann
In the article Ethical Issues in Information Technology, author Richard T. DeGeorge points out the existence of five interrelated ethical issues: issues in the usage of technology in business, issues in the it business, issues related to the Internet, issues in e-business and issues affecting the social background. Each of the five categories presents several ramifications. The article has a general coverage, an informal writing and throughout its 24 pages presents reduced details. The article merely highlights the existence of ethical problems and concerns in the information technology sector and poses questions as to how could these problems be best resolved. The academician also gives short but relevant examples as to how it procedures are being improperly used to deceive and cause harm. Among these examples, DeGeorge includes shortcoming of the medical systems, within organizations and individual usage of the Internet, mentioning at all times the inappropriate legislature.…
Anderson, James G., Goodman, Kenneth, 2002, Ethics and Information Technology: A Case-Based Approach to Health Care System in Transition (Health Informatics), 1st Edition, Springer
DeGeorge, Richard T., 2002, Ethical Issues in Information Technology, Blackwell Publishers
Hongladaram, Soraj, Ess, Charles, 2006, Information Technology Ethics: Cultural Perspectives, IGI Global
Johnson, Doug, 2007, Information Technology Ethics, Doug Johnson Website, Creative Commons License, http://www.doug-johnson.com/ethics/,last accessed on December 7, 2007
Ethical Treatment of Prisoners
The treatment of a society's prisoners has been an issue of debate for centuries. The emotions surrounding such treatment are considerable and reaching a consensus on the best and fairest method is often difficult. Torture is considered illegal in most civilized societies and, therefore, in order to maintain an acceptable level of treatment an alternative and more humane approach must be established (Filter, 2000).
There presently exist two leading schools of moral thought: utilitarianism and deontology (Gibbs, 1977). Despite what has been characterized as great differences between the two schools they seem to agree on most substantive issues.
Utilitarianism argues that the right action is the one, out those available, that maximizes one's total happiness. In the prisoner treatment situation this results in considering the emotional pain, physical discomfort, expense, and time involved in housing the prisoner against the advantages garnered by society such as retribution,…
Bentham, J. (1988). Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Buffalo: Prometheus Books.
Filter, J.A. (2000). Prisoner's Rights: The Supreme Court and Evolving Standards of Decency. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.
Gibbs, J. (1977). Social control deterrence and perspectives of social order. Social Forces, 408-423.
Kant, I. (2010). Critique of Practical Reason. Seattle: CreateSpace.
Mudra did not act according to this principle when he ignored the warning signs of Daniel's condition.
The best course of action would therefore have been a focus on beneficence/non-maleficence rather than upon respect for autonomy. Daniel's age is also an important factor. Concomitantly with his condition, Daniel's immaturity and a desire to "prove" his independence to his parents, could have contributed to his death. When treating such young persons, it is perhaps advisable to place emphasis upon non-maleficence rather than respect for autonomy. In terms of these two principles, it would be acceptable for the parents to complain.
In terms of scope, the final principle, justice, is not as applicable to Daniel's case itself as it is to his parents. The parents feel aggrieved by the practitioner's lack of in-depth knowledge and action regarding Daniel's condition. They are seeking justice for themselves, but it is too late for such…
Stone, J. (2002) an ethical framework for complementary and alternative therapists.
Applebe, G. & Wingfield, J. (1997) Applebe's Pharmacy law and ethics. The Pharmaceutical Press
Gillon, R. & Lloyd, a. (eds.) (1993). Principles of health care ethics. Wiley.
The main concern in virtue ethics becomes about a person's moral character. When people choose to develop their moral character, better virtues will be created, and thus there will be more people acting in virtuous ways in all aspects of their lives -- and this includes how they treat all animals.
One example to be considered when thinking about how a person with a strong sense of virtue might behave is to counter it with how a person with a strong sense of duty might behave. From a duty sense, if one were a livestock farmer, he or she might believe that his or her duty lies in what is best for the people because, after all, the job is about raising livestock for slaughter, which will then become food for people. Therefore, the first duty would be to humans and the second duty to animals (Panaman 20008) (which may…
Garner, R. (2005). Animal ethics. Cambridge: Polity.
