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Ethical Issues in Business
Three areas are worth mentioning that Company Q. could consider when improving their business attitudes. First of all, they should have kept those stores open that were in the higher-crime rate areas of the city. This is no reason in which to close the store because of this issue. In fact, the organization can make much revenue in these areas because of the fact that they will have high traffic for people to come in and purchase their products. What they should have considered is doing a survey for people to fill out in order to find out whether or not to keep it at that particular location or to move to another in which to gain as much revenue as possible (Early, 2002).
egardless, by them committing this act, they are showing that they do not trust the people in that part of the city…
Early, R. (2002). Food ethics: a decision making tool for the food industry? Wiley-Blackwell, 339-349.
Reality Sandwich. (2011). The ethics of food. Retrieved May 29, 2011, from Realitly Sandwich: http://www.realitysandwich.com/ethics_food .
However, some of the most difficult ethical issues involve speculative homebuyers who did not misrepresent their financial qualifications but who understood enough about the housing market and the direct connection between wide-scale mortgage fraud and its effect on artificial real estate appreciation but chose to profit by "flipping"
homes nevertheless. The actual harm caused by any single person in that fashion is likely impossible to measure; on the other hand, such practices by so many investors collectively were responsible for the eventual collapse of the U.S. housing market in
2007 and much of the resulting damage to the nation's economy (Bhide, 2009; Nocera,
2009). Only ethical egoism would have allowed such practices; utilitarianism, virtue ethics, and altruism would all have required reporting the rampant business ethics violations in the mortgage, loan, and investment banking industries, even absent specific legal violations.
Bhide, a. (2009). "Why Bankers Got So eckless" Business…
Bhide, a. (2009). "Why Bankers Got So Reckless" Business Week, February 9, 2009.
Bradley, D. (2008). "Real Estate Fraud." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 77(9).
Friedman, L.M. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Halbert, T., Ingulli, E. (2007). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:
Since it is well documented that the largest portion of the gas guzzler market does not have any legitimate practical need for gas guzzling vehicles, it is much more likely to be beneficial to society, on the whole, to phase out gas guzzlers. Potential injustice would also be avoided with respect to those individuals who do have a legitimate requirement for vehicles often considered "gas guzzlers." The proposal does not suggest imposing any ban on gas guzzler production and to whatever extent a genuine market for those vehicles exists among the minority of gas guzzler owners, general economic principles would guarantee that automobile manufacturers produced enough units to maximize the profit margin from any remaining market for gas guzzlers. If the proposal deterred everybody else from purchasing gas guzzlers, that would satisfy both Utilitarian and awlsian principles by virtue of the greatest objective benefit to society (Shaw & Barry, 2007).…
Shaw, W.H., and Barry, V. (2007). Moral Issues in Business (10th ed.). USA: Thomson
Ethical Issues in Business and Society: Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room
Enron manipulated the energy market in a manner that hurt consumers and did not reflect the state of real economic demand and supply. This was not capitalism, rather it was criminal behavior. It also used underhanded accounting measures that did not reflect its real losses to delude investors, including employees that had sunk their savings into the company.
The capitalist system demands evidence of short-term profitability for a company to survive. There is little respect for a company that grows slowly, particularly in these volatile economic times. Enron's ability to make it seem as if it was wildly profitable on paper was rewarded.
Q3. Socrates would have said that the ultimate goal of life was excellence, and that true Platonic perfection is not realized by the pursuit of sensual, short-term pleasure. The truth, rather than the mirage…
As a result, more and more business leaders in the former Soviet Union have begun adopting Western-style codes of ethical conduct in the workplace that reflect many of the fundamental ethical principles recognized in the West.
Article #2 -- Pagano, M. "What are the business ethics of revolution 2.0?"
Independent.co.uk, 13 February 2011.
This article details the tremendous value of modern digital media platforms such as MySpace, FaceBook, and Twitter in connection with the fight for civil rights and fair government on a worldwide basis. In repressive societies, long-established monarchies and other types of dictatorial regimes are able to maintain their control over their populations, largely because there are no opportunities to organize political opposition or civil protests without risking life and limb. However, when very large numbers of people have a means of communicating their concerns, sharing their political criticisms, and (especially) of organizing significant numbers of people in…
Narizhnaya, K. "Ethical Business Culture Becoming Codified." The Moscow Times, 23
February 2011. Accessed 23 February, 2011 from:
Pagano, M. "What are the business ethics of revolution 2.0?" Independent.co.uk, 13
Toyota has been doing so for decades.
If the NHTSA officials deliberately ignored possible safety violations in Toyota vehicles, their effect upon the economy would be twofold: firstly, of course, is the problem of the obvious safety hazard this poses for drivers. Second, because Toyota was insulated from bad publicity regarding its brand, unlike American car manufactures, this gave Toyota an unfair competitive advantage and must be cited as one of the many reasons for the faltering of the American 'Big Three' in the marketplace. Toyota built its brand name on its superior quality, but clearly this 'branding' was false, now that the long-hidden truth has been revealed. Still, Toyota has been so effective in transmitting its message of quality, some consumers see the serious safety problems as only a small hiccup in Toyota's history -- not part of a larger problem at the company.
Due to Toyota's influence on…
Cullen, Elaine. (2010, February 10). "Toyota ethics problems indication of larger Japanese government ethics problems." Current Political Scene. Retrieved April 30, 2010 at http://www.currentpoliticalscene.com/2010/02/toyota-ethics-problems-indication-of.html
ethics of business regarding computer technology. The writer focuses on the issue of email privacy and whether employers have the right to read and act on private email sent by employees from their workstations. The writer explores both sides of the issue and the laws that have pertained thus far. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
The technological explosion of the last few decades has taken the world to heights that were never before imagined. Today, with the click of a mouse one can handle their stocks, plan their vacations, and purchase goods from around the world and chat with others across the ocean. It is an era of wonder and excitement but it brings with it ethical questions that have never before been asked. The technological explosion has allowed businesses to go global in their efforts. Communication has become instantaneous with the click of a button.…
Kelly, Eileen P (2001). Electronic monitoring of employees in the workplace., National Forum, pp 4.
Author not available (2000). TELLING ALL ABOUT INTERNET MONITORING POLICY CAN KEEP YOUR OFFICE LITIGATION-FREE., PR News.
Author not available (2002). DEALING WITH COMPUTER-RELATED DISCIPLINARY CASES., Africa News Service,.
Bronwyn Fryer (1999). Tech/Computers And The Web: E-Mail: Backbone Of The Info Age Or Smoking Gun?., Your Company, pp 73+.
ethical issues for business organizations in the twenty-first century. The forces of globalization have increased the degree to which diverse groups in society have grown dependent on one another. Hence, their expectations influence the freedoms and responsibilities of other groups. The expectations of various stakeholders have placed greater responsibilities on business organizations to be ethical in their communication with their stakeholders. Business organizations are under growing pressure to be ethical in their employment practices and in the sourcing of raw materials and labour for their operations. In addition, they are expected to recognize their responsibility towards the economic and social development of the communities where they operate and those that they influence through their operations. Hence, business organizations are also responsible to act ethically in relation to their use of the resources of the environment and to the extent that they influence it in adverse ways, such as by polluting…
Alder, C.S., & Gilbert, J. (2006). Achievign ethics and fairness in hiring: Going beyond the law. Journal of business ethics, Vol. 68, pp. 449-464. doi: 10.1007/s10551-006-9039-z.
Dresp-Langley, B. (2008). The communication contract and its ten ground clauses. Journal of business ethics, Vol. 87, pp. 415-436. doi: 10.1007/s10551-008-9929-3.
Duska, R.F. (2006). Contemporary reflections on business ethics. Springer Publications.
Low, W., & Davenport, E. (2009). Organizational leadership, ethicsand the challenges of marketing fair and fair trade. Journal of business ethics, Vol. 86, pp. 97-108. doi: 10.1007/s10551-008-9763-7.
While the "quality and the craftsmanship [of Tiffany & Co.'s products] must stand the test of time," the conscience of a socially responsible attitude towards its products becomes an even more important element in order to make the customers appreciate the true value of its offer.
The added value of an "industry leader" approach concerning the social responsibility issues involved by the industry is also a desired course of action, as it brings positive effects on the environment and the fulfillment of ethical promises by the company, its ambassadorship within the industry brings even greater environmental benefits, through a stronger alliance to lobby and fight for the environment.
