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Eleanor of Aquitaine a Life by Weir

Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 64319272

Eleanor of Aquitaine plays a supporting role throughout so much historiography that it seems surprising that Alison Weir’s Eleanor of Aquitaine: A Life would stand apart as one of the few scholarly biographies in publication. The woman best known for being queen to two kings, Louis VII of France and Henry II of England, comes alive on the pages of Weir’s book. Weir admits in a preface that primary sources on Eleanor’s life are scarce, though, alerting readers that filling more than 450 pages may require slight embellishments or at least padding. At the same time, the 12th century was a time during which courtly chroniclers did keep surprisingly meticulous records and logs. Genealogies of the Tudors are relatively straightforward to research partly for this reason, which is why Weir can cull information from numerous sources. Unfortunately, most of the sources available refer only indirectly to Eleanor. The lack of information…… [Read More]

Works Cited
Weir, Alison. Eleanor of Aquitaine: A Life. Ballantine, 2001. Kindle Edition.
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History Naval Warfare What Was Naval Power

Words: 2454 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74689093

History Naval Warfare

What was naval power in the age of sail and how did different sea going states exercise it from the period 1650-1850?

"There is a deep landlubber bias in historical and social research," writes Charles King. "History and social life, we seem to think, happen on the ground. What happens on the water…is just the scene-setter for the real action when the actors get where they are going. ut oceans, seas, and rivers have a history of their own, not merely as highways or boundaries but as central players in distinct stories of human interaction and exchange." Current essay is an exploration of the naval power and sea command during the period of the age of sail (1650-1850). The author has mentioned the war history and war strategies of major navies and sailors during this era. The author has also discussed how different sea going states exercise…… [Read More]

BibliographyAmes, Glenn Joseph. "Colbert, Mercantilism, and the French Quest for Asian Trade." DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, (1996).Black, Jeremy. "Britain as a Military Power, 1688-1815." London: UCL Press, (1999).Boxer, C.R. "The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, 1415-1825." London: Hutchinson, (1969). Brewer, John. "Sinews of Power: War, Money and the English State, 1688-1783." Cambridge: Harvard University Press, (1988).Charles King, "The Black Sea: A History" Oxford: Oxford University Press (2004), 3.Diamond, Jared. "Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies." New York W.W. Norton & Co., (1997).Kennedy, Paul M. "The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery." Malabar, FL.: Robert E. Krieger, (1982).Pearson, M.N. Merchants and Rulers in Gujarat: The Response to the Portuguese in the Sixteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.Timothy Brook, The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1998), 12.Warren I. Cohen East Asia at the Center: Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 88.]

Conclusion

The author discussed the sea power in the age of sail i.e., 1650-1800 and how different countries adopt this power. For this purpose the author analyzed main sea powers during this period i.e., Purtogues, Dutch, French and English in the Atlantic Ocean and Chinese navy. The author concluded that sea power was the main source of authority for any country. The courtiers with powerful fleet ships and navy were dominant in the world.

Mostly the countries having command on sea used this dominance to expand trade. There are also evidences of unfair means to occupy other countries as well to maintain this occupation. The author also discussed how the British Royal Navy used impressments system to forcefully include the seaman in the Royal Navy.

Endnotes
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History of the Modern Era

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28715355

The history from the Renaissance to the Machine Age was defined by major technical and stylistic advances that allowed for much larger, taller, more elegant buildings, and higher degrees of functionality and architectural expression.

In cultural and scientific matters, the Modern Era was characterized by an increasingly rationalistic trajectory of thought which was based on an ethos of the humanistic exploration of reality and truth. While in a cultural sense religion still played a significant role, the Industrial Revolution as well as the advent of the Machine Age and the predominance of empirical science and the scientific method, had overtaken the norms and values of the rural and agrarian worldview. There were many other factors that played an important role in the scientific culture of this era, including the rise of Capitalism and international trade. This in turn is linked to other concomitant factors such as the use of steam…… [Read More]

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History of the Jewish Community

Words: 1003 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91030742

("Golden Age of Jewish Culture" 2005) The Jewish community faced a second and harsher wave of prosecution at the end of the Muslim rule in Spain when, as a result of the Inquisition, sevaral hundred thousand Jews were expelled from Spain and Portugal; most of them fled to the Balkan peninsula under Ottoman Empire.

Money Lending Jews and Isolated Existence

The Jewish communities that settled in various parts of Europe usually kept to themselves (or were forced to do so by others). Most Jews became merchants and money lenders since Usury was declared illegal by the Church for Christians. Although many Jews prospered in this way, their isolated existence and money-lending role made them easy targets as scapegoats for misfortune of others.

Prosecution During Crusades

Although the Christian crusades in the Middle Ages were primarily directed against their arch enemies -- the Muslims, they frequently degenerated into massacres of an…… [Read More]

References

Golden Age of Jewish Culture." (2005). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved on November 04, 2005 at  http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Golden_age_of_Jewish_culture_in_Spain

History of the Jews." (n.d.) History World. Retrieved on November 04, 2005 at  http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?groupid=413&HistoryID=aa42 

Jews in the Middle Ages." (2005). From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved on November 04, 2005 at
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European and Asian History Comprises

Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18853782

External references, even to source material that is not online such as printed documents, would tremendously boost the credibility of the Web site. Even so, the author does not claim to be a scholastic resource.

One of the strengths of the "European and Asian History" Web site is its objectivity. The author presents the historical information dryly and without opinion, and there is no noticeable bias. In fact, the information is listed as simple chronological tidbits as opposed to sentences. The Web site is informative and not analytical. Without a main thesis, Garneau's information is more encyclopedic than it is essay-like. Bias can therefore be avoided, as Garneau is not proving a point or persuading readers. What Garneau's site lacks in academic credibility, it makes up for in evident objectivity. No broad assertions or conclusions are being made.

"European and Asian History" includes few external links and therefore few links…… [Read More]

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European Economic and Monetary Union Emu and

Words: 2189 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92320203

European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the euro. Included is a critical assessment of the sources used.

All of the sources used for this report were well written, concise, and understandable. The European Union and the Euro are difficult topics to understand on a first reading, but the authors had a real understanding of their topics, and explained the issues clearly.

For example, Taylor gives the background that makes the forming of the European Union more understandable. "This Summit produced a communique which supported the idea of European Union by 1980, and proposed a great push towards a European Great Society, illustrated by the efforts made to push the European social programme forward at that time, which no member government opposed" (Taylor 10).

The subject could be considered dry, but Taylor gives it life, making his book interesting to read, and right to the point. He writes with authority,…… [Read More]

References

Barclays Capital. "Barclays Capital says new Poll Showing Depth of Opposition to Euro Suggests Gilts to Decouple from European Bonds." 30 Nov. 2001. 6 Dec. 2001.  http://www.barcap.com/cgi-bin/pressreleases/public/newsView2.pl?item=2001113001 

Bartlett, Patrick. "Problems' Threaten Euro Launch." BBC News. 4 Dec. 2001.  http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/europe/newsid_1691000/1691635.stm 

Euro Web Site. "Questions & Answers on the Euro and European Economic and Monetary Union." 9 Sept. 1998. 5 Dec. 2001. http://europa.eu.int/euro/quest/

Europe Yes, Euro No! "Opposition to Euro Remains at Record Levels - Six Cut of Ten Labour Voters Say No." 3 Sept. 2000. 6 Dec. 2001.  http://www.no-euro.com/release.cfm?IDNO=8Feld,Werner  J. The Integration of the European Union and Domestic Political Issues. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1998.
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European Renaissance Represents a Rebirth

Words: 3470 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89632125

The Donations of Constantine were in fact a fraud - a fact that could only have been revealed through the subjecting of the "original" document to unbiased evaluation. Yet Leonardo Bruni, much more than Valla, deserves the credit for shaping the modern idea of history. Advancing on the style and technique of such Classical authors as Herodotus and Thucydides, Bruni developed a more modern, and scientific approach to the subject. Though not all of his writings can be taken as shining exemplars of the new commitment to accuracy and truth, Bruni at his best, charted new territory for historical scholarship.

