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The paper discusses five articles related to exercise physiology. Within these articles, a number of topics are comprised, including: exercise in extreme environments, optimizing performance in sport, gender and age as they relate to exercising, fatigue during exercise and health. These topics will be examined as per the points-of-view presented in the articles below.
Icy Climb to the Sky in Summery Yosemite by Bill Becher (Source: )
This first article discusses the topic of exercise in extreme conditions. Here, the extreme conditions are cold, snow and ice, and the exercise is ice climbing in Yosemite National Park. The article begins by describing the conditions with which one must put up in this extreme sport, which include frigid temperatures and, sometimes, superhuman strength, as one dangles hundreds of feet, even thousands, above the ground. The article, however, relishes in this latter facet, and even applauds those who undertake such…
Article 5: Exercise: 7 Benefits of Regular Physical Activity by Mayo Clinic Staff (Source: )
The last piece builds upon all the advice offered in the previous articles. The seven benefits of regular physical activity, according to the article, are: controlling one's weight, combating potential diseases, improving mood, boosting energy, sleeping better, having a better sex life, a last but not least, having fun. These positives, as evidenced here, can only improve one's life, and the article highly advocates exercise by describing them in detail. One can learn from this piece, as the one above, by seeing, first and foremost, that exercise, if anything, can prevent such diseases as cardiovascular disease, which is very common in Americans.
The basic facts are that exercise promotes healthy living, which is not something that all Americans are undertaking right now, but something that all should strive towards. What can be learned from this article is that there is a culture that exercise can promote, and a mental state, which is superior to that of a person who does not exercise regularly. Thus, if one wishes to be healthy, he or she must exercise, without a doubt.
Exercise Physiology: learning about it, involving oneself in it or obtaining gainful employment from it is becoming a part and parcel of most people's life. With improvements in technology, our lifestyles have become sedentary. Such lifestyles also put us at greater risk for diseases. This work will be concerned with a general idea of exercise physiology with information for all who want to involve themselves with it.
Simply put, exercise physiology (EP) is the identification of physiological mechanisms that underlie any physical activity. (Amundsen, 1981) and hypertension should be closely monitored. While maintaining a regimented lifestyle with optimal levels of physical activity can be helpful, over-exercising can be detrimental. Exercise physiology therefore, also involves professional guidance and counseling.
In 1997, the American Society of Exercise Physiologists (ASEP) was founded. (CSS.edu, Professionalization of Exercise Physiology Online, 2003) few universities have ASEP accredited bachelors and masters degree programs in exercise science. Some…
Adams, Gene M. Exercise Physiology Laboratory Manual. Dubuque, IA: Wm.C. Brown Publishers, 1990.
Amundsen, Louis R. Cardiac Rehabilitation. Clinics in Physical Therapy; V. 1. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1981.
ASEP.com. American Sports Education Program. 2003. ASEP.com. Available:
http://www.asep.com/.October 20, 2003.
Training Programme) (30%)
Strength/flexibility exercises test ubric (5%)
The instructor (NOT student) will choose 5 strength/flexibility exercises from the student's Written eport that the student states he will use over the 3-month hypothetical training period. The Instructor will ask the student to perform the exercises in turn and name the muscle(s) being stretched or strengthened. This is NOT a physically demanding test (only 1 repetition is performed).
Conducted exercise correctly
Correctly named muscles strengthened/stretched
Conducted exercise correctly
Correctly named muscles strengthened/stretched
Conducted exercise correctly
Correctly named muscles strengthened/stretched
Conducted exercise correctly
Correctly named muscles strengthened/stretched
Strength/flexibility exercise 5
Conducted exercise correctly
Correctly named muscles strengthened/stretched
(Total marks will be rounded down (not up). For instance, if you score 4.6, your TOTAL will be recorded as 4.0)
Written eport (Strength and Flexibility Training…
CDC. (2013). Why strength training? Retrieved from CDC.gov:
Heart.org. (n.d.). Flexibility Exercises. Retrieved from heart.org:
In fact, she already had all of that information written in the margins right next the photographs. Every picture had a description of how many calories, and how many grams of protein, carbohydrates, and fats she consumed in between the consecutive pictures. She explained that her diet changed much more than her training during that time and I was very surprised at the difference that could be seen so clearly from picture to picture, and especially at the differences in her physique and muscularity from the beginning to the end of each contest preparation cycle. According to her, she maintains the same basic workout routine all year long and the real difference that accounts for the extreme changes in her muscularity before contests is almost exclusively a function of her diet.
My friend helped me understand that I had arrived at narrow-minded conclusions about the relationship between exercise, diet, and…
Exercise has been described as the best medicine for depression. It can help a person get through rough times. Physical exercise is very important for a person's mental and physical health. Exercise helps in pumping more blood through the veins. This results in the increase in size of the arteries and it prevents fats from clogging the arteries. It also prevents blood clots. A person who exercises regularly is protected from a variety of diseases and it helps in curbing cholesterol. Exercise benefits a human body as it lowers blood pressure and conditions the lungs. Exercise has its various advantages. It successfully counters stress, depression and anxiety. It has been named as the best fighting force for all these problems. Exercise is also instrumental in improving a person's nervous, cardiovascular and immune system. It also increases our metabolism, digestion and stimulation. (University of Michigan Health System) (http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/primry/fit02.htm)
Sometimes people feel…
Marissa Beck, Relieving Stress Through Exercise, The Tufts Daily, 2003
Richard Harvey, The Physician and Sports Medicine - September 1995
Harvard Health Publications Special Health Report, Depression Report, 2002
The authors were trying to develop a system of estimating and indexing muscle fatigue rates during static muscle contraction. The results of this study indicated that estimations were reasonably successful with some limitations that were noted. One limitation was that the study neglected muscle recovery since the experiment was performed in a lab under controlled conditions and the muscles were able to fully recover. However, in the real world muscles move in a dynamic environment thus making muscle recovery rates a challenge in producing an accurate estimate of fatigue.
Another study looked at the efficacy of treatments in patients who suffer from Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). The study conducted research using 111 patients who suffer from CTS. They compared the standard conservative treatment (SCT) with other forms of treatment available that also propose to alleviate symptoms associated CTS. They found that SCT, which includes local steroid injections, was effective as…
Yewguan Soo; Sugi, M.; Nishino, M.; Yokoi, H.; Arai, T.; Kato, R.; Nakamura, T.; Ota, J.;, "Quantitative estimation of muscle fatigue using surface electromyography during static muscle contraction," Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2009. EMBC 2009. Annual International Conference of the IEEE, vol., no., pp.2975-2978, 3-6 Sept. 2009
Ay-e N. Bardak, Mehmet Alp, Belgin Erhan, Nurdan Paker, Betul Kaya and Ay-e . Onal,;, "Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of conservative treatment in the management of carpal tunnel syndrome," Advances in Therapy, Publisher Springer Healthcare Communications, ISSN 0741-238X (Print) 1865-8652 (Online), Issue Volume 26, Number 1 / January, 2009
Air Force Military Training 4
Aviation Tactical Force- to- Force Exercise
Military operations entails an interaction of multiple forces, hence sequencing their interaction during training is essential in promoting inter-service cooperation (Col Gopaul, 2017). Efficiency in training is determined by how well the training mirrors the battlefield. The sequencing of the battlefield is configured engaging in multi-service training exercises referred to as force- to- force exercise.
Force- to- force exercise training is a form of training that entails training with simulation equipment to realism to training as the training. Tactical force-to-force exercises essentially entail simulation and configuration of battlefield complexities to support basic training of pilots, mission commanders, and operators. The operation entails the interaction of technologies and forces with different operation experience (Kishore, 2017). The simulated exercises ensure warfighting competencies and swift execution and successful spectrum of operations as well as interforce relationship building (Col Gopaul, 2017). Force- to-…
Physiological Effects of Endurance Training
Endurance training produces many physiological changes, both during training and after the training period is complete. These changes are biochemical and also involve changes in the cardio-pulmonary system. The correct way to perform endurance training has been a subject of controversy in recent years. There are many differences in training methods. These differences and the effects of endurance training will be the subject of this research. The jury is still out as to what constitutes the perfect duration and intensity of training program.
Studies have shown that a focused training program can increase maximum oxygen intake by 15-30% over a three-month period (7) and that can increase to 50% if the training is sustained for over 2 years. The body makes many metabolic adaptations as well. These adaptations drop rapidly in the first few weeks after training is stopped (1).
Duration and Intensity of Different…
1. Acevedo EO, Goldfarb AH. Increased training intensity effects on plasma lactate, ventilatory threshold, and endurance. Med and Sci in Sports Exercise, (21), 563-568, 1998
2. Finn, C, Effects of High-Intensity Intermittent Training on Endurance Performance. Sportscience (5)(1), sport sci.org. Jour. 1-3, 2001.
3. Foss M.L., and Keteyian S.J. Fox's Physiological Basis for Exercise and Sport. WCB Boston, Mass., McGraw-Hill. 1998.
4. Hawley JA, Myburgh KH, Noakes TD, and Dennis, SC. Training Techniques To Improve Fatigue Resistance And Enhance Endurance Performance. Jour of Sports Sci, (15), 325-333, 1997.
Biomechanics is the study of mechanical and physics principles in relation to motion in sports. Every sport has its biomechanical theories and each one is specialized to that particular skill with equations derived from Newtonian physics and knowledge of the human body and its capabilities. When combined and properly practiced, biomechanics can improve an athletes overall performance, making the athlete superior to their competitors.