From a business point-of-view, it brings Tiffany's a differentiation point, giving it a competitive advantage in front of its competitors, something that just working with price, placement, promotion and products (marketing mix elements) can not entirely achieve.
This brings us to the…
Business dictionary, Ethical Issue definition, retrieved online November 6, 2009 at http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/ethical-issue.html
Business dictionary, Fiduciary Duty definition, retrieved online November 6, 2009 at http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/fiduciary-duty.html
Gagnon, Geoffrey, Moving Mountains, Legal Affairs, Sept-Oct 2004, retrieved online November 6, 2009 at http://www.legalaffairs.org/issues/September-October-2004/story_gagnon_sepoct04.msp
Kosich, Dorothy, And, now, a few words from Tiffany & Co, Mineweb, South Africa, November 11, 2004, retrieved online November 5, 2009 at http://www.mineweb.com/mineweb/view/mineweb/en/page15831?oid=3232&sn=Detail
Ethical Practices ithin Business
BP Struggles to Resolve Sustainability Disaster
Over the past 20th century and in the 21st century, ethics has neither been an option nor a luxury. It has not only become a moral or legal responsibility, but has also been an organizational priority within all sets of work groups, including both public and private institutions, organizations and companies. Ethical practices have also become the only strategy to combat the growing impatience within the society, as well as their responsible competitions and/or actions. These ill and unethical acts may in the long run impoverish a section of the regional economy through various organizations while enriching the crafty economies. Organizational leaders must thereby keep abreast of the rapidly changing technological advancements together with their possible effects on globalization, competitor products and services, opportunities, and threats that their organizations may face. Over a century, BP, the formerly Anglo-Persian Oil Company…
Carl, Safina. BP Struggles to Resolve Sustainability Disaster. Annual Report and Form- Case
4, 32:2, (2012),342-352.
Pay equality has for the longest time been one of the most hotly debated topics in the corporate world. When the Equal Pay bill became law in 1963, women were averagely earning just 58.9% of what men were averagely being paid, according to the congressional committee that tabled the bill. In 2011, this percentage had increased to about 77% of what men were averagely being paid for full-time work. These statistics show that there is a somewhat entrenched mentality of paying women lower wages for a job that men would be paid higher for, despite the fact that many firms are claiming to have put in place measures to bring about gender equality in their workplaces (Dontigney, n.d.). This paper examines the issue underlying the equal pay between men and women.
Some human resource managers have argued that the difference in pay between women and men…
Andrews, K. (2015, July 14). Why the gender pay gap is a myth. Retrieved from The Spectator: http://blogs.new.spectator.co.uk/2015/07/the-gender-pay-gap-is-a-myth/
Babcock, L., & Laschever, S. (2003). Women don't ask Negotiation and the gender divide. Princeton: Princeton University.
Blau, F., & Kahn, L. (2007). The Gender Pay Gap. Academy of Management Perspectives, 7-23.
Bluestone, B., Murphy, W. M., Stevenson, M (1973). Low wages and the working poor. Policy papers in Human Resources and Industrial Relations 22. Ann Arbor: Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations.
An ethical issue refers to a situation whereby an organization is required to choose amongst alternatives that must be evaluated as either wrong or right. For example, an ethical issue arises when a business company opts to make as much profit while pollution the environment, the dilemma here being the regulation and social consequences. The company management may opt to bribing the regulation implementing organization as long as they continue making short-term profits before the law catches up with them, by then they may be forced to attire with the rule or shut down but they will have made as much finances than when they may have started and the consequences on the social life will have reached the stage where it affects their health and made the environment unbearable. The principle of autonomy; which requires individuals to be left on their own independence to conduct their activities,…
Andrew, J. (2008). Utilitarianism and deontology theories. New York: John and sons ltd.
Ferrell, O.C., & Fraedrich, J. (2012). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making & Cases. Salt Lake: Cengage Learning.
Joanne, B. (2010). Ethics and Business success. Mexico: Greenwood press.
John, K., & Berlyn, M. (2009). Assessing the effectiveness of decision making models. Normative and rationale models, 15 (14), 319-325.
Ethical Dilemmas in Business
This is a situation where a disgruntled worker from the company's main competitor mailed top-secret information or innovative product samples to me. Some of the major concerns that arise include whether to forward the information to the firm's research department or to mail the information back to the competitor informing them what is happening. The other ethical dilemmas that arise include whether to ignore or throw the secrets away and whether to notify the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI). hile this situation is more of an ethical situation, it's also a legal concern because of the legal aspects that arise when choosing the most suitable course of action and the legal implications.
From a legal perspective, this situation is covered by Uniform Trade Secrets Act, which contains various provisions on misappropriation and gathering information through improper means. According to the Act, misappropriation is obtaining…
Ackerman, Frank, and Kevin Gallagher. "Getting the Prices Wrong: The Limits of Market-Based Environmental Policy." Tufts University. Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University, Oct. 2000. Web. 30 Sept. 2011. .
Millien, Raymond. "Gathering Information on Your Competitors: Competitive Intelligence or Trade Secret Theft?" Washington D.C. Intellectual Property Attorney. DC-Based IP Attorney Raymond Millien, Mar. 2010. Web. 30 Sept. 2011. .
Whipple, Bryan. "Legal Advice: Business Law." LawGuru Answers. WebsiteBroker, Inc., 7 Apr.
2008. Web. 30 Sept. 2011. .
Had the Saints not engaged in corporate social responsibility, they likely would have abdicated a significant proportion of their market base.
Another example of corporate social responsibility is the recent campaign by Coca Cola to save polar bears, which are an endangered species. The polar bear effectively represents the mascot for the Coke brand, and so Coke has a (manufactured) affiliation with the species. By financially assisting the global effort to save polar bears, Coca Cola acts as corporate philanthropists while at the same time garnering positive publicity for their efforts. In this regard, good ethics are again equated with productive business (Burton, Goldsby, 2010).
Alternately, companies that disregard corporate social responsibility experience substantial corporate loss. For example, the Miami Marlins baseball team convinced the city of Miami to publicly fund their stadium, under the premise that they would spend ample amounts of money to field a competitive baseball team.…
Burton, K., Goldsby, M.G. (2010). The moral floor: A philosophical examination of the connection between ethics and business. Journal of Business Ethics, 91(1), 145-154.
Carroll, a.B., Shabana, K.M. (2010). The business case for corporate social responsibility: A review of concepts, research, and practice. International Journal of Management Reviews, 2(1), 85-105.
" The code also states when communicating investment information care must be taken to ensure that it is fair, accurate and complete as well as make full and fair disclosure of all matters that could reasonably be expected to impair their independence and objectivity or interfere with respective duties to their clients, prospective clients, and employer.
Evidence indicates Lehman's senior financial executives knew of the Repo 105 transactions and certified the accuracy of Lehman's financial statements and disclosures despite having full knowledge that the company had engaged in the use of these transactions to hide their toxic assets and make their financial statements appear to be in good health when, in reality, they were not. These executives were fully aware that the financial statements were misleading and did not fairly present the true position of the company.
Hiding toxic assets and releasing favorable financial statements to investors each quarter clearly…
Ahrens, Frank. "Lehmann Brothers, the Evil Repo 105s and the Danger of Off-
Balance-Sheet Deals." Washingtonpost.com, 20 April 2010. Web. 18 March 2013.
"Code of Ethics and Professional Standards" CFA Institute, Vol. 2010, No. 14, June 2010. Web. 18 March 2013.
Jeffers, Agatha E. "Lehman Brother -- the Thin Line between Aggressive Accounting and Unethical Behavior." European Journal of Management, Vol. 11, Issue 4, Winter 2011. Web. 18 March 2013.