Bruni's monumental Historiarum Florentini Populi Libri XII (hereafter Historiae) is often singled out as an exemplary work, one that set the whole enterprise of history writing on a new plane.... Bruni destroys the legends surrounding the founding and early history of Florence, and then recasts the story on the basis…… [Read More]

Works Cited

 http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=28520584

Boehm, Christopher. Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.
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History and Development of Master Builder and Design Build Tradition of Western Civilization

Words: 6891 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 11303212

Architecture through the Ages

Mesopotamia

Construction in ancient times is second only to agriculture-it reaches back as far as the Stone Age and possibly further (Jackson 4). Before the existence of master builders in design and construction the Code of Hammurabi (1795-1750 B.C.) referred to design and construction as a simple process (Beard, Loulakis and undrum (13). Hammurabi was the ruler of Babylon, the world's first metropolis and he codified his code of laws (Beard 13). This is the earliest example of a ruler introducing his laws publicly. The code regulated the organization of society including the extreme punishments for violating the law. The builder's work is addressed in the code, however faulty design and improper construction were viewed as one (13). Six specific laws address the builder. These laws are;

228. If a builder build a house for some one, and does not construct it properly, and the house…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Albert the Great." The Masonic Trowel. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .

"Architecture and the Medieval Builder." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. 26 Mar. 2010. .

"Basilica of Santa Maria Novella." Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Web. .

Beard, Jeffrey, Michael Loulakis, and Edward Wundrum. Design-Build:planning through Development. McGraw-Hill, 2001. Print.
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History of Zionism Is the Political Movement

Words: 1662 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72081640

History Of Zionism

Zionism

is the political movement that arose in Europe in the late 19th century with the aim of creating a Jewish state in Palestine. It asserted that the Jewish people were a separate nation and were entitled to have a country of their own and succeeded in its objective with the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948. Since then, the Zionist movement has concentrated on strengthening Israel and encouraging Jews from around the world to migrate and settle in the Jewish state. This paper traces the history of Zionism from its origins to the present time.

Origins and ackground

Although the Zionist political movement started in the late 19th century, its roots lie as far back as 70 AD when Great Jewish Revolt against the Romans ended with the destruction of the Temple and the expulsion of Jews from Jerusalem. The land of Israel was…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cohen, Michael Joseph. "Zionism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2002

Edelheit, Abfaham J. And H. Edelheit. "History of Zionism: A Handbook and Dictionary."

Westview Press, 2000

Spiro, Rabbi Ken. "Crash Course in Jewish History Part 62 - Return to the Land of Israel." Aish.com. Jan 27, 2002
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Histories by Herodotus

Words: 1178 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98763112

Histories of Herodotus

In his Histories, which chronicles the historical aspects of ancient Greece, Egypt and other regions of Asia Minor, Herodotus focuses in the beginning on the myths associated with these cultures and civilizations from his own distant past which at the time had acquired some relevance based on what was viewed as historical truth. Some of these myths, which now through archeological evidence may have some basis in fact, include the abduction of Io by the Phoenicians, the retaliation of the Greeks by kidnapping Europa, the abduction of Helen from Sparta by Paris and the consequences which resulted in the Trojan War.

Following this, Herodotus examines the activities and consequences of more recent historical myths associated with the cultures of the Lydians, the Egyptians, the Scythians and the Persians, all of which are interspersed with so-called dialogue spoken by the leading figures of these cultures. However, Herodotus' ability…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Rawlinson, George, Trans. Herodotus: Histories. UK: QPD, 1997.
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European Colonialism in the Middle

Words: 1806 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45133901

Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq were all "constructed" as "imperial conveniences for France and ritain" (Gause, 444). And so, when the ritish and French were authoritative landlords, places like Kuwait (a ritish "protectorate" until 1961) were safe from outside interference. ut once ritain was long gone from Kuwait, Hussein had his chance to move in and he did, until the U.S. And its allies pushed him out in 1991.

Conclusion: After WWI, the winners divided up the Ottoman Empire, and that was the origin of the country of Iraq. The history of the Middle East -- beginning in the 19th Century and continuing today -- is shaped by outside forces, by colonialism, war, greed, and cultural conflicts. An alert reader can see why the invasion of Iraq by the U.S. In 2003 was star-crossed in the first place, and why ritain and the U.S. are hated so fiercely by the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Gause, Gregory F. 1992, 'Sovereignty, Statecraft and Stability in the Middle East', Journal of International Affairs, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 441-460.

Gillen, Paul, and Ghosh, Devleena, 2007, Colonialism & Modernity, University of New South Wales (UNSW), UNSW Press: Sydney, Australia.

Nieuwenhuijze, Chritoffel Anthonie Olivier. 1971. Sociology of the Middle East: A Stocktaking and Interpretation. Brill Archive: Boston, MA.

Public Broadcast Service. 2008. 'Kuwait: Country Profile', retrieved March 15, 2011, from  http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/kuwait605/profile.html .
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European Colonialism & Torres Strait

Words: 2101 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 465964



And for example, in 1910 one group of Islanders "...gave 10,000 coconuts to their island neighbours and an additional 3,000 to the Papuan Industries Limited for a new church rather than selling" the coconuts, according to Lui-Chivizhe. Meanwhile, in the 1930s, control of the pearl boats was taken over by government administrators, who controlled "earnings of the Islanders who worked the boats," Lui-Chivizhe writes. When the Islanders didn't work fast enough or hard enough to suit the administrators, the Islanders were punished. Eventually, the Islanders not only lost the right to control their production, the government of Queensland "introduced a nightly curfew and a permit system to control Islander movement between the Islands."

Eventually, those restrictions were eased, and more recently, things have not been quite as repressive. "Even though the social and political organizational context for our lives has changed with European arrival in the region," Lui-Chivizhe concludes, "the…… [Read More]

Bibliography - List of References

Beckett, Jeremy 2000, 'Chapter 3: Colonial Occupation,' Humanities Department Central

Queensland University, Retrieved July 20, 2006 at  http://humanities.cqu.edu.au/abtorres/tsiwww/course/module/chap3/chap3.htm .

COAG, 2006, 'Indigenous Issues: Generational Commitment,' Council of Australian

Governments' Meeting 14 July 2006. Retrieved July 20, 2006, at  http://www.coag.gov.au/meetings/140706/index.htm#indigenous .
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European Jewry in the History

Words: 3632 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95073229

These new laws applied to native-born Jews only; foreign, that is, Russian, Jews still suffered from restrictions. This division between native and foreign Jews was of importance then and still exists in present-day German law as it did in the days of the German empire, the eimar Republic, and the Nazi regime. (Cohn 10)

These old standards left the door open for new and modern forms of the same archaic segregations and prejudices.

hen the Nazis rose to power, they revived many of the old evils. Restrictions on Jews owning businesses or entering certain professions were instituted, ghettos were reestablished, and special taxes were placed on the Jewish community at large rather than on individuals. The new ghettos were governed by Nazi-appointed Jewish officials, the Judenrat, right up to the point when the entire ghettos were "cleansed" and the inhabitants either shot out of hand or deported to extermination camps.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Christie, Clive. "Unity and Diversity: A Critique of Religion and Ethnicity in Europe." The Ecumenical Review 47.1 (1995): 12+. Questia. 23 Oct. 2004  http://www.questia.com/ .