Gruen, L. (2011). Ethics and animals: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;
Hursthouse, R. (2000). Ethics, humans and other animals: An introduction with readings. New York: Routledge.
Proclaimed by scientists, the thriving cloning of an adult sheep and the prospect to clone a human being is one of the most striking and latest instances of a scientific innovation turning out to be a major argumentative issue. A variety of critics, physicians and legal specialists, scientists and theologians, talk-radio hosts, as well as editorial column writers, for the period of the preceding few months, have been effectively reacting to the news, a number of them bringing up fears and apprehensions on the ethical and moral side of the subject, of the viewpoint of cloning a human being.
The National ioethics Advisory Commission (NAC), at the appeal of the President, held inquiries, as well as organized a report on the ethical, religious, as well as lawful subjects contiguous to human cloning. The Commission suggested a suspension on attempts to clone human beings, at the same time as…
National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Cloning Human Beings. Report and Recommendations. June 9, 2001.
James Q. Wilson. The Paradox of Cloning. Weekly Standard. May 26, 2001.
Jean Bethke Elshtain. Ewegenics. New Republic. March 31, 2001.
R.C. Lewontin. The Confusion over Cloning. New York Review of Books. October 23, 2001.
The Tasman Spirit crew and financiers should work to investigate acute health concerns as well as the marine ecosystem surrounding Karachai. The American Club, likely one of two involved parties with the financial resources to affect significant change in the region which actually suffered the effects of the environmental disaster. ather than working against each other with suits and counter suits and the assorted other motions and legal actions underway, it would be most effective and positive for those two companies to work together with environmental awareness and protection agencies to restore the region.
This portion of the analysis is concerned with the specific affected individual parties. While it is important not to allow empathy for a specific group to outweigh the impartiality of an effective analysis it is also important to understand the relevant human components of a situation especially one which has such a…
1. Janjua, N.Z., Kasi, P.M., Nawaz, H. (2006). Acute health effects of the Tasman Spirit oil spill on residents of Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Public Health, 6, 84. 435- 488.
2. Ha, M., Lee, W.J., Lee, S., & Cheong, H.K. (2008). A literature review on health effects of exposure to oil spill. Journal of Preventative Medicine and Public Health 45,5 345-354.
For example, and employee might decide they will never be late for a meeting, which will appear to be a noble duty, but there might be a hidden reason towards this action. Maybe the employee prefers to sit in a particular place or sit. Another negative attribute of the deontology theory is the fact that it is mostly concerned with the individual's welfare and not others.
This theory deals with the individual's ability to foresee the consequences of their actions. A person will have to analyze the choice they make to ensure that they benefit more people Weymark, 2005.
Using this theory a person can compare similar past solutions, and develop a system that determines which choice will be most beneficial for a majority of people.
For a large corporation, this theory would be beneficial because employees will endeavor to perform their duties while analyzing the consequences of…
Ronzoni, M. (2010). Teleology, Deontology, and the Priority of the Right: On Some Unappreciated Distinctions. [Article]. Ethical Theory & Moral Practice, 13(4), 453-472. doi: 10.1007/s10677-009-9209-z
Weymark, J.A. (2005). Measurement theory and the foundations of utilitarianism. [Article]. Social Choice & Welfare, 25(2/3), 527-555. doi: 10.1007/s00355-005-0017-7
The foundational ideas of the limits of science and medical ethics goes back a very long way and as it has evolved over the centuries, certain laws, rules, regulations and taboos have been put in place to protect the human race from that sometimes blurred line between scientific discovery and human existence. Medical ethics created a system, bound by the ideals of many that came before them to control this blurring and attempt to stand between sciences desire to discover and the public and individual's desire to remain safe and in control of one's own body. A long time medical ethicist discusses the history of medical ethics as one that was founded on the principles of the ancients, but that has now become one where medical ethicists are demanding concrete answers, even laws to guide and demand decisions regarding medical ethics be enforced. "My new colleagues were polite enough, to…
Adler, Robert E. Medical Firsts: From Hippocrates to the Human Genome. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2004.