In the article Ethical Issues in Information Technology, author Richard T. DeGeorge points out the existence of five interrelated ethical issues: issues in the usage of technology in business, issues in the it business, issues related to the Internet, issues in e-business and issues affecting the social background. Each of the five categories presents several ramifications. The article has a general coverage, an informal writing and throughout its 24 pages presents reduced details. The article merely highlights the existence of ethical problems and concerns in the information technology sector and poses questions as to how could these problems be best resolved. The academician also gives short but relevant examples as to how it procedures are being improperly used to deceive and cause harm. Among these examples, DeGeorge includes shortcoming of the medical systems, within organizations and individual usage of the Internet, mentioning at all times the inappropriate legislature.…
Anderson, James G., Goodman, Kenneth, 2002, Ethics and Information Technology: A Case-Based Approach to Health Care System in Transition (Health Informatics), 1st Edition, Springer
DeGeorge, Richard T., 2002, Ethical Issues in Information Technology, Blackwell Publishers
Hongladaram, Soraj, Ess, Charles, 2006, Information Technology Ethics: Cultural Perspectives, IGI Global
Johnson, Doug, 2007, Information Technology Ethics, Doug Johnson Website, Creative Commons License, http://www.doug-johnson.com/ethics/,last accessed on December 7, 2007
For example, the plants produced through genetic modification can pollinate with the conventionally produced plants and can make them genetically modified as well. (Kaplan 1-15)
In addition to that, the genetically modified crops that were developed with a strong ability to resist herbicides, so that a large amount of strong weed killers can be used of them, have enabled the weeds to develop strong resistance against the herbicides and hence these genetically modified crops have led towards the production of 'super weeds' which are very difficult to control. There is a high probability that the genetically modified plants will lead towards the development of the 'super viruses' as the genes from the plants, which are designed to resist strong viruses, travel to other plants. (Kaplan 1-15)
Exclusion of People from the Experiment
If we keep aside the above discussed threats, another issue that confronts the genetic modification of plant is…
Bhuiya, Shayla. "Ethical Concerns in Development, Research and Consumption of Genetically Engineered Crops." Synesis: A Journal of Science, Technology, Ethics, and Policy, 3. (2013): 60-64. & lt;http://www.synesisjournal.com/vol3_g/Bhuiya_2012_G60-65.pdf>.
Kaplan, David. What's Wrong with Genetically Modified Food?. Brooklyn: Polytechnic University, 2004. 1-15. Retrieved from http://www.csid.unt.edu/files/What's%20Wrong%20With%20Genetically%20Modified%20Food.pdf
Kitzinger, Jenny and Charlie Davison. Public perceptions of social and ethical issues around genetically modified foods: a focus group study. Cardiff: Cardiff University, 2001. 6-32. Retrieved from http://cf.ac.uk/jomec/resources/GMREPFIN.pdf
Krimsky, Sheldon. Ethical Issues Involving Production, Planting and Distribution of Genetically Modified Crops. Medford: Tufts University, 2000. 11-26. Retrieved from http://www.tufts.edu/~skrimsky/PDF/GMOethics.PDF
Ethical Issues in AIS
Ethical Issues in Accounting Information Systems
This essay examines ethical issues in accounting information systems as presented in the case of DHB Industries. Now known as Point Blank Solutions, the company, which supplied body armor to the U.S. military and law enforcement agencies, was charged by the SEC on March 1, 2011 for engaging in "massive accounting fraud" (SEC, 2011). The agency filed separate charges against three of the company's former outside directors and audit committee members for their complicity in the fraud.
According to the SEC, DHB Industries engaged in "pervasive accounting and disclosure fraud through its senior officers" (2011), along with misappropriating company assets to the personal benefit of the company's former CEO. Their accounting and disclosure fraud resulted in the company's filing "materially false and misleading periodic reports to investors" (2011). The SEC charged that the company's senior management manipulated the company's reported…
Cohn, M. (2011, November 10). Body armor execs settle accounting fraud charges. Accounting Today for the Web CPA. Retrieved January 13, 2012 from: http://www.accountingtoday.com/news/Body-Armor-Execs-DHB-Point-Blank-Settle-Accounting-Fraud-Charges-60767-1.html
Gantt, K., Generas, G., & Lamberton, B. (2007, September). Sarbanes-Oxley, accounting scandals, and state accountancy boards. The CPA Journal online. Retrieved January 13, 2012 from: http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/2007/907/essentials/p18.htm
Norris, F. (2011, March 3). For boards, S.E.C. keeps the bar low. New York Times website. Retrieved January 13, 2012 from: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/04/business/04norris.html?pagewanted=all
Securities and Exchange Commission. (2011, February 28). SEC charges military body armor supplier and former outside directors with accounting fraud. Retrieved January 13, 2012 from: http://sec.gov/news/press/2011/2011-52.htm
1). This is a problem that needs to be addressed by adding more training to the budget. The problem is, most hospitals' budgets are already spread too thin. Therefore, hospital administrators need to work harder to find sources to help fund their activities.
Nurses have more power and responsibility than ever before to ensure that they are making honest reports about their patients. They may be in a rush to get home and not feel like entering all of the proper data into the computer. Or, they may take shortcuts in the use of other technologies. It is a nurse's ethical responsibility, however, to ensure honesty in all that she does. This includes 'blowing the whistle' when she sees that other nurses are not being honest or are misusing technology.
This can be extremely difficult, however, considering that nurses often suffer negative repercussions for 'whistleblowing'. A study conducted…
Birdi, K., Clegg, C.W., Patterson, M.A., Robinson, A., Stride, C.B., Wall, T.D., & Wood, S.J. (2008). The impact of human resource and operational management practices on company productivity: A longitudinal study. Personnel Psychology, 61, 467-501.
Bodenheimer, T., MacGregor, K., and Stothart, N. (2005). Nurses as leaders in chronic care. British Medical Journal, 330(7492), 612-613.
Carver, L. & Candela, L. (2008) Attaining organizational commitment across different generations of nurses. Journal of Nursing Management, 16 (8), 984-991.
Charette, R. (2006, June) EHRs: Electronic Health Records or Exceptional Hidden Risks? Communications of the ACM, 49(6),120.
Ethical Issues in Marketing Field
Ethics can be defined as standards employed by people to choose the right course of action amongst diverse, often conflicting possibilities. Ethics are reliant on a logical and rational set of principles to arrive at a decision, which in essence, is a cognitive procedure or practice. Ethical standards are an imperative element for any company or organization, especially in contemporary times, where a progression of the internet and information is accessible to any individual and as such individuals are prone to being online for extended periods (Sandilands, 2016). Ethics impact a business in various ways. One of the ways is the manner in which organizations carry out their advertising. Majority of the businesses will need to advertise their products or services with the principal aim of increasing their customer base, and thereby, their revenues. Businesses are obligated to undertake such activities ethically. Ethical advertising is…
Anastasia. (2015). Social Responsibility & Ethics in Marketing. Retrieved from: https://www.cleverism.com/social-responsibility-ethics-marketing/
Carroll, A., Buchholtz, A. (2012). Business and Society: Ethics, Sustainability, and Stakeholder Management. Cengage Learning.
McKenzie, N., Baker, R. (2016). Surf clothing label Rip Curl using 'slave labour' to manufacture clothes in North Korea. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 16 June 2016 from: http://www.smh.com.au/business/surf-clothing-label-rip-curl-using-slave-labour-to-manufacture-clothes-in-north-korea-20160219-gmz375.html
Sandilands, T. (2016). Marketing Issues That Have Ethical Implications. Chron. Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/marketing-issues-ethical-implications-24089.html
Despite the tremendous capacity of stem cell science, cloning technology, and neuro-implantation to improve human health and minimize suffering from disease and trauma, there has been significant opposition primarily based in religious dogma: specifically, the belief that human life begins at conception. Certainly, there are important ethical considerations, but they are no different in principle from those currently relied upon to regulate all other aspects of modern medicine and health care delivery. Ultimately, it is imperative to develop the full potential of stem cell science, cloning technology, and neuro-implantation in conjunction with a comprehensive set of ethical guidelines to prevent irresponsible or unethical misuses. However, those ethical guidelines may only incorporate secular concepts and definitions and never the religious beliefs of any particular religious tradition.
Gerrig, , Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th…
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th Ed. Dubuque
Iowa: McGraw Hill.
Tong, R. (2007). New Perspectives in Health Care Ethics: An Interdisciplinary and Cultural Approach Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
J. Simpson or John Gotti. In both cases, the defendants are entitled to the presumption of innocence only in court; but there is no such "presumption" in the intellectual "court" of one's mind.
A lawyer with integrity would refuse to represent any defendant he believed was probably guilty of horrendous crimes and simply let that defendant be represented by a court-appointed attorney who is obligated by law to represent any defendant who cannot afford a private attorney. If all criminal defense lawyers had high personal ethical standards, the Simpsons and Gottis of the world would find it impossible to retain any defense counsel other than those obligated by law to take their cases.