The freestyle arm-pull in swimming is a precise study in the art of biomechanics introduced for an efficient result. It is an established fact that water is 773 times as dense as air and 55 times as viscous (Miller, 1975). What this means is that planning an efficient stroke in water is going to require greater strategy than planning an efficient stroke in air. The primary factors that go into creating the ideal stroke in swimming are vectors, motion, force, work, and…
Boone, Tommy; Birnbaum, Larry (2005). Exercise Physiology: Professional Issues, Organizational Concerns, and Ethical Trends. Edward Mellen Pr.
Burkett, Brendan (2012). Basic principles for understanding sport mechanics. Human Kinetics. Accessed 14 March 2012 from http://www.humankinetics.com/excerpts/excerpts/basic-mechanical-principles
Miller, Doris (1975). Biomechanics of Swimming. Exercise and Sport Sciences. Vol. 3.1, 219-248.
Richardson, AR (1986). The Biomechanics of Swimming: The Shoulder and Knee. Clin Sports Med. Vol 5.1, 103-13.
career of an athletic trainer, including the background necessary for the career, the necessary education, and job opportunities for athletic trainers. Athletic trainers form a necessary backbone of most professional sports organizations, and many private organizations. A professional athletic trainer can make the difference between a life-changing injury, or returning to the game. Athletic trainers are an essential and integral part of modern sports medicine, and as sports and athletics increase in importance in our society, they will continue to play an important part in our healthy lives.
Athletic trainers have been around for centuries, but today, most trainers are certified, and not only work with sports clubs or educational facilities, they can work in gyms and fitness centers, and even corporate workout centers.
Certified athletic trainers (ATCs) are medical experts in preventing, recognizing, managing and rehabilitating injuries that result from physical activity. Athletic trainers can help you avoid unnecessary…
Author not Available. "Athletic Trainer." NortheastAHEC.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.neahec.org/hc/HealthCareerPgs/AthleticTrainer.html
Editors. "What Does a Certified Athletic Trainer Do?" NATA.org. 2003. 25 Sept. 2003. http://www.nata.org/downloads/documents/306CareerInfoBrochure.htm
Hibberts, Rob. "How to Start Your Career." Cerro Coso Community College. 1998. 25 Sept. 2003. http://athletics.cerrocoso.edu/sportsmedicine/how_to_start_your_career.htm
Kornspan, Alan S., et al. "Career Opportunities in Sport and Exercise Among College Students." College Student Journal 36.3 (2002): 367+.
(1989). These researchers investigated skeletal muscle adaptations in response to acclimatization at high altitude. Samples of muscle extracted before reaching high altitude and after returning to sea-level showed that maximal activities of enzymes, such as those representative of beta-oxidation, were unchanged. However, after exposure to extremely high altitude hypoxic conditions, reductions were observed in succinic dehydrogenase, citrate synthetase and hexokinase. The findings of this study did not support the researchers' hypothesis that extremely hypoxic conditions elicit changes that are adaptive toward maximizing oxidative function at the intracellular level (Green et al., 1989).
Donoghue, S., Fatemian, M., Balanos, G.M., Crosby, A., Liu, C., O'Connor, D., Talbot, N.P., obbins, P.A. "Ventilatory Acclimatization in esponse to Very Small Changes in PO2 in Humans." Journal of Applied Physiology 98 (2005): 1587-91.
Green, H.J., Sutton, J.., Cymerman, A., Young, P.M., Houston, C.S. "Operation Everest II: Adaptations in Human Skeletal Muscle." Journal of Applied Physiology…
Donoghue, S., Fatemian, M., Balanos, G.M., Crosby, A., Liu, C., O'Connor, D., Talbot, N.P., Robbins, P.A. "Ventilatory Acclimatization in Response to Very Small Changes in PO2 in Humans." Journal of Applied Physiology 98 (2005): 1587-91.
Green, H.J., Sutton, J.R., Cymerman, A., Young, P.M., Houston, C.S. "Operation Everest II: Adaptations in Human Skeletal Muscle." Journal of Applied Physiology 66.5 (1989): 2454-61.
Hoppeler, H., Vogt, M. "Muscle Tissue Adaptations to Hypoxia." The Journal of Experimental Biology 204 (2001): 3133-9.
Hoppeler, H., Vogt, M., Weibel, E.R., Fluck, M. "Response of Skeletal Muscle Mirochondria to Hypoxia." Experimental Physiology 88.1 (2003): 109-19.
However, these studies did not separate the effects of ephedrine from that of caffeine and so more intense research is awaited in this direction. [Robert a] it is to be noted that caffeine and ephedrine work synergistically which could be dangerous in patients with pre-existing cardiac or blood pressure abnormalities. Caffeine affects the adenosine-mediated dilation of blood vessels by antagonizing its receptors. The resulting increased availability of free adenosine monophosphate furthers the activity of ephedrine and catecholamine stimulation resulting in reduced cardiac refractory periods and increased cardiac output and consequently elevated blood pressure. [Charles N. Krome]
It is necessary to look into the inherent risks associated with the use of ephedrine. Ephedrine has a very high percentage of adverse reactions compared to all other herbal supplements. As reported by ent et al. (2003), ephedrine alone accounts for around 64% of all adverse medical reactions due to herbal products. This in…
Daniel Ari Kapner, 'Infofacts Resources: Ephedra and Energy Drinks on College Campuses," Accessed 26th April 2008, Available at, http://www.higheredcenter.org/pubs/factsheets/energy-drinks.html
Michael P. Schaefer, Jay Smith, Diane L. Dahm and Matthew C. Sorenson, 'Ephedra Use in a Select group of Adolescent Athletes'. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2006) 5, 407-414, available at http://www.jssm.org/vol5/n3/6/v5n3-6pdf.pdf
3) Robert a. Robergs1, Tommy Boone2, Donna Lockner3, "Exercise Physiologists Should not Recommend the Use of Ephedrine and Related Compounds as Ergogenic Aids or Stimulants for Increased Weight Loss," Journal of Exercise Physiology Online, Volume 6 Number 4 November 2003, available at http://faculty.css.edu/tboone2/asep/RobergsV2.doc
4) Charles N. Krome, 'Cardiac Arrhythmia in a Professional Football Player. Was Ephedrine to Blame?' The physician and Sportsmedicine Vol31, No 12, Dec 2003.
Deliberately reducing the amount of PO2 circulating in the breathable atmosphere around a person -- such as Kara accomplishes at sea-level with her tent -- ultimately produces a lowered rate of hemoglobin oxygenation in the arterial blood. This condition, hypoxia, can be dangerous and can, of course, impair aerobic physical exercise -- however the trick that Kara is taking advantage of is the body's ability to undergo acclimatization, in which the body's physiology and metabolism will engage in adjustments that improve the body's ability to tolerate the low-PO2 levels through different means, such as adjusting its own acidity (to change the level of interior biochemical reactivity in order to boost absorbable oxygen levels) but also -- more importantly for Kara and her endurance training -- by improving metabolism on the cellular level and blood circulation (to maximize the value of the oxygen actually obtained) and, most importantly, by "increased synthesis…
McCardle, WD, Katch, F, and Katch, VL (2009). Exercise physiology. 7th ed. New York: LWW.
Murphy, K. (2011). Janeway's immunobiology. 8th ed. New York: Garland Science.
In addition, the Marines have a much smaller force than the army.
On the other hand, the army cannot be as selective as the marines because it needs to maintain a much higher number of troops. The article explains that the army "needs 80,000 new soldiers this year and must find them in a populace that is in many ways less willing and less able to serve than earlier generations were (Mockenhaupt, 2007, pg.86)." The article explains that teenagers and young adults are overweight and less fit than any previous generation. In addition, this generation of young Americans eats more unhealthy foods, watches more television, and engages in less physical activity than previous generations. The article further asserts that this generation is "more individualistic and less inclined to join the military. And with the unemployment rate hovering near historic lows, they have other choices (Mockenhaupt, 2007, pg.86)."
Overall it is…
Anderson, P.M., & Butcher, K.F. (2006). Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children, 16(1), 19+.
Body Mass Index. http://www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/
Belkin D. (February 20, 2006) Struggling for recruits, Army relaxes its rules: Fitness, education, age criteria change. The Boston Globe Retrieved March 16, 2008 from; http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2006/02/20/struggling_for_recruits_army_relaxes_its_rules/?page=1
Daniels, S.R. (2006). The Consequences of Childhood Overweight and Obesity. The Future of Children, 16(1), 47+.
career in sports nutrition, including the background necessary for the career, the necessary education, and job opportunities for sports nutritionists. Sports nutritionists can help people from every way of life lead healthier, happier lives. A professional sports nutritionist studies nutritional needs, weight maintenance, and even eating disorders so they can understand the nutritional problems American's face, and help them make the right eating decisions for their own specific needs. ith the growing problem of obesity in America, it is clear sports nutritionists will become even more valuable in the future. Today, they are an essential and integral part of modern sports exercise, and as the nutritional needs of our society continue to alter, nutritionists will play an even more important role in our healthy lives.
Sports nutrition is a relatively new field, and so many professionals are creating their own opportunities in many areas of exercise science and related sports…
Author not Available. (2003). Sports Nutrition. Retrieved from the SCANpg.org Web Site: http://www.scandpg.org/page.asp?id=career_sports_nutrition4 Nov. 2003.
