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1421: an exploratory study into female students' attitudes and behaviors toward binge drinking at Leeds University" by Carpenter et al. was to understand the perceptions of 12 female college students' attitudes toward binge drinking (2007, 8). Literature on the subject was rarely mentioned, aside from the citation of a few statistics regarding frequency of college-age female binge drinking, which served to support the undertaking of the study by Carpenter et al. (2007, 8). Participants were 12 female college students, and the tests took place in a university setting (Carpenter et al., 2007, 8). Tests took the form of two focus groups where, rather than given questionnaires, unstructured discussions were facilitated (Carpenter et al., 2007, 9) Both discussions were tape recorded and immediately transcribed afterwards (Carpenter et al., 2007, 9). Data analysis was thematic, the researchers looking for and emphasizing key points and themes that existed for all participants (Carpenter et…… [Read More]
Value of the article: The value of this article is in the information provided concerning the implementation of a large computer information system in a hospital.
Brooker, oss; Macpherson, Ian and Aspland, Tania (2001) Enriching the Outcomes of Action esearch: Connecting the Local with the Global Through a Hermeneutic Spiral. QJE Vol. 17, 2001. Online available at http://www.iier.org.au/qjer/qjer17/brooker.html
esearch question: The research question addressed in the work of Brooker, Macpherson and Aspland (2001) is how localized, qualitative data can move beyond description to authentic levels of analysis and interpretation as a basis for making an impact in the more global arenas of policy formulation and implementation within education systems.
esearch methodology: The methodology in this research is qualitative and in the form of a discussion and review of literature.
Major findings: The major findings of this study include the finding which states that the "...search for ways of making qualitative…… [Read More]
English language. Let there be constructive argumentation and passion behind our claims. The state of a language is in many ways indicative of the people who use it. The character of people can be reflective of or demonstrated in the ways in which they use their language. This paper will be a discussion of the state of the English language in the context of the short piece "Politics and the English Language" composed by the astute and curious writer, George Orwell. This writer expresses a unique opinion as to what the specific problem with English is, how such a problem manifests, purport as to the affects of linguistic issues in society, and in some cases, propose solutions to such a problem. In the very least, the author exudes an air that the problem(s) with English is fixable. Therefore, the paper serves to examine the problems that Orwell speaks of and…… [Read More]
A special part of the walk-through is the online shopping part, wherein the researcher will ask the participant on how he/she goes about with his/her online shopping activity.
Note on triangulation
The proposed three-method design for this exploratory study is the researcher's way of ensuring that research results are triangulated. Combining the general findings from the diary and FGDs and specific online shopping behavior from the in-depth interviews would create a more complete picture on the general landscape and specific aspects of consumers' attitudes towards and behavior on online marketing strategies for healthcare products.
Bughin, J., a. Shenkan, and M. Singer. October 2008. How poor metrics undermine digital marketing. The McKinsey Quarterly.
Elberse, a. July-August 2008. Should you invest in the long tail? Harvard Business eview.
James, W. April 2008. Exploring web language orientation in emerging markets: The case of Serbia and the Ukraine. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and…… [Read More]
The fourth basic orientation is on holistic treatment of phenomena. here quantitative research emphasizes very specific study to determine correlations between specific variables under specific conditions, qualitative research emphasizes the ability to understand broad-based phenomena, and how different phenomena may interact in a complex environment.
5. In a business situation, prior to conducting confirmatory research, the orientation to holistic treatment is the most valuable. The business world does not exist in laboratory conditions, and this fact emphasizes the need to gain broad-based theoretical understanding of the world before focused research can be conducted. In business, research is expensive, so companies want to ensure that the testable hypotheses in any confirmatory research have been derived from an appropriate holistic understanding. They will need to structure the confirmatory research to isolate the dependent variable, and only holistic qualitative research can help them to understand what independent variables may be contributing to the…… [Read More]
insufficient to express the concepts in the research question. Both are valid research methods, but are typically used to cover different subjects. quantitative approaches are used with refined questions that can be subject to statistical analysis, such that the outputs can be proved mathematically. This is called intersubjective certifiability. Qualitative methods are more subjective, but can have a much greater breadth to the information that they convey.
Exploratory research designs rely on qualitative research techniques because it allows for open-ended questions and answers. Furthermore, probing "provides the participant with the opportunity to respond in their (sic) own words, rather than forcing them to choose from fixed responses, as quantitative methods do" (FHI, 2012). Open-ended questions have the benefit of allowing the questions to be meaningful to the participant, or can yield results that were not anticipated by the researcher. Essentially, qualitative research allows for greater exploration of the subject by…… [Read More]
ole of esearch in Social Work
esearch assists in placing social work in its changing political and social context. This implies the ability to define social work's current environment in terms of dynamics like society and politics. esearch assists in establishing a knowledge base and professional status of social work, for example it assisted in establishing evidence-based practice. esearch also assists in analyzing population-based research that identifies people at risk in social work (Leece & Leece, 2010). This is because is assists social workers to understand clients in their social contexts, give voice to clients. Overall, research provides epistemological and value issues that define the nature and purpose of social work.