4. Define and briefly explain ethical dilemma. Of the four categories of dilemmas: discretion, duty, honesty and loyalty, which one applies best to the following situations? Explain your rationale. Also, explain how an officer might analyze the…
III. The federal government does regulate foods for safety but plays no role in limiting how much unhealthy foods children eat when in their parents' care. On the other hand, the fact that government programs now make a specific effort to improve the ratio of healthy food choices to unhealthy food choices in public education demonstrates that without some controls, children will make unhealthy choices and eat more unhealthy foods than is good for them.
IV. Children do not develop will power by being exposed to temptation without a specific reward or an immediate consequence associated with making the more beneficial choices (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005). Providing children with the information that eating too much unhealthy foods will have adverse consequences in several decades is not a sufficient motivation for them to eat less unhealthy food than they wish to at the moment.
The arguments put forth against the…
Belch, G, Belch, M. (1998) Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated
Marketing Communications Perspective. Irwin/McGraw-Hill: New York
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th ed.
Allyn & Bacon: New Jersey
Ethical issues impact business on multiple different levels, and sometimes businesses can find it difficult to make ethical or appropriate decisions. One recent headline-making case highlights how difficult ethical decision-making can be for real-life businesses faced with real-life scenarios. After an African-American waitress received a bill that had "None, Nigger" written in the tip line, she posted the tip on her Facebook page. She removed that post, but her father then posted it on Facebook. Her employer, ed Lobster, suspended her from work for this action (Lake, 2013). Her suspension caused a huge uproar and has probably resulted in the loss of customers for ed Lobster, making it clear that ethical behavior is a corporate issue that can affect a company's bottom line.
What the scenario also makes clear is that it can be impossible to predict the wide variety of ethical scenarios and solutions that…
Etherington, D. (2013, September 17). How to decide between the new Apple iPhone 5s and iPhone 5c. Retrieved September 18, 2013 from Tech Crunch website: http://techcrunch.com/2013/09/17/iPhone-5s-vs.-iPhone-5c/
John Wiley & Sons. (2013). Student companion site: Vonderembse, White: Operations
management: Concepts, methods, and strategies. Retrieved September 18, 2013 from Wiley website: http://bcs.wiley.com/he-bcs/Books?action=resource&bcsId=1528&itemId=0471393274&resourceId=1634&chapterId=4750
Lake, K. (2013, September 13). Waitress gets "none nigger "as tip at Red Lobster, then suspended for posting on Facebook. Retrieved September 18, 2013 from The Free Patriot website: http://freepatriot.org/2013/09/13/waitress-gets-none-nigger-tip-red-lobster-suspended-posting-facebook/
PHL/323 Ethics Management Current Ethical Issue Business Paper (select a recent article -- back 1 year) • esearch information issue deals business ethics a newspaper, magazine, journal, TV, Internet.
Current ethical issue in business: Ethics of marketing junk food
There are many products which are marketed to the American public which are not 'healthy' such as cigarettes and spirits. However, the issue of food marketing is a more nebulous one, ethically speaking. Unlike nicotine and alcohol, human beings need food to survive. But certain types of food have been identified by many nutritionists as being uniquely deleterious to human health, aka 'junk food.' McDonald's has drawn particular ire, in part because of its marketing to children, according to the article "Marketing to children: Accepting responsibility," recently published in Business Ethics. McDonald's is an American icon, yet it also sells some of the unhealthiest food in the country. McDonald's…
Brown-Adefope, Sanni. (2011). If you want healthy food you've got to eat it. KMOJ FM.
Garber, AK, Lustig, RH. (2011). Is fast food addictive? Curr Drug Abuse Rev, 4(3):146-62.
Marati, Jessica. (2012). Behind the label: In-And-Out EcoSalon. Retrieved http://ecosalon.com/behind-the-label-in-n-out-burger-2/
ethical issues have been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because a variety of challenges are impacting the way executives and employees are behaving inside the workplace. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than Tyco. What happened is Dennis Kozlowski was the CEO of the company from the early 1990s until 2002. This is when a wide scale fraud was reported, as he used the company's funds to live a lavish lifestyle. (Hitt, 2009)
To help support the fraud he encouraged some of his closet executives to participate in covering up these issues. At the same time, he had a seat on the board of directors and was effective at preventing them from independently investigating these events. This helped him to live a celebrity lifestyle by showing to the world how he was new generation of CEOs. They were focused on creating large…
Wall Street's Role. (2008). PBS News Hour. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/business/july-dec08/econtrouble_08-20.html
Barr, A. (2007). Subprime Crisis. Market Watch. Retrieved from: http://articles.marketwatch.com/2007-04-10/finance/30757552_1_mortgage-brokers-broker-home-loans-harry-dinham
Bryce, R. (2004). Pipe Dreams. New York, NY: Public Affairs.
Goodwin, W. (2010). Previous BP Accidents. NPR. Retrieved from: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=126564739&ft=1&f=2&utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+NprProgramsATC+%28NPR+Programs%3A+All+Things+Considered%29
Ethical Situations in Asset Management Service
Ethical situations that arise with asset management services
Ethical issues in business (or corporate ethics) are ethics in the form of application or professional ethics that usually evaluate the principles of ethics and the troubles associated with ethics and morals that develop in the environment of a business. This is applicable to all the components of a business and its conduct and it is very essential for all the entire staff in an organization. Ethics of business include both descriptive and normative dimensions. This specific area is normative. Academicians that seek to gain knowledge on the behavior by implementing descriptive methods in their course. The amount and range of issues in business ethics describe the link between non-economic issues and profit maximizing. Many started gaining interest in the ethics of business rapidly from 1980 to 1990. This was true in academia and corporations. For…
Buckman, J.M., & International Association of Fire Chiefs. (2006). Chief Fire officer's desk reference. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Hoffman, W.M. (2007). The ethics of accounting and finance: Trust, responsibility, and control: from the Tenth National Conference on Business Ethics. Westport, Conn. [u.a.: Quorum Books.
Nash, L.L. (2008). Good intentions aside: A manager's guide to resolving ethical problems. Boston, Mass: Harvard Business School Press.
Preston, N. (2009). Ethics for the public sector: Education and training. Annandale, N.S.W: Federation Press.
From an egalitarian perspective, which holds that all stakeholders are given roughly equal treatment (Arneson, 2002) bribery is wrong, on two levels. The first is that it creates an unequal playing field within the oil industry between firms that adhere to the law and firms that do not. The second is that it favors some foreign employees for unlawful financial gain while others do not receive the same treatment.
The liner situation is egalitarian in that all customers are being put at risk equally. The family situation has some egalitarian issues, since the location has been framed by the couple as a choice between mutually exclusive options.
The three perspectives all point to Jacob leaving Richardson. The company's lack of ethics has corrupted Jacob already, but he can set the situation right by moving onwards. If Jacob feels that he has an implicit contract with his wife not to leave…
Bailes, R. (2006). Facilitation payments: Culturally acceptable or unacceptably corrupt? Business Ethics: A European Review. Vol. 15, 3, 293-298.
Alexander, L. & Moore, M. (2007). Deontological ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 22, 2009 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/
Arneson, R. (2002). Egalitarianism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 23, 2009 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/egalitarianism/
ethical issues is the only way to devise a personal moral code that can carry into one's professional life. It is helpful to imagine hypothetical moral dilemmas or reflect on known dilemmas prior to being placed in a position of having to make moral decisions. We need to "face up to the hard questions," and risk the "intellectual, psychological, and emotional discomfort" of doing so (Jones & Carlson, 2004, p. 6). Doing the right thing depends largely on experience, though, which is why it can be of great help to think clearly about all potential problems, situations, and outcomes and put those thoughts into action. Unless we have thought something through in our head first, we may never have a blueprint of ethical behavior.
Compromising personal values and interests is never easy. However, I do understand where Jones & Carlson (2004) are coming from. The authors note that students are…
Jones, J.R. & Carlson, D.P. (2004). Reputable Conduct. 2nd Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Martin, K. (2001). The powerful role of ethics in corrections. Retrieved online: http://www.corrections.com/articles/7890-the-powerful-role-of-ethics-in-corrections
Ethical Issue Business discusses questions Mayor Bob Filner San Diego sexually harassing staff. • hat basis issue? • Identify ground rules manifested situation. He mayor San Diego sexually harassing staff, terminated city council .
Ethical behavior in the context of Bob Filner's sexual harassment charges
There is much controversy concerning San Diego Mayor Bob Filner on account of the public official being accused of having sexually harassed several of his employees. hile Filner claims to be innocent and believes that his current condition resulted from a series of rumors involving unspecified individuals. In spite of the fact that several female staff initially preferred to remain anonymous, evidence seemed credible and Filner was called out to respond to these allegations. Filner apparently abused his position and attempted to exploit female employees he was in charge of thinking that he would escape without being penalized as a result of this act.
