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Even thenm once in a while the heads of the more powerful families would meet to work out differences (Meltzer, 1990, pp. 40-41). Still, striking at the mob could not be effected easily by the use of normal investigative methods alone.
Indeed, the failure of the FBI to use even those methods in a concerted manner is noted by Kessler (2002), who reports that Hoover usually claimed that the FBI had no jurisdiction in such cases, which Kessler denies, citing laws on interstate transportation of stolen goods. During the Kennedy Administration, Hoover was forced to admit that organized crime existed and also put more pressure on the mafia as a result. Still, as Kessler (2002) notes, "the bureau still adopted a haphazard, piecemeal approach, charging Mafia figures if they submitted a false loan application to the government, for example. Having been allowed to grow, the Mafia was now difficult to…
Clark, R. (1970). Crime in America. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Kessler, R. (2002). The Bureau: The secret history of the FBI. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Lawrence, J.M. (2001, August 29). FBI aided killer - Hub FBI men helped Mob hit man escape death row. The Boston Herald. Retreived October 29, 2007 at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-77665441.html .
Lawrence, J.M. (2003, June 24). Thug's lawyers say FBI coerced witness. The Boston Herald. Retrieved October 29, 2007 at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-104128330.html .
egardless of these facts, the media failed to put arguments such as these on the front page of the paper because of the control the Administration had on the media channels at the time. It is rather difficult to say the extent to which the independent or small town media actually covered the stories, with its details and discoveries. The internet search can prove more useful, but for the aim of the sociological research, it is not relevant for the case in point, given the fact that the internet is yet to be spread around the world and throughout the U.S. This is why the written media has a more important impact on the population.
The impact and the message sent across were crucial for the U.S. And its president. It offered the legitimacy needed to go to war in Afghanistan and then Iraq. This is largely due to the…
Haas, Ed. No hard evidence connecting Bin Laden to 9/11 . 2006. Retrieved 24 April 2010, from ihttp://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/esp_sociopol_911_93.htm
Global Security. Project Bojinka. 2010. Retrieved 24 April 2010, from http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/profiles/project_bojinka.htm
Washington Post. Two Months Before 9/11, an Urgent Warning to Rice. October 1, 2006. Retrieved 24 April 2010, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/09/30/AR2006093000282.html
What really happened.com. Russia Warned Us of Impending 9-11 Attacks. 2010. Retrieved 24 April 2010, from http://whatreallyhappened.com/WRHARTICLES/russianwarning.html?q=russianwarning.html
However, the Academy of Sciences definition of the term enterprise architecture also extends beyond mere IT architecture, although such architecture will certainly support the Academy's definition. This definition denotes "a detailed characterization of the bureau's goals, tasks, strategies, and key operational processes" (National Academy of Sciences, 2004). These objectives would then be facilitated by IT solutions it implement them.
One of the most important lessons learned in this particular case study is the fact that the lack of support from upper-level management can certainly hamper any efforts towards enterprise level of IT solutions. Although funding was certainly there for Trilogy, many upper level executives did not want to become involved in the process because of the perceived difficulty not only in implementing IT solutions -- thereby linking reams of legacy data from an assortment of disparate silos -- but also because of actual difficulties in getting representatives from different departments…
Pulliam, D. (2006). Review of FBI tech project finds millions in questionable expenses (2006). Government Executive.com, last retrieved December 12, 2011.
McGroddy, J. (2004). Letter to the FBI from the National Academy of Sciences, Committee on the FBI's Trilogy Information Technology Modernization Program, online document, last retrieved December 12, 2011.
National Academy of Sciences. (2004).A Review of the FBI's Trilogy Information Technology Modernization Program, online document, last retrieved December 12, 2011.
The USS Cole Bombing in October 2000 was a prelude to the intense focus on the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) that the FBI took up in earnest one year later in the wake of and in response to 9/11. With the killing of several crewmen and the wounding of several more, the USS Cole Bombing was in reality just one more terrorist incident in an already growing line of attacks (both foreign and domestic) that revealed a pressing need for a counterproliferation strategy. When the USS Cole was hit in Aden harbor, the FBI began focusing on suspects who would later be tied to 9/11 and the spread of terror cells throughout the Middle East.[footnoteRef:2] It was not, of course, the only incident to spark that focus—but it was an important factor in the development of a new counterproliferation strategy that would inevitably become the plan…
Criminal Justice Issues
Since there is no official legal definition of sexual homicide, therefore sexual homicide cannot be truly characterized as criminal behavior.