Social Worker's need to understand research
The main reason social workers need to understand research is to understand effective use of scientific evidence on the social services they offer to clients. esearch assists the social worker to investigate social…… [Read More]
The research in this study is exploratory and descriptive. The study begins with the declaration that this topic of study has been pursued in the past, yet the sampling methods used proved ineffective in defining or describing why less Asian-Americans utilize healthcare services in the United States. This research seeks to describe the problem of little use of healthcare with their study. The research in this study classifies the phenomenon of lack of healthcare service use/participation by Asian-Americans. The research problem is that Asian-Americans are not using the healthcare services available to them for a variety of reasons. The research problem is stated clearly in the first two pages of the study. In this study, there were no listed hypotheses, instead there are objectives. The objectives of the study are:
…(1) examine rates of mental health-related service use among immigrant and U.S.-born Asian-Americans during a 12-month period, (2)…… [Read More]
Terrorist Groups Are Aligning to Conduct Global Terrorism.
Terrorism used to be a topic limited to only certain sectors of the world, such as the Middle East or South Africa. However, in recent years, it appears that no one is safe in any part of the world. A growing number of countries must take measures to protect citizens and visitors from the threat of terrorism. The Unites States is the latest addition to this list. It has become evident in recent years that terrorism is not a localized event any more, but has become an increasing global problem. It has also become obvious that terrorism requires a global solution as well. Evidence has been mounting that terrorist groups are beginning to connect and form alliances. This gives them greater strength and greater resources. It seems that they are finding common ground and are beginning to coordinate efforts. This will be…… [Read More]
Focus group discussions provide in-depth information and allows for free-flowing discussion. They can help management better understand the thoughts and sentiments of the employees during this time of economic crisis. At the same time it can be a venue for gaining new ideas on how to keep the business afloat during these hard times through ideas from the employees themselves. However, care must be taken in reading findings from focus group discussions as they are only meant to give indications and not to act as a conclusive research where a final course of action will be based upon. Another limitation of focus group discussions is the presence of a participant who dominates the discussion. The reaction of the other participants to the dominant participant might have a "halo" effect on the responses of the other participants.
An important aspect of focus group discussions is the synergy created among the participants.…… [Read More]
S. Department of Health and Human Services et al., 2006). This first study will involve limited human exposure and extreme caution.
Most significantly, the study itself has to be based on sound scientific principles with a thorough knowledge of the properties of the chemical, and the potential results on the human subject. Standard clinical safety evaluations will include serial assessment of patient symptoms, physical signs, and clinical laboratory tests amongst other tests monitoring possible adverse effects. These tests will be of sufficient duration in order to catch potential negative effects. Safety hazards for patients and health care workers during and after administration of the radio labeled product will also be identified, evaluated and appropriately managed.
Finally, as prescribed by Section 505(d) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act) (21 U.S.C. 355(d)), adequate tests must be taken on the drug first before applying to a human individual. The…… [Read More]
Possible one-on-one interventions may include the following retention of pharmacology
Introduction of cognitive behavioral therapy where Brian is shown how to deal with and manage his thoughts as well as how to be responsible for his own behavior rather than attempting to control that of others. This is particularly helpful with Brian's self-imposed isolation
Eclectic Rogerain counseling where counselor practices empathy, non-judgmental tolerance towards client, active listening, and encouraging client to formulate his own solutions
Insight into the conduct and feelings of Brian's mother as well as specific suggestion for how to deal with the mother's seeming apathy to Brian. Understanding can revolve around previous marital concerns, as well as her present medical concerns
Insight into the behavior of his biological father and strategies that may be effective in dealing with his father's abusive behavior and/or keeping away form his father.
Strategies for dealing with his disease and insight into…… [Read More]
Down? The Value of the Dollar
International Currency Exchanges
Current Trends and Initiatives
Impact of the Euro on Dollar Valuation
Analysis of Current Trends and Initiatives on Dollar Valuation in the Future
Up or Down? The Value of the Dollar: A Historical Analysis of the Valuation of the U.S. Dollar
According to Michael Artis, Elizabeth Hennessy, and Axel eber (2000), capital losses can be caused by differential changes in the value of assets and liabilities, primarily exchange rate changes; these changes affect the value of a central bank's foreign exchange reserves. To date, exchange rate changes have only been a major problem for national central banks with very large foreign exchange reserves (i.e., Portugal); however, it might also become a problem for the European Central Bank in the future, whose balance sheet on the asset side will be dominated by the approximately 40 billion euro in foreign exchange reserves it…… [Read More]
Black Colleges Homosexuality
In order to create more egalitarian, prosocial, and productive campus environments, it is necessary to understand attitudes toward homosexuality and homosexual students. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students experienced relatively high rates of substance abuse, depression, and stress related to discrimination, difficulties forming social relationships, and low self-esteem (Heck, Flentje & Cochran, 2011). As Kirby (2011) points out, "Having a negative self-concept plays a major role in youth suicides, in how well one does in school, and in how one interacts with society at large." Therefore, the need for a more supportive social environment on college campuses is a pressing one.
Unfortunately, traditionally white universities and historically black universities in the United States have addressed the needs of the LGBT student community differently. Historically black colleges and institutions are defined as "institutions classified as higher education that were chartered prior to 1964 and created with the…… [Read More]
esearch Method and Design Proposal
A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).