Montoya, K. Bob Filner Apologizes, Resigns as Mayor of San Diego -- Kacey Montoya Reports. Retrieved August 30, 2013, from http://ktla.com/local-news/stories/san-diego-mayor-bob-filner-admits-sexual-harassment/#ixzz2dUWl5U7P .
Wicks, D. Small Business > Business & Workplace Regulations > Workplace Harassment Ethical Implications of Sexual Harassment in the Workplace. Retrieved August 30, 2013, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/ethical-implications-sexual-harassment-workplace-15391.html
Did he have the right to make such promises knowing that the company may be moving to Mexico? The simple answer is no. It was unethical to make such promises knowing full well that the company may be moving to Mexico. However, it is not always simple. He made the promises knowing that the company MIGHT move to Mexico. The negotiations are still ongoing so at the time the promises were made he had no concrete knowledge that a move would be taking place. Because he had no knowledge of an actual move being planned, and only knew it was being negotiated he was under no legal obligation to not make those promises. Luckily ethical obligations and legal obligations are often two different things. Ethical obligations are not as concrete nor do they require proof beyond the shadow of a doubt. It is without question that the promises this company…
ERWIN, WESLEY J. Supervisor Moral Sensitivity. Counselor Education and Supervision; 12/1/2000;
Kensicki, Peter R. 'Utmost Good Faith' Implies Good Ethics. National Underwriter Property & Casualty-Risk & Benefits Management; 7/31/2000;
Reamer, Frederic G.,the Social Work Ethics Audit: A Risk-Management Strategy.
Social Work; 7/1/2000;
Therefore, total emissions are reduced over time, which is seen in the EU. A period of emissions was to be reduced by 5% with 199- levels while the next set of years were to reduce emissions by 20%. As a result, the cap-and-trade system offers the policymakers and those concerned with the environment a definite emissions target.
A cap-and-trade strategy makes sure that the short-run resources of abatement are assumed first since firms have the incentive and motivation to reduce their emissions levels when they can accomplish this at a price lower than the market. The market price rewards firms should they make the reductions but are punished if they don't. The cap is to ensure environmental sanctity and the trade advocates minimum cost. Therefore, this method minimizes waste, and it is individual firms that offer a cheap source of abatement to reduce gas emissions. Cap-and-trade method also maintains liberty…
ethical issues, challenges, and dilemmas that have arisen due to technological advances of law enforcement on personal privacy. Addressed are the major pro and con viewpoints of economically, politically, individually, and socially.
Eight sources. APA.
Privacy and Technology
Big Brother is definitely here. Just the other day the news reported that the average American is photographed nine to twelve times per day. Cameras are everywhere. People are photographed while they are driving to and from work, while they are parking their cars, entering their place of employment, and if the company is any size other than a mom and pop shop, they are watched at work. hether one is making a deposit at the bank, buying groceries at the local grocery chain, gas at the 7-11 store, or browsing books at the library, they are being not only watched, but photographed. From the smallest market to the largest mall, every…
Branom, Mike. "Orlando Gets New Air Security Devices." AP Online. March 5, 2002.
Digital Big Brother." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. February 05, 2001.
EU/U.S.: EURO-MPS 'CONFIRM' ECHELON SPY NETWORK." European Report.
Hamilton, Tyler. "Surveillance technologies nibble at offline privacy." The Toronto Star.
ethical issues that should be addressed by researchers in the field of psychology who use human subjects: the protection of the human participants and the protection and maintenance of the integrity of the research findings (Punch, 2013). This paper will discuss several important ethical considerations regarding the use of statistics in the integrity of research findings.
Perhaps the topic that is addressed most frequently regarding the ethical use of statistics and certainly is a current concern is the overreliance of statistical significance testing (Verdam, Oort, & Sprangers, 2014). The surprising to find that many researchers still believe that significant P. values indicate that the research results will replicate, smaller team P. values indicate a larger magnitudes and results, or that smaller P. values mean that the results are more important (Gorard, 2014; Punch, 2013). None of these are true. In fact, the American Psychological Association [APA] has suggested since the…
Asendorpf, J.B., Conner, M., De Fruyt, F., De Houwer, J., Denissen, J.J., Fiedler, K., ... & Wicherts, J.M. (2013). Recommendations for increasing replicability in psychology. European Journal of Personality, 27(2), 108-119.
Gorard, S. (2014). The widespread abuse of statistics by researchers: What is the problem and what is the ethical way forward?. Psychology of education review., 38(1), 3-10.
Punch, K.F. (2013). Introduction to social research: Quantitative and qualitative approaches.
New York: Sage.
Accounting: Ethical Issues in Budgeting
What should an employee do when he or she discovers that there is an error in a projection?
Accounting professionals have a duty to observe high standards of conduct and integrity in order to uphold the reputation of the accounting profession. For instance, if an error occurs in sales projections, the accountant has a duty to correct the error immediately and inform the head of the department or manager of the company. Sales projections are crucial to a company's budget because they give an idea of the amount of revenue the company intends to generate in future. Since they help determine the health of the company, majority of the decisions the company makes will based on the projected figures. If an accountant chooses to conceal errors in the projections, therefore, wrong decisions will be made and the overall performance of the company will be affected…
Ethics and Specialized Knowledge
Enron's case summary
Enron is an interstate pipeline company that was founded in 1985 as a supplier of power utilities. In the 20th century, Enron had grown quickly, and due to increased competition in the global market, the company decided to diversify and use international investments that would help in keeping their market position. Enron's rapid expansion exceeded their funding abilities, and this resulted in the creation of a complex web of off-balance-sheet financing (Silverstein, 2013). It is clear that they ignored the dangers associated with their activities in bringing serious losses. Moreover, in 2001 is when the company overstated on its revenues and its liabilities became hidden from the public.
Additionally, their driving culture became reinforced by incentive schemes that promised and delivered rewards that were huge concerning their compensation packages (Silverstein, 2013). As such, their outstanding performance required them to portray the company as…
Marianne M. J. (2009). Business Ethic Case Study and Selected Readings (sixth Ed.). Salt Lake City, UT, U.S.A.: Southwestern Cengage Learning.
Silverstein, K. (2013, May 14). Enron, Ethics and Today's Corporate Values. Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/kensilverstein/2013/05/14/enron-ethics-and-todays-corporate-values/#7a4cfc557688
Volkswagen Emission Scandal
Volkswagen is a company headquartered in Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony, Germany and is the original marquee within the Volkswagen Group. The Volkswagen Group includes different car marquees like Bentley Motors, Audi, Automobile Lamborghini, Bugatti Automobiles, and Scania, which manufactures heavy goods vehicles. Since its inception, Volkswagen has developed to become the third largest manufacturer of automobiles after Toyota and General Motors respectively. However, the company was recently involved in an emission scandal that has generated significant concerns in this industry and among the public. The emission scandal is attributed to the company's corporate misbehavior, which is largely unacceptable from any perspective. The unacceptability of this misbehavior is attributable to its impact on the world and violation of business ethics.
Emission Issue at Volkswagen
Volkswagen is renowned across the globe as one of the leading and successful car manufacturers that have experienced tremendous growth and profitability since inception. Despite…
Argenti, P. (2015, October 13). The Biggest Culprit in VW's Emissions Scandal. Fortune. Retrieved December 8, 2015, from http://fortune.com/2015/10/13/biggest-culprit-in-volkswagen-emissions-scandal/
Hotten, R. (2015, November 4). Volkswagen: The Scandal Explained. BBC. Retrieved December 8, 2015, from http://www.bbc.com/news/business-34324772
Queen, E.L. (2015, September 26). How Could VW Be So Dumb? Blame the Unethical Culture Endemic in Business. The Conversation. Retrieved December 8, 2015, from http://theconversation.com/how-could-vw-be-so-dumb-blame-the-unethical-culture-endemic-in-business-48137
Ethical Issues at Apple
Apple Inc. is one of the leading global companies, but in spite of its success, it is also faced with some legal and ethical issues, such as the employment of under-aged workers in ten of its plants in China. The company is striving to address these issues as apart of a wider commitment to transparency and sustainability, but more dramatic measures might be necessary.