Cohn, Michael. Jewish Bridges: East to West. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1996.

Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup
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Histories of the Pacific

Words: 2328 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7473437

Histories of the Pacific

The real Pacific is not a static place as the Pacifics of the mind tend to be; and nor are the peoples who have acted upon it and within it the simple ciphers of exploiter and victim, powerless and powerful that some depictions would suggest. Nor can straightforward interpretations of linear progress towards "civilization" suffice, with their emphasis on great events as stepping-stones in the march towards modernity -- what one historian of Hawaii has called "narratives that chronicle Hawaiian history after Western great men reached Hawai'i's shores, foregrounding events and actors that, to Western observers, marked the evolution of Hawaii from primitiveness to progressing civilization" (uck, 13). The key to avoiding such caricatures is in understanding the significance of the act of representation: "Native and stranger each possessed the other in their interpretations of the other" (Dening, 281). The events and encounters that have played…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bennett, Will, "Hidden Painting Debunks Myth of Captain Cook's Death in Hawaii," Daily Telegraph (London), 13 July 2004, at:  http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml 

xml=news/2004/07/13/ncook13.xml& sSheet=/news/2004/07/13/ixhome.html.

Bligh, William, A Voyage to the South Sea, Undertaken by Command of His Majesty, for the Purpose of Conveying the Bread-Fruit Tree to the West Indies, in His Majesty's Ship The Bounty (London, 1792), in George Mackaness (ed.), A Book of The Bounty (New York: Dutton, 1952).

Buck, Elizabeth, Paradise Remade: the Politics of Culture and History in Hawai'i (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press, 1993).
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History of Discrimination From Legislation to the

Words: 1826 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54389448

History Of Discrimination From Legislation to the Present Day

There are various form of discrimination that have been in existence over the decades, racism is just one of the oldest and most prevailing kind of discrimination. acism is the belief that a race of people is inferior to another. Various practices in the U.S. are seen to be motivated by racism and these include the slave trade where humans are treated as property that is disposable, without any rights and privileges. It was mainly practiced in southern U.S. until the civil war when it was outlawed by the 13th amendment. Job discrimination is also widespread and involves exclusion of people from jobs due to their race which was outlawed on a national level in 1964.segregaton in public places, schools, sports and other places was also in existence but was outlawed in 1964. Denial of voting rights like literacy tests, poll…… [Read More]

References

NSW Business Chamber.(2012). Vicarious Liability. Retrieved February 12, 2014 from  http://www.workplaceinfo.com.au/resources/employment-topics-a-z/vicarious-liability 

Naomi, A, L.(2009).Motivational strategies and their impact on productivity. Retrieved February 12,2014 from http://dspace.knust.edu.gh:8080/jspui/bitstream/123456789/4257/1/Aryeetey%20Loretta%20Naomi.pdf

Fair work Ombudsman.(2012).Types of Discrimination. Retrieved February 12, 2014 from  http://www.fairwork.gov.au/employment/discrimination/pages/types-of-discrimination.aspx
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History of America Through 1877

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 27861139

Blackness was not an unremittingly negative quality, as it would be seen later on, but the associations of blackness and other stereotypes that would be attached to 'Negroes' began fairly early.

The development of colonies based upon cash crops, including those in the Southern United States, necessitated a large enslaved labor force, larger than whites could provide. As the economic need for slave labor increased, so did negatively expressed views of Africans and blackness in general. Indentured servitude of whites grew more controversial, thus replacing then with Africans who were justified as being 'natural' slaves became an accepted solution. Even Thomas Jefferson would eventually see 'Negros' as existing at the end of a chain of being, the beginning phase of a kind of evolutionary 'erasure' of color, and erasure of the 'mark of Cain' of blackness, as Christian missionaries used to think the Africans possessed.

Jordan believes if there had…… [Read More]

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History of Crime and Punishment in Europe 17c 18c

Words: 3773 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13465288

History of Crime and Punishment in Europe 17C-18C

This paper traces the history crime and punishment in Europe. It looks at the influences of that time the social and philosophical movements and how they affected the whole evolution of treatment of crime and the thought behind punishment. The paper details about the neoclassical period its forbearers and how they regarded the issue of crime and punishment and their assumptions regarding the problem.

Crime is as old as civilization itself and where you find groups of people, you will consistently find some shape of criminal activity. You will also find punishment. The criminal has always been seen as undermining the values and, even, the very fabric of the society she or he deceives. Accordingly, those found out or found culpable have often been dealt with unsympathetically. Again, the Jewish Mythology will spring to the Western mind with its mantra of an…… [Read More]

References

Andrews Richard Mowery. 1994. Law, Magistracy and Crime in Old Regime Paris, 1735-1789. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dictionary of the History of Ideas. 1973-4. 5 vols. Edited by Philip D. Wiener New York: Scribners

Gatrell, V.A.C., Bruce Lenman and Geoffrey Parker eds. 1980.Crime and the Law. The Social History of Crime in Western Europe since 1500. London: Europa.

Garland, David. 1985. Punishment and Welfare: In History of Penal Strategies. Aldershot: Gower. GOLDMANN Lucien. 1973. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
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Europeans Settling the Great Plains in the

Words: 704 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57955216

Europeans Settling the Great Plains

In the 1860s and 1870s, large numbers of European settlers made their way to the Great Plains. While they adapted and changed on some level, they also went to great lengths to keep and preserve much of their native culture. Among the ways they did that were to market the Great Plains as a beautiful place to live and raise a family, even though they knew that really was not the case (Faragher, et al., 2009). The goal was to get many more European settlers to move there so that the culture and lifestyle they had enjoyed and grown used to could be recreated. Many of the settlers were traveling in very tight-knit groups, and they all colonized a particular area. The homes and businesses they built were reminders of what they had left behind, and the individual towns that sprang up were often almost…… [Read More]

References

Faragher, J.M., Buhle, M.J., Czitrom, D., & Armitage, S.H. (2009). Out of many: A history of the American people, Volume II (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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European World View in the 15th Century

Words: 607 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 12218682

European World View

In the 15th Century, the knowledge that the Europeans had of the world was so limited since most of them had never been outside Europe and their view of the outside world was in relation to Europe itself. Indeed, the European map of the world had only Europe, Asia and the top part of Africa as the only continents that existed in the world. The map also depicted only one ocean, "the Ocean Sea" to be existent in the world (Schmiechen James, 1999). There was a wide belief that the world was flat, though a few Europeans had the knowledge that it was not flat but the challenge was to know how big it was.

The lack of knowledge about the outside world gave room for rumors to fill in the gaps. From the European art, it is apparent that there was a gross misconception of what…… [Read More]

References

Chris Butler, (2007). Early voyages of Exploration (c.1400-1550). Retrieved October 22,

2011 from http://www.flowofhistory.com/units/west/12/FC81

Schmiechen James, (1999). A History of Western Society, 6th ed. Study Guide vol. II.