Most importantly, qualitative data methods…… [Read More]
Finance-dominated proponents also maintain that boom economic periods generate a more varied divergence of valuations that fuel merger activity (Medlen 2007). In this regard, Medlen concludes that, "Taken collectively, these understandings may explain some of the merger activity in booms, but they involve certain asymmetries that undercut their explanatory power. High stock valuations allow stock to be utilized as currency and collateral for takeovers; yet stock booms also make targets expensive" (p. 202). Moreover, despite the commonly held perception that mergers are a "quick and dirty" way to grow a business and achieve organizational goals, there remains a lack of convincing empirical evidence in support of this perception (Medlen 2007). As Medlen points out, an "anomalous fact about mergers concerns the lack of evidence that mergers are profitable. This fact begs the question: why then are mergers carried out with such frequency and with such large levels of capitalization?" (p.…… [Read More]
Scale to Measure Celebrity Endorsers
In this study by Ohanian, a scale used in measuring celebrity endorsers' expertise, trustworthiness as well as attractiveness is developed. Psychometric scale development protocols are followed for testing the data reliability and validity as well. In addition, this study uses two exploratory and confirmatory samples to initiate a 15-item scale measuring the celebrity endorsers' characteristics. This article complies fully with Churchill's recommendations in several fronts as outlined below.
Several sources are researched on to identify words, phrases, and adjectives to use for this research's questionnaire; this results in the development of several adjectives describing personality traits. During the construction of the scale, 182 adjectives are identified of which some were eliminated to about 139 adjectives. Additionally, the 139 descriptors were further trimmed by a group of 38 college students; the researcher believed the words were unfamiliar with respondents, to 104.
For the identification of celebrities…… [Read More]
Acute Scrotum Case Study
When a male presents with acute scrotum pain and swelling a number of different diagnoses are possible; however, if the diagnosis is testicular torsion then the patient needs to be evaluated by a competent surgeon immediately (reviewed by Kass and Lundack, 1997). Of the many possible diagnoses that can produce similar symptoms, including epididymitis, hernia/hydrocele, varicocele, epididymo-orchitis, torsion of a testicular or epididymal appendage (appendiceal torsion), or Henoch-Schonlein purpura, only testicular torsion represents a bona fide medical emergency. For this reason, a detailed patient history and physical examination should be undertaken at once in order to preserve testicular function. Every effort should be made to gather a complete urologic and surgical history for the patient to exclude other conditions, including a urinary tract infection and epididymitis.
A recent study examined the diagnosis distribution for 388 boys under the age of 17 who were treated at…… [Read More]
It is not known what the most prudent decisions she can make about her responsibilities to herself and others are. The reason is that "she" is not defined. This is a personal pronoun indicating a female, yet no female has been introduced in the narrative. So it is unknown to which person the pronoun "she" refers. Is it the organization's principle?
Well, again, this is a question that refers back to the first question. The first question cannot be answered because the protagonist of that question is never identified. We need to know that before we can understand what the responsibilities she might have are, which in turn would allow us to answer about the implications of those responsibilities.
Chapter 6. An exploratory study is one on a topic that is ill-defined whereas a formal study should have a clearly-defined topic. Experimental designs are ones that test a…… [Read More]
c. The presence of video surveillance cameras (independent variable) is likely to dissuade incidents of employee theft (dependent variable). Employee satisfaction levels and product desirability would also be large factors.
Questions pp. 209
1. Surveys have the advantage of providing explanations of non-observable reasoning and motives, as well as responses to open-ended questions that could suggest un-thought of possibilities, yet they can be subjective, with responses consciously manipulated. Observation can be more empirically objective, but limits the degree of motive and explanation available. In areas where behavior would not be noticed by the subject, or would be likely misreported, observation would be indicated (the number of people who say they would stop to help someone on the side of the road vs. The number who actually do, for example.
8. a. age, gender, pace, stopping and/or glancing at storefront, number who enter store, cell phone usage, etc.
b. relevance to…… [Read More]
This can be seen as a deep-rooted linguistic and psychological phenomenon, and simple fixes for it that do not require new nomenclature are not forth coming.
Another key to effective communication even giving the added time it takes in crisis situations, is acknowledgement of the receipt of communication (Krieger, 2005). This is most effective when information is repeated back to demonstrate full understanding and acceptance of the communication, "otherwise, the information [is] "put out there" but remained unrecognized as input by both parties" (Krieger, 2005). Though this step complicates communication in the short run, it is enormously beneficial in making communication more effective in the long run, and can help save lives because of this fact. Though communication is key to success in most ventures, it is absolutely essential in the…… [Read More]
here could be numerous reasons for the shift, including the growing trend of body fitness and overall media portrayal of the male physique.
he study conducted through Monash University has confirmed most of the findings of earlier research. here are significant opportunities for error within the study however. Since all participants are blind participants through the university website, there are almost no controls over the data and thus it is subject to many different unintended biases. Age factors should also be considered as the majority of those surveyed were college students, and are not a complete and accurate reflection of the cross sections of society. Overall, more research needs to be conducted within the area of the growth in male body dissatisfaction and factors that will help both genders deal with their overestimation of body shape.
Fallon, a.E., & Rozin, P. (1985). Sex differences in perceptions of desirable body shape.…… [Read More]
Information and communications technology brought about various benefits especially in the milieu of business. Aside from automating business processes that proved invaluable in streamlining business operations and provided efficient and effective means of achieving organizational objectives, workplace and group collaboration improved via various groupware applications. These groupware applications or collaborative software are "designed to facilitate the work of groups [and] to communicate, cooperate, coordinate, solve problems, compete, or negotiate (Foraker Labs, 2011)." Groupware applications are available in various functions and technologies; however, implementing groupware applications though may not be as simple as it seems because there various challenges involved in the initiative. For instance, there might be resistance to change from some sectors of the organization and these groups may reason out that "the former business process is working just fine!" Others may deem groupware applications implementation as intrusive on the current operational tempo of the business.