Author not Available. (27 Nov. 2000). Nutrition/Nutrition Science Career Information. Retrieved from the University of Minnesota Web Site: http://www.che.umn.edu/career/infosheets/nutritionprogram.htm#53a4 Nov. 2003.
Editors. (2003). Nutrition & Dietetics Department: Sports Nutrition. Retrieved from the Marywood University Web Site: http://www.marywood.edu/departments/nutr_diet/sports.htm4 Nov. 2003.
Kornspan, A.S., Duve, M.A., Maccracken, M.J., & Buckenmeyer, P.J. (2002). Career opportunities in sport and exercise among college students. College Student Journal, 36(3), 367+.
Good researchers tend to pull methods out of a tool kit as they are needed" (2006, p. 54). Notwithstanding these criticisms and constraints, though, most social researchers seem to agree that classification by some type of research paradigm is a useful approach based on the need to determine which approach is best suited for a given research enterprise. In this regard, Corby concludes that, "The contested nature of research makes it impossible and unhelpful to ignore the different aims and purposes of various research projects and the methods and approaches being used to carry them out" (2006, p. 54). Therefore, the different aims and purposes of the positivist research paradigm, the constructivist research paradigm and the pragmatic research paradigm are discussed further below.
Positivist Research Paradigm
The positivist research paradigm is a quantitative-based approach that generally seeks to identify trends and patterns that can be used to formulate predictions concerning…
Ames, S.L., Gallaher, P.E., Sun, P. & Pearce, S. (2005). A Web-based program for coding open-ended response protocols. Behavior Research Methods, 37(3), 470-471.
Authors provide a description of a Web-based application that provides researchers with the ability to analyze participant-generated and open-ended data. Authors note that the application was developed in order to take advantage of online surveying based on its ease of use and flexibility. Authors note that this application may be of particular value to researchers who are employing large sample sizes that are frequently needed for projects in which frequency analyses are required. The application uses a grid-based set of criteria to establish codes for participant-generated and open-ended data collected from online surveys and can be applied for scoring results from stem completion,-word or picture associations, and comparable purposes in which such participant-generated responses require categorization and coding. Authors advise that they use this application for their professional online surveying purpose in experimental psychology to examine substance abuse patterns derived from participant-generated responses to various verbal and nonverbal associative memory problems, but that the application is also appropriate for other research areas as well. Authors also note that the application helps improve survey reliability by providing a systematic approach to coding participant-generated responses as well as evaluating the quality of coding and interjudge reliability by researchers with little or no specific training for the purposes. Authors conclude that the coding application is helpful for survey research that uses open-ended responses in virtually any research area of interest.
Austin, T.M., Richter, R.R. & Reinking, M.F. (2008). A primer on Web surveys. Journal of Allied Health, 37(3), 180-181.
Authors report that survey research has become a widely accepted research methodology that has been facilitated through the introduction of computer-based and online survey methods. Authors also emphasize that although electronic survey methods are useful in a wide range of settings for a variety of purposes, they are not appropriate in every situation. Online surveys involve various technologies that have not been available (or required) for paper-and-pencil surveys and require special considerations involving their design, pilot testing, and response rates. Authors present the results of their empirical observations and professional experience in using Web-based surveys to illustrate some of the advantages and disadvantages of the approach, including security and confidentiality issues (they make the point that electronic surveys are particularly vulnerable to compromise and that survey data must be protected as the research progresses) as well as the special considerations that must be taken into account as they apply to this surveying approach. Authors also discuss issues such as sampling error, a "how-to" guide to writing survey questions for online media, and how to order questions to ensure that respondents answer accurately and faithfully. All in all, this was a very timely guide for researchers for identifying when Web-based surveys are most appropriate and what factors should be taken into account in the design, posting and analysis of online surveys.
Nursing Knowledge: A Controversy
The scope of the nursing profession has increased dramatically over the last thirty years. The demarcation between medical and nursing tasks is quickly dissolving as the nursing profession is becoming increasingly multidisciplinary and complex. In 1996, nurse practitioners were mandated to obtain master's degrees to address their changing role in medical care (Nicoteri & Andrews, 2003). In this multidisciplinary and evolving healthcare environment, adaptation is paramount to providing effective patient care. Currently, there is a controversy in nursing regarding the direction that the development of nursing knowledge should take. There are many critics who believe that developing new nursing theories is an effective way to promote this development. However, theories are often abstract and not adaptable to specific healthcare settings. The belief that the knowledge base for nursing should evolve entirely from theory has important implications for nursing as an academic discipline and by extension the…
Attree, M. (2001). Patients' and relatives' experiences and perspectives of 'good' and 'not so good' quality care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 33, 456 -- 466.
Burman, M.E., Hart, A.M., Conley, V., Brown, J., Sherard, P., Clarke, P.N. (2009). Reconceptualizing the core of nurse practitioner education and practice. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 21, 11-17.
Hart, A.M., Macnee, C. (2007). How well are NPs prepared for practice: Results from a 2004 survey. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 19, 35 -- 42.
Mantzoukas, S., Jasper, M. (2008). Types of nursing knowledge used to guide care of hospitalized patients. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 62, 3, 318-326.
Glycogen Storage and Use
Exercise and diabetes: Beneficial effects
Diabetes is increasing in the United States and throughout the world due to the ever-growing adoption of an unhealthy lifestyle, including poor diet and lack of physical activity. Obesity is a characteristic often present in individuals with diabetes, and in order for the occurrences of diabetes to be reduced and the effects of diabetes to be minimized, efforts must be put in place to encourage weight loss and the maintenance of a healthy weight. It is expected that obesity and diabetes will reach epidemic proportions unless prompt action is taken to counteract these conditions (Albu & aja-Khan, 2003).
Lifestyle factors have been identified that are associated with glycemic control and body mass in individuals with diabetes. Grylls et al. (2003) found that reducing dietary saturated fat and excess body weight may be useful for improving glycemic control in older adults with…
Albu, J. & Raja-Khan, N. (2003). The management of the obese diabetic patient. Primary Care, 30(2), 465-91.
Borghouts, L. & Keizer, H. (2000). Exercise and insulin sensitivity: A review. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 21(1), 1-12.
Casteneda, C., Layne, J., Munoz-Orians, L., Gordon, P., Walsmith, J., Foldvari, M., Roubenoff, R., Tucker, K., Nelson, M. (2002). A randomized controlled trial of resistance exercise training to improve glycemic control in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 25(12), 2335-41.
Cradock, S. (1997). The role of exercise in diabetes management. Community Nurse, 3(3), 23-4.
Practical esearch Finding Implementation and Experimentation Stage -- Phase I
The experimenter did not set out to determine specifically which of the various contributing factors (or combinations of factors) identified by the empirical research of medial tibial stress syndrome was most responsible for the experimenter's symptoms. However, since the initial attempts to resolve the symptoms incorporated changes to all of the external variables except a change in running surface, the experimenter immediately sought a softer running surface and temporarily abandoned running on any hard surface that magnified instead of minimized the physiological trauma associated with running on harder surfaces.
Because the empirical research also implicated poor running stride mechanics and excessive vertical elevation, the experimenter devoted considerable attention to making the following specific changes to the running stride: (1) shorter strides to minimize travel of the body while neither foot is in contact with the running surface; (2) conscious attempts…
AOS. (2007). Shin Splints. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Retrieved October 20, 2009, from: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00407 .
Braver, R. "How to Test and Treat Exertional Compartment Syndrome: Why the ECS
Diagnosis Is Often Missed" Podiatry Today; Vol. 15 (May 1, 2002). Retrieved
October 20, 2009, from: http://www.podiatrytoday.com/article/382
Houdini Was Able to Modulate His Normal Physiology During His Stunts
The objective of this study is to examine how Houdini was able to modulate his normal physiology during his stunts.
Harry Houdini caused the world to marvel at his skill in escaping the bondage of handcuffs and was referred to as the 'handcuff king' and as well Houdini performed many other magic tricks that required more than merely illusion but instead required that he be able to alter his own body's physiology. The modulation of physiology enabled Houdini to accomplish great feats and to capture the imagination and attention of a large base of fans across many years. Houdini is well-known for having spent a great deal of time and effort to invalidate individuals who were so-called mediums communicating with the dead because he detested this type of trickery.
