Filter Results By:

Reset Filters

We have over 505 essays for "Extremist"

View Full Essay

Dr King's Letter From Birmingham

Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27301146



Furthermore the rhetoric here is rich in symbolism. Dr. King draws parallels between the response of violence to his peaceful protests and other great personalities whose commitment to justice, truth, and love also had unintended and unfortunate consequences. Personalities like ocrates and Jesus, for example, could not be expected to deny their truth for fear of public reaction. Dr. King makes this argument even stronger by also drawing the parallel between himself and the completely innocent person, whose possession of money resulted in the evil of theft. By drawing these parallels, Dr. King points out that an argument regarding the actions of others cannot be used to condemn those who protest peacefully. Dr. King and his followers are innocent of the crime of violence. Dr. King's argument is therefore that they cannot be held accountable for the violence committed by others, who are neither followers of his, nor affiliated with…… [Read More]

Sources

King, Martin Luther. Letter from a Birmingham Jail.

Smith, N. (2010). Rhetoric and martin Luther King Jr.: "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" and "I Have a Dream." Article Myriad. Retrieved from:  http://www.articlemyriad.com/163.htm
View Full Essay

Dr Martin Luther King Draws

Words: 613 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46712566

King did not stray from the moral imperative of ahimsa, doing no harm.

Moreover, King knew that his civil rights campaign was grounded in the same philosophies that kick-started the union. Locke noted, "All men may be restrained from invading others rights, and from doing hurt to one another,' (Chapter 2, section 7). So long as no harm is done, each individual has the right to act as he or she pleases. King was trying to point out that "all men may be restrained from" harming African-Americans. Discrimination had become part of the American experience. Depriving African-Americans of their rights to vote, to have access to social, political, and economic resources: these are acts that are directly harming human beings. Alluding to the Declaration of Independence, King echoed the passage, "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Media Policy Liberty Security and the Future Response to Terrorism

Words: 3609 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88285159

shifting seas of global social consciousness and worldwide political hierarchy have only recently brought the word 'terrorism' to the quotidian mind of Americans, it has long enjoyed a cemented place in the construct of civilization. Daily associations between the word terrorism and the frightening images of gore and destruction rampant on the 24-hour news networks affirm the complicated understanding of terrorism in the modern world; bombings on an Israeli bus, explosions outside a Pakistani supermarket, and subway atrocities mingle with recent memories of the World Trade center and recollections of the bloody IRA, Black Liberation Army, and Basque independence movements. Personal reaction and affiliation to the events, movement, and goals of each group's paradigm resonates inside a loose definition of political violence, while governmental response is chiseled, monochromatic, and decisive. While the motives and end-results always differ, the path to terrorism is marked by similar goal posts. These similarities and…… [Read More]

O'Brien, Sean P. "Foreign Policy Crisis and the Resort to Terrorism: A Time-Series Analysis of Conflict Linkages." The Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol. 40, No. 2. (Jun., 1996.) p. 329.

Ibid, p. 330.

Wilkinson, 31.
View Full Essay

Terrorism Organizations What Is Terrorism Legacy in

Words: 1768 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 5633196

Terrorism Organizations

What is Terrorism?

Legacy in the 21st century

Based Terrorist Organizations

Aryan Nation

Ku Klux Klan

Counterterrorism and Prevention

Definitions and Structures

Homeland Security

Patriot Act

The very nature of terrorism, of course, is to engender fear and panic into the population base. Thus, targets are so numerous that complete protection of all is impossible. Targets could include any of the governmental buildings in Washington, D.C., courthouses or public buildings in major cities, malls, churches, and transportation centers in any town. Unless the materials are manufactured in the United States, though, the most likely targets are those that exist in coastal cities with larger port access (Smith, 2001).

Terrorists tend to target places that are media hyped, affect the lives of citizens, and are usually transportation, entertainment, or financially based in larger urban areas. Indeed, for greater efficacy, targets usually involve places where there are large non-combatant crowds,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

ACLU Lawsuit. (1993). The New York Times. Retrieved from:  http://www.nytimes.com/1993/12/16/us/aclu-lawsuit-backs-klan-in-seeking-permit-for-cross.html 

Anti-Defamation League. (2013). Ku Klux Klan -- Affiliations. ADL. Retrieved from: http://archive.adl.org/learn/ext_us/kkk/affiliations.html?LEARN_Cat=Extremism&LEARN_SubCat=Extremism_in_America&xpicked=4&item=kkk

Bocstette, C. (2008). Jihadist Terrorist Use of Strategic Communication Management Techniques. George C. Marshall European Center for Security. Retrieved from:  http://www.marshallcenter.org/mcpublicweb/MCDocs/files/College/F_Publications/occPapers/occ-paper_20-en.pdf 

Department of Homeland Security. (2014). About DHS. Retrieved from: http:.//www/dhs.gov
View Full Essay

Trash Covers Represent an Excellent Technique in

Words: 2042 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92199785

Trash covers represent an excellent technique in the investigation of terrorist organizations. Begin by listing those items that might typically be found in your discarded trash that would provide details regarding you personally; your interests, lifestyle, associates, family, business, income, debts etc. Be honest and be thorough in your response. Follow your response by listing items that investigators might be interested in locating in the trash of suspect terrorists and follow with a discussion of how such items could be used to benefit the investigation.

Items that might typically be found in my discarded trash that would provide details regarding me personally are my cell phone statements, my bank account statements, discarded product packaging, receipts, medical bills, envelopes, defunct art supplies, sketches and discarded snippets of poems or stories.

Likewise, in the case of a suspected terrorist, investigators would essentially be interested in most, if not all of the things…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abadie, Alberto. (2006). Poverty, Political Freedom, and the Roots of Terrorism. The American

Economic Review, 96(2), 50-56. Retrieved from  http://www.jstor.org/stable/30034613 

Barkun, Michael. (1997). Religion and the Racist Right: the Origins of the Christian Identity

Movement. The University of North Carolina Press.
View Full Essay

American Domestic Terror Groups and

Words: 1694 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50671911

In your explanation, compare and contrast domestic and international terrorism. Also, please indicate whether either type of terrorism is subject to defeat. or, in a free society such as ours, must we simply learn to live with the annoyance and tragedies of ideological, political, and/or religiously-motivated violence?)

Domestic terrorism is much more statistically common than foreign terrorism, as those who feel they have cause to be angry enough to act against anything are much more likely to act against something they see as wrong in their own environment, Opportunity and ease of access also plays a role in this observation. Though terrorist acts are exceedingly rare they do occur on a somewhat regular basis if definitions are kept broad and are more likely to be domestic in nature than foreign born. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Domestic and international terrorism are similar in some ways, they both experience the kind of…… [Read More]

References

Daniels, D.J. (2002, December). The Challenge of Domestic Terroism to American Criminal Justice. Corrections Today, 64, 66.

Hamm, M.S. (September 2005) Crimes Committed by Terrorist Groups: Theory, Research and Prevention Retrieved April 1, 2008  http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/211203.pdf 

Hulnick, a.S. (2004). Keeping Us Safe: Secret Intelligence and Homeland Security. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Lewis, C.W. (2000). The Terror That Failed: Public Opinion in the Aftermath of the Bombing in Oklahoma City. Public Administration Review, 60(3), 201.
View Full Essay

U S Foreign Policy and the

Words: 956 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42976300

8 billion. The Occupation authorities also helped the Japanese government overcome postwar economic chaos, especially rampant inflation, by balancing the government budget, raising taxes and imposing price and wage freezes, and resuming limited foreign trade" (Kesselman et al., 203). The U.S. aid not only helped to rebuild the country, but also ensured that Japan was stable enough so that renegade seedlings of Communism or comparable institutions didn't suddenly flourish. The United States should sue this wise historical strategy that it deftly employed to help the economies of poorer nations in the Middle East. hen people are living in poverty, this makes them ripe breeding grounds for terrorism to build and people to be brainwashed by doctrines which vilify the est. Furthermore the United States should invest money in developing educational programs in the Middle East, so that the citizens there can actually envision a real future for themselves, without having…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bryne, P.J. The Chinese Revolution: The Triumph of Communism. Minneapolis: Compass Point

Books, 2007.