The…… [Read More]
As the authors note the study utilizes more reflective constructs rather than formative (Hsu et al., 140). KBCP is measured through ease of navigation of the KB and other similar questions. SSE refers to the problem solving experiences of customers through independent use. PA is operationalized as "possible factors for customers to select a certain brand" (Hsu et al., 140). The other dependent variable PI is measured through would you buy this brand?
The problem of purchase intention is complex and it is not possible to capture the variability within the construct with a single question. Additionally consideration should be given to directly measure the value received from prior experience with the product or service. While there seems to be a tacit acceptance of this variable its omission from the model limits the explicative power of the model. It is reasonable to assume that self-efficacy is correlated to the prior…… [Read More]
Therefore, when studies are conducted on these offenders, then the relationship between psychiatric co-morbidity and DUI relapses would become clearer. Individuals would also be sent to certain areas to study the various psychological treatment methods that are generally available to those who are addicted to any substances, and when efforts are made towards co-alliances of these institutions, then the students of the schools would definitely benefit. (Division on Addiction)
It has been stated that the twenty first century will be the 'age of alliances' wherein the collaboration between non-profit organizations and corporations will keep growing in number. The nature of such collaborative alliances would also change, from when it was the traditionally philanthropic, where the donor would benevolently give, and the receiver would receive it gratefully, to where business as well as non-profits and for-profits work together so that they may be able to achieve their mutual goals and contribute…… [Read More]
Thus, the relation between students is imperative for determining such disorders (Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, 2007). As with the previous two categories, this is seen as incredibly subjective in the idea that no medical diagnosis or visible physical symptoms are needed to be placed within the category.
Stratification is essentially the ranking of individuals within a hierarchy based on the structures present in a functioning society. Sullivan and Artiles (2011) define stratification as "the patterned and differential distribution of resources, life chances, and costs / benefits among groups of the population" (p 1529). One's rank on this hierarchy determines one's quality of life and opportunities in relation to the structures and the groups these structures serve.
Overrepresentation and Segregation of acial Minorities in Special Education.
According to the research, there are much higher rates of overrepresentation of minorities in what is known as high-incidence categories,…… [Read More]
products that you have selected, the category in which they fall and the primary target market for each of the products.
The Coca-Cola beverage, produced by the Coca-Cola company of Atlanta, Georgia is sold in more than 200 countries. The Company produces the coca-cola (otherwise called Coke) beverage which is then distributed to licensed international Coca-Cola bottlers. It is perhaps one of the most well-known beverages in the world and is synonymous to the American name. Its category is a carbonated soft drink drunk for pleasure. Its target age group is 18-25 that covers around 40% of its total age segments (Zimbio.)
Sweetened condensed milk
Condensed milk is cow's milk from which water has been removed. It is most often sold as sweetened condensed milk where sugar is added. Its category is a condensed beverage that is used for inclusion in baking, or can be added to coffee or…… [Read More]
Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack
Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…… [Read More]
Quantity = 3000 X 10% = 3,600
SP = 50 x 110% = 55
Quantity x SP = 198,000
Less: Returned Sales = (6%x198,000)
Sales Projection = $186,10
Beginning Inventory $1 X 400 = 8400
Production $4 X 800 = 1900
Cost of Goods Sold 700 units
FIFO (1 X 400) + (4 X 300) = $15,600
Beginning Inventory $10 X 75 = 8400
Production $14 X 650 = 1900
Cost of Goods Sold 700 units
LIFO (14 X 650) + (10 X 350) = $1,600
Sales and Cash Collections Budget
Quarter Ending Dec 31st, 011
Total cash sales (40%)
Total credit sales (60%)
Current month cash sales
Collection of credit sales
Total cash collections
Quarter end receivables
Cash Budget…… [Read More]
Corneal Donation within Hospitals and Medical Communities: Issues Surrounding Post Mortem Donations of Tissue
The purpose of this study is to identify barriers to corneal donation within hospitals and medical communities. A large body of research has focused on issues surrounding the post mortem donations of tissue. This research will take a different approach, examining what barriers exist within hospital and medical communities in an attempt to determine how these barriers may be overcome.
The number of potential corneal donors far surpasses the number of people available for traditional organ donations and in some states consent of the medical examiner alone is enough to allow use of corneal donations (family consent not required) (Lewin, 2000).
Traditionally the most significant barrier to organ donation and transplantation has been acquisition of organs and tissues (Murray et. al, 2002). The need for cornea tissue is rising. The average wait time for…… [Read More]
Firms with what organisational patterns are more likely to acquire existing firms? In what stage of internationalisation is acquisition more likely? Such research should not assume that such decisions are always rational. It may be that irrational factors are important at times. For example, it might be that the rush to acquire businesses in Europe prior to 1992 and to acquire companies in Asia in the mid-1990s reflected a bandwagon effect with firms developing strategies to legitimise their investments after the decision has been made (McDougall, et al., 2004). Research might also give attention to a broader range of entry modes beyond exporting, licensing and FDI. Strategic alliances with local or other foreign firms may involve no transfer of funds. Alliances are another entry mode option which deliver similar strategic advantages to joint ventures but have received little attention in the literature beyond those firms whose home country is either…… [Read More]
Primary esearch Approach Qualitative vs. Quantitative?