Although there is no specific legal definition for sexual homicide, homicides that are listed as "criminal" include the killing of humans by either murder or manslaughter, so a closer look at what "sexual homicide" really refers to is warranted. In the book Sexual Murder: Catathymic and Compulsive Homicides, Louis B. Schlesinger explains that there is a "blurred distinction between a sexual murderer and a sex offender who commits a murder" (Schlesinger, 2003, p. 6). The sexual offender who murders his victim may not have intended to commit the murder at all; the victim may have resisted and the offender responded violently and killed the person. Hence, Schlesinger writes that this was not a "sexually motivated" murder because murder wasn't on the mind of the killer at…
Douglas, J.E., Burgess, A.W., and Ressler, R.K. (2008). Sexual Homicide: Patterns and Motives -- Paperback. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Schlesinger, L.B. (2003). Sexual Murder: Catathymic and Compulsive Homicides. Bocas Raton, FL: CRC Press.
FBI vs. Apple in elation to the Patriot Act
America is divided over the tradeoff between personal privacy and security needs. The focus is, now, on the government surveillance, but there are concerns over how data is being used by businesses. The issue was raised after the federal court was requested to force Apple to assist the FBI to unlock one of the phones used by a suspect in the terrorist attack carried out in December 2015 in San Bernardino, Californian (ainie and Maniam, 2016). Apple petitioned the order to safeguard the security of other iPhone users. This provoked a national conversation on how far the technological firms should go in as far as protecting their privacy and cooperating with law enforcement agencies is concerned.
The unfolding events have had an impact on how the public feels about the issue. Terrorism generates a lot of anxiety. A good example is…
Appalachian State University, (2016). The U.S.A. Patriot Act. Retrieved from http://gjs.appstate.edu/media-coverage-crime-and-criminal-justice/usa-patriot-actCenter for Constitutional Rights (2002). The state of civil liberties: One year later. Erosion of civil liberties in the post 9/11 era. Retrieved from http://www.ccr-ny.org/v2/reports/docs/Civil_Liberities.pdf
Doyle, C. (2001). Terrorism: Section by Section Analysis of the U.S.A. Patriot Act. Washington, D. C.: Congressional Research Service.
Editorial Board, (February 19, 2016). The FBI vs. Apple: The White House should have avoided this legal and security showdown. The Wall Street JournalKharpal, A. (29 Mar 2016). Apple vs. FBI: All you need to know. CNBC. Retrieved from http://www.cnbc.com/2016/03/29/apple-vs.-fbi-all-you-need-to-know.htmlMcCarthy , M.T. (2002). Recent Developments: USA Patriot Act. Harvard Journal on Legislation. 39(Summer 2002): 435-6.
RAINIE, L. AND MANIAM, S. (FEBRUARY 19, 2016). Americans feel the tensions between privacy and security concerns. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/02/19/americans-feel-the-tensions-between-privacy-and-security-concerns/
There have been several attempts in the past to resolve cultural conflicts between the two groups. The need to develop greater cooperation is a shared goal. In the 1990s, the FBI and CIA formed a group of top executives called the Gang of Eight, whose purpose was to attempt o resolve the cultural divide between the two groups. This group encouraged an exchange program where members of the CIA and members of the FBI would work for the other organization so that they would learn more about how the other one worked (Gorman, 2001).
In 1999, it was determined that the efforts at cooperation had been successful. They felt that they had accomplished their goals and that their work was done (Gorman, 2001). However, after 9/11 the old feud was rekindled as each side attempted to shift blame to the other one. This represents a transactive goal and a dysfunctional…
Garamone, J. (2005). CIA, FBI Chiefs Categorize Terror Threat Before Senate. February 16, 2005. American Forces Press Service. Retrieved March 24, 2007 at http://www.defenselink.mil/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=25874 .
Gorman, S. (2007). FBI, CIA remain worlds apart. National Journal Group Inc. Retrieved March 24, 2007 at http://www.govexec.com/dailyfed/0803/080103nj1.htm .
Grebb, M. (2003). Spy Groups Tight-Fisted With Data. February 27, 2003. Wired News.
Retrieved March 24, 2007 at
Zalmai Azmi, the FBI's chief information officer for the last year realized the need for change, even if it would garner political heat, and decided to implement changes to the organization known as the FBI. The change was related to the growing innovation behind technology and the September 11th attacks. The FBI's technological upgrade has been seen by some as lacking efficacy and reliability. Software dilemmas appear to be piling up. The FBI effectively abandoned its custom-built Internet surveillance technology, code name, Carnivore. This software was designed to read e-mails and other online communications in relation to suspected criminals, terrorists and spies, according to bureau oversight reports submitted to Congress.