Boston: Houghton, 1999. (p. 540). Retrieved October 22, 2011 from http://chrislayson.com/about2.html
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European Studies When Most People

Words: 1339 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 68698078

The problem was: that the distances were much further and many of the different explorers (such as: Columbus) began to seek out other routes to these areas. This led directly to: the colonial ambitions of many European nations and their desire to explore the new world to achieve these objectives. (Willner, 2008, pp. 255 -- 294)

The Role that the Individual will Play in Society

A third development of the Middle Ages, was that the individual is playing a vital role in: matters of government and society. This developed out of frustration that many people were feeling about the different monarchies. As, everyone was expected to follow: the various traditions and the laws that were imposed upon them by the nobility. This became problematic over the years, as this would turn into a sense of anger. At which point, many of these different monarchies faced direct challenges to their power.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Middle Ages. (2011). Free Dictionary. Retrieved from:  http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Middle+Ages 

Holt, J. (1992). Magna Carta. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Willner, M. (2008). Global History. Hauppauge, NY: Barons.
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History of Swiss Banking in

Words: 2877 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3277343

The asylum automatically granted under the Swiss constitution was denied for those seeking it for religious reasons. y 1942, only 9,150 foreign Jews were legally resident in Switzerland, an increase of just 980 since 1931. It was the Swiss government that requested the German government to help it identify Jews by stamping all Jewish passports with a prominent letter "J," following the Nuremberg acts in 1935. "y 1942, acting at the behest of Switzerland's establishment and the majority of its people, its authoritarian police apparatus was dedicated to keeping the country 'pure' and to saving it from being 'overrun with Jews'." Until 1942, the working Jewish community in Switzerland was forced by the government to support Jewish refugees.

The other side of the German interest in Switzerland's banks was related to the business of Germany and the looting of conquered countries. y 1941, Germany had exhausted all of its foreign…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bazyler, Michael J. Holocaust Justice: The Battle for Restitution in America's Courts. New York: New York University Press, 2003.

Borowiec, Andrew. "World's leaders gather in Geneva." The Washington Times.  http://washingtontimes.com/world/20-5793r.htm .

Bower, Tom. Nazi Gold. New York: Harper Collins, 1997.

Clarke, William. "Nazi Gold: The Role of the Central Banks - Where Does the Blame Lie?" Central Banking, Volume VIII Number 1. Summer 1997. April 22, 2005.  http://www.bigeye.com/nazigold.htm .
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European Culture and Colonialism in

Words: 1621 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 44834154



Thus, the ideas of mercantilism contributed directly to colonialism and a host of colonial wars and conflicts. No mercantilist state was averse to expanding into the markets of any other nation. ather the goal was to contain as much of the production and trade within one's own borders. War was a natural consequence of each nation attempting to control as much of a finite supply of wealth as it possibly could. The nation that most successfully exploited these policies became naturally the most powerful. Spain with its huge resources of gold and silver failed in the control and production of other resources. France failed to maintain control over the territories necessary for production. Holland lacked sufficient native resources to establish effective control over enough territories to fully ground a mercantilist empire. Great Britain succeeded because it followed the mercantilist credo and was able to take control over each stage of…… [Read More]

References

(1999). 4: Colonies, Enterprises, and Wealth: The Economies of Europe and the Wider World in the Seventeenth Century. In Early Modern Europe: An Oxford History, Cameron, E. (Ed.) (pp. 137-170). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ekelund, R.B., & Tollison, R.D. (1997). Politicized Economies: Monarchy, Monopoly, and Mercantilism. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Inikori, J.E. & Engerman, S.L. (Eds.). (1992). The Atlantic Slave Trade Effects on Economies, Societies, and Peoples in Africa, the Americas, and Europe. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Magnusson, L. (1994). Mercantilism: The Shaping of an Economic Language. New York: Routledge.
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History of the Areas of

Words: 4350 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93612485

It was founded on the knowledge that spurred during the Renaissance and has placed significance on rational thought and cultural emphasis, which was not present before.

Furthermore, with regards to the popularity of Baroque during this period, it is important to note that this style was able to combine the principles of science and the philosophies and doctrines of early Christianity, which has been very prominent in architectures built on such style. During the earlier period, the Renaissance, art was simpler and characterized by simple rhythms. With Baroque, however, a dynamic change has occurred, as art and architecture became more ostentatious and it has shown how art can move from the previous period (Saisselin).

The Scientific Revolution has presented a new perspective and shows a shift from the orthodox. It has also allowed the use of the past in order to create the future. In the field of arts, the…… [Read More]

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History Geography During the Beginning of Ancient

Words: 1245 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14863458

History Geography

During the beginning of ancient times, Classical civilization still lived as hunters and gatherers. They used the resources available to them and learned to gather grains, berries, and other plant foods and store them for the winter. This required them to live where the geography and climate could support them, and where supplies of water were easily available. Early settlements clustered around rivers and streams for this reason. y the end of the Classical Era, The Roman Empire had fallen. European cultures had been influenced by Rome's accomplishments, however, and Europeans knew how to build aquifers to bring the water to them. They had learned to build both roads and bridges. They had tamed livestock and used them for transportation. y the Classical Era, many of geography's limitations had solutions. Thus people could live in villages, towns and cities, farm the surrounding countryside and transport it to where…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Garraty, John A., and Gay, Peter, Eds. The Columbia History of the World. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1999.
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History of the World in

Words: 1287 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 9274352

111), a product that gathered both good and evil forces on its way, a drink that could not have become global without the use of the slaves on a mass scale.

long their existence, the spirited drinks were designated as medicine, recreational drinks for pastime, means of social control, and due to the high degree of addiction that set in as soon as they moderation went out of the way, a source of distress for those who became addictive and their families. Rum, the first to replace the ratios of beer of the British ships and the main ingredient in the first cocktail, became the favorite drink of the English settlers who came to Virginia hoping to find a new source of wealth for them and their country. The second cocktail based on rum came on the tables of the Englishmen in the New World, under the form of punch.…… [Read More]

After centuries of using the spirits as a trade currency and means of alleviating during hard time, at the beginning of the twentieth century, the United States came to a stage when a movement that started by the middle of the nineteenth century will spread and end in the Prohibition era, with the Eighteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Health and religious reasons had led more and more people to believe that the only answer to the loss of moderation was to ban the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages altogether. Today, the period of fourteen years when the Eighteen Amendment was in use, is regarded as e period of experimentation that proved once again that any interdiction attracts the rise of illegal activities meant to work around it.

Standage, Tom. A History of the World in Six Glasses. 2005. Walker Publishing Company. New York

Drink: The History of Alcohol 1690-1920. The National Archives. Retrieved: Oct. 20, 2009. Available at: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/events/calendar/drink.htm
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History of Social Psychology Past and Future

Words: 2484 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12479081

History Of Social Psychology: Past and Future Directions

The fields of psychology and social psychology owe their existence to the earlier philosophical thinkers including Aristotle, Plato, Descartes, Locke, Hume and Kant. However, the recognized founder of the field (by most historians) is the German scientist Wilhelm Wundt (Farr, 2003). In 1862 Wundt proposed that there psychology should consist of two branches: a social branch and a physiological branch of psychology (Farr, 2003). From Wundt's view psychology was more concerned with studying immediate conscious experience as opposed to studying overt behavior. However, in 1890 Wundt published the first volume of a classic 10-volume set of social psychology which described and analyzed a wide variety of social thought and social behaviors. Although Wundt's ideas and writings carried significant influence in Europe, his writings were not translated into English until sometime later. The behaviorist view became the more influential paradigm in the United…… [Read More]

References

Adorno, T.W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D.J., & Sanford, R.N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harper and Row.

Allport, F. (1924). Social Psychology. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Allport, G.W. (1985). The historical background of social psychology. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Psychology. New York: McGraw Hill.

Allport, G.W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
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History of Air Cargo IT's

Words: 3792 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62401065

It's oeing. Starting from their first aircraft models oeing &W and Douglas DT/C-1 and up to the modern airfreight oeing 747-400, company oeing and oeing-related enterprises had been always on the frontier of air cargo industry, and nowadays oeing airfreights stand for 90% of commercial air cargo companies.

Everything started with mail delivery. Today lots of us associate aircrafts with people transportation, but primary oeing was responsible only for cargo.