Kesselman, M., Krieger, J. And Joseph, W. Introduction to Comparative Politics. Boston:

Wadsworth Learnign, 2013.
View Full Essay

Soviet-Afgan War Conflict Analysis Focus

Words: 5116 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 10933340

(Harvey, 2003) the suspicion of the United States of the "Soviet Expansionist tendencies" had increased by the 1970s and Harvey states as well that "The pervasive mentality of Washington officials during these years was dominated by the communist domino theory which led many Washington politicians to believe that the Soviet Union sought to take over the entire world." (2003) the United States had always received a safeguard provided by the shah for their Middle East interest of oil and it was this that resulted in the United States perceiving the Soviet-Afghanistan relations as a "considerable threat...before 1979." (Harvey, 2003)

Harvey reports that while Department of State records from the early 1970s report that the United States was indifferent to the relationship that was developing between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan that the truth is that "...Recently declassified ntelligence reports also reveal that the "official history record is false."

[26] Contrary…… [Read More]

Isby, David C. (1999) War in a Distant Country. New York: Arms and Armour Press, 1989. Rashid, Ahmed (2000) Taliban. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.

Terrorism Project. (2001) "Lessons from History: U.S. Policy Towards Afghanistan, 1978-2001." 5 October 2001. Online available at; .

United States Department of State (1976) Annual Policy Assessment, March 9, 1976.
View Full Essay

Naked Economics Undressing the Dismal Science by

Words: 2322 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79808354

Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science by Charles Wheelan

Biographical Sketch of Author

Charles Wheelan, author of Naked Economics: Undressing the Dismal Science, is not a traditional economics expert, in that his background education goes beyond economics. He has an MPA from Princeton University and a PhD in public policy from the Harris School at the University of Chicago's School of Public Policy in 1998. He has focused his attention on economics and its impact on public policy and politics. He currently works as a senior lecturer at the Harris School. He is widely known as the author of Yahoo! feature on economics. He has worked at the Midwest correspondent for The Economist. He has also worked as a finance correspondent for WBEZ Chicago Public adio, an adjunct lecturer at Northwestern University's Medill School of Journalism, and as the director of policy and communications for Chicago Metropolis 2020. Wheelan is…… [Read More]

References

Wheelan, C. (2010). Naked economics: undressing the dismal science. New York: W.W.

Norton Company and Inc.
View Full Essay

Islam and Terrorism

Words: 2282 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48371157

Islam and Terrorism

Is Islam Somehow Correlated with Terrorism?

Background of Islam

Stereotypical Perceptions of Islam

Public Opinion Polls

Islam in the Media

There is a common stereotype that persists in the est that associates the Islamic faith with violence and terrorism. This mindset has been perpetuated through many individuals who base their opinions on past conflicts and influential events that have occurred in recent history. This perception has created tension between cultures that based on misunderstanding and should be corrected. Islam is the fastest growing beliefs systems in the world today and is known as one of the seven primary world religions. Yet, primarily due to violent extremist groups within the religion, Islam has been perceived by many to be a brutal religion that includes provisions for terrorism; specifically through its concept of "Jihad."

Yet the vast majority of Islamic practices are pacifist by nature. Thus it could be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AFP. (2008, February 27). Major survey challenges Western perceptions of Islam. Retrieved from http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5i5ajtNJ0qTTRMBSFpYngMOjrmDbQ

Imam, M. (N.d.). The Perception of Islam and Muslims in the Media and the Responsibility of European Muslims Towards the Media . Retrieved from Cuturelink:  http://www.culturelink.org/conf/dialogue/mesic.pdf 

Kidd, T. (2009). American Christians and Islam: Evangelical Culture and Muslims from the Colonial Period to the Age of Terrorism. Princeton University Press.

Lostopedia. (N.d.). Syid Jarrah. Retrieved from Wikia:  http://lostpedia.wikia.com/wiki/Sayid_Jarrah
View Full Essay

Islam Imagine You're Sitting in

Words: 921 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49012309

And just as different divisions of Christianity are more or less fundamentalist in their interpretation of religious texts and traditions, different divisions of Islam are more or less strict. The most fundamentalist version of Islam, one that is primarily associated with Saudi Arabia, is Wahhabism. Muslims who follow this minority version of Sunni believe that they are the only true Muslims and that other branches of Islam are illegitimate (Cleveland, 2004, p.123). In some ways, the division between Wahhabism is like that between Catholics and Protestants during the eformation and Counter-reformation or that between Orthodox and eform Judaism. All major religions have internal divisions, and all major religions -- including also Hinduism and Buddhism -- can be organized along a spectrum from most conservative to most liberal.

Some followers of Wahhabi Islam have been responsible for horrific violence. There is no justification for their actions. It is true that --…… [Read More]

References

Cleveland, W.L. (2004). A history of the modern middle east. (3rd ed.) Boulder: Westview Press.

Jenkins, P. (2009, March 8). Dark passages. Retrieved from  http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/ideas/articles/2009/03/08/dark_passages/ .
View Full Essay

Public Law 107-56 Is Public

Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 76915702

In practice, the use of various provisions of PL 107-56 did not conform to required protocols, demonstrated the difficulty of ensuring proper adherence to intended safeguards against misuse, and, in fact, included numerous instances where government agents misused provisions intended to address terrorism for acts of political persecution and to intimidate public critics of the U.S. government (Huffington Post, 2009).

Should terrorism be treated as a criminal act or an act of war?

There are good reasons for both approaches as well as equally good reasons for arguing against both approaches. To the extent that terrorism is perpetrated by state-actors, it is appropriately prosecuted as an act of war. However, it is highly impractical (and logically indefensible) to treat lone terrorists or autonomous extremist groups who commit acts of terror as enemy combatants under the Geneva Convention, which would be required if terrorism were prosecuted as a war (Larsen, 2007).…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age New York:

Little Brown & Co.

Huffington Post. (2009). "NSA Whistleblower Reveals Bush Administration Snooping

on U.S. Citizens, Journalists." Retrieved March 29, 2011 from the HuffingtonPost.com website, at:
View Full Essay

Bosnia Islam the Islamic Faith

Words: 2530 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84161527



The armed activities of resistance or assault committed in these contexts tends to drive a view of Islam as a radical force counterintuitive to the philosophical aims of western capitalism. As Malik (2004) contends on this point, "it is not surprising that islamophobic authors frequently resort to the concept of secularism which they say needs to be defended against an increasing influence of political Islam in Europe." (Malik, 148) It is under this very set of terms that we are given over to a proclivity where the Islamic identity of Bosnia is concerned. Specifically, the secular society in which this Islamic faith has achieved cultural dominance is belied by a brewing discontent in Bosnia.

A history of ethnic tension, a war still fresh in the memories of all inhabitants, and the new infusion of religious exploration produced by the withdrawal of communist authority are having the effect of diversifying and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bougeral, X. (?). Bosnian Islam as 'European Islam.' Islam in Europe.

Cesari, J. (2006). When Islam and Democracy Meet: Muslims in Europe and in the United States. Palgrave.

Malik, J. (2004). Muslims in Europe from the Margin to the Centre. Transaction Publishers.

Yavuz, M.H. (2004). Is There a Turkish Islam? There Emergence of Convergence and
View Full Essay

Huckabee Mick Huckabee Has Surprised

Words: 2234 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28298855



Meanwhile, Huckabee supports local political jurisdictions passing laws that punish undocumented immigrants, and he asserts those laws "protect the economic well-being, physical safety, and quality of life" for citizens in those communities. By using "physical safety" Huckabee frames this issue in the context that immigrants are criminals out to harm people. But the Immigration Policy Center (IPC) (Rumbaut, et al., 2007) reports that "Foreign-born Mexicans" had an incarceration rate" of 0.7% in 2000, "more than 8 times lower than the 5.9% of native-born males of Mexican descent." And while the "undocumented population has doubled to 12 million since 1994," violent crime in the U.S. has declined 34.2%, the IPC reports.

Moreover, according to the American Immigration Law Foundation (Esbenshade, 2007) local ordinances such as the ones Huckabee believes in (that make it illegal to rent to undocumented immigrants, for example) - if they conflict with federal immigration law - are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dougherty, Michael Brendan. "The Audacity of Huck: The Religious Right roils the Establishment by backing one of its own." The American Conservative 7.2 (2008): 6-8.