To remedy the failure of the software, the FBI decided to switch gears and use an unspecified commercial software to eavesdrop on computer traffic where they would pay ISPs to monitor and wiretap their customers, the customers the FBI believes…
Alsikhan, M. (2013) Who Killed the Virtual Case File? By Mohanad Alsikhan. [online] Available at: http://malsikhan.net/?p=12 [Accessed: 23 Apr 2013].
Dizard, W. (2005) Sentinel project to replace FBI's abandoned Virtual Case File effort -- GCN. [online] Available at: http://gcn.com/articles/2005/05/13/sentinel-project-to-replace-fbis-abandoned-virtual-case-file-effort.aspx [Accessed: 22 Apr 2013].
Eggen, D. And Witte, G. (2006) The FBI's Upgrade That Wasn't. [online] Available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/17/AR2006081701485.html [Accessed: 23 Apr 2013].
Emeraldinsight.com (1988) Untitled. [online] Available at: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/bibliographic_databases.htm?id=1592700&show=abstract [Accessed: 24 Apr 2013].
This paper addresses the FBI and its agents lacking funds to live in major cities where they must work. The major issue is the lack of control within the FBI and the risk that agents will fall to corruption.
With the FBI in dangerous territory due to budget restrictions and funding issues, the fear that the Director faces is one that could undermine the entire Bureau. If the Bureau cannot afford to pay its agents fair wages, those agents—who are privy to all manner of intelligence—become susceptible to fraud, bribery, kickbacks, and other types of corruption just to make ends meet. Already this is being seen with cases of FBI agents like Robert Lustyik, convicted of bribery (Clark, 2015; Huynh, 2015). Preventing this type of situation would be the best type of control to implement, as the situation presented in the case given to the Director is what…
Clark, W. (2015). Protecting the Privacies of Digital Life: Riley v. California, the Fourth Amendment\\'s Particularity Requirement, and Search Protocols for Cell Phone Search Warrants. BCL Rev., 56, 1981.
FTC. (2016). Fundraisers calling on behalf of police and firefighters. Retrieved from https://www.consumer.ftc.gov/articles/0085-fundraisers-calling-behalf-police-and-firefighters
Huynh, A. D. (2015). What Comes after Get a Warrant: Balancing Particularity and Practicality in Mobile Device Search Warrants Post-Riley. Cornell L. Rev., 101, 187.
Mueller, R. (2003). Before the House of Representatives Committee on Appropriations,Subcommittee on the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies, Washington DC. Retrieved from https://archives.fbi.gov/archives/news/testimony/progress-report-on-the-reorganization-and-refocus-of-the-fbi
Scott, P. D. (2017). The American Deep State. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Solomon, J. (2017). FBI informant gathered years of evidence. Retrieved from http://thehill.com/homenews/administration/361276-fbi-informant-gathered-years-of-evidence-on-russian-push-for-us
Warren, M. E. (Ed.). (1999). Democracy and trust. Cambridge University Press.
Apple vs. FBI
What is this controversy about?
A federal court judge approached Apple, in the month of February, to seek assistance for the Federal Bureau of Investigation, in unlocking an iPhone that was seized from Syed Farook, the man charged with committing the San Bernardino shootings in December that claimed fourteen lives. Apple was asked to offer reasonable technical aid to American authorities; this would entail overhauling of the system by which phones get disabled after ten wrong passwords are keyed in. As soon as this system gets activated, phone data cannot be accessed at all. Apple refused to aid the FBI. Apple's CEO, Tim Cook, claimed the order was 'chilling', stating that they would have to write new software, which had to be the master key that could unlock several million locks. Cook argued that even if one phone became accessible to the FBI, there was no telling…
Human development- behavioral shifts in human being that tae place during the course of an entire lifespan ("Human Behavior").
Risk Analysis- the activity of determining and analyzing the dangerous natural and human caused negative events. This analysis takes into consideration the risks these event pose to businesses individuals and governments. ithin the domain of information technology risk analysis reports are utilized to tailor technology-related objectives with a an organization's business objectives. Such reports are either quantitative or qualitative ("hat is Risk analysis").
Risk management - includes policies, procedures, and practices needed to identify, analyze, assess, control, and avoid, minimize, or eliminate of intolerable risks. An organization may use risk retention, risk assumption, risk avoidance, risk transfer, or any other strategy to efficiently manage events that might occur in the future ("Risk Management").