The company was started in 1916, when ill oeing and his partner George Westervelt made a first model of future civil aviation's world leader- jet &W. &W had later become the first plane that was delivering cargo and mail to New Zealand. Three years later ill oeing and Eddie Hubbard delivered 60 letters from Vancouver, Canada to Seattle, which became the first event in the history of international air shipping.

Nearly at the same time, company Douglas Aircraft had signed…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allaz, Camille The history of Air cargo and airmail Christopher Foyle Publishing, 2002

IATA International Traffic Statistics: December 2004 and Year-end 2004 available on web:  http://www.iata.org/pressroom/industry_stats/2005-01-31-01.htm 

Boeing History articles from www.boeing.com
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History of the Rosicrucian Order

Words: 5816 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 46875287



ather than continue the process that began in the first two books, in which the osicrucian Order first announced themselves, gave their history, and then responded to certain criticisms while making their position within Christian theology clearer, the Chymical Wedding can almost be seen as the first instance of literature written within the osicrucian tradition, rather than as part of its manifesto-like founding documents, because it does not seek to explain the history of osicrucianism, but rather explicate how the teachings and underlying beliefs of osicrucianism contribute to and alter one's interpretation of Christian scripture (Williamson 17; Dickson 760). Specifically, one can see a distinct connection between the Chymical Wedding and seventeenth-century attempts to expand Protestantism throughout Europe. The Chymical Wedding can be seen as a the most explicit attempt on the part of osicrucians and osicrucian supporters to wed the new (or newly revealed) society to the larger religious…… [Read More]

References

Andreae, Johann. The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz. N/a: Benjamin Rowe, 2000.

Case, Paul F. The True and Invisible Rosicrucian Order: An Interpretation of the Rosicrucian

Allegory and an Explanation of the Ten Rosicrucian Grades. York Beach, Me: S. Weiser,

1985. Print.
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History of Communication

Words: 6119 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37691919

History Of Communication Timeline

TIMELINE: HITORY OF COMMUNICATION

(with special reference to the development of the motorcycle)

35,000 BCE.

First paleolithing "petroglyphs" and written symbols. This is important in the history of communication because it marks the first time humans left a recorded form of communication. Also, these written symbols became the ultimate source of later alphabets.

Wikipedia, "Petroglyph."

12,600 BCE.

Cave paintings at Lascaux show early representational art. This is important in the history of communication because the caves depict over 2000 figures, including abstract symbols. More recent research suggests these may record astronomical information.

OURCE: Wikipedia, "Lascaux."

3400 BCE.

First surviving umerian pictograms demonstrate a primitive form of record keeping. This is important in the history of communication because pictograms, together with ideograms, represent a primitive form of writing, in which a symbol either means what it looks like, or represents a single idea.

OURCE: Wikipedia, "Pictogram."

3300…… [Read More]

St. Hubbins, David and Tufnel, Nigel. "Stonehenge." London: Polymer, 1984.

Thompson, Hunter S. Hell's Angels. New York: Modern Library,1966.

Wikipedia.org
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History of Egyptian and Mayan Writing Egyptian

Words: 2110 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37558866

History Of Egyptian and Mayan Writing

Egyptian writing

The Egyptian language is one of the first languages to be put into written form. Some scholars have claimed that the earliest form of writing is the Sumerian language, but this contention has been put into doubt by more recent findings. Egyptian writing first appears on stone and pottery and dates back to 3,000 .C. (Mysteries of Egypt) The earliest alphabetical writing was found in the Abydos-Luxor -Thebes region of Egypt dating to 1800 .C.

Egyptologists have found limestone inscriptions that they say are the earliest known examples of alphabetic writing... carved in the cliffs of soft stone, the writing - in a Semitic script with Egyptian influences - has been dated to somewhere between 1900 and 1800 .C., two or three centuries earlier than previously recognized uses of a nascent alphabet.

Smith, Tony)

Recently, Egyptian writing dating to 3,300 .C. has…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ancient Egyptian Writing. May 18, 2004.  http://www.dragonstrike.com/egypt/write.htm 

The Ancient Maya.

Digital Meesh. May 18, 2004.  http://www.digitalmeesh.com/maya/history.htm 

Egyptian writing dating to 3300 B.C. discovered. The Japan Times, December 17, 1998. Accessed: May 20, 2004.  http://www.trussel.com/prehist/news95.htm
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History of Albania Is a

Words: 1468 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 98413026

The desperation of its populace has meant that Albania continues to lag more successful former communist nations like Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia in modernization and quality of life, although recently the Albanian government has taken measures to curb violent crime, and instituted fiscal reform packages to reduce corruption, curtail the 'gray' or quasi-illegal activities supporting the economy, and to attract foreign investments. Still, much of Albania's most talented individuals often move abroad, although they often send money home. It is estimated that the Albanian "economy is bolstered by annual remittances from abroad of $600-$800 million, mostly from Albanians residing in Greece and Italy," which also helps offset the towering trade deficit ("Albania," 2008, CIA Fact Book).

The one bright spot has been Albania's relatively smooth transition to democracy, as it is has not been afflicted by the xenophobic uprisings that characterized the dissolution of neighboring Yugoslavia. Economic corruption has been…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Albania. (2008). CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 11 Oct 2008 at  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/al.html 

Albania." (2008). Infoplease. Retrieved 11 Oct 2008 at  http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107268.html 

Albania under communist rule." (2005, November 7). Library of Congress. Retrieved 11 Oct 2008 at ( http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r-frd/cstdy:@field  (DOCID+al0059)

The Balkan Wars and creation of an independent Albania." (2005, November 7). Library of Congress. Retrieved 11 Oct 2008 at (
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History of CNC Computer Numerical

Words: 5340 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 95617189



Michael Cooley (1972) has suggested that the drawing office has been downgraded in importance as a result of the finer division of labor in engineering that began in the 1930s. He described how the creative design element had become increasingly separated from the work of executing drawings. The fragmentation of shop floor jobs was, according to Cooley, paralleled by fragmentation of the job of the designer/drafter. Until the 1930s, drafters in ritain were responsible for designing a component, stress testing it, selecting materials for it, writing the specifications, and liaising with the shop floor and customers. ut starting in the 1930s, these functions were progressively broken down into separate jobs and taken over by various specialists, such as stress testers, metallurgists, tribologists, methods and planning engineers, and customer liaison engineers, leaving drafters with only the job of drawing (3D Systems Corporation, 2001).

In effect, in the ritain of the 1930s,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

3D Systems Corporation. 2001, 3D Systems. Retrieved Nov 3, 2011. from the World Wide Web: www.3dsystems.com/

Brown, Richard D. 2009, Knowledge Is Power: The Diffusion of Information in Early America, 1700 -- 1865. New York: Oxford University Press.

Chandler, Alfred D. Jr., 1977, The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Cooley M. 1972, Computer-Aided Design-Its Nature and Implications. Richmond, Surrey: AUEW/TASS.
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History of Corrections

Words: 2922 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38581426

History Of Corrections

Humankind, all through recorded history, has actually created innovative methods to "punish" their own kind for legitimate and even apparent transgressions. Amongst tribal communities as well as in much more developed cultures, this kind of punishment may include, amongst various other tortures, lashes, branding, drowning, suffocation, executions, mutilation, as well as banishment (which within faraway areas had been equivalent to the dying sentence). The degree related to the punishment frequently relied on the actual wealth and standing of the offended individual and also the culprit. Individuals charged or determined guilty and those who had been more potent had been frequently permitted to make amends simply by recompensing the sufferer or their family members, whilst people who had been less well off as well as lower status had been prone to endure some kind of physical penalties. However regardless of the strategy, and also for no matter what…… [Read More]

References

Johnson, R. 2002. Hard Time: Understanding and Reforming the Prison. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

King, R., and M. Mauer. 2002. State Sentencing and Corrections Policy in an Era of Fiscal Restraint. Washington, DC: Sentencing Project.