Harvey, William. Lectures on the Whole of Anatomy: An Annotated Translation of Prelectiones Anatomiae Universalis. Trans C.D. O'Malley, F.N.L. Poynter, and K.F. Russell. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1961.
Jecker, Nancy S. "Knowing When to Stop: The Limits of Medicine." The Hastings Center Report 21.3 (1991): 5.
Marble, Annie Russell. The Nobel Prize Winners in Literature. New York: D. Appleton, 1925.
Ethical and Legal obligations in financial reporting is extremely important in today's world, fraught as it is with corporate frauds and accounting scams and scandals of every other sort. One Company, the Thornburg Investment Company, has taken a firm stand on financial reporting within its company, wherein all concerned officials are expected to report accurately, any actual, as well as suspected violations and breaches in the laws and rules and regulations of the company, to the appropriate personnel, immediately. (Code of Business Conduct and Ethics) Another Company, the 'Trinity Capital Corporation' stresses the importance of adhering to the rules and regulations created by the Company so that the company's loyalty to its numerous shareholders may be apparent. Where financial reporting is concerned, all the employees of the firm are expected to comply with the generally accepted rules laid down by the accounting principles of the United States of America, so…
"Accounting Concepts, underlying assumptions, principles, and conventions" Retrieved From
http://www.quickmba.com/accounting/fin/concepts / Accessed on 20 June, 2005
"Business Conduct and Ethics Policy" Retrieved From
http://www.lanb.com/tcc/bcecharter.asp Accessed on 19 June, 2005
Typical examples might include decisions not to recall products because the potential financial cost to the organization of recalling millions of units is much greater than the potential financial cost to the organization of simply compensating victims of the malfunctioning products or their families where design or manufacturing defects present risks of harm to consumers (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008). hereas organizational decision makers may view the only prevailing moral standard as being that which is dictated by law, the virtue ethicist would reject that approach out of specific concern for each and every potential victim of harm as well as by the profit-motive underlying that analysis (Hursthouse, 2005).
Ethical Perspective Evolution through the MBA Education Program
My perspective has not necessarily evolved during the MBA program. Rather, I would characterize the effect of the program on my ethical development as having greatly increased my awareness that objective moral values and…
Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati: West Legal Studies.
Hursthouse, R. (2005). On Virtue Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ethical Challenge Scenaios in Healthcae Administation
Scenaio 1: You have withdawn an offe at the last minute (due to poo efeences) to an ICU nuse manage candidate who has moved acoss the county to accept the job. The only way you will avoid a lawsuit is if she is hied somewhee else soon. A close colleague calls to ask you fankly why you withdew the offe. What do you say?
This paticula scenaio seems like moe of a legal issue than an ethical question. An ethical dilemma would be about whethe to talk to the fiend o not. It seems that thee ae a few sepaate issues with egad to the oveall scenaio. Fist, of couse is the legality of talking to the fiend at all. Why does she want to know? Did she ecommend the employee? Next, what does an offe of employment mean? Anothe point to expound upon…
references: A survey of recently enacted state legislation. William and Mary Law Review, 39(1). 177-228.
Meier, K.J., & Hicklin, A. (2008). Employee turnover and organizational performance: testing a hypothesis from classical public administration. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 18(4). 573-582.
Robinson, R.K., Jackson, W.T., Franklin, G.M., & Clayton, R.W. (2010). The changing legal environment for employers: Implications for small businesses. Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, 22(1). 91-99.
Yoder, B. (2008). How reasonable Is "Reasonable"? The search for a satisfactory approach to employment handbooks. Duke Law Journal, 57(5). 1517-1529.