The correlation between software development, risk analysis, risk management and human behavior is a complex association.…
"10 Top IT Disasters." (2007) Retrieved June 5, 2009 from http://www.itepistemology.com/2007/11/10-top-it-disasters-by-zdnet-plus-one.html
Barrett Devlin (2009) Computer virus strikes U.S. Marshals, FBI affected. Associated Press. Retrieved June 1, 2009 fromhttp://www.boston.com/news/nation/washington/articles/2009/05/21/apnewbreak_virus_attacks_us_marshals_computers/
Charette, R.N.2005. Why Software Fail, IEEE Spectrum, 42
S. policy regarding limiting numbers from rising too high. Although around 2,000 refugees in Iraq arrive in the United States per year, there have been many denials. What Pincus points out is that the policy regarding dealing with these refugees is improving to better help provide them a safe environment.
This improved policy on immigration of war refugees coming out of Iraq will most defiantly disperse this group within a wider spectrum of the population. This dispersion will also spread the real life stories of those refugees who actually lived in the war zone, thousands of miles from American soil. Here is where Hamid's opinions start to take over.
Mohsin Hamid would definitely explore this topic as a way for ignorant Americans to get a first hand account of U.S. foreign policy. Increasing numbers of war refugees will bring a new face, much more real; to the war on terror…
The FBI, Counterproliferation, and Weapons of Mass Destruction
The United States government significantly increased activities in programs involved in the protection of the nation and the world against weapons of mass destruction (WMD) in 2009 and 2010. The Obama Administration, in December 2009, gave a presidential policy directive aimed at countering biological threats with a focus on infectious illnesses whether such threats were manmade or natural. It was the second such directive the Administration had issued. The Quadrennial Defense Review in 2010 emphasized on how WMD’s proliferation was a threat to global security. In April of the same year, the Administration unclassified the Nuclear Posture Review for the first time and it was released alongside the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty. The treaty was aimed at lowering the number of deployable US and Russian weapons. Representatives drawn from all over the world met in May with a goal of renewing the…
FBI Financial Analysis
Stock symbol FBI belongs to the Alkis H. Hadjikyriakos company in Nicosia, Cyprus, also known as Frou Biscuits. The company "is engaged in the food sector. The Company is the parent company of the Frou Group of Companies and is mainly active in the manufacturing of biscuits and snack foods" (CreditiskMonitor, 2011). Founded in 1964 the Frou group deals in much more than just biscuits. Information on the company's website says that;
"Other companies of the Group are Frou Cereals Ltd., which is active in the manufacture of breakfast cereals; Spinneys Cyprus Ltd., which imports and distributes foodstuffs, and personal care and household products; Frou Investments Ltd., an investment portfolio company; Athalassa Farm Ltd., which is engaged in the property sector, and Haris M. Hadjikyriacos (Holdings & Management) Ltd., which provides investment and asset management services" (CreditiskMonitor, 2011).
Frou Frou group has continued to expand…
BusinessWeek. (2011). Alkis H. Hadjikyriakos (FBI:Nicosia). Retrieved from http://investing.businessweek.com/research/stocks/snapshot/snapshot.asp?ticker =FBI:CY
CreditRiskMonitor. (2011). Alkis Hadjikyriacos (Frou-Frou Biscuits) preview. Retrieved from http://www.crmz.com/Report/ReportPreview.asp?BusinessId=8242706
Frou Frou Group. (2011). Investor information. Retrieved from http://www.froufrou.com.cy/financial10.html
FBI Digital Forensic Services
Requirements for employment as a member of an FBI CART
In order for one to become a member of the FBI CART team they need to have exceptional problem solving and analytical skills, thorough understanding of computers and computer systems and cyber and computer crime investigation. This is because CART offers assistance to the FBI field offices when it comes to the search and seizure of computer evidence. This team is charged with the performance of forensic examinations for all FBI seizures that are related to technology and computers. Therefore, computer forensics is a mandatory requirement for this position. The potential candidate should have a bachelor’s degree in an IT-related field. However, they should have a major in computer forensics. A candidate is required to have good communication skills since they will be required to communicate effectively their findings to other non-technical individuals or officers. Detail-oriented…
New IT Infrastructure at the FBI
There appear to be room for improvement in the current situation at the FBI. The results of the research indicated a number of potential areas of improvement, these concern the tangible and the intangible aspects of the department. The initial research clearly indicated the department was stretched, with a number of tensions in the way budgets were allocated and used. There can be little doubt the FBI will be under constant pressure to ensure their systems remain up to date in order to undertake its task, which support millions of Americans. With the problems associated with the bureaucratic procedures, there are a number of dangers faced in the FBI, including the mismatch between the budget needs and the timing of the allocation and receipt of funds. The current system is aging, therefore, the solution suggested has been the development of a new, state of…
Cucciniello, M., & Nasi, G. (2014). Transparency for Trust in Government: How Effective is Formal Transparency? International Journal of Public Administration, 37(13), 911 -- 921.