Characteristics, Benefits and Problems
Poor response rate possibility
Possibility of incomplete answers
esponses are pre-coded and must be simple so people can understand them which means, sometimes that the quality of information provided is lower than from other methods
Cost effective method of achieving strong sample which allows for generalizations to be made
esponses are pre-coded and certain groups might not have access to the telephone, so they may be excluded from the sample
It is difficult to ask sensitive questions over the telephone
Works well with employers
Can include both open questions as pre-coded
Can achieve robust sample allowing generalizations if sufficient numbers are surveyed
Expensive and time-consuming to administrator
Ideal for gathering sensitive information or exploring complicated issues
Loaded and detailed information can be gathered
Interviewers are…… [Read More]
The authors have gathered preliminary information by reviewing the literature and gathering information from organizations that have already implemented strategies to broaden fair and ethical trade marketing.
The authors seek to avoid "clean washing" the message of fair and ethical trade by using the affinity marketing strategy that they describe. However, it is possible that consumers at mission driven organizations will fail to recognize the value of the fair and ethical trade products they purchase if having a fun time out is their goal rather than supporting a cause. The way in which these items are marketed so as not to lose the social mission must be addressed. Another exploratory study surveying the consumers at such mission driven organizations would be useful.
Exploratory research generally precedes descriptive research. Descriptive data is not generated in studies that are exploratory such as this. The authors conducted a pilot study about how zoos…… [Read More]
In poor neighborhoods, overreliance on fast food, a lack of safe places to exercise, emotional depression, and cultural acceptance of a larger body type may be the cause.
Even in more affluent populations, however, there may be a history of poverty, such as an Italian-American family where they have been exposed to the cultural ideal of thinness, know that a normal BMI is healthy, but still remember grandma telling them to 'eat up that lasagna, chubby cheeks mean a healthy child.' The extent to which different influences create a complex behavior -- overeating and under-exercising -- and produce a medical condition (obesity) are hard to determine, and other cultural and biological variables that affect individual behavior can be hard to isolate. Exploratory research is necessary to arrive at a satisfactory, final study design that is more causal, focused, and specific in nature.
Do you agree with the Chamber…… [Read More]
There are also ethical issues pertaining to the observational method that will be discussed later in this paper.
Experience surveys are widely used throughout qualitative research studies, due to their focus on bringing greater insights into the study through the interviewing of experts in chosen fields. There is also a strong focus on how to gain insights of experts in the future definition of the methodology being created, and how the research objectives can be more effectively accomplished as well. Experience surveys also are often used in the first stages of a research project. Another qualitative research technique, the case study, takes the concept of gaining insight and applies it to an organization and its dynamics. A case study seeks to define and complete a thorough analysis of one or more specific circumstances within institution of interest. The goal of case studies is to measure the relationships, inter-dependencies and cause-and-effect…… [Read More]
Next, the researcher will conduct a query of the computer awareness of education administrators, teachers, parents, and students in the New Orleans school district, then evaluation of documented data will provide a research base of the required elements needed to consider while developing a framework that can be used as a guide by educational leaders and parents for the protection of children at school and at home. esearch areas will include law enforcement agencies, various information systems security sites that provide security solutions that can be implemented in schools and in the home, other avenues of research will include interviews with a multitude of technical personnel proficient in hardware, software and network technology utilized for computer security.
The purpose of this dissertation is to provide recommendations from experienced practitioners of detailed, hands on instruction or guides that even the computer illiterate parent or senior caregiver can use to…… [Read More]
As activists in women's liberation, discussing and analyzing the oppression and inequalities they experienced as women, they felt it imperative to find out about the lives of their foremothers -- and found very little scholarship in print" (Women's history, 2012, para. 3). This dearth of scholarly is due in large part to the events and themes that are the focus of the historical record. In this regard, "History was written mainly by men and about men's activities in the public sphere -- war, politics, diplomacy and administration. Women are usually excluded and, when mentioned, are usually portrayed in sex-stereotypical roles, such as wives, mothers, daughters and mistresses. History is value-laden in regard to what is considered historically 'worthy'" (Women's history, 2012, para. 3).
In what Kessler (1994, p. 139) describes as "the all-too-common historical exclusion or devaluation of women's contributions," the male-dominated record of human history has either diminished the…… [Read More]
To citically investigate the cuent state of intenational business elationship development liteatue.
2. To exploe the chaacteistics that detemines sustainable intenational business elationships within the Libyan business context-fom the Libyan point-of-view.
3. To pesent a model based on the findings fom the two objectives above. This model will seve two main functions: (I). It will help fill in gaps in the cuent liteatue elating to the development and maintenance of business elationships with Libya. (II). It will be of pactical value to foeign businesses wishing to develop elationships with Libyan companies.
1.4.3 Reseach Questions
Fou eseach questions ae fomulated as a means of pusuing the above objectives, these being:
What ae the key vaiables that influence Libyan companies when they intenationalise, and why ae these vaiables so impotant fo Libyan oganisations?
What ae the majo steps/stages that Libyans go though when establishing business elationships?