Modulation of Physiology
The modulation of physiology is similar to…
Randi, James (2001) My Heroes, The Pale Blue Dot, Houdini's Last Stunt. SWIFT. Online Newsletter of the JREP. 28 Dec 2001. Retrieved from: http://www.randi.org/jr/122801.html
Shermer, Michael (2001) Houdini's Skeptical Advice: Just Because Something's Unexplained Doesn't Mean It's Supernatural. Scientific American. 4 Feb 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=houdinis-skeptical-advice
Seabourne, Tom Dr. (nd) Breathing and Heart Rate Control. Universal Nutrition. Retrieved from: http://www.universalnutrition.com/features/breathingheartrate.html
However, in almost 30% of HCM cases only one segment of the left ventricle develops hypertrophy. The patterns of LV wall thickening is also diverse as is the thickness of the LV, which ranges from anywhere between 21 mm (average) to even 60 mm in some patients. It remains a sad fact that screening programs in the form of preparticipation evaluation based on familial history and electrocardiography does not reveal much. A recent study showed that a preparticipation screening for 115 high school and college athletes who later succumbed to sudden death could identify only 3% of them as at risk. This study also revealed that LVH is very mild and not obvious in adolescents and therefore electrocardiography readings are not diagnostically conclusive. [Maron]
Since there is not complete cure for the condition, treatment is purely symptomatic. Typically beta blockers (which reduce ventricular contraction), calcium channel blockers that slow…
CMA, "Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy," Accessed on April 16th 2008, available at http://www.cardiomyopathy.org/index.php?id=49
Barry J. Maron, MD, "Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: Practical Steps for Preventing Sudden Death," the Physician and Sports Medicine, VOL 30 - NO.1 - JANUARY 2002, Available online at, http://www.physsportsmed.com/issues/2002/01_02/maron.htm
Cleveland Clinic, "Cleveland Clinic," Accessed on April 16th 2008, Available at, http://www.clevelandclinic.org/heartcenter/pub/guide/disease/hcm/default.htm#affected
Soccer is a true total sport. It requires of its players the ability to show intense bursts of speed and power while simultaneously commanding the ability to conserve energy and endure for the complete span of the game. It requires athleticism, strength, and agility. Players must be conditioned at a top level to be competitive. That is why training for 3-5 days a week is essential in every season for players. To avoid injury, pre-season and off-season training is also vital (Heidt, Sweeterman, Carlonas et al., 2000). The sheer physicality of the sport requires its athletes to stay in shape throughout the year.
Every soccer training program should be tailored to the meet the needs of the individual (Manzi, Castagna, Padua et al., 2009). This program is designed for a 185 lb, 15 year old male high school soccer midfielder. It is developed for off-season, pre-season and in-season programs…
incidence rates of childhood obesity are linked to socio-economic factors. Core drivers of obesity in both children and adults are diet and exercise, and research has shown that a calorie is not a calorie. That is to say that certain foods serve as triggers for metabolic responses and physiological events that impact the overall health of individuals. The old adage that people can focus on loosing weight -- the associated implication is that they will be healthy as a result -- has shown not to be true. Much of the prepackaged food consumed today -- particularly so-called junk food -- is high in sugar, fats, and calories. However, this statement is too reductionist to be of help to people who are interested in improving their diets in order to actually become healthier.
ecent research indicates that obesity is certainly a factor in the incidence of diabetes, as is total caloric…
Basu, S., Yoffe, P., Hills, N., & Lustig, R.H. (2013). The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: An econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data. PLoS ONE, 8(2): e57873. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057873
Breen, C., Ryan, M., McNulty, B., Gibney, M., Canavan, R., & O'Shea, D. (2014, February). High saturated-fat and low-fibre intake: a comparative analysis of nutrient intake in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. Nutrition and Diabetes, 4, e104. doi: 10.1038/nutd.2014.2.
Eckel, R.H. (1997). Obesity and Heart Disease: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Nutrition Committee, American Heart Association. Circulation, 96, 3248-3250. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.96.9.3248
elationship between cardiac arrest and coronary cardiac disease
The heart is an essential organ in the human body, it keeps the individual alive. Understanding how the heart operates and functions is essential to help protect your heart from heart disease. Cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease are significant heart related illness that has a high mortality rate. It is important for individuals with pre-existing heart disease to understand the symptoms of cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease, since these are both leading causes of fatality in the United States. Understanding how the heart works, the individuals risk for heart disease, and how to prevent or delay heart disease is essential. In this paper I will address the relationship between cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease. I will also explain how the heart functions and discuss some ways of preventing cardiac arrest and coronary heart disease.
Antonini-Canterin et. al. (2009). Association between carotid and coronary artery disease in patients with aortic valve stenosis: an angiographic study. Angiology 60 (5) 596-600
CDC. (2010). Heart disease. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/
Dewey et. al. (2004). Coronary artery disease: new insights and their implications for radiology. European Radiology. 14 (6) 1048-1054
Escolar et. al. (2006). New imaging techniques for diagnosing coronary artery disease. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 174 (4) 487-495
Silk and tassel look similar but the two structures are functionally different. The NP interviewer uses them synonymously without correction by the farmer.
However, the farmer is correct in emphasizing the importance of the silk and tassel, the stigma and the male inflorescence, in the reproduction of the corn. Moreover, the farmer stresses the relationship between wind and corn fertilization. Pollen grains are "borne in anthers, each of which contains a large number of pollen grains" that emerge only during certain morning hours (Thomison). The farmer in the NP segment fails to mention the crucial timing involved in corn pollination.
Corn ovules are potential kernels, which are the fruits of the corn. The seeds of the corn are its pollen: which is created in the anthers and which travel along the male inflorescence to fertilize the stigmas. Stigmas are essentially pollen receptors. In many plants, the stigma is part of…
Thomison, P. Corn Pollination - an Overview. Retrieved Oct 1, 2008 from http://ohioline.osu.edu/agf-fact/0128.html
new branch of science called Sports Science that respectively makes use of motor learning and motor control in the sports industry.
Motor learning and motor control is a field of science that is being studied from a sports point-of-view. Motor learning is connected to all the processes and conditions that affect one's ability to acquire skills, while motor control ascertains neuromuscular performance of individuals. Many people are taking great interest in the learning of motor skills and expertise, and the development of coordination. This new field of sports is based on the use of the knowledge base in the movement and sport sciences, cognitive sciences, and also physical therapy.
Sports science is a new area of study that is forcing people to explore the scientific explanation for David Beckham's superb soccer skills, and even wondering what would Wimbledon be like if say Pete Sampras had to use an…
Computational Learning and Motor Control Lab, available at http://www-slab.usc.edu/,accessed on: November 20, 2003
Graduate Programs: Masters in Motor Control, available at http://www.indiana.edu/~kines/ms_motor.html , accessed on: November 20, 2003
JCU - Motor Learning and Motor Control, available at: www.jcu.edu.au/school/phtm/ises/lev3sub/sp34hbk.html, accessed on: November 20, 2003
Motor Behavior Specialization - Doctoral Degree Program, available at http://www.hhp.ufl.edu/ess/grad/motrbeh1.htm, accessed on: November 20, 2003
1. The dilemma of Obesity
Mokdad et al., (1999) in his study found that the issue of unhealthy weight, overweight and obesity are perhaps one of the rising concerns for the Americans in the 21st century as more and more U.S. citizens become vulnerable to the circumstantial risks and dangers of the phenomenon (Mokdad et al., 1999). It is usually the body mass indexes (BMI) that indicate whether a person is actually overweight or not. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) carried out a study for the years 1999 to 2002 using the BMI phenomenon and concluded that about 65% of U.S. citizens in the adulthood years were categorized under the overweight group because of their BMI (Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2005).
To understand the phenomenon of obesity and its rise, it's important to understand…
Adam Drewnowski and S.E. Specter (2004), Poverty and Obesity: The Role of Energy Density and Energy Costs, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, no. 1: 6-16.
Akande, a. & Akande, B.E. (1994). On becoming a person: Activities to help children with their anger. Early Child Development and Care, 102, 31-62.
Akande, a. Wyk, C.D.WV. And Osagie, J.E. (2000). Importance of Exercise and Nutrition in the Prevention of Illness and the Enchancement of Health. Education. 120: 4.
Alexander, M.A., & Blank, J.J. (1988). Factors related to obesity in Mexican-American preschool children. Image, 20(2), 79-82.
Further, within this essay I have explained key reasons for how and why women's mere building of healthy muscle through appropriate weight-lifting exercise will not in fact make women "bulk up" (and that in order to do so, women must in fact weight train in a particularly rigorous and deliberate way, one that average female weight-lifters simply do not). Instead, weight-lifting allows most women who exercise regularly and correctly in this way to become healthier, more physically fit, more physically attractive, and therefore to like themselves better and gain greater self-confidence. Women who have been holding back from weight-lifting due to the unrealistic fear of building too much muscle may now, therefore, relax about this faulty myth, pack their gym bags, and head fearlessly toward those barbells and/or Nautilus machines!
Bedeaux, J. (2006). Biggest benefits of strength training. Changing Shape.
etrieved November 8, 2006, at http://www.changingshape. http://72.14.
Bedeaux, J. (2006). Biggest benefits of strength training. Changing Shape.
Retrieved November 8, 2006, at http://www.changingshape. http://72.14.
104/search?q=cache:68yf2lMgweUJcom/resources/articles / strength-training-for-woman.asp+dispelling+women%27s+fear+of+weight+ lifting&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=2.html.
David, M. (2006). Women who lift weights turn into men? Retrieved November 7, 2006, from: http:www.healthguidance, org/article/36011/women-who-lift-weights turn-into-men.html.
The comparisons make me feel better about myself if I determine that I have better features such as bigger biceps. However, I will always feel worse if the person I am comparing myself to is better-looking in some department.
I would like to change some of my attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs about what I am supposed to look like, what other people want me to look like, and what society expects from me. The bottom line should always be health: exercise and eating right should be about how I feel more than about how I look.
3. Anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating disorders are all psychological problems that have physical manifestations. They are behavioral issues and while there is a strong physiological component, the root causes of these diseases is in the emotional or mental make up of the person. Still, an eating and exercise regime that promotes total health can…
East African Athletes
East African unners
The achievement of long distance runners from East Africa especially Kenya as well as Ethiopia promoted a tradition of East Africans as genetically talented, indomitable, overriding for the reason of their biology. esearch has been undertaken to analyze this issue but nothing conclusive has been found as genes definite to East Africans that may perhaps justify their distance talent.