Esbenshade, Jill. "Division and Dislocation: Regulating Immigration through Local Housing

Ordinances." American Immigration Law Foundation. Retrieved 7 February 2008, at http://www.ailf.org/ipc/special_report/sr_sept07.shtml.

Guidelines for Writing a Rhetorical Analysis. "The Guidelines." Retrieved 6 February, 2008 from http://core.ecu.edu/engl/snyderh/1100/raguide.html
View Full Essay

Protection of Constitutional Order in the U S A

Words: 2157 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45375877

PROTECTION OF CONSTITUTIONAL ORDER IN THE U.S.A.

In spite of the fact that the constitutional order puts across a series of elements from which the American public (as a whole) benefits, it is also responsible for enabling many individuals to freely express religious fanaticism through criminal acts. It is very surprising that matters in the U.S. were relatively peaceful for the last two centuries, with the recent decades marking a significant change in nation's connection to religion, especially considering that many individuals have come to associate the country with Christianity and with elements favoring the discrimination of other religions. The constitutional order is of no use to the well-being of the public in particular situations, as it can be overridden by some, regardless of the morality in their behavior.

The First Amendment of the Constitution (ratified in 1791) says that "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion,…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Colby, Thomas B. "A Constitutional Hierarchy of Religions? Justice Scalia, the Ten Commandments and the Future of the Establishment Clause," Northwestern University Law Review 100.3 (2006)

Ferris, John Robert. "Intelligence and strategy: selected essays." (Routledge, 2005).

Herman, Michael. "Intelligence services in the information age: theory and practice." (Routledge, 2001).

Posner, Richard A. "Remaking domestic intelligence." (Hoover Press, 2005).
View Full Essay

American Media Representation of Islam

Words: 3949 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4285978

" (Iyengar, 2001) Lastly, the manner of presentation of a news story "significantly affects its ability to set the public agenda." (Behr and Iyengark 1985; Dearing and Rogers, 1996) Concluded is that: "In the current regime, American politics is almost exclusively a mediated experience. The role of the citizen ahs evolved from occasional foot soldier and activist to spectators. Those who seek public office invest heavily in efforts to shape news coverage of their candidacy. The returns from this investment provide them with leverage over public opinion, by setting the public agenda or by projecting a general impression of competent leadership..." (Iyengar, 2001)

The report published by the "ediaatters for America' website entitled: "According to aher, CBS's "Free Speech" is a isnomer" states that Bill aher, HBO's Real Time with Bill aher show host states that "CBS rejected his request to comment on religion for his planned "Free Speech" segment…… [Read More]

Miles, M.B., & Huberman, a.M. (1984). Qualitative data analysis, a sourcebook of new methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Miller, W.L., & Crabtree, B.F. (1992). Primary care research: A multimethod typology and qualitative road map. In B.F. Crabtree & W.L. Miller (Eds.), Doing qualitative research. Research methods for primary care (Vol. 3). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

The American Media Representation of Islam & Terrorism Post 9-11
View Full Essay

Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next

Words: 5067 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 10464176

Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack

Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New

York:

Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).

Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).
View Full Essay

Fort Hood Texas Shooting

Words: 1433 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 61716118

Fort Hood Shooting

On November 5, 2009 at Fort Hood, a military base close to the city of Killeen Texas, a U.S. Army major and psychiatrist opened fire on the people. Thirteen people were murdered and thirty-two other people were injured (Kenber 2013). One of the victims was pregnant and the baby was lost when she died, so some put the figure of murder victims at fourteen. Nidal Malik Hasan has since been convicted of those shootings and has been sentenced to death by a military court. Hasan has never denied being the killer, nor has he wavered in the explanation of his motives behind the actions. He has stated repeatedly that he is a Muslim and that the United States is at war with Islam. His actions, he claims, are a direct result of his Muslim extremism. Hasan was due to be shipped to Afghanistan where he would have…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crabtree, S. (2012, Oct. 22). Pentagon will not label Fort Hood shootings as terrorist attack. The Washington Times.

Definitions of terrorism in the U.S. code. (2013). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved from  http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/terrorism/terrorism-definition 

Esposito, R., Abraham, M., & Schwartz, R. (2009, Nov. 12). Major Hasan: soldier of Allah; many ties to jihad web sites. ABC News.

Hsu, S.S., & Johnson, C. (2009, Nov. 8). Links to imam followed in Fort Hood investigation.
View Full Essay

Standardization of Ban the Burqa the Wearing

Words: 1683 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6347581

Standardization of "Ban the Burqa"

The wearing of burqas should be prohibited in Australia.

The liberal perspective on burqas is invalid.

The liberal perspective on burqas is that they merely represent a cultural difference or represent a repression of women that Australians should "gently" discourage.

Australia is a good country because of its freedom, which should be exercised to terminate the freedom of muslims from wearing burqas.

Burqas are synonymous with criminality.

Burqas conceal identities to allow criminality.

One shop owner was robbed by a burqa-wearing criminal whom it is impossible to catch because of his clothes, so the clothes are insidious.

Burqas represent female oppression.

There is equality for women in Australia, so burqas must be prohibited to maintain that equality.

The argument that wearing burqas is simply an aspect of cultural diversity is wrong.

Australian immigrants should embrace Australia's culture.

Wearing burqas (and engaging in native cultural practices)…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

The Trump Travel Ban

Words: 723 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54099459

Not many things in recent history have brought as much controversy as the Trump Administration travel ban. Some have seen this ban as unfair and demonstrating the ugly side of the United States and its Government. There are reasons for this. The travel ban is cruel and inhumane, the Government should not support a travel ban because no one should be profiled due to race or religion, travel is a human right, and the U.S. is a safe place for refugees.

The travel ban provides much cause for concern because of the potential legality of such an extreme measure. Half a century ago, the American Government chose to outlaw the discrimination seen in the Trump travel ban. “More than 50 years ago, Congress outlawed such discrimination against immigrants based on national origin.” (Bier) Additionally the travel ban puts the United States in a bad light, as other countries may see…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

International Crime Terrorism and Organized Crime Trends

Words: 3182 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 30816158

International Crime, Terrorism, And Organized Crime Trends

Comparing contrasting topics international crime, terrorism, organized crime trends

This research has confirmed the possibility of close correlation between money laundering activities, Islamic terrorist fundraising, organized crime, and corruption of public officials throughout Brazilian Hizballah region. The organized crime networks and the Islamic extremists of Brazil must be examined in collaboration because they are connected to wider networks in Latin America zone and across the world. All the organized activities and terrorists in Brazilian Hizballah were facilitated by corrupt officials, which were driven by the benefits of lucrative criminal activities conducted such as business ventures by terrorists and organized crime groups. Consequently, there was a mutually beneficial association among the three sectors. In this study, Brazilian Hizballah will serve as a microcosm.

Introduction

A number of free-Trade American regions with massive Middle Eastern populations permit organized crime mafias, Islamic terrorist groups, and corrupt…… [Read More]

References

Almeida, J. (2008). Brazil in focus: Economic, political and social issues. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Duyan, A., & NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division. (2012). Defence against terrorism: Different dimensions and trends of an emerging threat: [proceedings of the NATO Advanced Training Course on Defence Against Terrorism: Different Dimensions and Trends of the Emerging Threat - Terrorism, Kabul, Afghanistan, 23-27 May 2010]. Amsterdam: Ios Pres in cooperation with NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division.

Friedlander, R.A., Levie, H.S. & Lovelace, D.C. (2009). Terrorism: Documents of international and local control. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y: Oceana Publications.