Apple Inc. is one of the largest companies of the globe, having in fact the largest capitalization of al companies -- 563 billion (Y Charts, 2012) -- and also being the largest company in the IT field, generating more revenues that Microsoft and Google combined (Goldman, 2012). Apple is mostly popular due to the high level of technologic innovation it has made fun and easily available to the larger market. But aside from its success, the company has also been blamed for…
Goldman, D., 2012, Apple's $46 billion sales set new tech record, CNN Money, http://money.cnn.com/2012/01/24/technology/apple_earnings/index.htmlast accessed on July 23, 2012
Moore, M., 2011, Apple's child labor issues worsen, The Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/apple/8324867/Apples-child-labour-issues-worsen.html last accessed on July 23, 2012
2010, Criticism of Apple Inc., Blog, http://criticismofappleinc.blog.com / last accessed on July 23, 2012
Apple Supplier Responsibility, 2011 Progress Report, http://images.apple.com/supplierresponsibility/pdf/Apple_SR_2011_Progress_Report.pdf last accessed on July 23, 2012
International Legal and Ethical Issues Simulation Summary
Addressing International Legal and Ethical Issues Simulation Summary
In jurisdictions where the assets or shares of the transactions are located, a local counsel will be a mandatory prerequisite. In addition, it is likely to engage the local counsel in the seller's jurisdiction. The process of selecting the appropriate company to collaborate with is important. Apart from competence, issues like commitment, trust, and confidentiality are crucial. It is also important for the local counsel to clear conflicts. Counsels must ensure that they are aware of the laws in every jurisdiction. This will make it easy for them to observe all the ethical structures of the local and international laws (Halbert & Ingulli, 2012). They should be aware of possible changes at all times and confidentiality agreements are important in such situations. This request is fair on the ground…
Halbert, T., & Ingulli, E. (2012). Law & ethics in the business environment. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Hoffman, W.M. (2008). Emerging global business ethics: From the Ninth Conference on Business Ethics. Westport, Conn: Quorum Books.
Horn, N. & Norton, J.J. (2000). Non-Judicial Dispute Settlement in International Financial
Transactions. Westport, Conn: Kluwer Law International
The manager has a duty to the shareholders of both companies to increase profits, both for Dell and for Salesforce.com, Inc. At the same time, their primary ethical duty must still be to the consumer/customer, and there is definitely the risk of this duty being compromised by the addition of an external software system and company to promote and keep happy. Providing adequate direction and expectations to employees in Dell's customer relations department will also be heavily affected by this new partnership, and there is definitely an ethical imperative for the manager to provide an encouraging and productive work environment, and in order to this there will have to be a determination of which company to truly serve.
There are other non-managerial ethical issues that arise from this partnership, not the elast of which is the danger of a semi-monopoly when it comes to customer relationships. The package deal of…
One recent piece of news from the business world that illustrates many of these ethical issues is the announcement that Dell, which is primarily a hardware (specifically personal computer) manufacturer will embark on a new partnership with Salesforce.com Inc., a software manufacturer. Under the released terms of the partnership, which are incredibly vague, Dell will promote Salesforce.com, Inc.'s customer relationship software, and Salesforce.com, Inc. will be allowed to directly market and promote their products to Dell's customers (San Francisco Business Times 2009). This partnership, even without all of the details divulged, raises some serious ethical considerations for managers at both companies.
The fact that Dell has decided to promote another company's software as a part of its own business services activities means that customer service managers now have a more complex system of bosses and consumers to please, as the directness of Dell's own customer relations services has been disrupted (San Francisco Business Times 2009). The manager has a duty to the shareholders of both companies to increase profits, both for Dell and for Salesforce.com, Inc. At the same time, their primary ethical duty must still be to the consumer/customer, and there is definitely the risk of this duty being compromised by the addition of an external software system and company to promote and keep happy. Providing adequate direction and expectations to employees in Dell's customer relations department will also be heavily affected by this new partnership, and there is definitely an ethical imperative for the manager to provide an encouraging and productive work environment, and in order to this there will have to be a determination of which company to truly serve.
There are other non-managerial ethical issues that arise from this partnership, not the elast of which is the danger of a semi-monopoly when it comes to customer relationships. The package deal of hardware and software limits the amount of flexibility and choice for consumers. Of course, neither Dell nor Salesforce.com, Inc. is the only manufacturer of their respective products, so the ethical concerns of this partnership could potentially drive consumers away, to other companies entirely. Regardless, it is clear that the ethics of this deal must be accounted for in moving ahead with the partnership.
He offered me $1,000 to set an appointment with the candidate. I refused to accept the bride, and as such, behaved in an ethical manner.
From a teleological standpoint, my decision was a positive one since it was made in the sense and the sake of the final goal, that is the preservation of a good reputation for the candidate. Also, the decision also empowered my personal morale. Still, the finality of the action was that the business man approached another campaign staff and the decision made impacted primarily myself, rather than the actual system of political bribes.
2.2. Personal ethics and deontological frameworks
At the level of deontological ethics, I also acted in full accordance with the specifications and moral expectations of the position I was occupying at the time. In other words, I acted based on the norms and rules of behavior applicable when acting on a campaign…
Adam, D., 2009, ExxonMobil continuing to fund climate skeptic groups, records show, the Guardian, http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/jul/01/exxon-mobil-climate-change-sceptics-fundinglast accessed on June 1, 2012
Carroll, a.B., Buchholtz, a.K., 2011, Business and society: ethics, sustainability and stakeholder management, 8th edition, Cengage Learning
Greenwald, R., 2005, Wal-Mart: the high cost of low price
U.S. Congress, 2005, Congressional record, V. 151, Pt. 20, June 20 to June 27, 2005, Government Printing Office
100). Much of the focus of personnel selection using psychological testing was on new troops enlisting in the military during two world wars and the explosive growth of the private sector thereafter (Scroggins et al., 2008). Psychological testing for personnel selection purposes, though, faded into disfavor during the 1960s, but it continues to be used by human resource practitioners today. In this regard, Scroggins and his colleagues advise, "Many H practitioners, however, have continued to use personality testing with an optimistic and enduring faith in its ability to discriminate between good and poor job candidates" (p. 101).
In cases where cheating is suspected (such as in the case of an teen applicant possibly using a smartphone or consulting crib notes during testing by visiting the restroom), psychologists have a professional responsibility to conform to relevant privacy laws with respect to the results of such tests, including following the decision-making model…
Barnes, F.P. & Murdin, L. (2001). Values and ethics in the practice of psychotherapy and counseling. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Bersoff, D.N. (2008). Ethical conflicts in psychology. American Psychological Association.
Bonventre, V.M. (2005, Spring). Editor's foreword. Albany Law Review, 68(2), vii-ix.
Charman, D. (2004). Core processes in brief psychodynamic psychotherapy: Advancing effective practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
This is a pertinent observation and one that is possibly central to understanding the problem of environmental ethics today.
Bugeja goes on to state that "…the new technologies that now keep us constantly connected also keep us constantly distracted" (Bugeja, 2008). He also makes the important point that, "Digital distractions now keep us from addressing the real issues of the day. Each of us daily consumes an average of nine hours of media through myriad technological platforms…" (Bugeja, 2008). In other words, we have become distracted from the holistic view of reality by modern communications technology to the extent that we are out of contact with the environmental issues that surround us.
Bugeja is also of the opinion that this situation has deprived us of the important aspect of critical thought. Critical thinking is defined as "… the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking, and being able to…
Bugeja M. ( 2008) The Age of Distraction: The Professor or the Processor? The
Futurist, 42 (1).
Consequentialism: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/c/conseque.htm .