According to Scott A, H Wilson, W Goodwin, V Onywera, M Boit, YP Pitsiladis, (2006) a lot of Epstein's work surrounds the manner in which particular genes as well as some genetic markers profoundly control character that decide an individual's capability of becoming an athletics star. Among the instances that were looked into by the Epstein lies a Kenyan tribe known as the Kalenjin. esearchers have more than once pointed out that elongated as well as skinny legs are supplementary resourceful when it comes to…
Scott RA, RH Wilson, W Goodwin, V Onywera, M Boit, YP Pitsiladis.(2006) Mitochondrial DNA Lineages and Haplotype Diversity of Elite Kenyan Athletes. American College of Sports Medicine, Annual Meeting, Denver, USA. Retreived on November 27, 2013 http://www.ku.ac.ke/schools/human_sciences/images/stories/docs/onywera_vincent_2013.pdf
Scott, R.A., Moran, C., Wilson, R.H., Onywera, V.O., Boit, M.K., Goodwin, W.H., Montgomery, H., Pitsiladis, Y.P. (2005) ACE Genotype Is Not Associated With Elite Endurance Athlete Status in Kenyans. American College of Sports Medicine, Annual Meeting, Nashville, Tennessee, USA. Retreived on November 27, 2013
Obesity in children has become a common health problem. Obesity in children is a result of indulging in fast foods and spending time in front of the television or being stationary playing video
There is an over-abundance of food availability in America's supermarkets and restaurants, particularly fast-food restaurants (Hill and Peters, 1998). The portion-sizes of food in America's restaurants are unreasonable and uncontrolled (Hill and Peters, 1998). There is an increase in consumption of sugar-sweetened sodas and sweetend food (Bray, 2004). There is also an over-abundance of high-fat food choices paired with a lack of palpable low-fat choices. Most importantly, studies show that a diet of 35% fat or higher contributes to obesity in sedentary animals (Hill and Peters, 1998). It is no wonder that children having this unnutritious food become obese.
Another factor is the increasingly sedentary lifestyle that is due, in part,…
Branon, L., & Feist, J. (2007). Health Psychology. USA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Bray, G. (2004). The epidemic of obesity. Physiology & Behavior, 82, 115-121.
Bell & Standish, (2009) Building healthy communities through equitable food access. Community Development Investment Review, 75-87
Pollan. M. (2006) The Omnivore's Dilemma. Penguin: UK
hat treatments did the individual seek? ere any available at the time?
Reeve had to have a major operation a few days after his accident to replace the shattered vertebrae through artificial means. After his operation, he was put through physical rehabilitation and occupational therapy. Eventually he was able to move his wrist, fingers, and feet (Hecht & Hecht 2004). He could also breathe without assistance for up to 90 minutes. Intense physical therapy continued throughout the remainder of his life. Other treatments he received included: weight-bearing exercises, calcium supplements, and medication to reverse osteoporosis, or thinning of the bones which happens frequently to paraplegics.
Reeve sought further means of overcoming his disability, particularly with stem cell research. In this therapy, embryonic stem cells or, less often, adult stem cells are introduced to the damaged body which and allows the body to regenerate damaged tissue. It has been shown to…
Crews, C. (1998, May 3). The role he can't escape. Washington Post. Washington Post
Hall, F. (2005). Christopher Reeve. UU World: The Magazine of the Unitarian Universalist
The picture to the left depicts the various elements that are responsible for thermoregulation in human skin. The illustrations shows the various layers of skin along with the veins, arteries and capillaries of the circulatory system that assist in insuring that the thermoregulatory system works properly. The sweat glands are responsible for selectively removing materials from the blood the sweat glands then concentrates or alters these toxins, and secretes them for elimination from the body. The perspiration or sweat is then removed through the sweat pore. This has a twofold purpose: to remove toxins and thermoregulation (in this case cooling the body).
Thermoregulation involving perspiration is brought about by both internal and environmental heat and exercise. As it relates to the latter, there have been many studies related to exercise and thermoregulation. According to Marino (2004)
"thermoregulatory effector responses of humans and concluded that temperature regulation during exercise is dissimilar…
Caterina MJ, Schumacher MA, Tominaga M, Rosen TA, Levine JD, Julius D. The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway. Nature. 1997;389:816-824.
Dugan SA, Powell LH, Kravitz HM, Everson Rose SA, Karavolos K, Luborsky J (2006)
Musculoskeletal pain and menopausal tatus. Clin J. Pain 22: 325 -- 331
Deecher, D.C.K. Dorries (2007)Understanding the pathophysiology of vasomotor symptoms
However, it was 1953 that the formation of serotonin was from the lungs was substantiated. It is also observed that detoxification of the blood takes place in the lungs. Later, it was observed that one of the important activities of the lung is to provide chemical filtration by shielding the regular circulation of blood from the attack of vasoactive mixtures and other exogenous compounds present in the arteries. The physiology of the lungs and its location makes the lung exclusively suitable to perform these activities. (Wet; Moss, 1998)
The total output from the cardiac system is obtained by the lungs whereas other organs acquire only a very small quantity of output. The blood that circulates the lungs is subject to the vast capillary endothelial plane of the body which is of seventy square meters. This aspect of output and circulation enable the lung to perform the efficient function of biochemical…
Bennett, Taylor. B. (1996) "Essentials for Animal Research: A Primer for Research Personnel"
De Reuck, a.V. S; O'Connor, Maeve. (1962) "CIBA Foundation Symposium on Pulmonary
Structure and Function" a. Churchill Ltd.: London.
Diabetic Vascular Disease state caused by the deficiency of a chemical in the body called insulin which is a hormone is called Diabetes. There are two forms of diabetes. In the type-one diabetes no insulin is formed and people require insulin injections for existence. This was once thought it would affect only children, but now it can occur at any age. The type2 diabetes is due to the resistance of the body towards the effects of insulin. This also includes insulin which is insufficient. ut in this type there is some amount of insulin produced. In both the types the blood glucose levels is increased. When compared to people without diabetes, people with diabetes are prone to certain problems. These problems occur in the nerves (neuropathy), kidney (nephropathy) and eye (retinopathy). These people are prone to early heart attacks and stroked due to the hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis). With…
Diabetes Basics-About Diabetics," Retrieved from www.orthop.washington.edu/faculty/Hirsch/diabetesAccessed on March 3, 2004
Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research" retrieved from www.medstv.unimelb.edu.au/Research/DCVDR/. Accessed on March 3, 2004
Haptoglobin: A major susceptibility gene for diabetic vascular complications," retrieved from www.pulsus.com/europe/07_02/szaf_ed.htm. Accessed on March 3, 2004
Pathophysiology of Diabetes" retrieved at http://www.dhss.state.mo.us/diabetes/manual/DMOverview.pdf. Accessed on March 3, 2004
One of the most common mental disorders linked to Alzheimer's is depression which according to Elwood Cohen manifests itself in three important ways. First, "There are higher rates of depression among Alzheimer's patients than among non-demented adults;" second, "Having a depressive episode is associated with an increased risk for developing Alzheimer's," and third, Depressive symptoms can be confused with dementia in older adults" (1999, 214).
In a recent study conducted by the Cardiovascular Health Initiative, based in Washington, D.C., more than one-third of 400 dementia patients and more than one-fifth of 300 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) had experienced symptoms of depression during a one-month period prior to the study. Similar results were reported by the Multi-Institutional esearch in Alzheimer's Genetic Epidemiology (MIAGE) which discovered that "In the year prior to a patient being diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, the same patient was almost five times more likely than their…
Cohen, Elwood. (1999). Alzheimer's Disease. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Coughlin, Patricia B. (1993). Facing Alzheimer's. New York: Ballantine Books.
Powell, Lenore S. (1993). Alzheimer's Disease: A Guide for Families. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishers, Inc.
A and Katie Courtice. (1993). Alzheimer's Disease. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishers, Inc.
Apart from physical aptitude, societal roles also play a large role. Says Susan Birrell in omen, Sport, and Culture, "it is also clear that sport is strongly associated with the male identity, with being popular and having friends. Rugby and football are archetypical here" (Birrell 35). The bonding stereotypes of the female gender are generally non-physical, and thus sports do not have as positive an association for women. As a result, of that percentage of women that are able to compete at the same level as men in contact sports never enter the arena in the first place.
Regardless of the reason, very few women get involved with contact sports, and practicality makes it difficult for those who are interested to be accommodated. Separate locker room facilities are necessary, and the team dynamics are altered fundamentally as the issue of sexual tension enters the scene. There are some who would…
Birrell, Susan, and Cheryl L. Cole. Women, Sport, and Culture. Champagne, Illinois: University of Illinois, 1994. 35-40.
Lindle, RS., EJ. Metter, NA. Lynch, JL. Fleg, JL. Fozard, J Tobin, TA. Roy, and BF. Hurley. "Age and Gender Comparisons of Muscle Strength in 654 Women and Men Aged 20-93 Yr." Journal of Applied Physiology (1997). 9 Nov. 2006 http://jap.physiology.org/cgi/content/abstract/83/5/1581 .
Miller, AE., JD. Macdougall, MA. Tarnopolsky, and DG. Sale. "Gender Differences in Strength and Muscle Fiber Characteristics." Springerlink (1992). 9 Nov. 2006 http://www.springerlink.com/content/l47235487q162675/.