Giraldo, J.K. (2007). Terrorism financing and state responses: A comparative perspective. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Univ. Press.
View Full Essay

Indian History the Indian National

Words: 3378 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30426316

It was also discovered that the Moderates did not have sufficient representation in Congress. The Moderates were aware of Tilak's loyalty to the Congress but did not appreciate it. They even thoroughly resisted his entry and that of his friends to it. Tilak then cooperated with Annie esant in forming two home rule leagues, one in Maharashtra and the other in Madras. Their Lucknow Congress in 1916 healed the division. oth sides wanted to restore the old and honorable conditions. After agreeing on some membership conditions, the Moderates accepted the extremists. The Lucknow Congress honored and recognized Tilak as a the sole political hero of the time. The Moderates could have offered Tilak the presidency of the Congress but Tilak was known to have a pledge of self-denial. He withdrew his name from the 1907 Nagpur Congress and suggested that it be replaced by the name of Lala Laipat Rai.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

British Broadcasting Corporation. Mohandas Gandhi. Historic Figures. BBC.Co.Uk, 2007. Retrieved May 10, 2007 at  http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/gandhi_mohandas.shtml 

Edidin, Peter. 1947: the End of the Raj. New York Times Upfront: the Scholastic, Inc., January 30, 2006

Indian National Congress. The Congress and the Freedom Movement. AICC, 2004. Retrieved May 10, 2007 at  http://aicc.org.in/the_congress_and_the_freedom_movement.htm 

Leathem, Rebecca. Mahatma Gandhi. Business Asia: First Charlton Communications Pty, Ltd., February 15, 1999
View Full Essay

American Terrorism for Many People

Words: 14357 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86656733



The USA Patriot Act: This was a law that was passed after September 11th. It is giving the police and intelligence officials the power to go after terrorists organizations easier. As it lifted various Constitutional protections when investigating these offenses.

Counter Terrorism: These are the activities that: federal, state and local officials are taking to prevent future terrorist attacks.

Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD): These are weapons designed to inflict large amounts of casualties. These include: chemical, radiological, biological and nuclear.

These different terms are important, because they will help to avoid confusion and will focus the reader on understanding the overall scope of the problem.

Limitations of the Study

The limitations of the study are that the information we are presenting, could be pointing out a number of different problems. Yet, beneath the surface they are failing to identify possible changes that could have already been implemented by federal…… [Read More]

Bibliography

39% Say Government. (2011). Rasmussen Reports. Retrieved from:  http://www.rasmussenreports.com/public_content/politics/general_politics/march_2011/39_say_government_not_focusing_enough_on_threat_of_domestic_islamic_terrorism 

Al Shabaab American Recruits. (2010). ADL. Retrieved from:  http://www.adl.org/main_Terrorism/al_shabaab_american_recruits.htm 

Comparative Analysis. (2011). Business Dictionary. Retrieved from:  http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/comparative-analysis.html 

Jose Padilla. (2009). New York Times. Retrieved from:  http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/p/jose_padilla/index.html
View Full Essay

Terrorist Organizations and Its Threat

Words: 2902 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60360951

Osama announced that they have gathered based on the will of God Almighty. Nothing that the countries like America does can stop them from what Al-Qaeda does under the will of Allah (Gunaratna 2003). The countries can do nothing to be safe from the fury of the Muslims. Osama has added that the war was begun by America and now the consequences will be faced by America by losing the war with the permission of Allah. Implementation of divine will seems to be the main rationale of Al-Qaeda. Clearing the west of anti-Islamic ideologies is the main rationale of Jeemah Islamiyah based on which they believe in use of all kinds of terrorist activities to 'correct' the nations.

3.1.4. ecruitment

The recruitment policies of the group are based on the social, cultural and historical context of the new 'terrorist'. A young man who abandons his home has to be recruited…… [Read More]

References

Akbarzadeh, S and Yasmeen, S 2005, Islam and the West: reflections from Australia, UNSW Press, New South Wales.

Bobrow, BD 2004,'Losing to Terrorism: An American Work in Progress', Metaphilosophy, vol. 35, no 3, p. 362-3.

Caldicott, DGE and Edwards, NA 2003 'Medical preparation for terrorism in Australia. Is luck running out for "The Lucky Country"?', Prehosp Disast Med vol. 18, pp. 57 -- 65.

Gunaratna, R 2003 'The Post-Madrid Face of Al Qaeda', The Washington Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 91 -- 100.
View Full Essay

Hammond Exam on September 11 2001 Al

Words: 2863 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58732893

Hammond Exam

On September 11, 2001, Al Qaeda attacked the heart of the American economy causing not only losses in terms of property and financial damage, but also widespread terror and fear which extended far beyond the borders of the United States of America affecting the world as a whole. Like any other nation, the foremost interest of the United States is national security[footnoteRef:1], which entails not only the security of the American people, but also the security of the American soil. Since American leadership has always looked towards a better future, the moral aim is to eliminate any such danger that exists in the 21st century, leading to a more peaceful, globalized near future[footnoteRef:2]. President arrack Obama clearly stated in his speech that had there been no such risk, the troops deployed in Afghanistan would be ordered back home immediately. This objective of preserving national security, however, is aimed…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dagne, Ted, Somalia: Current Conditions and Prospects for a Lasting Peace, August 31, 2011, 3-4

Testimony by Menkhaus, Ken, Horn of Africa: Current Conditions and U.S. Policy, Hearing before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on Africa and Global Health, June 17, 2010

International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), Afghanistan Commander Counterinsurgency Guidance, 1-4

Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq, Report to Congress, March 2009, 1
View Full Essay

1963 Martin Luther King Jr Was Arrested

Words: 1582 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97044695

1963, Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Birmingham for his participation in the demonstrations against segregation. While imprisoned, King took the time to respond to the statement against non-violent protests contained in the article "A Call for Unity." In his response from the Birmingham jail, King explains the reasons behind his actions, as well as the imminent social threat that looms over the South. In "The Letter from a Birmingham Jail," King explains his course of action, the events that have led up to it, and the consequences of inaction.

King was jailed for his participation in Birmingham demonstrations that had been brought on by the segregation between the Black minority and the White majority. King states that the most effective course of action against this injustice is civil disobedience. King does not advocate civil disobedience without cause, rather presents the steps necessary for the social uprising against injustice.…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Improvements on Tracking and Detecting

Words: 1728 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57863649

This is why the "government must also continue to support and promote Muslim American community leaders who speak out against violence," and do all that it can to demonstrate that anti-terror does not mean being anti-Islam.

eferences

Americans travelling to terror havens a growing worry. (2010, May 22). The Daily Times.

etrieved June 14, 2010 at http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2010… [Read More]

References

Americans travelling to terror havens a growing worry. (2010, May 22). The Daily Times.

Retrieved June 14, 2010 at  http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2010 522story_22-5-2010_pg7_13

Baldor, Lolita C. (2010, May 20). U.S. travelers to terror havens a growing worry. Associated Press. Retrieved June 14, 2010 at Eddy, R.P. (2010, May 10). Across the U.S., eyes wide shut: Smaller cities are ignoring homegrown terrorism. The New York Daily News. Retrieved June 14, 2010 at  http://www.nydailynews.com/opinions/2010/05/10/2010-05-10__.html#ixzz0qsBYQsJW 

Elliot, Justin. (2010, June 1). Obama Administration turns focus to homegrown terrorism
View Full Essay

Successful Strategy in Ending the

Words: 4097 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 96982692



With the advantage of Afghanistan, the U.S. And Allies will be geographically positioned against Iran, Pakistan, and negative forces in the Southwest Asia and in the Middle East.

U.S. And Allied Objectives in Afghanistan

he first objective for U.S. And allied forces in Afghanistan is to eradicate outside and hostile threats to the country's infrastructure. he threats which currently exist are:

Al Qaeda and aliban terrorists located mainly on the porous border between Afghanistan and Pakistan

Iranian military readiness and proliferation of nuclear armament

hese threats might at first be considered minimal in comparison to those threats that exist in Iraq, since Iraq borders with Syria, Iran, and is generally a South Asia-Middle East corridor. Afghanistan, however, bordering Iran and Pakistan, while its threats from Iran, Pakistan, and internal radical insurgent forces cannot be minimized and must be considered seriously, and our objectives for Afghanistan reflect an aggressive and proactive…… [Read More]

The United States and the Allied forces will help bring about an environment of safety and security that will allow the Afghani people to begin to experience a normal way of life. That, in and of itself, will at first be difficult, because it has been decades since they have been able to do that. But it is also something that they will very quickly adapt to, and I know that they will work hard to maintain what has been won for them.

By the spring of 2010, municipal projects will begin being undertaken. Housing is high on the list of the many things that must be accomplished. We will help them in this too, and our U.S Corp of Army Engineers will be working closely with Afghanistan's own artisans and tradesmen on these building projects.

We expect to see great progress in the next year in rebuilding the infrastructure, and in eliminating the threat from outside forces that would see this country remain in dire economic and social straits. We hope that by this time next year, we can begin to share and discuss with you the many accomplishments that have been made in Afghanistan during the year 2010.
View Full Essay

Radical How Could a Terrorist

Words: 5491 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43256805

Following from this is the assumption that ideological connections may be the precursor to more definite and practical interactions between these groups and organizations.