How can foeign oganisations establish/maintain sustainable…… [Read More]
Fundamentally, hygiene factors are required to make sure a worker is not dissatisfied. Motivation factors are desired to motivate a worker to higher performance. Herzberg also further classified peoples actions and how and why they do them, for instance, if one performs a work related action because they have to then that is ranked as movement, but if one performs a work related action because they want to then that is ranked as motivation (Scheid, 2010).
The principles of Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene theory have been applied to a wide variety of factors influencing worker satisfaction. These factors comprise: working circumstances, quality of supervision, salary, status, security, company, job, company policies and interpersonal associations (Two Factor Theory -- Herzberg, Frederick, 2011). In the application of Motivation-Hygiene theory to this study of employee attendance and satisfaction, the factor that will be looked at is that of onsite childcare programs.
Utilizing this theory in…… [Read More]
At times, even though the research may be complicated by varying definitions of homelessness, researchers are establishing methods for estimating the size of the homeless population, which includes people who have nowhere to go; at risk of losing housing through eviction or institutional discharge (Drury, 2008).
Case Study Methodology
In the case study methodology, a form of qualitative descriptive research, according to M. Dereshiwsky (1999) in "Electronic Textbook - Let Us Count the Ways: Strategies for Doing Qualitative esearch," the researcher using the case study methodology does not focus on discovering a universal, generalizable truth, nor do the researcher generally search for cause-effect relationships. Instead, the researcher emphasizes the exploring and describing process. As the researcher examines one individual or small participant pool, he/she then draws conclusions only about that one particular participant or group; only in the designated, specific context Case Studies 2008).
In considering or defining the case…… [Read More]
system development life cycle (SDLC) approach to the development of Information Systems and/or software is provided. An explanation of SDLC is offered, with different models applied in implementing SDLC delineated. Advantages and disadvantages associated with each of the models will be identified.
System Development Life Cycle
According to Walsham (1993), system development life cycle (SDLC) is an approach to developing an information system or software product that is characterized by a linear sequence of steps that progress from start to finish without revisiting any previous step. The SDLC model is one of the oldest systems development models and is still probably the most commonly used (Walsham, 1993). The SDLC model is basically a project management tool that is used to plan, execute, and control systems development projects (Whitten & Bentley, 1998). System development life cycles are usually discussed in terms of the conventional development using the waterfall model or the…… [Read More]
Middle Eastern Students: What Is the Effect of Advisory Participation in the Adolescent Years- Grades 8-9
Benefits of student advisory
Adolescence and its effects on learning
Functions and Expectations of Advisory Program
Middle Eastern Student advisory experiences
Social and economic mobility is a function of educational achievement. It is important to ensure that all children receive education in order to secure their future and that of the nation. The U.S. accommodates many immigrants from the Middle East. Several studies done in the recent past have examined how immigrants fair in the educational system. However, few studies attend to the subject of adolescent students from the Arab world participation in advisory programs for schools and the effects of such participation explicitly. It is not clear whether the results of adolescent participation in school advisory programs would necessarily coincide with the participation by Arab immigrants. Considering the consistent negative portrayal of…… [Read More]
Keller and Helton (2010) explore the "application of a strengths-based empowerment approach in the delivery of counseling. A case study is the research design chosen for this exploratory research.
The research question examined in this work is: How can specific counseling theories be utilized in accordance with specific Appalachian cultural values for client assessment and empowerment? The case study was conducted involving a 28-year-old female. The woman was divorced and at the time was living with her two sons on the west side of Cleveland. The researchers examined the life of the case through observation and in-depth interviews. The data were subsequently analyzed using a strengths-based empowerment framework. The strength-based empowerment framework allowed the researchers to examine existing theoretical frameworks such as feminism, existential therapy and solution focused therapy in addition to others.
The case study demonstrated that strength-based counseling approaches could be used successfully with clients from the Appalachian…… [Read More]
Figure 1 portrays the state of Maryland, the location for the focus of this DR.
Figure 1: Map of Maryland, the State (Google Maps, 2009)
1.3 Study Structure
Organization of the Study
The following five chapters constitute the body of Chapter I: Introduction
Chapter II: Review of the Literature
Chapter III: Methods and Results
Chapter IV: Chapter V: Conclusions, Recommendations, and Implications
Chapter I: Introduction
During Chapter I, the researcher presents this study's focus, as it relates to the background of the study's focus, the area of study, the four research questions, the significance of the study, and the research methodology the researcher utilized to complete this study.
Chapter II: Review of the Literature in Chapter II, the researcher explores information accessed from researched Web sites; articles; books; newspaper excerpts; etc., relevant to considerations of the disparity in access to health care services between rural and urban residence in Maryland…… [Read More]
interview techniques. DiCocco and Crabtree (2006) discuss different interview strategies. One is the unstructured interview, a technique that originates in anthropology study. This technique is used when the type of information to be gathered is not known, or is only loosely-defined, because the technique is open-ended. Eliciting insights is a key objective of this type of interview.
A second interview strategy is the semi-structured interview. In this technique, the interviewer is able to "delve deeply into social and personal matters" (Ibid). The group interview can be used with this strategy as well. Semi-structured interviews are commonly used to gain information that might be open-ended in nature, in a group setting, or to learn about someone's life experiences. The focus group is a form of semi-structured interview used in marketing.