Women in Wrestling." Independant Lens. Independant Television Services. 7 Nov. 2006 http://www.pbs.org/independentlens/girlwrestler/women.html .
The practice of manipulative thrust therapy can be dangerous and cases of injuries and tragic events have been recorded. Cases of vertebral artery dissection (VAD) have been recorded in people that had the cervical spine manipulation technique done and research on the cases from 1966 to 1993 concluded 30% could be attributed to the procedure (Cleland 2007). VADs are spontaneous and can be normally present at the initial onset of headaches or neck pain. This represents the conclusion that the VAD was present before the technique is performed on a patient complaining of neck pain. The debate over the truth is still being waged. Even authors have joined the debate but they are touted as biased and do not support the evidenced based in research (User's Guide 2008).
Other debates rage as well. The risks of the manipulative thrusts therapies are actually no worse the risks from NSAIDs and cervical…
Anonymous. "Activator turns 35." Dynamic Chiropractic. Dynamic Chiropractic CA. 2001. HighBeam Research. 24 Apr. 2010 .
Anonymous. "Study Finds "Manual Therapy" Effective for Shoulder Dysfunction/Pain." Dynamic Chiropractic. Dynamic Chiropractic CA. 2004. HighBeam Research. 24 Apr. 2010 .
Anonymous. "Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics." Dynamic Chiropractic. Dynamic Chiropractic CA. 2006. HighBeam Research. 24 Apr. 2010 .
Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 2001 Vol. 47-163-24 April 2010
hen an heart needs more oxygen, such in times of exercise, stress or pharmacological stimuli, blood flow is increased to fulfill this demand. However, the physiological narrowing of arteries due to plaque build up found in coronary disease restricts blood flow to the heart, especially in times of when an increase in myocardial oxygen is needed. These restrictions mean a lessened CFR for the individual, which can lead to coronary ischemia, cardiac infarction, and several other dangerous effects. This physiological change in the coronary system, through the build up of plaque, occurs for several reasons. Lack of physical activity and poor nutrition, with the consumption of certain fats and cholesterols, can facilitate plaque build up. High blood pressure, obesity, depression, and anxiety are also contributing factors (Pazoki, Nabiour, Seyednezami, and Imami).
There are different treatment options for coronary artery disease. Two treatment clinical options include lifestyle modification and revascularization. Lifestyle…
Kern, Morton, Amir Lerman, Jan-Willen Bech, Bernard De Bruyne, Eric Eeckhout, William Fearon, Stuart Higano, Michael Lim, and Martjin Meuwissen. "Physiological Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory ." American Heart Association Journal 114 (2006): 1321-1341. American Heart Association. Web. 16 Nov. 2010.
Pazoki, Raha, Iraj Nabipour, Nasrin Seyednezami, and Seyed Reza Imami. "Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR)." BMC Public Health 7 (2007): 216-220. Print.
Rub, M., Cremer, J., Krian, a., Meinertz, T., Werdan, K., & Zerkowski, H. "Different Treatment Options in Chronic Coronary Artery Disease." Deutschs Arzteblatt International 106.15 (10 Apr 2009): 253-261.
Shirato, Susan, and Beth Ann Swan. "Women and Cardiovascular Disease: An Evidentiary Review." MedSurg Nursing 19.5 (2010): 282-306. Print.
People can exercise their free choice at the grocery store by choosing organic foods, although because of generally higher costs of organic products, this will not be a solution for everyone. People in lower socioeconomic groups often get food at discount chains or even food pantries where organics are not even a choice at all.
There is no incentive for makers of agricultural chemicals to modify their products in response to charges about obesogens. As the documentary films the Future of Food and King Corn pointed out, the use of pesticides is very big business. Though detrimental effects of pesticides and genetically-modified seeds and food have been shown, further research is needed to prove the link between pesticides and genetic modifications that lead to obesity in infants and children. When and if that link is proven, the public will have to demand that the government take action. Consumer advocate organizations…
Adler, N.E., & Stewart, J. (2009). Reducing obesity: motivating action while not blaming the victim. Milbank Quarterly 87 (1), pp. 49-70. Retrieved from Academic Search
Premier database December 29, 2010.
Baillie-Hamilton, P.F. (2002). Chemical toxins: a hypothesis to explain the global obesity epidemic. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 8 (2), pp. 185-192.
DOI: 10.1089/107555302317371479. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database December 29, 2010.
healthy Nutrition: A Chemistry View Point
Chemistry is a branch of sciences that deals with the compositions of matter and helps in identifying the substances that form matter. Living as well as non-living bodies are formed with substances. These substances differ in their composition, nature, properties, and reactions with other substances. There is a vital role of chemicals and chemistry in everyday life of human beings. The impacts of chemical substances on living beings can also be divided into direct and indirect categories. The impact of environmental substances is indirect in nature whereas direct impacts are chemical composition of food, nutrition, vitamins, and physical activity.
The following sections are focused on detailed review of relevance for chemistry and chemicals on healthy eating habits, nutrition, and vitamins. The significant role of physical activity and exercising is also elaborated in the sections below. There are significant benefits of healthy diet and exercise.…
Papadopolus, K. (2008). Food Chemistry Research Developments. USA: Nova Science Publishers Inc.
Sladyk, K., & O'Sullivan, B. (2010). Occupation, activity, Skills, patterns, Demands, context, and Balance. Occupational Therapy Essentials for Clinical Competence, 33.
Willett, W. (2012). Nutritional epidemiology (Vol. 40). USA: OUP.
Health and Blind Spot Enlargement in Non-Athletes
Everyone has a blind spot in the visual field caused by an absence of nerves on the retinal wall where the nerve ganglia enter. Our brains "correct" for this blind spot and fill-in the missing information so that we do not notice the blind spot in normal daily activity. As the blind spot represents a physical structure, there has been little study concerning it. There have been a few studies conducted to determine how the brain compensates for the phenomenon.
Recently, there have been studies indicating that in certain people seeking chiropractic treatment that they have unequal blind spots as a result of muscoloskeletal misalignments. This research has been controversial, however, brings up several interesting questions. There are conditions that can damage the retina and this can cause blind spots in the visual field. It is generally assumed that athletes maintain a better…
Ballantyne, R. About that Squinty Eye. [Online]
http://www.ballantyne.com/rjb_resume/Squinty.html accessed March 2003.
Cai, R.H., & Cavanagh, P. (2002). Motion interpolation of a unique feature into stimulus gaps and blind spots Journal of Vision, 2(7), 30a, http://journalofvision.org/2/7/30 / accessed
Fletcher WA, Imes RK, Goodman D, Hoyt WF. Acute idiopathic blind spot enlargement: a big blind spot syndrome without optic disc edema. Arch Ophthalmol. 1988;106:44-49.
role of hormones in the control of body fuel/energy mechanism has been appreciated for close to a century (Dzamko & Steinberg,2009). This concept was identified by the groundbreaking findings by the scientists, Banting et al. (1922) that the hormone, insulin could effectively restore euglycaemia. This paper seeks to give an in depth understanding of metabolism by definition and gives the various component of metabolism and finally the hormonal influence of metabolism. This paper looks into the various substrates that are influence the hormonal actions in fuel metabolism, circumstances under which they occur and the various pathways followed during these metabolisms (Becker, 2001). The intermediary compounds are also considered to the effect. In conclusion, the paper discuses the medical conditions that would arise once these hormones fail to act.
Metabolism is a biological process that takes place in living organisms throughout their lives, once metabolism stops the individuals automatically dies. A…
Banting, F., Best, C., Collip, J., Macleod, J. & Noble, E. (1922). The effects of insulin on experimental hyperglycemia in rabbits. Am J. Physiol 62, 559 -- 580.
Campfield, L.A., Smith, F.J., Guisez, Y., Devos, R. & Burn, P. (1995). Recombinant mouse OB protein: evidence for a peripheral signal linking adiposity and central neural networks. Science 269, 546 -- 549.
Cusin, I., Sainsbury, A., Doyle, P., Rohmer-Jeanreneaud, F. & Jeanrenaud, B. (1995). The ob gene and insulin: a relationship leading to clues to the understanding of obesity. Diabetes 44,
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Magnetic esonance System on patients
Magnetic resonance System (Imaging), here after referred to as (MS), or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMI), is a medical imaging technique widely used in radiology to visualize detailed internal structure and limited function of the body. It provides great contrast between the different soft tissues of the body, making it particularly useful in neurological (brain), musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and ontological (cancer) imaging. MS uses a powerful magnetic field to align the nuclear magnetization of (usually) hydrogen atoms in water in the body (Adams, 1989). To systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization, adio frequency (F) fields are used, enhancing the generation of a rotating magnetic field by the hydrogen nuclei that can be detected using a scanner.
MS can detect the chemical composition of diseased tissue and produce color images of brain function. This signal can be controlled by more magnetic fields to build up adequate…
Adams, R.D. & Victor, M. (1989). Intracranial neoplasm: Principles of neurology. (4th Ed.) New
Clark, C.A., et al. (2003). White Matter Fiber Tracking in Patients with Space-Occupying Lesions of the Brain: A New Technique for Neurosurgical Planning? Neuroimage 20: 1601-1608.
Hammell K. (1994). Psychosocial outcome following spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 32: 771 -- 779.