In other words, terrorist groups, whether representing different nationalistic and ideological persuasions, can also be linked by shared concerns, objectives and perceptions. The increase in the ease of communications and the Internet has also accelerated the possibly of these connections. This has highlighted the threat of domestic extremists and the possible connections between extremist groupings. There has also been a more directed contemporary focus on the underlying causative facets that motivate and precipitate terrorist actions, resulting in a growing realization that these underlying causative elements in extremist groups can be more important and possibly override national and regional differences.

Cyber-terrorism has become a particularly virulent and dangerous form of terrorism that is not restricted by any regional or international boundaries. Experts agree that this form of…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, M. (2010). Martyrdom, Interrupted. The National Interest 10+. Retrieved from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5041434091 

Ashour, O. (2007). Lions Tamed? An Inquiry into the Causes of De-radicalization of Armed Islamist Movements: the Case of the Egyptian Islamic Group. The Middle East Journal, 61(4).

Beres, L. (1971) the MEANING of TERRORISM. Prepared for COUNTERTERRORISM and SECURITY INTERNATIONAL . Department of Political Science Purdue University. Retrieved from  http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~lberes/terroris.html 

Chowdbury, F. And Hearne, E. ( 2008). Beyond Terrorism: Deradicalization and Disengagement'from Violent Extremism. International Peace Institute. Retrieved from  http://www.ipinst.org/media/pdf/publications/beter.pdf
View Full Essay

U S Israel Relations Israel

Words: 2817 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40386292

This is significant, because it would give the U.S. A way of being able to maintain this kind of balance of power in the region. As the trade embargos / economic sanctions against Iran and Iraq would serve as an example of inappropriate behavior. This is because they were being punished, for different activities that were in violation of international law such as: the support of terrorism or the ability of either government to seek out weapons of mass destruction. The Oslo Accords were a way of being able to maintain this balance, by helping to support a strong ally and addressing the issues being faced by their adversaries. Where, this would undermine the position of hostile regimes; while strengthening the support for the U.S., by providing a frame work for dealing with the Israeli / Palestinian issue. (Massoulile 152 -- 155)

When you put these different elements together, this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Deeb, Dennis. "Brief Overview of the Israeli Palestinian Conflict." The Collapse of Middle East Peace. Lincoln, NE: I Universe, 2003. 1 -- 7. Print.

Freedman, Robert. "The Arab Israeli Conflict." The Middle East and the Peace Process. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 1998. 348 -- 352. Print.

Lochery, Neill. "Security Arrangement in the West Bank and Gaza Strip." The Difficult Road to Peace. Reading, UK: Ithaca Press, 1999. 41 -- 60. Print.

Massoulile, Francois. "What is the Future of the Middle East." Middle East Conflicts. Brooklyn, NY: Interlink Publishing, 2003, 152-155. Print.
View Full Essay

Delimitations Today Modern Business Systems

Words: 20751 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 13650636

A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-

Jacobs at p. 237.
View Full Essay

Terrorism the Objective of This

Words: 1796 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43697324

It is reported that there are two typical organizational structures that terrorist groups use: (1) networked; and (2) hierarchical. (Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2005) the hierarchical structure organizations are those with a "well defined vertical chain of command and responsibility. Information flows up and down organizational channels that correspond to these vertical chains, but may not move horizontally." (Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2005) a network structure is a "variation of several basic nodal concepts, a node being an individual, a cell, another networked organization, or even a hierarchical organization." (Joint Chiefs of Staff, 2005) a terrorist network may be comprised by parts of other organizations including governments which act in a manner that can be exploited to achieve the goals of the organization. Three basic types of network structures exist: (1) chains; (2) hub; and (3) channel. In the hub structure the outer nodes are reported to communicate "with one…… [Read More]

References

Counter-Terrorism (2005) Joint Chiefs of Staff publication 3-26.
View Full Essay

Failures of the UN

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41687985

United Nations: Failures

The United Nations is the result of an international policy experiment that aimed at bringing together the countries of the world in an attempt to avoid conflagrations such as the First and Second World wars from taking place again in the modern history of human kind. The loss of lives in the wars that marked the 20th century determined world leaders and in particular the five great powers that emerged victorious after the Second World War to consider a new political structure that would determine a path of communication, of public diplomacy and ensure a system of constant contact based on international law. lmost seven decades later, no world conflagrations have taken place; yet, the UN is considered to have failed in its attempt to manage regional and local conflicts and avoiding the loss of human life. The late 20th century saw a series of significant failures…… [Read More]

As innocent lives were torn apart, there were individual efforts to take action for the protection. Monique Mujawamariya, a Rwandan human rights activist, personally visited Washington to contact Anthony Lake, a UN National Security Advisor, in order to request extra arms and military assistance to prevent the Hutu extremists from killing her people. However, Anthony Lake responded, "the U.S. has no friends, only interests, and the U.S. has no interest in Rwanda. We have no motivation." He also reminded her about the previous incident in Somalia, where UN troops were killed brutally. He said that he did not want the UN to "return with coffins again." However, the situation in Rwanda was incomparable to the situation in Somalia because there was a public genocide. Despite this urgency, the UN did not even recognize the situation as "genocide."

According to the analysis framework of the UN, the UN defined genocide in 1948 as "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part1; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [and] forcibly transferring children of the group to another group." Nonetheless, there was an increased indifference to the situation in Rwanda, and ambassadors of the UN refused to accept the situation as genocide. However, the massacre of Tutsis in particular by the Hutus is a sign of "deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction." The mere fact that the UN eschewed the gravity of this genocide was a failure of the UN to exercise its intended practices as an international peacekeeping force.

The majority of the UN officials especially in the Security Council simply did not recognize this event as a significant factor or issue during their discussions. Even President Clinton of the United States himself stated in a speech regarding the country's intentions stated that issues ranging from "Rwanda to Georgia" will
View Full Essay

Top Al-Qai'da Leaders Living or

Words: 2514 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 19576481



Richard Reid

Richard Reid, better known as the "shoe bomber" has nearly eight charges held against him. He was arrested as a result of his efforts to demolish a commercial flight using bombs concealed in his shoes. Richard was born in London in 1973. He had a Jamaican father who was in prison for a majority of his childhood. The early separation of his parents reflects family dysfunctionality. Even though he had been educated in one of UK's better schools, the lack of proper family support subjected him to getting involved in several crimes. An interracial background might have resulted in adjustment problems in an environment dominated by whites. He was imprisoned several times, and accepted Islam while at Feltham young offender's institution. On his release Reid became a part in the London based, Brixton Mosque. He made an effort to get involved in mosque proceedings but ended up getting…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bajoria, Jayshree. "al-Qaeda (a.k.a. al-Qaida, al-Qa'ida)," cfr.org Web. 30 Dec. 2009. Web. 4 Dec. 2010.

Gillespie, Thomas W. "Finding Osama bin Laden:an Application of Biogeographic Theories and Satellite Imagery." MIT International Review. 17 Feb. 2009

Laden, Omar Bin."Chapter 4: Born the Son of Osama Bin Laden"

"Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri: Idol of the National Unity." The NEFA FOundation. Dec 14, 2009
View Full Essay

Anti-Arab Racism the Objective of

Words: 3088 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 48277422

This is also possibly the least well-documented phenomenon in the racializing of Arabs and Muslims leading to the widespread acceptance of profiling and related loss of civil liberties." (2002)

The work of Nicole J. Henderson (2001) entitled: "Law Enforcement & Arab-American Community Relations After September 11, 2001" reports a study in which Arabs living in the United States were interviewed. Henderson reports that when asked about hate crimes "...community respondents across sites mentioned fear of government policies, at times equating the detention of Arab men and special registration with hate crimes. Another leader felt that "before 9/11, there were always questions of bias from people -- from individuals -- but not ever about the government and the police." A business leader commented in response to whether or not hate crimes were a problem in his community, "Now we're dealing with another prejudice. Right now, this is a very serious problem…… [Read More]

Bibliography

El-Amine, Rami (2006) Anti-Arab Racism, Islamophobia, and the Anti-War Movement. Left Turn Magazine. 1 Oct. 2006.

Akram, Susan M. (2002) the Aftermath of September 11, 2001: The Targeting of Arabs and Muslims in America. Arab Studies Quarterly March 2002.