Holloway, S. (2015). Our Place Guide to Cost-Benefit Analysis. Retrieved from http://mycommunity.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Our-Place_CBA-guide_FINAL_eginc.pdf
Kotter, J. P. (1996). Leading Change. London: Blackwell.
UCR and NIBRS
Two of the primary data sources used in modern criminological research are the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). The UCR, compiled and published by the FBI, has been in existence for nearly a century and is the most well-known data set in the field of criminal justice (Maltz & Targonski, 2002). The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is another data source of the FBI but it classifies crime statistics differently than UCR, and its purpose has been “to enhance the quantity, quality, and timeliness of crime data collection ... and to improve the methodology used in compiling, analyzing, auditing, and publishing the collected crime statistics” (US Department of Justice, 2000, p. 1). This paper will compare and contrast these two crime data sources in terms of methodological procedures and implications between the two.
The UCR collects monthly aggregate crime…
Addington, L. A. (2004). The effect of NIBRS reporting on item missing data in murder cases. Homicide Studies, 8(3), 193-213.
Addington, L. A. (2008). Assessing the extent of nonresponse bias on NIBRS estimates of violent crime. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(1), 32-49.
Biderman, A. D., & Lynch, J. P. (2012). Understanding crime incidence statistics: Why the UCR diverges from the NCS. Springer Science & Business Media.
Daly, K. (2016). What is restorative justice? Fresh answers to a vexed question. Victims & Offenders, 11(1), 9-29.
Maltz, M. D., & Targonski, J. (2002). A note on the use of county-level UCR data. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 18(3), 297-318.
Menard, S., & Covey, H. C. (1988). UCR and NCS: Comparisons over space and time. Journal of Criminal Justice, 16(5), 371-384.
Nolan, J., Haas, S. M., Lester, T. K., Kirby, J., & Jira, C. (2006). Establishing the “Statistical Accuracy” of Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) in West Virginia. West Virginia Criminal Justice Statistical Analysis Center, Charleston.
Odunze, D. O. (2019). Uniform Crime Report (UCR) and 2012 Redesign. The Encyclopedia of Women and Crime, 1-3.
Soon after the failure of the raid, ATF surrendered control of the scene to the FBI and withdrew to a supporting role. Subsequent handling of the events proves that the leadership in FBI was similarly lacking. After 51 days of stand-off at Mt. Carmel during which unsuccessful negotiations were held with David Koresh for the surrender of the sect members, a massive assault with tear gas and tanks was ordered by the FBI. Soon after the attack, the Davidian compound was engulfed by fire in which 76 Davidians including 27 children were burned alive. The Davidians were "officially" blamed for starting the fire but on September 1, 1999 videotapes containing footage of pyrotechnic tear gas rounds being fired at the Mt. Carmel complex were seized from the FBI headquarters by the Justice department. Throughout the investigations, the FBI leadership maintained that none of its agents fired guns at…
Lynch, Timothy. (2001). "An Unofficial Account of the Waco Incident." Cato Institute. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 at http://www.apologeticsindex.org/pa395.pdf
Vizzard, William J. (1997). In the Cross Fire: A Political History of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. Lynne Rienner Publishers: Boulder, CO.
A the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms
Vernon Wayne Howell, who later took the name -- David Koresh
Breach of Faith
Over the course of twenty-two years, from 1979 to 2001, Robert Hanssen participated in what is possibly the most severe breach of national intelligence in the United States' history. hrough a combination of skill and sheer luck, Hanssen was able to pass critical information from his job at the FBI to Soviet and later Russian intelligence agencies, information that may have contributed to the capture and execution of a number of individuals. Hanssen's case is particularly interesting because it takes place over the course of two decades that included the end of the Cold War and the beginning of the internet age, and as such examining the various means by which Hanssen was able to breach security offers extra insight into the security threats, new and old, that face those tasked with protecting sensitive government information. Ultimately, the Hanssen case reveals a number of ongoing vulnerabilities concerning…
The first substantial action that could be taken to help ensure future breaches do not occur is a reorganization of the FBI's security and intelligence functions. The Webster Commission compared the FBI's organization of its security functions with the rest of the Intelligence Community and found that, "in sharp contrast to other agencies," the FBI's security and intelligence functions "are fragmented, with security responsibilities spread across eight Headquarters divisions and fifty-six field offices" (Webster, 2002, p. 4). This fragmentation of security functions dramatically increases the likelihood of a breach because it means that the overall security apparatus is that much more porous, with adequate, lacking, or inconsistent oversight depending on particular Headquarters or field office.