A third interview strategy is the individual in-depth interview. This technique is used when the research question is focused, and is…… [Read More]
goal of this research is to identify interventions that can reduce the risk of negative outcomes for at-risk youth. The basis for the analysis will rely on prior literature on parenting styles, co-parenting conflicts, and also child pre-disposition to violence. A literature review is the initial research design, with the goal of explaining the nature of the problem and the variables involved (Blakstad, n.d.). The research may progress into two further stages, including an exploratory and primarily qualitative phase. Subsequent to the exploratory research, a pilot study with longitudinal design may be warranted, but experimental designs are not indicated in a project of this nature.
Because the research is currently exploratory in nature, as it is in the early stages, several descriptive research designs would be highly appropriate. Three of the descriptive research designs that would be appropriate to this dissertation in particular include Case Study and Descriptive esearch. Later…… [Read More]
Exxon Mobile is the world's largest publicly traded international oil and gas company (ExxonMobil, N.d.). The oil and gas industry has a challenge in terms of sustainability because of the nature of the business. The oil and gas industry operates almost exclusively on the extraction of fossil fuels, and the burning of these fuels contributes to greenhouse gas emissions which is one of the leading contributors to climate change. Therefore, the oil and gas industry is difficult to call sustainable in many regards as many people believe that we need the economy to shift to renewable resources as an energy source rather than fossil fuels.
Exxon's industry makes its decision making process difficult in regards to environmental sustainability. The company is somewhat torn between having to accept more dangerous drilling sites to return profits for their shareholders and being good environmental stewards. For example, the company…… [Read More]
treatment using the drug, tamoxifen, and higher mortality rates in females aged over forty years. The peer-reviewed papers employed for this study reveal a dynamic scrutiny of the aforementioned link. Quantitative as well as qualitative research works have been utilized, with a comparison and contrast made of the most apt methodology employed by the researchers. The end goal is ascertaining whether or not it is a risky decision to not adhere to tamoxifen treatment and how much information patients possess with regard to the drug and its effects.
The esearch Question and its Importance
After the diagnosis of her health condition, Ms. Jones is prescribed tamoxifen as medication. For an entire year, Ms. Jones fails to consume this prescribed drug. Upon revisiting the hospital after a year of not complying with this recommended treatment plan, she is told that her cancer has reappeared and is much more lethal than before.…… [Read More]
To date, little eseach exists on the actual costs and benefits of poject management. Much of the infomation that exists is a poduct of advetising mateials distibuted though the poject management fims. Little unbiased infomation egading the value of poject management exists. This eseach will povide an unbiased view of the benefits and costs of the poject manage. Aviation manages will be able to use this infomation to make decisions about whethe to use a poject manage o whethe to find anothe way to pefom those duties that may be moe cost effective.
This study will use quantitative analysis to detemine if aviation officials feel that poject manages epesents an opeational efficiency in tems of cost-effectiveness o if they epesent inefficiency and waste. The eseach will use a suvey methodology that will ask aviation manage's questions that will ask them to quantify both the tangible and intangible benefits of…… [Read More]
However, the authors do not refer to developmental psychology to illustrate their findings. The authors admit that the dimensions may not be distinguishable based solely on self-reports, and also that young children may not draw sharp distinctions among the dimensions.
Results disproved one of the research hypotheses: that between-group differences would be significant. In fact, only gender proved to be a significant variable affecting self-esteem. Blacks vs. whites and privileged vs. low-income students did not exhibit significant differences on most of the self-esteem dimensions. The most dramatic difference was between boys and girls on the athletics factor, with boys consistently reporting higher athletic self-esteem than girls throughout their development. The difference also increased with age. Girls rated themselves higher in personal character and personal responsibility than boys. The authors offer a groundless and nonsensical explanation for the findings, suggesting that "girls are given more responsibility for watching younger children than…… [Read More]
From this perspective, luxury brands may be desired be many consumers, but the more affluent are clearly more readily capable of such acquisitions, making them a natural target for luxury brands marketers.
Although there is a growing body of contemporary knowledge concerning the influence of self-perception and self-image on luxury brand purchases, the study of these issues is certainly not new. In fact, as early as 1899, Thorstein Veblen developed a theory according to which consumers use product prices as a means of ostentatiously displaying their wealth (Veblen 1899). Based on the inextricable relationship between the level of consumers' income and the type of goods and services they may desire, it would be reasonable to posit that highly affluent consumers would be a natural market for luxury brand marketers; however, the choice of luxury brands over other brands is a highly complex decision that take into account a wide range…… [Read More]
Prior to Launching Technology Initiatives
Over the past seven years, many healthcare organizations, like OUUCH, have begun to transition from the traditional paper-based systems to EH systems. esearch has shown that over a period of time. EH systems can improve quality of care for patients, provide more accurate information, and overall improve safety issues relating to reducing mistakes with patients. In the exploratory study, "Change factors affecting the transition to an… [EH] system in a private physicians' practice: An exploratory study," Aaron D. Spratt, Social Security Administration and Kevin E. Dickson (2008), Southeast Missouri State University, report that the U.S. health care industry reportedly ranks among the world's leading inefficient information enterprises. Although the system needs major changes, the transition process however, creates a high change in the business aspect of an organization. Spratt and Dickson (2008) explain that for an EH system to be successful, doctors must be involved…… [Read More]
Step 3: Identify data types and sources: Sample size and collection methods
Data must be drawn from a representative population with a wide variety of norms that could influence the results. For example, in studying the effects of fast food restaurants near schools, the study population of children with many fast food restaurants near their school should be balanced in terms of BMI, gender, socio-economic status and other factors that could influence the results. So must the control group. Of course, some research studies might wish to study intervention techniques in the context of specific population groups, like the effects of a diabetes management program upon a low-income population with a quite limited population base, demographically.