Ibish, Hussein and Stewart Anne (2003) Report on Hate Crimes and Discrimination Against Arab-Americans. The Post- September 11 Backlash. American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee. Online available at http://www.adc.org/hatecrimes/pdf/2003_report_web.pdf

Gott, Gil (2005) the Devil We Know: Racial Insubordination and National Security Law. Villanova Law Review 2005. Online available at (http://biblioteca.rrp.upr.edu/LatCritCD/Publications/PublishedSymposium/LCIXVillanova&SetonHall%20(2005)/20LCIXGGot.pdf
View Full Essay

Criminology of Terrorism Terrorism Has

Words: 2351 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75941629

An authoritarian leader gathers members in a cult and isolates them from the mainstream. Bodrero says this does not constitute a problem, unless the group becomes violent. When a leader uses rhetoric and violence to silence internal opposition, Bodrero believes the group may be on the path to violent extrem- ist behavior. Doomsday cults emerge from such dynamics and believe they must take offensive action to bring about the end of the world.

Black Hebrew Israelism is a form of black supremacy. Its origins trace back to the Civil War and were relatively peaceful. Recently, Ben Ami

Ben Israel, also known as Ben Carter, had a vision in Chicago telling him that African- Americans were the true Jews of old and the people who call themselves Jews are impostures. Whites are evil incarnate, descended from the devil. Bodrero (1999) says the most violent aspect of this movement formed in the…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Changing World Map

Words: 4723 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99360523

Governments make and break alliances, treaties, and agreements for financial and political gains, as well as for power and control, all in a constantly fluid manner. Such changes have been taking place as long as there have been countries, so the maneuverings should not be of any surprise; what this paper seeks to do is determine how those ongoing changes reflect the current environment as well as how the alliances will influence governments over the next several years, and decades.

Historical Context -- World War I (1914 -- 1919)

A recent historical report states that "with deliberate deceptions, lies and attempts on all sides to appear as the wronged, it is little wonder that, after a hundred years, there is still no consensus on why the July Crisis escalated into the First World War" (Mombauer, 2014, p. 23). World War I was known as the war to end all wars,…… [Read More]

References

Bilefsky, D. & Baumejan, M.; (2015) Terrorists strike Charlie Hebdo, newspaper in Paris, leaving 12 dead, NY Times accessed on February 27, 2015 at  http://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/08/world/europe/charlie-hebdo-paris-shooting.html 

Bogdanor, V.; (2014) The shadows lengthen, History Today, 64(8)19-25

Bosco, D.; (2014) Assessing the UN Security Council: A concert perspective, Global Governance, 20(4) 545-561

Brinkley, J.; (2013) Islamic terror, World Affairs, 176(2) 43 -- 55
View Full Essay

How Did the Terrorism of the Middle East Develop

Words: 2054 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61244410

drives a person to terrorism?

As Hamid (2008) notes, the drive to become a terrorist can be part of a personal journey that has roots in personal beliefs. For Hamid, those beliefs were religious and rooted in his Islamic conviction. He believed in the words of Mohammed and though he liked Christians as a boy, he was warned against befriending them: "By restricting my contact with Christians, I felt that I was doing a great deed to satisfy Allah" (p. 3). Thus, by not mixing with Christian society, the terrorist-to-be was steeling himself to later inflict harm on a people that he did not really know. So part of what drives a person to be a terrorist might be ignorance. eal-life education on what others are like and why they are not bad could help to prevent people from moving towards terrorism -- but in the case of Hamid, it…… [Read More]

References

Engdahl, W. (2015). Interview 1112 with James Corbett. Corbett Report. Retrieved from  https://www.corbettreport.com/interview-1012-william-engdahl-explains-the-context-of-the-paris-attacks/ 

Escobar, P. (2015). Say Hello to My Cruise Missiles. Asia Times. Retrieved from http://atimes.com/2015/10/say-hello-to-my-cruise-missiles-escobar/

Foreword. (2015). Dabiq, 12: 2-3.

Froese, P., Mencken, F. (2009). A U.S. Holy War? The effects of religion on Iraq War policy attitudes. Social Science Quarterly, 90(1): 103-116.
View Full Essay

Mau - Contrasting Views of

Words: 2957 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27594973

The United Kenya Club was founded in 1946 and was the first multi-racial social organization in Kenya; the organization sponsored concerts and cultural events open to all ethnicities (if you could afford a ticket price). The liberal paternalists pressed for programs that would introduce "profit-making crafts to landless laborers," would "encourage the growth of a prosperous rural elite" and also would encourage progressive agricultural practices among poor peasants. Moreover, the liberal paternalists (Kennedy 248) wished to "instill estern principles of hygiene and child care" among African women and their daughters.

Missionaries were traditionally among the liberal paternalists, Kennedy points out, and when Sir Philip Mitchell became governor of Kenya, he "sought to invigorate the peasant agricultural sector" in order to build a more diversified economy (Kennedy 249). Mitchell also believed "with some justification" that a few of the white leaders among the British settlers "could be persuaded to cooperate in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Clough, Marshall S. 1998. Mau Mau Memoirs: History, Memory, and Politics. Boulder, CO:

Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Edgerton, Robert B. 1989. Mau Mau: An African Crucible. New York: The Free Press.

Elkins, Caroline. 2005. Imperial Reckoning: The Untold Story of Britain's Gulag in Kenya.
View Full Essay

Gujrat Violence Society Is a Synergistic Agreement

Words: 2191 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20069299

Gujrat Violence

Society is a synergistic agreement between different peoples and cultures. In today's modern world any society, it is a conglomeration of people belonging to separate beliefs and cultures. The identity of each culture or group is in fact an indication of the richness and variety in the society and is a pointer of the interaction and civic sense prevalent in them. The success of the society depends on the smoothness with which these sub-groups interact with each other and the levels to which they can adjust with each other. When the balance is upset, there starts the onset of problems, both culturally and in the national level.

The violent incidents that happened in the whole state of Gujarat was unprecedented in the sense that perhaps this was the first time in the history of independent India that human massacre in such a large scale was openly supported by…… [Read More]

References

Frantz Fanon, 1967,

Black Skin White Masks, New York: Grove Press, 1967

Mead George Herbert Mind, Self, and Society, ed. C.W. Morris, University of Chicago 1934

Human rights watch report, 2003, http://hrw.org/wr2k3/asia6.html
View Full Essay

Gay Lesbian Civil Rights

Words: 1626 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30047925

passing of the civil rights protection of homosexuals. This paper presents the views and reasons of the people who oppose the passing of this act. This paper then demonstrates the importance of the passing of this act and how it would benefit the society at large. The paper also highlights certain quotes to support its claim.

Civil Rights Protection of Homosexuals Human beings claim to represent a society that is not only civilized but also just in its ways. hen we as humans can fight for animal's rights, than we can certainly work for the civil rights protection of the homosexuals, who still belong to the category of human beings. Discrimination on the basis of race, class and sexual orientation must be eliminated as much as possible. Man, a creature of God has not been given the liberty to judge between right and wrong. As the bible has said, "There…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dan L. Gays Deserve Their Civil Rights. 20 Apr. 1995. Available on the address http://www.spub.ksu.edu/ISSUES/V099B/SP/n141/opn-gay-rights-lewerenz.html.. Accessed on 11 Nov. 2003.

Darren H. Gay rights For Gay Whites?: Race, Sexual Identity, And Equal Protection

Discourse. Cornell Law Review. 1 Jul. 2000.

Homosexual Agenda. Available on the address  http://www.christianhelps.org/homoagenda.htm . Accessed on 11 Nov. 2003.
View Full Essay

Rise of Hindu Fundamentalism

Words: 5040 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79411220

rise of Hindu Fundamentalism

At the turn of the century, religious fundamentalism has emerged as a well-known trend; a custom of mind found within religious communities and paradigmatically incarnated in certain typical individuals and activities. The harassed supporters try to protect their distinctive group identity by its expressions as a strategy. The supporters strengthen it by selective recovery of doctrines, viewpoint and practices from a sacred past, feeling that this identity will be at danger in the contemporary era. This assortment is cautiously done so that it is not only attractive to the spectators but also satisfactory. Actually, fundamentalist movements selects and chooses cautiously among inherited doctrines and practices, as well as cloaking innovations in the attire of ancient times, it maintains that selective retrieval is only reinstating the ancient ways. (eligious Fundamentalism in India and Beyond)

In a spirit of practicality these recovered fundamentals are polished, tailored and authorized:…… [Read More]

References

Amaladoss, Michael. "Hindu Fundamentalism in Contemporary India." Forum for Liberation Theologies, Annual Report 1999-2000. 9 December 2000.