King, D., 2011. Changes In Community Corrections: Implications For Staff And Programs. Available at:  http://aic.gov.au/media_library/publications/proceedings/11/king.pdf 

Lin, A.C. 2000. Reform in the Making: The Implementation of Social Policy in Prison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
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History of Air Cargo Industry

Words: 3692 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84106237

2).

ir Cargo, Inc. only flew cargo from December, 1941 (when Pearl Harbor was attacked) through November, 1944. t that time, Siddiqi explains that individual airline companies authored their own freight services, and on page 2 the author of this article notes that in time the major passenger airlines began offering freight forwarding service and that pretty well eliminated the need for a whole fleet of airline companies that just forwarded freight (Siddiqi). Only Flying Tiger stayed aloft as a strictly air freight company until the 1980s when Federal Express entered the picture. More on FedEx later in this paper.

The Literature -- the History of ir Freight Transportation -- Berlin ir Lift

When the long, bloody war was over it was time for the winning llies to divide up the territory that once was Nazi Germany, the negotiated, agreed-upon divisions gave the llies (U.S., Britain, and France) the Western…… [Read More]

April 20, 2012, from http://www.centennialofflight.gov.

Wilde, Robert. (2005). Berlin Blockade / Berlin Airlift. About.com. Retrieved April 20, 2012,

From  http://europeanhistory.about.com .
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History of Racism and the

Words: 3824 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5709741

This was racism at its worst. The enslaved Africans and the native Indians began to get closer to each other, and started to share certain ethic traditions between themselves, and soon, they started to marry each other, especially because of the disproportionate number of African males to females. A number of red-black people began to emerge from these unions, and these people formed traditions of their own. However, slavery continued to flourish and all these people were technically termed slaves. Having decided to take maters into their own hands to protest against the indignities being perpetrated against them in the name of slavery, Africans, Cherokees or Native Americans, and also Irish workers put up small acts of resistance and revolutions. (Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789)

In the year 1790, in the United States of America, a census revealed that about 19% of the entire population of…… [Read More]

References

Ainslie, Ricardo; Brabeck, Kalina. Race Murder and Community Trauma: Psychoanalysis and Ethnography in Exploring the Impact of the Killing of James Byrd in Jasper, Texas. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society. Vol. 8; No: 1; 2003; pp: 114-116

Allen, Annette M; Brackett, Kimberly P; Marcus, Ann; Mullins, Larry C; Pruett, Daniel W; Tang, Zongli. Perceptions of Racism on Campus. College Student Journal. Vol. 37; No: 1; 2003; pp: 20-24

Bynon, Gai; Cleary, Felicity; Hamilton, Alex; Maller, Jerome; Melior, David; Watson, Lara. The Perception of Racism in ambiguous scenarios. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. Vol. 27; No: 2; 2001; pp: 46-52

Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789. Retrieved at  http://www.innercity.org/holt/chron_1790_1829.html . Accessed on 28 June, 2005
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History of Construction Technology Time

Words: 6960 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 51255638

It consists a series of successively smaller platforms which lifted to a height of about 64 feet, and was constructed with a solid core of mud-brick covered by a thick skin of burnt-brick to guard it from the forces of nature (Burney). The Ziggurat's corners are oriented to the compass points, with walls sloping slightly inwards (Molleson and Hodgson) .

The Ziggurat of Ur was a component of a temple building complex that serviced the urban center as an administrative hub. Additionally, in terms of spirituality, it was believed to be the site on earth that the moon god Nanna (the patron deity of Ur) had selected to inhabit. Nanna was shown as a wise and unfathomable old man, complete with a flowing beard and four horns in number. A single shrine crowned the summit of the ziggurat (Faiella). This was purportedly the bedchamber of the god, and was occupied…… [Read More]

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History of Capital Punishment Background

Words: 1459 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 59110716

and, that do to so would contradict Judeo-Christian values of morality (Wilson, 2009). Additionally, opponents of the death penalty note that there is no evidence that lethal punishment has any effect whatsoever on whether or not criminals will commit a murder; and, that retribution here does not help to bring about closure. ather, it perpetuates the underlying violence and had a tendency to bring about more anger as opposed to peace. In the words of Jesuit Priest and Community Professor, aymond a. Schroth, S.J., "It [capital punishment] contaminates the otherwise good will which any human being needs to progress in love and understanding" (Schroth, 2008). Thus, capital punishment as a means to provide retribution for families fails to take into consideration the immense toll that the process of putting another human being puts another under.

In addition to the foregoing reasons against capital punishment, a review of the implementation of…… [Read More]

References

America's Tug of War over Sanctioned Death. (2009, September 9). Retrieved from Random House.

Banks, Cyndi. 2005. Punishment in America. Contemporary World Issues. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Banner, Stuart. 2002. The Death Penalty: An American History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP.

Budziszewski, J. (2004). Capital punishment: The case for justice. Journal of Government and Philosophy. Retrieved from University of Texas at Austin.
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History of Alabama History of

Words: 1561 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92750473

At this time, African-Americans were not allowed to enroll in this institution Autherine only stayed for three days not because she could not cope with the education, but because her life was in danger. Majority of the white students protested because of her presence. There is also the George allace incident that has also been mentioned bringing the University of Alabama into the limelight.

The university is also well-known for its prowess in football which was initiated in 1892 in the institution. Football in the University of Alabama is on a professional level ranked next to clubs in the league (Brad, 3). Many students receive football scholarships thus providing career opportunities to the students not only through education.

Conclusion

Alabama has been at the centre stage of civil rights activities involving fight against segregation, and providing inspirational individuals who will forever be celebrated like Reverend Martin Luther King and Rosa…… [Read More]

Works cited

Alabama . Infoplease. 2005. 18 Oct. 2010.

 http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0108176.html 

Brad, Jason. Alabama Is No. 1 in Preseason Poll. New York Times

Oct. 18, 2010: 3
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History of Economic Thought Mercantilist

Words: 2556 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47524446

It offers a good theory as it emphasizes on the production and export of those items for which a country possesses a comparative advantage. Furthermore, through its focus on the reduction of taxes and tariffs in international trade and the adherent practices, the theory of comparative costs has set the basis for the contemporaneous processes of market liberalization and globalization.

But the theory has not been spared from criticism. Oumar Bouare states that "the market price of a commodity does not converge toward its natural price. (Then) the outcome of complete specialization in icardo's framework locks third world and developing countries out of industrialization; and free trade could destroy the industrial base of a country, which in the long run could generate more wealth for the country than an imported product. This might also lock the country out of industrialization." b) in 1848, utilitarian economist John Stuart Mill wrote the…… [Read More]

References

Bancroft, S., Clough, C.W., Economic History of Europe, Heath, 1952

Berdell, J.F., Adam Smith and the ambiguity of nations, Review of Social Economy, Volume 56, 1998

Bouare, O., an Evaluation of David Ricardo's Theory of Comparative Costs: Direct and Indirect Critiques, Retrieved from Policy Innovations

http://www.policyinnovations.org/ideas/policy_library/data/01445on March 6, 2008
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History of Architecture Not Only

Words: 1701 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98679220

An integrated system was used in buildings where columns, pilasters, and entablatures came together as support. Arches were also used in building churches and other such structures. Semi-circular or segmental vaults were used which were mostly without ribs. In this era domes were not only used in churches but they were also used in building secular structures. Doors and windows usually had square lintels in the buildings of the era. Cravings and decorations also became prominent part of the structures taking their inspiration from the classic structures. Though Florence was the place where renaissance started but Italy embraced renaissance and effects of classic architecture as opposed to Gothic architecture. enaissance style further gave way to baroque style in the 17th-century. The Georgian style became notable in the 18th-century while the 19th century was given over to the classic revival and the Gothic revival.