Ethical Lens Inventory
There is probably nobody who goes through life without, at some point, being faced with an ethical dilemma. These are situations where either projected outcome might be equally undesirable, or where there are no clear rules to indicate the appropriate course of action. In these situations, it is helpful to first determine one's own ethical values and viewpoints. These can then be used to come to a decision that is least detrimental to one's own sense of fairness and justice. The ethical lens inventory is one tool that can be used to determine the specific nature of one's own sense of ethical fairness and justice (Ethics Game, 2009).
The ethical lens inventory includes four ethical lenses that might be used to determine one's own sense of values and ethics (Ethics Game, 2007). The most important element to recognize here is that ethics is not uniform, static, or…
Ethics Game (2009). Ethical Lens Inventory. Retrieved from: http://www.ethicsgame.com/Exec/GGEG/Products/EthicalLensInventoryEdSlick.pdf
Ethics Game (2007). Introduction to Four Ethical Lenses. Retrieved from: http://bahrec.shrm.org
Ethical Scenarios in Nursing Education
The scenario chosen for this analysis is one in which a colleague failed to conduct a class as was planned allowing students to leave early and not following instructions for the class. The problem that resulted is that only two groups presented in person and the other two groups posted their presentations on the Web. This content is scheduled on the next exam and no time is left for the student presentations.
This problem is one that should be handled in a manner that retains due respect for the colleague who instructed the class during the absence of the individual who was the instructor for this class. One of the principles in the statement of ethics for nursing education states as follows:
"As colleagues, professors have obligations that derive from common membership in the community of scholars. Professors do not discriminate against or harass colleagues.…
Statement on Professional Ethics (2012) American Association of University Professors. Retrieved from: http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/pubsres/policydocs/contents/statementonprofessionalethics.htm
Ethical and Socially esponsive Business
Ethics in business has a human aspect and is directly related to the success of any business. This therefore means that corporate leaders in organizations have to be very careful about the ethical conduct of their business and how they address any ethical problem that comes up. This paper will look at the code of ethical conduct for a selected company.it will give a description of key areas of the selected company's code of conduct that have a significant importance to the business.it will also give an explanation of the key steps the company should take in order to ensure that its employees follow this code of conduct. Finally suggestions will be given on ways through which the company can take part in socially responsive activities within he community where it carries out its operations.
Chipotle Mexican Grill, Inc. is a restaurant that is committed…
Davis, S.(2010).Examples of Social Responsibility Strategies. Retrieved April 28, 2014 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/examples-social-responsibility-strategies-10633.html
Chipotle Mexican Grill, Inc.(2010). Code of Conduct. Retrieved April 28, 2014 from http://ir.chipotle.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=194775&p=irol-govConduct
Ethical Resource Centre.(2010).Ten Things You Can Do to Avoid Being the Next Enron. Retrieved April 28, 2014 from http://www.ethics.org/resource/ten-things-you-can-do-avoid-being-next-enron
hen searching for ideas use imagination and stimulate that imagination by brain-storming with others and reading the latest publications on the topic -- remember that approaches for difficult issue are always changing. Ten years ago, antidepressants were prescribed almost automatically for depression, now the use of such medication and their side effects, especially in teens, is under scrutiny.
Step 6: Evaluate the evidence
Sometimes writing things down can be helpful. hen contemplating different strategies of approaching the topic, charting and rating evaluations of the tentative solutions provides clarity. Viewing any data and studies side-by-side can be useful as well. Compare and test these solutions in a series of hypothetical scenarios before trying them out in the real world.