To combat this phenomenon, the Webster Commission recommended that the Bureau establish an Office of Security tasked with, among other things, consolidating security functions under a senior executive" in order to "prompt management to focus on security, resolve conflicts between operational and security objectives, and foster Headquarters and field coordination" (Webster, 2002, p. 4). The FBI did not establish an Office of Security, which would have meant a high level office reporting directly to the deputy director, but rather in 2005 established the National Security Branch, a lower-level division responsible for Counterterrorism, Counterintelligence, Intelligence, and Weapons of Mass Destruction (Holder, 2011, & FBI, 2012). Even with the consolidation of these security-related functions under one Branch, the FBI's security functions still remain fragmented and ultimately lacking. For example, while Counterintelligence and Intelligence are both divisions of the National Security Branch, a Security Division still remains under the control of the Associate Deputy Director. Furthermore, the Bureau still lacks one of the most important assets recommended by the Webster Commission: a unit dedicated to information system security, clearly an important aspect of overall security considering that much of Hanssen's success depended on being able to use the FBI's automated databases without fear of being flagged for suspicious behavior, or even identified at all (Webster, 2002, p. 4).
Just as the FBI's security issues prior to Hanssen's arrest were microcosmic of the larger problems facing the Intelligence Community prior to the attacks of September 2001, so too is the FBI's failure to institute necessary reforms while exacerbating existing problems microcosmic of the difficulties facing the Intelligence Community in its attempts to institute the intelligence reforms passed in the wake of 9/11. Though the FBI's National Security Branch was born out of a presidential directive and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence out of an act of Congress, both organizations represent attempts to fix security and intelligence
In the United States during the 1960s, the nation was in a period of social turmoil. The post-orld ar II suburban culture was giving way to rebellion and revolution and a total upset of the status quo. Particularly in the school and universities, educated members of the youth population began to question the rules and morays established by their predecessors and became determined to change things. This did not sit well with the older Americans, those who had fought in the world wars or Korea and who had taken over the guardianship of the country, this included holding positions of political power in the United States government. Those in power did not trust the youth movement and were highly suspicious of their activities. To understand them and determine if the youth were a threat to the government, a program was designed to covertly spy on the activities of members…
FBI document. (1969). Director FBI to SAC San Francisco. FBI Reading Room.
Glick, B. (1989). The War at Home: Covert Action against U.S. Activists and What We Can Do
About It. South End: Boston.
Haak, N. (2011). Preying on the panther: the FBI's covert war against the Black Panther Party
Sheriff Jim Jones has a propensity to denigrate minorities. He has a team of investigating officers that all belong to the Caucasian race. It implies that Sheriff Jones has recruited his team on a racial basis rather than on professional grounds. The impact of Sheriff Jones leadership is negative, and he was a highly relationship-oriented leader. Cooperation with the FBI team regarding the recent murder has also jeopardized due to Sheriff's non-cooperation with members of the FBI team. Community relations, the objectives of investigation, and the departmental reputation are put at stake due to the immoral behavior of Sheriff Jones.
What effect would this have on his leadership role with his officers? Explain.
The dominant perspective in the contemporary world is that team diversity is an appropriate team management approach to avoid discrimination. This also leads to add variety and organizational effectiveness (Thomas and Ely, 1996) to the company. Diversity…
Bezrukova, K., Thatcher, S., Jehn, K.A., & Spell, C.S. (2012). The effects of alignments: Examining group faultiness, organizational cultures, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(1), 77.
Brooke, J.K., & Tyler, T.R. (2010). Diversity and Corporate Performance: A Review of the Psychological Literature. NCL Rev., 89, 715-748.
Dal Bo, E., & Tervio, M. (2013). Self-esteem, moral capital and wrongdoing. Journal of the European Economic Association, 11(3), 599-663.
Dreachslin, J.L., Hunt, P.L., & Sprainer, E. (2000). Workforce diversity: implications for the effectiveness of health care delivery teams. Social science & medicine, 50(10), 1403-1414.
Vasiliy Gorshkov and Alexey Ivanov v. The FBI
There is much controversy with regard to the FBI's involvement in capturing Russian cyber criminals Vasiliy Gorshkov and Alexey Ivanov, taking into account the unorthodox method the bureau used. Many are likely to consider that such actions are against principles associated with law enforcement and that the authorities were wrong in taking on such attitudes. However, when considering the contemporary society being a place where the general public unites against crime, it would be safe to say that the FBI acted on behalf of the whole world at the time when it decided to go through with their plan.
Gorshkov and Ivanov were responsible for having performed a series of illegalities like stealing credit card information, deleting important information on the servers of particular U.S. companies, and attempting to persuade some of these respective companies to hire them in exchange of the…
Ghosch, S., & Turrini, E. (2010). "Cybercrimes: A Multidisciplinary Analysis: A Multidisciplinary Analysis." Springer.