Conclusions

Though our current architecture is derived…… [Read More]

Reference:

Architecture History'. Wikipedia Encyclopedia. Available at  http://en.wikipedia.org
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History of Punishment Critically Assess

Words: 4559 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95135347

Too little, for what matters is that he knows he is being watched and too much, because he has no need in fact of being so (Alford, 2000).

Bentham laid down the principle that power should be visible and unverifiable. Visible in that the inmate would constantly have before him the tall outline of the central tower from which he was watched. Unverifiable in that the inmate must never know whether he is being looked at or not, but he must be sure that there is always the possibility. In order to make the attendance or nonattendance of the guard unverifiable, so that the prisoners, in their cells, cannot even see a shadow, Bentham visualized not only venetian blinds on the windows of the central observation hall, but, on the inside, partitions that intersected the hall at right angles and, zigzag opening instead of doors. For even the slightest noise,…… [Read More]

References

Alford, C.F. 2000, "What would it matter if everything Foucault said about prison were wrong? Discipline and Punish after twenty years," Theory and Society, vol. 29, no. 1,

pp. 125-146.

Barratt, E. 2002, "Foucault, foucauldianism and human resource management," Personnel

Review, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 189-204.
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History of Nursing Science Nursing Has Existed

Words: 1117 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30135288

History Of Nursing Science

Nursing has existed in some for as long as humans have roamed the earth. The modern era of nursing began with the emergence of Florence Nightingale during the Crimean War in the 1850's. The daughter of affluent parents, Nightingale greatly accelerated the development of nursing and is widely acknowledged as the most important person in the history of nursing. Nursing science translates to the profession itself in the form of best practices that have been formulated, debated, reviewed and analyzed so as to verify the validity of nursing theories before they are put into practice.

Nightingale Emerges

As is the case with many nurses and others who dedicate their lives to the care of others, Nightingale was driven largely by her spirituality and religious convictions. Many people perceive there to be an inherent conflict between religion and science but Nightingale did not believe this to be…… [Read More]

References

George, J.B. (2011). Nursing theories, the base for professional nursing practice. (6 ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

McKenna, H. (1998). Nursing theories and models. Taylor & Francis.

Parker, M.E., & Smith, M.C. (2010). Nursing theories and nursing practice. (3 ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Co.

Walker, L.O., & Avant, K.C. (2011). Strategies for theory construction in nursing. (5 ed.). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
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History of the Virgin Islands

Words: 724 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 64695771

St. Croix has the largest amount of land under cultivation. Sugarcane was once the most important crop but its importance has declined. Manufacturing is most developed on St. Croix, where rum, refined petroleum and watches are produced.

Tourism is the islands' leading industry. St. Thomas and St. John are the chief tourist centers. Among attractions are the pleasant climate, beautiful scenery, and water sports. Another attraction is the free port, which sells at bargain prices goods imported from all over the world.

Famous People from the Islands

Kelsey Grammer (born 1955), actor was born in St. Thomas. Kelsey grew famous with roles in 'Cheers' and 'Frasier'. He trained at the Juilliard School located in New York City.

Hanik Milligan was born 1979 in St. Croix, is an American football safety for the National Football League. He was originally drafted by the San Diego Chargers in the sixth round of the…… [Read More]

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History of Europe and World

Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3474409

Each base their stories in the excluded diversity of first-generation immigrants - Samad and Jess's parents - but it is the younger characters' exploration of and affiliation with the exterior society that allows for a most accurate reflection of cultural mores.

Jess, whose natural talent and skill remind the viewer of the recent star Aman Dosaj of Manchester United, is torn apart by her love and respect for her family and culture and desire to take part in the greater world surrounding her. Yet, while she plays football and becomes friends with female athletes and romantically involved with men, her sister rejects the newer world around her in its extremities. Instead, she mollifies her own frustrations with the ethnic community with the insertion of cell phones, designer clothes, and expensive accessories; in the wedding scene, the younger girls stand in staunch visual opposition to the older women around them, whose…… [Read More]

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History of Canadian Labour- the

Words: 2713 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59351269

Thus, some suggest that the competition between the workers was crucial. More precisely "competition between high-wage white workers and low-wage Asian workers explains racial exclusion (...) labor competition was the central feature of ethnic division in the working class, and exclusion was the only viable strategy under these circumstances." (Creese, 1988, 294)

Despite this possible explanation there were other factors as well that determined the white workers to exclude Asians. However, there was a sense of lack of organization at the level of immigrant workers especially because they were considered to have no desire for such an organization. Even so, in some cases, there was also a fear of the extremist workers who were considered to be capable of radicalism (Creese, 1988, 294). Other opinions suggest that economic factors as well as ideological ones are also viable for offering an explanation. In this sense, there were irreconcilable differences in terms…… [Read More]

References

Creese, G. (1988) "Exclusion or solidarity? Vancouver Workers confront the 'Oriental Problem." BC Studies, University of British Columbia Press.

Heron, C. (1984) '"Laborism and the Canadian Working Class." Labor / Le Travail. Memorial University of Newfoundland.

Marks, L. (1991) "The Knights of Labor and the Salvation Army: religion and working-class culture in Ontario, 1882-1890." Labor / Le Travail, 28, 89-127.

Phelan, C. (2000) Grand Master Workman: Terence Powderly and the Knights of Labor. Westport: Greenwood Press.
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History of the Euro Can Be Traced

Words: 1678 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88879410

History of the euro can be traced back as far as World War II when European leaders agreed that economic ties could promote growth in Europe (Martel). As a result of the Bretton Woods (New Hampshire, USA) agreement of 1944, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) opened for business in 1947 and a fixed rate of exchange was set between the U.S. dollar and other world currencies, based on the gold standard ("Euro Timeline"). Between 1951-1952 on the initiative of obert Schuman and Jean Monnet of France, the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded by six countries: Belgium, France, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands and West Germany ("Euro Timeline"). The ECSC would become the basis for the future "Common Market" (EEC, EC) and European Union (EU) ("Euro Timeline"). On March 25, 1957 the same six countries signed the Treaty of ome, thereby creating the European Economic Community (EEC) and the…… [Read More]

References

"A Short History of the Euro." Guradian.uk.com. Guadian News and Media Limited. 9 June 2003. Web. 15 Dec. 2010.

Boskin, Michael. "Pros and Cons of the Euro at 10." The Japan Times Online. The Japan Times Limited. 1 February 2009. Web. 15 December 2010.

"Euro Timeline." The German Way & More. Hyde Flippo. n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2010.

Evans, Stephen. "Eurocrisis: Germans Yearn for their Lost Deutschmark." BBC News. 7 December 2010. Web. 15 Dec. 2010.
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History of Construction Technology of

Words: 9139 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54599726

Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).

A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).

Ancient Greece

Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ackerman, J.S. "Architectural Practice in the Italian Renaissance." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (1954): 3-11.

Alchermes, Joseph. "Spolia in Roman Cities of the Late Empire: Legislative Rationales and Architectural Reuse." Dumbarton Oaks Paper (1994): 167-178.

Allen, Rob. "Variations of the Arch: Post -- and lintel, Corbelled Arch, Arch, Vault, Cross-Vault Module." 11 August 2009. Civilization Collection. 5 April 2010 .