Step 7: Make the educated guess (hypothesis)
After reviewing the evidence, boil down the client's situation into a general statement. Make an educated guess about what is the core problem; choose the…
Decision-making worksheet. (2009). Decisionmaking.org. Retrieved February 22, 2009 at http://www.decisionmaking.org/worksheet.pdf
Fourteen decision-making steps
Most companies are today setting up certain 'ethical codes of conduct', which the employees, right from the top echelons, are expected to follow; in fact, it is considered a business imperative to follow a code of ethics within the various operations of the firm. (Ethics in Business)
hat prompted this sort of measure was the fact that not only were quite a few companies suffering losses from the breach of trust that the lack of ethics was inflicting, but also because of the fact hat investors and consumers were also suffering. The recent wave of scandals that rose from the series of frauds and the feeling of a lack of ethics among the top personnel in companies on all Street that came to light has brought the attention of the entire world on the changing ethics in the major companies of today, and this has led to a need to…
When Enron wanted to develop its company, and became involved in the concept of the 'new growth model', it was decided that the company would only take the lower road to attaining profits and to expand its business. (Geisst, 398) Kenneth Lay, one of the most important people of Enron, in other words, the Chairman and the Chief Executive had to prepare to appear before the Court in order to prove his innocence and proper behavior according to the existing code of ethics followed by any company of Enron's standing, which had come under question in 2002. (Enron Lapses and Corporate Ethics)
What was his crime, and what was he accused of? Kenneth Lay was accused, in a 11 count indictment, of lying to the public, including investor in the company, and also of indulging in 'wire frauds', as well as in 'security' frauds, and in making false statements to the general public. He then pleaded 'not guilty' to all the charges, and was subsequently released on a $500,000 bail. However, the Securities and Exchange Commission further accused Lay in another civil complaint of more than $90 million. Though Lay continued to deny all the charges that were being heaped upon him, and also said that he was sad that he was not able to save his company, the government felt that there must be severe punishment awarded to the perpetrators of corporate crime wherein there is a breach in ethics, and therefore, Lay, who had been caught quietly selling 918,000 shares of Enron to unsuspecting shareholders, giving false reports of the company's real health, and of defrauding three Banks in order to obtain stock. (Lay surrenders to Authorities)
The result of Kenneth Lay's dishonesty was that 4,000 people were left without jobs, all of a sudden, and the life savings and pensions of a great number of people were also completely wiped out. The Company Enron went bust, and it owed its creditors more than $65 billion. The punishment that Lay faces today is a maximum sentence of 175 years of imprisonment. (Enron's Ken Lay: I was fooled) the 'WorldCom' Boss, Bernie Ebbers, was accused of masterminding the gigantic, billion dollar corporate accounting fraud that was perpetrated in WorldCom. As for the question "Why did Ebbers have to perpetrate such a fraud," the only answer is that he was the only individual within the company who had the capacity and the capability of planning
Ethical Lessons Learned From Films
For the purposes of this paper, the subject is the esponsibility Project and ethical issues found in films on the website. The short film chosen for this paper is called "The Entrepreneurial Spirit: Birds Barbershop. Birds Barbershop is a chain of barbershops that were started by two childhood friends in Texas. They describe their barbershop as a throwback to a classic era with a modern twist on getting one's haircut. Above all, they value the input of their employees & customers, wishing to keep the barbershop experience simple and to provide utility to the public.
This short film is important for a number of reasons. The barbershops were started by two friends. This is a nice example for people who want to start their own businesses; Birds is an example of when working with friends works out for the better. The two men were…
Liberty Mutual Insurance Company. (2012). The Entrepreneurial Spirit: Birds Barbershop. The Responsibility Project, Available from: http://responsibility-project.libertymutual.com/films/the-entrepreneurial-spirit-birds-barbershop#fbid=0RHJ37MyojN . 2012 July 30.
From the utilitarian perspective, it can be assumed that the use of spyware will reduce the private use of computers and restore the lost work hours, which is a benefit for the company. Employee relationships with the company will be damaged, however, perhaps irrevocably, and this could also affect productivity. Managing the data from the spyware will also require company resources, which can be seen as a detriment. Deontologically speaking, it is generally considered wrong to spy, but it is also wrong to waste company time when an employee is accepting money in an agreement to work, not take care of private business. The two wrongs do not cancel each other out, but either decision leaves one side wronged, so neither system provides a direct answer to the problem.