Lemieux, F. (2013). "International Police Cooperation: Emerging Issues, Theory and Practice." Routledge.
Purpura, F. (1997). "Criminal Justice: An Introduction." Elsevier.
Schroeder, S. (2012). "The Lure:: The True Story of How the Department of Justice Brought Down Two of the World's Most Dangerous Cyber Criminals." Cengage Learning.
Through experience, the FBI has acquired insights into the fact that there are no dividing lines distinguishing foreign intelligence, terrorist and criminal activities. Foreign intelligence, terrorism, and criminal organizations and activities are interdependent and interrelated (Abele, 2005). Files belonging to the FBI are full of investigation cases where the sharing of information between criminal intelligence, counterintelligence, and counterterrorism investigations is essential to the ability of the FBI. This is in regards to the protection of the nation from criminal activities, foreign intelligence activity, and terrorists. Some investigations beginning as counterintelligence investigations end up becoming criminal cases. In some cases, the FBI initiates the counterterrorism, counterintelligence, or parallel criminal cases in maximizing their ability to conduct effective investigations. This has helped in addressing and identifying various threats to the U.S. hence implementing protective measures to protect vulnerable methods and sources. The success in the provision of accurate assessments of intelligence threats…
Abele, R.P. (2005). A user's guide to the U.S. Patriot Act and beyond. Lanham, MD: Univ. Press of America.
Alexander, Y., & Kraft, M. (2008). Evolution of U.S. counterterrorism policy. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.
Bidgoli, H. (2006). Handbook of Information Security Volume 2. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Dempsey, J.S., & Forst, L.S. (2012). An introduction to policing. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning.
Domestic Intelligence Agency
The Necessity of Establishing a New Domestic Intelligence Agency
In response to a call for a new Domestic Intelligence Agency, the FI National Press Office released a statement in 2006 that indicated the strides the ureau had made in "becoming" an "intelligence-driven organization" since 9/11.
The letter's intent was to show the illogicality of those wishing to "tear apart the ureau" in order to "start a new agency." As Assistant Director of the FI, John Miller asked, "How long would it take this new agency to get rolling? A year? Two? What would it use for a database? How would it address privacy and civil liberties? How long would it take the officers of this new agency to develop trusting relationships with America's 18,000 local law enforcement agencies?"
Miller's questions were both pertinent and revealing of precisely what a successful Domestic Intelligence Agency would require. Even the…
Burch, James. "A Domestic Intelligence Agency for the United States? A Comparative
Analysis of Domestic Intelligence Agencies and Their Implications for Homeland Security, Homeland Security Affairs 3, No. 2 (June 2007).
CNN. "U.S. policymakers mull creation of domestic intelligence agency, CNN.com, Oct
20, 2008, http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/10/20/domestic.intelligence.agency / (accessed July 8, 2013).
Is the author clear in her objective? I would say she is absolutely certain of what she is talking about. Her intended audience is the average American who has recently been bombarded with threats of intrusion. The average American however is not living in constant fear, as government wants us to believe. Citizens are intelligent and aware enough to understand the limits of fear, the scope of government's authority and the impact of unnecessary intrusion.
What makes the essay better than other similar opinion pieces is author's dispassionate stance on the issue. She has the same concerns as everyone else but has presented them very objectively as to make the argument based more on logic than passion alone. The government has lately become very intrusive and not everyone welcomes this unwanted monitoring. In fact, most people resent it deeply because not only does it violate their constitutional rights, it…
Gelsey, Zara, Humanist, WHO'S READING OVER YOUR SHOULDER
Sep/Oct2002, Vol. 62 Issue
S. directly. Evidently, the long-term objectives indirectly face the smooth running of the U.S. government. Priority should be given to those aspects that will pull the resources of the country to extreme levels. The U.S. As a super-power is privileged when tackling issues affecting other nations; it is mandated to help developing long-term solutions.