Thyroid Hormone and Obesity
Obesity Treatment: The Efficacy and Safety of Thyroid Hormone and Derivatives
Weight loss programs have traditionally focused on calorie intake reduction in combination with exercise, but new research suggests that it may be possible to simply accelerate metabolic rates using pharmaceutical interventions. The current drugs approved for treating obesity function by suppressing hunger or limiting nutritional absorption (reviewed by Tseng, Cypess, and Kahn, 2010). Unfortunately, the body is designed adapt to caloric availability by lowing metabolic rates during famine and to store calories as fat to guard against starvation. Drugs that suppress hunger or limit absorption activate these pathways, making long-term weight loss more difficult. The drugs that act on the satiety centers in the brain can also produce debilitating psychotropic side effects. The current state of effective pharmaceutical intervention on behalf of obese patients is therefore lacking approved drugs that increase calorie expenditure safely over…
Baxter, John D. And Webb, Paul. (2009). Thyroid hormone mimetics: potential applications in atherosclerosis, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Nature Reviews in Drug Discovery, 8, 308-320.
Herwig, Annika, Ross, Alexander W., Nilaweera, Kanishka N., Morgan, Peter J., and Barrett, Perry. (2008). Hypothalamic TH in energy balance regulation. Onkologie, 31, 71-79.
Ortega, Francisco J., Moreno-Navarrete, Jose M., Ribas, Vincent, Esteve, Eduardo, Rodriquez-Hermosa, Jose I., Ruiz, Bartomeu et al. (2009). Subcutaneous fat shows higher thyroid hormone receptor-?1 gene expression than omental fat. Obesity, 17, 2134-2141.
Pelletier, Paula, Gauthier, Karine, Sideleva, Olga, Samarut, Jacques, and Silva, J. Enrique. (2008). Mice lacking the thyroid hormone receptor-? gene spend more energy in thermogenesis, burn more fat, and are less sensitive to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Endocrinology, 149, 6471-6486.
Counterbalance of Sugar and Fat Content between Insulin and Glucagon
Physical survival depends on the sustained availability and use of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP from sufficient levels of a substance, called glucose (owen, 2001). The use of energy depends on the varying levels of activity. Hence, the amount of glucose needed for activity likewise varies each day. Too much or too little glucose is damaging to the body, hence the need for some system to regulate the availability of glucose. It must be present at the precise time and amount that it is needed in order to maintain what is called glucose homeostasis. Homeostasis is the tendency of the body to maintain internal stability and balance through the coordinated responses of body parts to stimuli or conditions (owen).
Insulin and Glucagon
The regulation of glucose availability begins with the pancreas, primarily by…
Biomed (2002). Insulin/glucagons. Brown University. Retrieved on November 25, 2013
Bowen, R.A. (2001). Hormones, receptors and control systems. University of Colorado.
Retrieved on November 25, 2013 from http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/basics/index.html
" (Klotter, 2001) Additionally, salt functions as an extraction agent for excess acidity in the body which are in the form of "hydrogen ions, and oxidants from ATP production" from cells. (Klotter, 2001; paraphrased) Morris (2008) states that in order for the body to become adequately hydrated the individual should replace fluid lost by perspiration when exercising and should always drink water prior to consuming food. The ideal water intake for someone who exercises is stated to be as follows: "Drink 17 ounces of water 2 hours before the activity and weigh yourself right before you exercise. While you exercise, drink 6-10 oz. every 15-20 minutes." (Morris, 2008)
IV. SIGNS of DEHYDRATION
When the body is in a state of severe lack of water the body becomes dehydrated and this results in the "cell membranes become[ing] less permeable, hampering the flow of hormones and nutrients into the cell and preventing…
Body Effects (2008) Alcohol. Online available at http://www.alcohol.org.nz/BodyEffect.aspx?PostingID=671
Klotter, Jule (2001) Physiological Effects of Dehydration: Cure Pain and Prevent Cancer. A review of a videotaped lecture of F. Batmanghelidj. Cure Pain & Prevent Cancer. 2001. Online available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ISW/is_2001_August/ai_78177228
Morris, Whitney (2008) Effects of Dehydration on Performance. Triathelete Magazine Online available at http://www.triathletemag.com/Departments/Training/2007/Effects_of_dehydration_on_performance.htm
Weatherwax, Dawn (nd) NSCA's Performance Training Journal Vol. 4 No. 6. Online available at www.nsca-lift.org/perform.
(MRN, 1) This is to indicate that brain cells
are more actively produced by physical activity, convincing neurological
theorists that regular athletic orientation will improve one's academic
capacity and intellectual clarity. Still, as with other beneficial aspects
of an athlete's physical and intellectual growth, sporting activity must be
pursued in at least some degree of moderation. For both the implications
of what Metzl refers to as overuse and the consequences of an overly
centralized focus on athletic activity, there may be real and long-term
repercussions to failing to balance this emphasis with other healthy or
meaningful activities. Especially concerning bone and joint injuries,
overuse of specific parts of the body in a continuous and monotonous manner
will result in chronic pains and ultimately, lifelong localized injuries.
Therefore, especially when training for an endurance event, where sustained
energy is crucial, in training moderation can be a key to the prevention of…
Beginner Triathlete (BT). (2008). The Original 13 Week Sprint Training
Plan. Beginner Triathlete.com.
Harr, E. (2003). Triathlon training in four hours a week: from beginner
to finish line in just six weeks. Rodale.
Hiller, W.D.B.; O'Toole, M.L.; Fortess, E.E.,; Laird, R.H.; Imbert, P.C. &
Lee is only the first step in the process of building a team that is able to cover all aspects of Mrs. Lee's care. The team approach involving a social worker, nurse, physician, pharmacist, and physical therapist affords Mrs. Lee a full range of professionals attending to her various needs.
Although Mrs. Lee has a number of problems that need to be addressed the one problem that must be addressed immediately is her elevated blood pressure. Hypertension is an important risk factor for the development and worsening of many complications of diabetes and an elevated blood pressure is like walking around with a detonated bomb. Within moments, and with little warning, a diabetic patient can suffer a stroke or heart attack as a result of an elevated blood pressure. Well over fifty percent of diabetics suffer from hypertension and proper treatment of hypertension can minimize most of the tangential problems…
Calle-Pascual, A.L. (2002). A preventive foot care programme for people with diabetes with different stages of neuropathy. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 111-117.
Caminal, J. And Barbara Starfield, et. al.(2004). The role of primary care in preventing ambulatory care sensitive conditions. European Journal of Public Health, 246-251.
Deichmann, R.E. (1999). Improvements in Diabetic Care as Measured by HbA1c After a Physician Education Project. Diabetes Care, 1612-1616.
Epstein, M. (1997). Diabetes and hypertension: the bad companions. Journal of Hypertension, 55-62.
Obesity is a serious social problem in America. The effects of obesity in childhood are well documented in both the social science literature and medical journals. During the last 30 years, the percentage of obese children between the ages of 6 and 11 has risen 200% while the percentage of obese children between 12 and 19 has tripled (CDC, Preventing Childhood Obesity, 2010). Obesity in the nited States has increased among all cohorts and ethnicities, spans across generations, and is not limited to income or educational levels. However, the incidence of obesity among African-American women is of particular concern given the prevalence and severity of the issue in America.
Public health issue
More than two-thirds of Americans are now obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Rates of adult obesity now exceed 20% in 49 states and D.C and 25% in 40 states. By way of comparison, in 1991, rates…
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vital Signs: Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension -- United States, 1999 -- 2002 and 2005 -- 2008
Ward, S., Gray, A., Paranjape, A. (2008). African-Americans' perceptions of physician attempts to address obesity in the primary care setting. The Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(5), 579-584.
Coenen, K.R., Hasty, A.H. (2007). Obesity potentiates development of fatty liver and insulin resistance, but not atherosclerosis, in high-fat diet-fed agouti LDLR-deficient mice. Retrieved from: http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/293/2/E492.short
Application of healing thermal agents to certain body areas that feel wounded or dysfunction is heat treatment. The main use of a heat treatment is to help alleviate pain, support muscle repose, increase function of the tissue cells, improve blood flow, and remove poison from cells and to increase the extensibility of soft tissues. Superficial and deep are the two types of heat treatment. Superficial heat treatments apply heat to the exterior part of the body. Heat aimed at certain inner tissues through ultrasound or by electric current is deep heat treatment. Heat treatments are favorable before exercise, giving a limbering up result to the soft tissues involved. Heat treatment using conduction as a form of heat transfer in hot pacts is very common. Damp heat packs are easily available in most hospitals, physical treatment centers and sports teaching rooms.
For tissue heating many thermal agents are on…
Bigos S, Bowyer O, Braen G. et al. Acute lower back problems in adults. Clinical Practice Guideline, Quick Reference Guide Number 14. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, AHCPR Pub. No. 95-0643. December 1994.p.3-6
Biundo JJ Jr., Torres-Ramos FM: Rehabilitation and biomechanics. Curr Opin Rheumatol 1991 April; 3(2): 291-99
Fedorczyk J: The role of physical agents in modulating pain. Journal of Hand Therapy 1997 Apr-June; 10(2): 110-21
Grana WA: Physical agents in musculoskeletal problems: heat and cold therapy modalities. Instructional Course Lecture 1993; 42: 439-42.