Environmental Ethics. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-environmental/
Health Care -- Ethical Issues in Evaluation Research
Ben is a professor and Alyssa is his graduate student in health sciences. Ben is the program chair for a conference with publications that are "refereed" or reviewed by an expert board of editors before publication. The conference has a policy that accepted papers must be presented by their authors but Ben does not mention this policy to Alyssa. He suggests that Alyssa submit a paper to the conference and that he will present it because the conference is being held abroad and he cannot support her trip to the conference. Alyssa writes the paper entirely with her own research while funded by an external fellowship, and submits it with herself as the sole author. She gives several drafts to Ben, who does not comment on any of them. Alyssa's paper is accepted by the conference, she is then advised of their…
American Evaluation Association. (1994, revisions through 2004). American Evaluation Association guiding principles for evaluators. Retrieved on December 15, 2012 from www.eval.org Web site: http://www.eval.org/Publications/GuidingPrinciples.asp
Kass, N.E. (2001, November). An ethics framework for public health. Retrieved on December 15, 2012 from search.proquest.com Web site: http://search.proquest.com/docview/215114044/13B0743D48B182F5BD9/1?accountid=28844
Public Health Leadership Society. (2002). Principles of the ethical practice of public health, version 2.2. Retrieved on December 15, 2012 from www.apha.org Web site: http://www.apha.org/NR/rdonlyres/1CED3CEA-287E-4185-9CBD-BD405FC60856/0/ethicsbrochure.pdf
Thomas, J. (2004). Skills for the ethical practice of public health. Retrieved on December 15, 2012 from phls.org Web site: http://phls.org/CMSuploads/Skills-for-the-Ethical-Practice-of-Public-Health-68547.pdf
African-American MOTHES AND THEI DAUGHTES
Ethical Issues in Gumdrop Northern
The Executive Officer, ABC Company
Ethical Issues in Gumdrop Northern
It has come to my attention that the actions and functions of the Gumdrop Northern are not up to standards. The company besides afflicting the American citizens, particularly the military, has lacked a sense of corporate social responsibility to both their employees, customers and the natural environment. Notably, the business world faces the notion of corporate social responsibility in all aspects of business undertakings (Bitektine, 2011). In a wide assortment of issues, corporations get motivation of to behaving in a socially responsible manner. In the contemporary world, corporate businesses focuses on the interest of the society through taking responsibility for the effect of their actions on employees, shareholders, communities and customers in all facets of their operations (Bitektine, 2011).
Nevertheless, this is contrary to what Gumdrop Northern is doing to…
Bitektine, A, 2011, "Toward a theory of social judgments of organizations: The case of legitimacy, reputation, and status," Academy of Management Review, 36: 151 -- 179.
Crouch, C. 2006," Modelling the firm in its market and organizational environment: Methodologies for studying corporate social responsibility. Organization Studies, 27:1533 -- 1551.
Pike, J. (2010). Mine resistant ambush protected (MRAP) vehicle program. Global Security. Retrieved from http://www.globalsecurity.org
Sleeer, J.(2012). Business ethics and stakeholder management: Developing a structured approach for small business owner-managers. New York: GRIN Verlag
What were the ethical issues presented in the simulation?
The two scenarios had different ethical issues that presented themselves. The first scenario was about a contaminant that was found in a supplement that the company was using, and the second was about selling a defective product to buyers in another country. In the first ethical dilemma, the levels of contamination were lower than the FDA recommendation, but higher than the company standards. The task was to decide whether the company should recall the slightly tainted supplement or not. For the second dilemma, the issue was that the FDA had raised its standard and the marketing department was trying to get the inspector to sign off on selling the product in other countries where the standards were not as strict.
What decision-making steps did you take to ethically address these issues?
The steps were to follow the lenses and…
DeGeorge, R.T. (2005). Business ethics. Retrieved from https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/content/eBookLibrary2/content/eReader.aspx
University of Phoenix. (2002-2007). Ethics Game [Computer Software]. Retrieved from University of Phoenix, Simulation, MGT216 website.
U.S. Government and ethical issues of outsourcing
Description of Ideas-5
Analysis of Concepts-6
Evaluation with easons-7
U.S Government and Ethical Issues of Outsourcing
USA is at present one of the fastest growing countries as a target for outsourcing. Of late outsourcing which was once the buzzword of corporate America has been looked down upon in recent years because of growing concerns of ethics involved in outsourcing the same. Majority lament the outsourcing of jobs to low-wage economies like Asia, Philippines and elsewhere. In a slowing economy with unemployment figures hovering around 10%, outsourcing jobs is viewed as extremely undesirable. However some experts are of the opinion that outsourcing per se is not bad as it helps business to lower costs to remain in business, particularly during periods of recession. When outsourcing permits a company to cut down on costs and make production at less cost, it augurs well…
Breslin, David A. (1999) "On the Ethics of Outsourcing" Program Manager; vol. 28, no. 6,
Ching, Jacqueline. (2009) "Outsourcing U.S. Jobs"
The Rosen Publishing Group.
Social and Ethical Issues
Consulting for a Tobacco Company
It would be difficult for me to consult for a tobacco company. I would have to seriously weigh the pros and cons of the assignment. One positive aspect is that it is only a short-term assignment. Thus if I did accept the assignment, it would only be for a short duration with a defined end point. Another advantage is that I would have some control over the decisions that the company made and I could recommend that ethics be applied in each situation. Although the sale of tobacco products is harmful to health in general, there are situations in which it can be relatively less harmful than it would otherwise be.
For example, there can be decisions made to use additives that are safer than others. There are also decisions to be made about marketing and distribution that could…
On the largest scale, the U.S. population is disproportionately responsible for the depletion of fossil fuels and other natural resources in that Americans consume approximately one-quarter of those valuable energy resources despite constituting less than five percent of the entire global population (Attfield, 2003; Poiman & Poiman, 2007).
Besides consuming such a disproportionate amount of natural resources, another major environmental ethics issue arises in connection with the deliberate export of hazardous waste from wealthy countries to poor countries and the outsourcing of dangerous jobs, such as some of those that are strictly prohibited by domestic environmental laws (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008; Poiman & Poiman, 2007). United States military operations have also contributed to new environmental ethics concerns, such as the contamination of soil and water supplies in Iraq and Central Europe by the millions of depleted uranium shells left by tactical aircraft supporting ground troops in Iraq or engaging hostile…
Attfield R. (2003). Environmental Ethics: An Overview for the Twenty-First Century.
Cambridge, UK: Polity.
Halbert T. And Ingulli E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:
West Legal Studies.
Consequentialist and Deontological Ethical Issues.
Consequentialism states that the morality of an action is determined by the specific results of that action. Deontology, on the other hand, states that the morality of an action is determined by duty or adherence to given rules. (Theodore oosevelt)
Consequentialism is based on the consequences of actions. According to consequentialism, actions are right or wrong depending on whether their consequences further the goal. The goal or "the good," can be something like the happiness of all people or the spreading of peace and safety. Anything which contributes to that goal is right and anything which does not is wrong. Actions are thought to have no moral value in themselves, but only get moral value from whether or not they lead to the goal.
Deontology comes from the Greek word deon, meaning duty. According to this theory, it is your duty to do actions which…
Gibney, Alex. "Ask Why: Enron, "the diffusion of responsibility," and the Atlantic Yards parallels (will anyone look at the Development Agreement?)" [Online] Available: http://atlanticyardsreport.blogspot.com/2010/06/ask-why-enron-diffusion-of.html
Hoagland-Smith, Leanne. "Car Dealerships Still Are Still Clueless in How to Increase Car Sales & Develop Customer Loyalty. [Online] Available at: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/perform/perform.html
Murdarasi, Karen. "Deontology and Consequentialism: Two Opposing Ethical Theories and Their Main Criticisms" [Online] Available at: http://www.suite101.com/content/deontology-and-consquentialism-a91650
Roosevelt, Theodore. Den of Hydralisks. [Online] Available at: http://hydralisk.wordpress.com/2007/04/29/deontology-vs.-consequentialism-part-1/
Although Cad Mex Pharma has its patent rights reserved under protection act of Trade elated International Property ights (TIPs) for 20 years ("Agreement on Trade-elated Aspects of Intellectual Property ights") but TIPs also allow government to enforce compulsory licensing under health emergency (World Trade Organization: "Compulsory Licensing of Pharmace"). Now choice of law humbug anything against Candorean government and the TIPs health emergency clause will affix more political pressure on Cad Mex Pharma. So if Cad Mex Pharma takes legal action that could result into Gentura's bankruptcy via employing binding arbitrator and otherwise Cad Mex Pharma can take no legal action and demand marketing rights in another drug. Former option is not recommended as it leads to loose- loose situation and relations with Candorean government would be blemished and as per latter option unwillingness has been witness from Gentura side (Graham Matthew, Sep 2005). Leaving behind only option of claiming…
1-Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights: Article 14, para 5. http://www.wto.org/English/docs_e/legal_e/27-trips.pdf
2- S. Mithra: Binding Arbitratory. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-binding-arbitration.htm
3- Intellectual property (TRIPs) - Compulsory Licensing of Pharmace: World Trade Organization
This collection comprises health-care and social service employees such as visiting nurses, psychiatric evaluators, and probation workers; community employees such as gas and water utility workers, phone and cable TV employees, and letter carriers; retail workers; and taxi drivers (OSHA Fact Sheet, 2002).