Retrieved at http://www.theo.kuleuven.ac.be/clt/flt_anrep_9900_3.htm. Accessed on 02/26/2003

Ayodhya." Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 2004. Encyclopedia Britannica. 23 Feb. 2004 Retrieved at http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=380124Accessed on 02/26/2003

Bhambri, C.P. "Hindutva and Multi-Culturalism" The Hindu. December 06, 1998, Pg: 25: Col: a Chatterji, Angana. "For Dissent against Hindu Extremism," July 28, 2002
View Full Essay

Gender and Islam Books the War in

Words: 2440 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 47869654

Gender and Islam Books

The war in Iraq has shone attention on the plight of women in the Middle East. For many scholars, the issue of the rights of women as mandated in Islamic texts and the role of Muslim women in the contemporary Islamic world is one of the most pressing issues.

This paper examines two works that shed light in this regard -- Islam, Gender, and Social Change edited by Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and John L. Esposito and Leila Ahmed's Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate.

Both books provide a rich background of the history and modern-day context women living under the Islamic religion. The first part of this paper gives a summary of selected readings from Islam, Gender, and Social Change and of Ahmed's work. The second part then gives a critique of the works. In the final section, the paper relates…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Media Framing in Relation to

Words: 3388 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 62570744

The argument being advanced is that since, the Muslim extremists were responsible for the 9/11 disaster, the construction of the Muslim religious center would inculcate the jihad teachings and dishonor to the memory of the 9/11 victims. The question one would ask is this, what about the strip clubs, bars and other activities that are zero blocks away from the hallowed ground, do they honor the victims of the attacks. Consequently, it can be argued that Politicians and anti-Muslim groups found an easier way to agitate the crowds by exploitation of their Islamophobic instincts with the aid of the media framing of the issue. In same the interview, what comes out clearly is that Pamela fights against what she perceives as Islamization of America as opposed to Americanization of Islam. he later describes the center, which she refers to as ground zero mosque as a war memorial against the Americans…… [Read More]

Stone, D.A. (2002). Policy paradox: The art of political decision making. New York: Norton.

Payser, a (May 13, 2010).Mosque madness at Ground Zero.

 http://www.nypost.com/p/news/national/mosque_madness_at_ground_zero_OQ34EB0MWS0lXuAnQau5uL
View Full Essay

Changes Terrorism Has Brought to the United States

Words: 3084 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47110667

Terrorism Has Changed the United States

The United States has experienced considerable threats of terrorism in the past decade similar to other parts of the world. This threat has largely emerged from the fact that groups like Al-Qaeda and other terror organizations have continued to pose a significant threat to the United States homeland. Despite the success that the country has achieved in eliminating terror groups and organizations like al-Qaeda, affiliate and extremist groups continue to pose a major threat to the United States. The increase in terrorist activities and incidents in the recent past have contributed to various measures adopted by the United States as well as other countries towards combating terrorism. These efforts have significantly transformed the United States and other countries around the globe with regards to security measures, immigration, and foreign policy.

The Threat of Terrorism to the United States

The United States wasn't officially involved…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gellman, Barton, and Greg Miller. "Black Budget' Summary Details U.S. Spy Network's Successes, Failures and Objectives." The Washington Post. The Washington Post, 29 Aug. 2013. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. .

Green, Matthew. "How 9/11 Changed America: Four Major Lasting Impacts." Online Posting. The Lowdown - Decoding the News. KQED Newsroom, 10 Sept. 2014. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. .

Jenkins, Brian M. "How a Decade of Terror Changed America." RAND Corporation - Objective Analysis, Effective Solutions. RAND Corporation., 30 Dec. 2009. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. .

Plumer, Brad. "Nine Facts about Terrorism in the United States since 9/11." The Washington Post. The Washington Post, 11 Sept. 2013. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. .
View Full Essay

White Supremacists

Words: 1506 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67809726

Aryan Nations -- sociological context

Aryan Nations is an extremist community in the U.S. that uses Christian religious ideology and neo-Nazi types of thinking in an attempt to influence the masses. The group is based on the Church of Jesus Christ Christian, which is itself a branch of the Christian Identity Movement. The group has been reported to engage in a series of illegal activities including acts of terrorism meant to either harm or to intimidate individuals belonging to communities believed to be inferior from the Aryan Nations' point-of-view. The Aryan Nations organization has come to exist as a result of a series of extremists coming together and realizing the influence they could have as a result of engaging in intimidating acts with the purpose to persecute particular groups.

Background

Even with the fact that they are a well-known white supremacist group, there is much controversy with regard to the…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Borgeson, K. & Valeri, R. (2009). "Terrorism in America." Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Merton, R.K. "Insiders and Outsiders: A Chapter in the Sociology of Knowledge." American Journal of Sociology, Volume 78, Issue 1, Varieties of Political Expression in Sociology (Jul., 1972), 9-47

Oliveiro, A. & Lauderdale, P. "Terrorism as Deviance or Social Control Suggestions for Future Research." International Journal of Comparative Sociology 2005; 46; 153.

Powers, K. "When Hate Inhabits Space: The Aryan Nation's use of Free Space in Idaho and the State's Refusal to be defined by the White Power Movement." Kathleen Powers History 400 University of Puget Sound Professor Doug Sackman May, 13, 2011.
View Full Essay

Outline of Policemen of the World Thesis

Words: 1830 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19021626

military, as exemplified in the two (2) real-Life international incidents that you have researched. Justify your response.

America is not merely a superpower -- the nation is also commonly known as the 'Policeman of the World', owing to its many interventions in resolving global issues. Time and again, the world has expected USA to intercede and play the role of mediator when issues crop up around the world. The world feels helpless when the nation hesitates or does not keep up to people's expectation while intervening. Two international incidents in which America opted for an unexpected course while simultaneously striving to keep from regular military action are the Libyan evolution and Syrian Civil War. Other nations' reaction in the former case and the retention of America's position in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) serve to confirm the fact that USA is, indeed, the 'policeman' of the world.

Part 2…… [Read More]

References

Barna II., W. U.S. Military Intervention for Humanitarian Purposes: Exception to Policy or an Emerging Norm? Retrieved from  http://www.hofstra.edu/pdf/library/ulra_military_intervention.pdf 

Blanchard, C. N., Humud, C. E., & Nikitin, M. B. D (2015). Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response. Retrieved from  https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33487.pdf 

Gulf War. Retrieved from  http://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Gulf-War.pdf 

Lindstrom, M. & Zetterlund, K. (2012).Setting the Stage for the Military Intervention in Libya: Decisions Made and Their Implications for the EU and NATO. Retrieved from www.foi.se/.../foir3498.pdf
View Full Essay

Malala Pakistan and the Taliban

Words: 1012 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 83086089

Malala Yousafzai's I am Malala: The Girl Who Stood up for Education and Was Shot by the Taliban is a book about the struggle to obtain an education in the deeply corrupted Pakistan state, where radical Islamic extremists oppress people who disagree with them. Inspired by her father, who was passionate about founding his own school, Malala at a very young age took to promoting the cause of education with her father's help. She would read the classical works of literature by Tolstoy and Jane Austen and write a blog for the BBC describing what it was like to grow up in Pakistan under the Taliban and be a girl seeking an education. This paper will describe the book's main point, the major problem that Malala faced in her country, and my own personal evaluation of the book.

Malala's book is a personal look into the nightmare world that is…… [Read More]

References

Yousafzai, M. (2013). I am Malala: The Girl Who Stood up for Education and was

Shot by the Taliban. UK: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
View Full Essay

Persuasion Techniques Does the Ku

Words: 1945 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 71622686

There are also other aspects that could be included in the study of susceptibility factors, such as unemployment and criminality.