If an ideally balanced sampling is not possible to achieve, nonparametric statistics must be used to allow for an uneven breakdown of demographic data (umsey 2007, p.262). Chi-square tests create a balanced group from…… [Read More]
There are a handful of ways in which Verizon can improve its research program. The typical research process is to use surveys to find out what customers desire and then use exploratory and applied techniques to devise products and services that meet those needs. One drawback to this is that it omits those needs which the customers do not conceive. Customers typically view product improvements in terms of incremental changes to the existing product. They have limited capacity to conceive of entirely new products. In an industry characterized by intense competition and technological leaps, it is precisely those game-changing innovations that win companies market share.
Yet, Verizon seems content to let their partners, such as Research in Motion, take the lead with regards to product innovation. Thus, I would add another vein of exploratory research to Verizon's research mix. They should use a more open-ended exploratory form of research to…… [Read More]
The Herzberg two-plane model that includes an upper plane of "motivator" factors, which are those factors that lead to high job satisfaction are compared to the "hygiene" factors that are enablers of stability in any work environment. Motivator factors include achievement, recognition; work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth, while hygiene factors include company policies, relationships with supervisors, work conditions, salary, relationship with peers, personal life, and relationships with subordinates, status, and security. These factors overall are critical for the development of a motivated and stable workforce. The implications of these factors on the job satisfaction and attitudes of telecommuters form the research foundation of this paper and also look to provide an indication of how teleworkers keep their work/life balance in equilibrium.
The main objectives of this study are:
To provide further understanding of why workers choose to telecommute in the context of their work/life balance objectives.
To define…… [Read More]
esearchers have an occasion to further organizational science and to make research practical by producing information that can impact changing organizational forms and circumstances. Pragmatically, academic researchers are not likely to get access to a company that is going through change unless the practitioners believe the research will be helpful (Gibson & Mohrman, 2001).
There have been a number of calls to augment the significance and effectiveness of organizational science to companies. The usefulness challenge cannot be defined merely as getting practitioners to value and include what academics learn. It is believed that the usefulness of research depends, somewhat, on the degree to which the perspectives of organization members are incorporated in research procedures and the results are included into those members' organization design activities that take place as their company adjusts to its changing environment. esearch is more likely to be seen as useful if there are occasions for…… [Read More]
Significance of the Study
This study is significant because it sheds light on a very important contributor to local and international trade. Trade fairs have a long history in providing a meeting place for buyers and sellers. They are an important channel of communication for B2B buyers and sellers. This is a significant area for study because there are limited channels of communication between B2B buyers and sellers. The previous sections have diversified the importance of communication to trade. B2B buyers and sellers cannot use mass channels of communication such as television advertising or newspaper advertising. In this market usage of personal visits and demonstrations are the common channels of marketing and communication. The B2B selling and marketing activities are less highlighted in research than B2C activities. Therefore, this study is significant because it explores a very important channel of marketing and communication in the B2B market.
The study is…… [Read More]
Much marketing research has been done on analysing customer behaviour and retention. As a consequence, it is crucial for online companies to create a loyal customer base, as well as to monitor the profitability of each segment (Reinartz and Kumar, 2002)
Definition of customer e-loyalty
Customer loyalty has been defined as "a deeply held commitment to re-buy or re-patronize a preferred product/service consistently in the future, thereby causing repetitive same-brand or same brand-set purchasing, despite situational influences and marketing efforts having the potential to cause switching behaviour" (Oliver, 1999). This general definition appears to apply to e-loyalty as well. Another briefer and more specific definition is provided by Anderson and Srinivasan (2003), who define e-loyalty as "the customer's favourable attitude toward an electronic business, resulting in repeat purchasing behaviour" (p. ____).
Since it is considered difficult to gain loyal customers on the internet without directly contact (Gommans et al., 2001),…… [Read More]
Information that crawls into the databases or warehouse might be utilized for reasons beyond those initially planned by those filling and amassing the data (Phillips, 1997). Data that might be pleasing in quality for functional databases can be not viable in warehouses that confirm practical strategic business decisions. For case in point, the correctness of the analysis code in an insurance firm's functional database had been immaterial when disbursing insurance claims but might trigger a risk analysis to stop working.
From the above mentioned facts it is clear that research needs to be carried out on data mining so as to clarify and recommend solutions to the problems being faced by business executives in their data mining efforts. The purpose of this research is to explain the functions of data mining in favor of business decisions and to define some of the obstacles to its effectual deployment in companies and…… [Read More]
Childhood Obesity and Fast Food
The paper is a research based on the topic of "The influence of fast food on child obesity." The study aims to evaluate and identify the root cause of child obesity. The study is based on a scientific approach by developing a hypothesis and then proving it through data collected.
The hypothesis of this research has been developed after a number of general observations. These observations came from generally observing the school friends, cafes and restaurants, and family members. It was observed that children who were eating fast food regularly were fat. Another observation was that when we talk to obese people they often mention that they blame fast food restaurants for their obesity. Since we have developed specific conclusions from general observations, it is an inductive approach.…… [Read More]