A combination of the two approaches is not impossible, and in fact makes a great deal of sense in this scenario.…
Alexander, L. & Moore, M. (2007). "Deontological ethics." Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Accessed 24 January 2010. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/#DeoThe
Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (2008). "Calculating Consequences: The Utilitarian Approach to Ethics." Markula center for applied ethics. Accessed 24 January 2010.
Mautner, T., ed. (2002). The Penguin dictionary of philosophy. New York: Penguin.
Personal and organizational responsibility
As the vision and mission statement of Global Homage is clearly stated, anybody who would aspire to become a member must have the innate desire to serve the people. he/she will then consider it as his/her own personal responsibility, as it is the organizational responsibility to uphold the vision and the mission of the organization.
Everyone is expected to act professionally in adhering with all of the above stated code of ethics of the organization.
Global Homage is an organization whose leaders and members are committed to changing and helping the people to live a cleaner and healthier way of life. This is an organization whose members are capable of dealing and interacting with people from varied facets of life - from the people of the government and private sectors to the people from poverty and/or underdeveloped areas. This is an organization whose…
Anthony, John H. 1989 "Therapeutic Leadership." Leadership Abstracts, Vol. 2, No. 13, August.
Association Management. 2002. "Mastering Mission and Vision Statements." American Society of Association Executives
Keough, Jack. 2003. "Improving your vision (business vision, mission statement)." Reed Business Information
Manage. 1990. "NMA vision-mission program." National Management Association.
If the acquire, has been granting options as part of its compensation packages." (Morgensen, 1998) This is important, because it shows how these kinds of changes are highlighting a lack of ethics inside corporate America.
Once this begins to take place, it is sign that the moral fabric of the country is eroding. As more executives are lured into following different practices, despite the fact that they are giving them an unfair advantage over everyone else. This is a sign that the values inside a variety of corporations has completely shifted from: benefiting shareholders to increasing the amounts of compensation that select groups of employees are receiving. Over the course of time, this is used to change the views that executives have about: a host of different activities and the way their employer is dealing with them. (Poerio, 2006)
oth the general public and regulators have been aware of this…
Morgensen, G. (1998). Stock Options are Not Free. Forbes. Retrieved from: http://www.forbes.com/forbes/1998/0518/6110212a.html
Poerio, M. (2006). Stock Option Issues. Stay Current. Retrieved from: http://www.paulhastings.com/assets/publications/527.pdf
The letter is addressed to Mr. Gross, founder of the Idealab Corporation and therefore one of the chief parties involved in the scandal being discussed. The writer of the letter is obviously displeased with the way that Mr. Gross handled his previous ventures, namely Jackpot.com. As an employee, I wrote this letter to express my anger and discontent with my personal experience and to point out that I strongly disapprove of Mr. Gross's gross negligence of the rights of his employees. Three main ethical issues are discussed in this letter. First, promises that Mr. Gross and his CEO made were not kept; Gross and the CEO violated trust and took advantage of employee loyalty. Second, Mr. Gross ostensibly embezzled company funds and stole investor's monies for personal use rather than re-investing in the company. As a result, the company folded and employees like me lost everything. Third, I…
Ethical Argument: Smoking in the Workplace
In 1994, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) defined second- hand tobacco smoke as a potential workplace hazard, estimating that as many as 14,000 workers die each year from the effects of exposure to passive tobacco smoke. The National Cancer
Institute endorsed much higher estimates, according to which as many as 65,000 Americans die each year from heart disease and lung cancer caused by inhaling secondhand smoke (Washington Post, 2004). Since then, many states have instituted legislation prohibiting smoking in the workplace and the FAA has imposed an outright smoking ban on commercial aircraft, which many smokers view as an infringement of their rights.
While anti-smoking legislation certainly does affect the rights of smokers, it is justified on the basis of comparing the relative imposition on smokers to the rights of non-smokers to a healthy work environment. Certainly, smokers have the same…
Washington Post; "Who's Protecting Workers' Health." August 27, 2004; p. A20. (Washingtonpostonline.com) Accessed August 27, 2004, at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37210-2004Aug26.html