In conclusion, the main technique that the Klan uses to entice and retain members is the ideological component of their dogma and rhetoric. This is supported by factors such as the search for meaning among the youth and fear. The Klan uses fear of poverty, dispossession and other social factors to maintain a hold on their members. These aspects are strengthened and grounded in various religious perceptions and theories, which tend to justify and legitimize the actions of the Klan to existing members, as well as making the society more attractive to newcomers.

ibliography

Summary of the Panel Discussion on Cults. Retrieved November 12, 2008, at http://216.239.59.104/search?q=cache:zw-HeZTvIMJ:www.bcskeptics.info/re/11.02.pdf+What+persuasion+techniques+does+the+Ku+Klux+Klan+use+to+recruit+and+retain+members&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=5&gl=za

Apocalypse: Definition of Key Terms. Retrieved November 13, 2008, at http://csuold.csuohio.edu/english/earl/nr0apoc1.html

evilaqua J. The FI, COINTELPRO-WHITE HATE and the Decline of Ku Klux…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Summary of the Panel Discussion on Cults. Retrieved November 12, 2008, at http://216.239.59.104/search?q=cache:zw-HeZTBvIMJ:www.bcskeptics.info/re/11.02.pdf+What+persuasion+techniques+does+the+Ku+Klux+Klan+use+to+recruit+and+retain+members&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=5&gl=za

Apocalypse: Definition of Key Terms. Retrieved November 13, 2008, at http://csuold.csuohio.edu/english/earl/nr0apoc1.html

Bevilaqua J. The FBI, COINTELPRO-WHITE HATE and the Decline of Ku Klux Klan Organizations in Mississippi, 1964-1971. Mississippi Historical Review. 2004. Retrieved November 13, 2008, at http://educationforum.ipbhost.com/lofiversion/index.php/t11464.html www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006805072

Bostdorff, D.M. (2004). The Internet Rhetoric of the Ku Klux Klan: A Case Study in Web Site Community Building Run Amok. Communication Studies, 55(2), 340+. Retrieved November 13, 2008, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006805072  www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000318309
View Full Essay

U S Interventions in Afghanistan and

Words: 2550 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62701561

The Taliban have many sympathizers in the tribal areas of Pakistan and it is suspected that bin Laden and his lieutenant, and his lieutenant, Ayman al-Zawahiri, may well be in Pakistan (Ibid.) it has also been alleged that the powerful ISI (the Pakistan army's intelligence wing) still has links with the Taliban and elements within the agency are sympathizers of Islamic extremists, who may be surreptitiously helping the Taliban. The U.S. has also been accused of carrying out attacks on alleged hideouts of militants across the Pakistan side of the border by drone and missile attacks that have caused a number of civilian deaths. This has further inflamed anti-American sentiment in Pakistan, where the majority of public opinion was never in favor of the United States, in any case. The U.S. support for Musharraf has also emboldened him to perpetuate his rule as he has recently imposed Emergency, suspended the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Analysis: Who are the Taleban?" BBC News. December 20, 2000. November 23, 2007.  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/144382.stm 

Chapter I: Purposes and Principles." Charter of the United Nations: UN.org. November 23, 2007.  http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/chapter1.htm 

Hassan, Sulman. "The legality of the United States intervention in Afghanistan."

American Studies Today Online. July 15, 2004. November 23, 2007.  http://www.americansc.org.uk/Online/Forum/Afghanlegality.htm
View Full Essay

Jemaah Islamiah Jemaah Islamiyah Is

Words: 4383 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46633607



Religion plays the center part in Jemaah Islamiyah and the extremist religious interpretation is one of the methods of manipulation of the members. In fact, religious teaching is the first step in the recruiting process of almost all Muslim terrorist organizations. As it is the case of Jemaah Islamiyah, religious teachings organized for general audience represent the first stage of the recruitment process as it draws people that are easily manipulated by the extremist interpretation of religious beliefs and that soon become dedicated to jihad. The second stage of the recruitment process is identifying the ones that seem particularly interested in finding out more about the views presented by the teacher. oth of the founders of Jemaah were school teachers.

After identifying in religious education classes the ones that seemed more interested in learning more, the students are introduced to the organization and if they seem eager to be part…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Jemaah Islamiyah, available at  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jemaah_Islamiyah ;

Jemaah Islamiyah, available at  http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/ji.htm ;

Jemaah Islamiyah, available at http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=3613;

Jemaah Islamiyah, available at http://www.rotten.com/library/history/terrorist-organizations/jemaah-islamiah/;
View Full Essay

Islamic Right and Left Any

Words: 2976 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96174777

More recently, reports have begun coming from the Middle East that women will no longer be "expected" to participate in the pilgrimage to Mecca, thereby eliminating women from the holiest rite associated with Islam. Having once done that, it would then be easy to keep women physically, mentally, emotionally isolated within any Muslim society.

Of equal concern is the way in which the Koran is interpreted to facilitate and carry acts of terrorism. The Koran does call for the defense of Islam, that should Islam be threatened, it is the responsibility of every Muslim - presumably, women too - to rise to the defense of Islam."Islamic rulings of warfare are complex, appear to be contradictory and require careful analysis. The simplistic visions of paradise for suicide preached by militant jihadist clerics defy over 1,400 years of Islamic history and wisdom. Yet those like Osama bin Laden, yman al Zawahiri, or…… [Read More]

Aboul-Enein, Y. And Zuhur, S., p. 18.

Answers.com, Zahra Kazemi, found online at  http://www.answers.com/topic/zahra-kazemi , retrieved 10 January 2007

Aboul-Enein, Y. And Zuhur, S., p. 19.
View Full Essay

European Muslims in the Aftermath

Words: 4555 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 647714

These have led to various problem areas which have had a dramatic affect on Muslim life. They include the increase in terror activities in Europe; the rise of anti-Semitism within the Muslim community and the increase in the prevalence of right - wing parties that are often violently opposed in their actions and rhetoric to Islamic fundamentalism.

A fundamental issue that should be considered in attempting to understand the impact of the events of 9/11 on Europe is that these attacks have an effect on the balance between security and civil liberties. In other words, whereas before 9/11 there had been a focus and effort to maintain equilibrium between issues of security and democratic rights for all, including Muslins; yet after 9/11 this balance was upset and the focus tended to move more towards security, with civil rights being neglected. This change in emphasis has had an effect on the…… [Read More]

Reference List www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000735268

Al-Rawandi, I. (2002, Spring). Islam and Armageddon: Looking Behind the Myths. Free Inquiry, 22, 36+. Retrieved March 20, 2006, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000735268  www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007356086

Benthall, J. (2004). Islam in Europe. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 10(3), 733+. Retrieved March 20, 2006, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5007356086  www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008837850

Gottlieb, S.F., Williams, K.J., Dale, L., Balch, M., Wile, F., Kupersmith, W., et al. (2005, March). Islam and Europe. Commentary, 119, 8+. Retrieved March 20, 2006, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008837850  www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102127987

Hunter, S.T. (Ed.). (2002). Islam, Europe's Second Religion: The New Social, Cultural, and Political Landscape / . Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved March 20, 2006, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102127987  www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002489980
View Full Essay

Values in the Contemporary World

Words: 1755 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 77190129

Because of religion, individuals learn that it is best for them to preserve the environment and that they should concentrate on doing everything they can in order for people living in the future to have access to the same resources that they have in the present. Religious leaders and activists as a whole are essential in influencing people to get actively engaged in saving the environment. Similar to how mostly every domain is linked to religion, religious teachings are very important when considering environmentalism and the effect it has on the masses.

In trying to understand religion people should ignore biased thoughts and extremist individuals and should focus more on the morality promoted by religion in general. If interpreted correctly, religion is probable to have a beneficial effect on people, regardless of their background.

orks cited:

Bissett Pratt, James, Eternal Values in Religion (New York: Macmillan, 1950)

Roothaan, Angela, "32…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Bissett Pratt, James, Eternal Values in Religion (New York: Macmillan, 1950)

Roothaan, Angela, "32 What Values Guide Our Oughts?," Is Nature Ever Evil? Religion, Science, and Value, ed. Willem B. Drees (London: Routledge, 2003)

Cooper, David E. And Palmer, Joy A. eds., Spirit of the Environment: Religion, Value, and Environmental Concern (London: Routledge, 1998)

Weber, Max, "Sociology of the World Religions: Introduction," Retrieved May 9, 2011, from the Asahi Website: http://www.ne.jp/asahi/moriyuki/abukuma/weber/world/intro/world_intro.html