The best defense that companies can give is to institute a no tolerance rule in regards to workplace aggression against or by their workers. The company should set up a workplace aggression avoidance course or include the knowledge into an accessible disaster prevention course, employee manual, or handbook of standard operating measures. It is important to make sure that all workers are aware of the rules and recognize that all ascertains of workplace aggression will be examined and dealt with quickly. Additionally, companies can recommend additional shields like:
Providing security training for workers so they understand what behavior is not suitable and what they should do if…
Davidson, Michael. (2010). Federal Workplace Violence Laws. Retrieved October 17, 2010,
from eHow Web site: http://www.ehow.com/list_6116986_federal-workplace-violence-laws.html
Heathfield, Susan M. (2010). Workplace Violence: Violence Can Happen Here. Retrieved October 17, 2010, from About Web site:
The manufacturing, advertising, and retailing of a product devoid of consideration for ethical, legal, and social aspects is harmful to the general success of any entity. The company in consideration is Jolly Company, which is presenting Bubbly Energy Drink. This is a start-up company that will have its base of operations in the State of Texas, in the United States. With the U.S. being the domestic market, the international market included in this discussion is Mexico. Energy drinks are amidst the most fast growing business segments of the entire beverage industry in the present day and are progressively more market in the direction of young individuals. Owing to the fact that these drinks are comparatively new to the market, the impacts of their longstanding use continues to be vague, and there is increasing proof to hint that they may be detrimental to young consumers. One of the legal issues linked…
resolve ethical issues that arise from the intersection of Law, Compliance & Investigations
Ethics, law, and compliance
There is always a need to balance the individual's right to privacy with a government or business' right to investigate breaches of security, whether of a technical or non-technical matter. "New technologies make it possible for employers to monitor many aspects of their employees' jobs that "they could not previously, and "such monitoring is virtually unregulated. Therefore, unless company policy specifically states otherwise (and even this is not assured), your employer may listen, watch and read most of your workplace communication" (Fact Sheet 7, 2012, Privacy ights Clearinghouse). Most companies take advantage of the fact that the law is on their side regarding workplace monitoring. "Of the 43% of companies that monitor e-mail, nearly three-fourths use technology to automatically monitor e-mail. And 28% of employers have fired workers for e-mail misuse"…
Adams, Mark. (2012). United States: Losing the expectation of privacy bit by bit, byte by byte
. Jeffrey, Mangles, Butler & Mitchell LLC. Retrieved: http://www.mondaq.com/unitedstates/x/190720/employee+rights+labour+relations/Losing+The+Expectation+Of+Privacy+Bit+By+Bit+Byte+By+Byte
Fact Sheet 7: Workplace privacy and employee monitoring. (2012). Privacy Rights
Clearinghouse. Retrieved: https://www.privacyrights.org/fs/fs7-work.htm
"One way to help to insulate your company from lawsuits is to offer severance payments in exchange for a release of any claims that the employee could bring against the company or its employees" (Blinn 2009). However, a more effective approach than keeping inefficient employees may simply be to have a strong company policy about discrimination. A zero-tolerance policy for harassment, a proactive approach to diversity, and actively recruiting individuals from a wide variety of backgrounds ensures that when layoffs occur, they are less likely to unfairly penalize one group more than another group.
To avoid legal complications requires scrupulous record-keeping and clear policies about terminating workers. These policies should be articulated as part of the hiring process. These should be in place before the need for any terminations occur for the employees in question. "Develop reasonable standards of conduct and provide them to your employees in writing…You should also…
Blinn, Bridget. (2009, February 9). Protective steps to follow when cutting your workforce.
Forth Worth Business Press. Retrieved September 21, 2009 at http://www.fwbusinesspress.com/display.php?id=9483
Employee termination: Things to consider. (2009). Small business notes.
Retrieved September 21, 2009 at http://www.smallbusinessnotes.com/operating/hr/termination/termconsider.html
Databases and Privacy: An Ethical Issue for Marketers
The continuing debate between consumers, consumer rights' groups and marketers as to who actually owns consumers' data is becoming more divisive and debated. Marketers attest that once a customer purchases a product or service, opts in with their personal information either to complete a transaction or request services, the information becomes the company's asset as part of their Customer elationship Management (CM) system and databases (Milne, Bahl, 2010). Consumers and consumer advocacy groups claim that the management of this data jeopardizes not only their identities but their financial standing with credit reporting agencies as these systems are often breached (Dolnicar, Jordaan, 2006).
The Ethics of Managing Personal Data
The ethical debate over how best to use customer data in marketing databases has progressed from the use of opt-in to gain useful information for serving customers (Connon, 2002) to reselling it without the…
Debbie A Connon. (2002). The ethics of database marketing. Information Management Journal, 36(3), 42-44.
Dolnicar, S., & Jordaan, Y.. (2006). Protecting Consumer Privacy in the Company's Best Interest. Australasian Marketing Journal, 14(1), 39-61.
Freeman, G.. (2011, July). Will Facebook's Privacy Missteps Tarnish Your Brand? Target Marketing, 34(7), 8.
Milne, G., & Bahl, S.. (2010). Are There Differences Between Consumers' and Marketers' Privacy Expectations? A Segment- and Technology-Level Analysis. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 29(1), 138.
That is because where customers copy art from CDs and DVDs, in most cases, at least the original copy is purchased legitimately. However, in the vast majority of cases of illegal file sharing online, hundreds and sometimes many thousands of copies are transferred from each original. Even worse, in most cases, even the original file is an illegitimate copy, meaning that the artist who provided the work to all those consumers never benefits from even a single sale.
Whereas both types of copyright infringement are equally wrong from a moral principle, the online file sharing version is capable of completely destroying the entire music and movie industries by making it impossible to generate a profit or even to recoup the expenses of works produced by artists at…
overtly stated. It aims at showing the benefits and privacy issues associated with the use of technology. The article shows that use of the internet benefits the market researchers by providing them with opportunities to collect research information and presents the lack of privacy of information of the internet users (the big data). The authors present numerous evidences to support the purpose of the article. For example, it raises the questions on the ways in which the internet facilitates market research, then goes ahead to provide detailed analysis of its application in conducting market research. The article also provides multiple privacy issues associated with the use of the big data for functions like social networking and its impacts on the daily life of an individual.
The article bases its findings on researches conducted to determine the influence of the big data/internet on people's privacy and market research. For example, it…
Nunan, D., & Di Domenico, M. (2013). Market research and the ethics of big data. The International Journal Of Market Research, 55(4), 2-13.
In most cases, threats arising from employee conduct can be effectively mitigated by explicit policies and procedures implemented by the organization. In that regard, ethical training of all employees is essential, especially with respect to sexual harassment and discrimination. exual harassment issues in particular expose the organization directly to substantial liability unless supervisors and mangers are well trained to respond immediately and appropriately to any report of sexual harassment or hostile work environment situations.
imilarly, federal and state law impose specific requirements on professional organizations that absolutely prohibit many forms of discrimination, such as with respect to race, culture, religion, ethnicity, and sexual orientation. While formal policies and procedures cannot possibly eliminate the potential development of every conceivable issue or occurrence of this nature, they go a long way toward minimizing those risks and any liability arising in connection with inappropriate conduct of employees of the organization.
Finally, the modern…
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Halbert, T., Ingulli, E. (2007). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati, OH: West Legal Studies.
Studies (Howard 2005) have indicated that it may be very difficult to position healthier foods against traditional fast foods, by virtue of the strength of the latter's long- standing successful history of advertising. Naturally, the fact that healthy fast food cannot hope to compete with traditional fast food in terms of taste and its purported addictive quality presents another challenge that must be met by creative advertising and marketing strategies to overcome those disadvantages from the advertising perspective. Incorporating Challenges into a Marketing Plan:
Incorporating those challenges into a marketing plan requires long-term vision to anticipate the likely pattern of consumer demand over time, specifically in response to advice about health, wellness, and the relationship of diet to overall human health.
Naturally, the healthy fast food industry should emulate some of the strategies that have traditionally proven successful, particularly in the case of fast food in terms of name recognition…
Halbert, T., Ingulli, E. (2000) Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati: West Legal Studies. Howard, M. (2005) We Know What You Want: How They Change Your Mind. New York: The Disinformation Company
Gibbs, N, (2007) One Day in America. Time Magazine.
Nov. 26 / 07 (pp. 60-61)