In order to move the load, the worker should use their feet exclusively in changing direction, and walk in a steady, even stride towards the destination.
hile moving, the load should be kept as close to the body as possible. This increases the stability of the load. If the load is held out, this increases the burden of the work to the arms and lower back. This results in a dramatic increase in stress to the lumbar region. The legs and abdominal muscles bear less of the workload. It should be remembered at all times that the legs are the strong muscle group and the abdominal muscles are the best source of core stability. To reduce their role in the lift is to increase the risk of injury to other muscle groups.
hen the load has arrived at the destination, the process for set-down should be the reverse of the…
Inverarity, Linda. (n.d.) Safe Lifting Technique. About.com. Retrieved May 15, 2008 at http://physicaltherapy.about.com/od/ergonomics/qt/SafeLifting.htm
No author. (1996). Back Belts: Do They Prevent Injury? National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-127.
No author. (n.d.). Back Safety and Proper Lifting Technique. Linfield.edu. Retrieved May 15, 2008 from: http://www.linfield.edu/ehs/osha/back_safety_lifting.phpBack Safety and Proper Lifting TechniqueIntroduction
1993). Back Injuries - Nation's Number One Workplace Safety Problem. OSHA Fact Sheet 93-09.
In addition, to media images that bombard men there are also biological factors that influence the development of BDD in men.
According to an article entitled "Bigger Isn't Always Better - muscle dysmorphia in men" the most severe cases of muscle dysmorphia involve a biological predisposition for the disease (Bartlett 2001). The author explains that from a biological standpoint the man suffering with the disease has a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder (Bartlett 2001). For instance someone who washes his hands 10 times per day is normal, however washing your hands one hundred times per day to the point that it hampers with the rest of your life is a symptom of a greater problem (Bartlett 2001). According to the article this example is used to illustrate "there isn't anything pathological about going to the gym regularly or dieting," but there is a problem when "a huge number of boys…
Bartlett J. (2001) Bigger Isn't Always Better - muscle dysmorphia in men
American Fitness. Retrieved July 8, 2005 from; http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0675/is_1_19/ai_69651755
First Controlled Study of Muscle Dysmorphia Published, 2005. Retrieved July 8, 2005 from; http://www.driesen.com/muscle_dysmorphia.htm
Grieve F.G., Lorenzen L.A., Thomas a. (2004) Exposure to Muscular Male Models Decreases Men's Body Satisfaction.Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Volume: 51: 743+.
dehydration impacts on human metabolism. In this sense, a short introduction in the issue of deficient water input is followed by delimitating the notions of metabolism and dehydration in terms of definition and classification. Afterwards, focus falls on the possible degrees of dehydration and body mass loss, and their implications for a human body.
According to usan Kleiner, Ph.D., "water is the one essential element to life as we know it" (Rabkin, 2000). It makes up approximately 60% of an individual's body mass. Each human cell, tissue and organ needs it in specific amounts in order to function properly, and nearly every life-sustaining body process requires it, too. Water is present in human muscles, fat cells, blood and even bones, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, helping to discard waste products, moistening skin tissues, mouth, eyes and nose, and most importantly, keeping body temperature in check.
Thus, water is unspeakably…
Several physiologic, medical, environmental, and lifestyle factors associated with old age can interfere in homeostasis and bring a significant contribution to dehydration. Illness, fever, diarrhea, vomiting, infection, dementia, chronic renal disease, diabetes mellitus, and use of diuretics and laxatives altogether increase the risk for dehydration in elders, and may lead to chronic dehydration in many geriatric individuals. Furthermore, potential complications of dehydration in elders include hypotension, constipation, nausea, vomiting, mucosal dryness, decreased urinary output, elevated body temperature, and mental confusion (Bernstein & Schmidt Luggen, 2011). Moreover, some forms of medication frequently employed by older adults may favor dehydration or require adequate body water for proper metabolism, hence emphasizing the need for a balanced fluid consumption.
In conclusion, it can be asserted that, in the instance where one of the many types and degrees of dehydration affect an individual, his/her metabolism will slow down and begin a chain process meant to gradually depress many of the body's functions, starting with thermoregulation and continuing with heart rate, kidneys, muscles and joints. Finally, pediatric patients have a faster and more sensitive reaction to dehydration than adult individuals due to their fast metabolism and proportionately large body surface area, whereas geriatric patients are similarly vulnerable to the phenomenon through their medication routine and overall complicated health spectrum.
Titchener was aware of the possible effects of bias, as well as of faulty memory, on introspection. But he believed that the problem with bias can be remedied by preparing relatively simple tasks, by exercising strict standardization, and by extensively repeating the task within and between subjects. As for the problem with faulty memory, Titchener acknowledged that introspection is the similar with retrospection.
Titchener's version of introspection is similar to Wundt's idea of self-observation. And since Wundt denied self-observation a spot in his laboratory because of its being highly susceptible to bias, he also rejected Titchener's systematic experiment introspection. Caution must be exercised to avoid taking Wundt's introspection to be a single idea, instead of it being split to internal perception and self-observation. Caveat, also, in taking Wundt's introspection and Titchener's systematic experiment introspection to be the same.
Wundt used introspection (specifically internal perception) as a primary tool in his…
Davis, Stephen F. (Ed.). (2003). Handbook of Research Methods in Experimental Psychology. Malden, UK: MA Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Reiber, R.W. & Robinson, D.K. (Eds.). (2001). Wilhelm Wundt in History: The Making of a Scientific Psychology. NY: Kluwer Academic Publishing.
David, Zehr. (2000). Portrayals of Wundt and Tichener in introductory psychology texts: a content analysis. Teaching of Psychology, 27 (2), 122-126.
e. hypertrophy). In the elderly, this process is reverse. Hence, the functional reserve capacities of the skeletal muscles decline with age, largely due to diminished levels of physical activity. As a result daily tasks once taken for granted become progressively more difficult, and eventually impossible, to perform. In illustration, a great deal of muscle force is required to simply stand up or to climb stairs. Therefore, skeletal system is relying upon the reserve capacity of the heart to provide the endurance needed to perform such activities. If an elderly person does not engage in some sort of endurance-based activities, he or she will not have the cardiac reserve capacity needed for daily tasks. More importantly, diminished capacity may not counteract illnesses or diseases. Although strength-based activities help the cardiac reserve, it may not benefit the skeletal system. "While resistance exercise promotes fiber hypertrophy in skeletal muscles, the explosive power of…
Bailey, R. (2011). Muscle tissue. About.com Guide. Retrieved from http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/a/aa022808a.htm
Carpi, A. (1999). Basic anatomy - tissues & organs. Retrieved from http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/14-anatomy.htm
Lakatta, E.G. (1994). Cardiovascular reserve capacity in healthy older humans. Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, 6(4): 213-23.
Courtesy of Musculartory System BlogSpot
Locke v. Berkeley
The philosophers John Locke and George Berkeley offer stark contrasts on the issue of various matters. Locke's whose viewpoint can best be classified as based in relativism. He believed that all knowledge come from the senses. As every man's senses are unique, no two individuals will sense the same experience the same and, therefore, all knowledge is different in each individual. By extension, there is no such thing as better beliefs or true beliefs. Everyone's beliefs are their own and based on their individual experience. George Berkeley's viewpoints offer a sharp contrast to those of Locke. In fact, their individual careers ran concurrently and they spent most of that time being contrasted and possessing viewpoints that were diametrically opposed. Berkeley's was an empiricist but one who also possessed a certain idealist twist. Berkeley viewed experience as the source of most knowledge. According to Berkeley's form of empiricism,…
Kinesiology -- Human Kinetics
Dunking, also known as slam dunk, is a basketball trick in which the player jumps in the air and dunks the ball in the basket with one or both the hands over the rim of the basketball hoop. It is a popular shot among the audience and provides an entertaining experience to the viewers. Slam dunk contests are also held separately due to the popularity of this shot.
Phases of the movement
There are four distinct phases involved in dunking. In the first phase, the player or MJ in this case, extends his body by bending his right knee and extending his left leg so that it propels him off the ground. In the second phase, he is jumping in the air and his right knee is more bent than his left knee. He also raises his right elbow and extends his left arm to…
Hoffman, Shirl. (2009). Introduction to Kinesiology: Studying Physical Activity. Illinois: Human Kinetics.
Redmond, Kevin; Foran, Andrew; Dwyer, Sean. (2009). Quality Lesson Plans for Outdoor Education. Illinois: Human Kinetics.
Milner, Clare. (2008). Functional Anatomy for Sport and Exercise. Kentucky: Taylor & Francis.
Pangrazi, Robert; Dauer, Victor. (1979). Lesson Plans for Dynamic Physical Education for Elementary School Children. Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing Company.
Killer Whale Communication
Vocal communication is a vital aspect of the lives of Killer whales. Though several researches have shown their adaptability to interferences, serious disruptions to their aquatic vocal communication system would bear severe negative consequences.
Maintaining our marine ecosystem is not a choice but a crucial responsibility for preserving our own environmental ecosystem. If nothing is done, we can be rest assured that a slow but steady degradation of our own environment is on the cards as a butterfly effect.
Killer whales, known by their biological name as Orcinus orca, are the most common mammal species, next only to humans and are found to inhabit almost all the oceans of the world. They are classified within the dolphin family and their diet is one of the most extensive among the cetaceans comprising a variety of warm-blooded prey. Killer whales are characterized by their large bodies that can weigh…