Anderson, James. "Anachronism in the Roman Architecture of Gaul: The Date of the Maison Carree at Nimes." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (2001): 68-79.
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European in Both the Spanish

Words: 1999 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23852597

After the statement of the Truman Doctrine in 1947, both Greece and Turkey were provided with aid to counter the Soviet threat.

When the war ended, circumstances in Greece were unfavorable to the maintenance of civil peace:

EAM was in control of nearly all Greece. Its leaders numbered many excellent liberals, the most eminent being Professor Svolos, a Socialist; but the Communists were clearly dominant. The returning Greek army was under the control of rabid, uncompromising monarchist officers... Had the issue of Greek sovereignty been left to these two Greek forces, there is no doubt of the outcome. The ineffectiveness of the returned Greek monarchist army was shown when, at the end of 1944, civil war broke out in Greece. ELAS surrounded the monarchist army and immobilized it from the outset.

However, they were not left to their own devices, and instead they were influenced by outside forces from ritain…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anderson, Paul, "Why Did the Spanish Civil War Start in July 1936?" History Review 48(2004), 36-40.

Bolloten, Burnett. The Spanish Revolution: The Left and the Struggle for Power during the Civil War. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.

Kousoulas, Dimitrios G. The Price of Freedom: Greece in World Affairs, 1939?1953. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1953.

Smith, Howard K. The State of Europe. New York: Knopf, 1949.
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European Art History From 1400

Words: 526 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25967160

From this point-of-view, on Protestant art, the effect of Reformation is a releasing effect, with the former conceptualization into iconic figures of saints and Christ being transformed in the more relaxed imagery of peasants simply enjoying their time together.

On the other hand, Reformation had a different impact on Catholic art. Especially through its Counter-Reformation process, the Catholic Church wanted to impose a continuance of tradition even in terms of culture and art. This obviously meant, among others, a preservation and exacerbation of icon and religious imagery use in everyday paintings.

One good example of this is a painting of the lamentation by Scipione Pulzone. A traditional image in Catholic art, the act seems greatly increased in intensity in Pulzone's case. Despite the portrayal of a town in the background (as was the tradition during the 14th to 16th centuries), this remains not only lost in the background, but almost…… [Read More]

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History of Construction Technology of

Words: 4755 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 70233119

One exception to this is Pausanias, a Greek writer. He recorded the quarrying done in Greece but he lived in the second century a.D. For other details, the information related to their architecture is limited to the writings of Vitruvius, an architect in ome, also a military engineer and a writer who lived during the rule of Augustus (Masrgary, 1957; Derry and Williams, 1961).

The Greek construction inherits its glory from the timber-framed European houses that revolved around three chambers and hearths and not from the buildings in the Near East or even the Mycenean tombs. The temples that appeared earlier in Greece were built of mud bricks with a timber roof that was thatched to facilitate a wider construction, the transverse beams were held by a row of posts that were kept in the middle and the posts were also kept in the mud brick walls for the same…… [Read More]

References

Derry, T.K. And Williams, T.I. A Short History of Technology from the Earliest Times to a.D. 1900. Oxford University Press. New York. 1961. Chapter 5.

Sttraub H. A History of Civil Engineering. (Eng. trans. By E. Rockwell). Hill, London, 1952.

Edwards I.E.S the Pyramids of Egypt. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 1950.

Toy, S. A History of Fortification from 3000 B.C. To a.D. 1700. Heinemann, London, 1955.
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History of Science-Patronage Guiding Thinkers

Words: 1644 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13308766

Therefore, it can be said that the patronage of Federico Cesi was important for Galileo because it placed him in contact with well-known scientists, it offered him the possibility to conduct research by consulting materials from a variety of fields, thus broadening the spectrum of his analysis, and, at the same time, it enabled him to conduct research that would probably bring him prestige and fortune due to the respectability of the group he is part of.

The oyal Academy of Science of Paris is yet another remarkable example of patronage. However, this example points out a new level of motivation for patronage. During the reign of Louis 16th, the oyal Academy of Science came under royal patronage to point out the fact that "the king was the source of everything that happened in his kingdom" (Dear, 115). However, the king at the time had little interest in the actual…… [Read More]

References

Dear, Peter. Revolutionizing the Sciences: European Knowledge and Its Ambitions, 1500-1700. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001

Lindberg, David C. The Beginnings of Western Science: The European Scientific Tradition in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, 600 B.C. To a.D. 1450. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.
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European Settlement by the Early

Words: 1158 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55354232

"Some also do grudge at the great increase of people in these days, thinking a necessary brood of cattle far better than a superfluous augmentation of mankind" (Harrison 1586). One way to ease the situation was to induce or force some to settle in the new territories. They would become the workforce in the colonies and reduce the problem back home at the same time. "These petty thieves might be condemned for certain years in the western parties" as indentured servants to provide hard labor and menial tasks (Hakluyt 1584). This was not only an attractive concept for the privileged classes but also for many of the poor or disadvantaged. In the society they left behind they had little hope of ever improving their circumstances. The hardships and threats they would face in the new world were worth the risk for the chance to improve their condition. Many, however, regretted…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Frethorne, John. "Letter to His Parents." Indentured Servitude. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu, 1623.

Fumas, J. The Americas: A Social History of the United States. New York: Putnam, 1969.

Hakluyt, R. "Reading 2." Motivations for English Colonization. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu, 1584.

Harrison, W. "Reading 1." Motivations for English Colonization. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu, 1586.
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History of Economics the Way

Words: 1229 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20653031

These principles were those of reciprocity, reallocation and house holding, and they were embedded in the way the civil and politic societies interacted. The end of the century however brought by the first signs of disembeddment and they revolved around the transformation of land and labor force into commodities. For the European countries for instance, a disembedded economy referred also to the territorial expansion of the companies. In this understanding then, the developed European countries had expanded their operations and moved to wider markets, where they increased their access to customers and also their revenues. And not only that they began to sell their products to larger audiences, but they also began to acquire cheaper commodities from the foreign regions; they employed cheaper workforce in the region; and operations of international transfer of capital begun to emerge.

Ultimately then, an embedded economy is generally an enclosed and protectionist one, and…… [Read More]

References

Cumberpatch, C.G., Some Observations on the Concept of 'Embedded' and 'Disembedded' Economies in Archaeological Discourse, Assemblage Journal of Archeology, 2001

Halperin, S., War and Social Change in Modern Europe: The Great Transformation Revised, Cambridge University Press, 2004

Aristotle's View on Wealth Acquisition, Philosophy 101, http://www.philosophy-101.com/2007/06/29/aristotles-view-on-wealth-acquisition/last accessed on February 4, 2009

Basic Characteristics of Capitalism, Business Book Mall, http://www.businessbookmall.com/Economics_3_Basic_Characteristics_of_Capitalism.html. Ast accessed on February 4, 2009
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History of Economics Is a

Words: 4610 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17851639

These methods are then examined with respect to future events using empirical observations and statistical tools. (History of Economics Society, 25)

It has to be accepted that such a method has been used to arrive at various conclusions. A lot of dedication is required by thinkers to derive the facts out of the information available. This concept of economics is not drawn out of nothing, but it has been derived from facts, and scientists have toiled to put together the casual details into formal approaches. Formal methods reduce the details in a systematic manner and so this is preferred than the informal method. However those is favor of the scientific method were against the formal method and argued that formal methods were not reliable since it was not sure whether the important aspects of the fact would be retained while reducing the information available. (History of Economics Society, 25)

History…… [Read More]

References

Canterbery, E. Ray. A Brief History of Economics: Artful Approaches to the Dismal

Science. World Scientific. 2001.

History of Economics Society. Complexity and the history of economic thought: Selected

Papers from the... Routledge. 2000.