Long-term also implies that the impacts and effects need to be widespread in order to maintain balance and ensure the prosperity of all sectors is recognized. The above long-term objectives are issues that need time and resources in order to be able to resolve the issue that affects the stability of these countries among other issues. The Soviet Union, for example, is crying to have political relations with ussia. This means that the military forces will be deployed to this country. However, the negotiation process is hefty and requires time and adequate resources in order to…
Bruce, J. & Bennett, M. (2008). "Foreign Denial and Deception: Analytical Imperatives,"
Analyzing Intelligence: Origins, Obstacles, and Innovations. Washington, DC:
Burch, J. (2008). The Domestic Intelligence Gap: Progress Since 9/11? Homeland Security
Effect on Leadership Role with His Officers
Sheriff Jones’ priorities influence his leadership behavior and the conduct of the other officers. His leadership style would resemble a transactional model as discussed in the management module. This leadership approach is premised on the idea that a quid pro quo occurs between a leader and his followers (Scott & Byrd, 2012). In such a case, the leader specifies the conditions under which the subordinates must work, and the subordinates perform what is expected of them. Moreover, his leadership role could be affected by his junior officers since his actions will directly influence their beliefs, attitudes, and values. It is believed that subordinates could significantly affect the Sheriff’s leadership of his people .and the judiciousness with which he uses his coercive authority. Such an influence could generate greater congruence between the officers’ attitudes and the Sheriff’s expectations hence increase the consistency between the…
MS-13 -- the focus of a nationwide crackdown by FBI and federal immigration agents -- has become known in recent years for home invasion robberies, drug dealing and machete attacks on its enemies. however, after the sweeping chaos across America, the FBI has heightened concerns that MS-13 could be far more dangerous than thought.
Mara Salvatrucha, or MS-13, continues to expand its influence in the United States. FBI investigations reveal that it is present in almost every state and continues to grow its membership, now targeting younger recruits more than ever before.
To counteract this growth, the FBI formed the MS-13 National Gang Task Force in December 2004. Based at FBI Headquarters, this intelligence-driven task force combines the expertise, resources, and jurisdiction of federal agencies that investigate this violent international street gang. It focuses on maximizing the flow of information and intelligence, coordinating investigations nationally and internationally, and helping state…
Electronic visa application begins for visa waiver countries. (2009). Foreign Policy Bulletin, 19(1), 40-57. doi:10.1017/S1052703609000525
Boatright, L.R. (2006). "Clear eye for the state guy": Clarifying authority and trusting federalism to increase nonfederal assistance with immigration enforcement*. Texas Law Review, 84(6), 1633-1674. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/203710946?accountid=34899
Donohue, L.K. (2006). Anglo-american privacy and surveillance. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 96(3), 1059-1208. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/218394830?accountid=34899
Hamm, M.S. (2009). Prison islam in the age of sacred terror. The British Journal of Criminology, 49(5), 667-685. doi:10.1093/bjc/azp035
Earth Liberation Front (ELF)
ELF Logo 2009 (Earth Liberation Front, N.d.)
Examples of Eco-Terrorism Groups
The Earth Liberation Front
If a Tree Falls in the oods: A Story of the Earth Liberation Front (Documentary)
There are many people and/or groups who claim responsibility for the Earth Liberation Front's (ELF) development. The group is comprised of loosely affiliated or autonomous cells that are only bound by the idea that they can move beyond civil disobedience and accept more contentious tactics for the defense of their environmental causes. This group was one of the groups that helped coined the label of an "eco-terrorist" which later became mainstream label of such types of offenders. The ELF group was considered one of the first eco-terrorist groups and was at one time labeled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as the most dangerous domestic terror group in the United States.
Earth Liberation Front. (N.d.). Earth Liberation Front. Retrieved from Earth Liberation Front: http://earth-liberation-front.com/
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (N.d.). Definitions of Terrorism in the U.S. Code. Retrieved from Federal Bureau of Investigation: http://www.fbi.gov/about -us/investigate/terrorism/terrorism-definition
Jarboe, J. (2002, February 12). Testimony Before the House Resources Committee, Subcommittee on Forests and Forest Health. Retrieved from Federal Bureau of Investigation: http://www.fbi.gov/news/testimony/the-threat-of-eco-terrorism
Libcom.org. (2012, January 12). If a tree falls: A story of the Earth Liberation Front (documentary). Retrieved from Libcom.org: http://libcom.org/blog/if-tree-falls-story-earth-liberation-front-documentary-12012012
The U.S. Marshal Service position involves perhaps more dangerous duties than that of the FBI agent. esponsiblities include locating fugitives, going on lengthy assignments that often involve surveillance and stakeouts. Accordingly, essential skills include patience. It is also noted that agents working for the U.S. Marshal Service should be experienced, organized writers who can efficiently file reports. The video also noted that those with experience in law enforcement stand a greater chance of getting hired.
My qualifications for the U.S. Marshal Service position are similar to my strengths regarding the FBI agent position. I am an accomplished, lucid writer and my strong physical build would assist me when engaged on dangerous assignments. Additionally, my itinerant upbringing makes me uniquely qualified for extended, two-week assignments. Although I do not have experience in law enforcement, I feel my skills in other areas more than compensate for this particular deficit.
The ICE Special…
German, Mike. (2007). Thinking Like a Terrorist: Insights of a Former FBI Agent. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books, Inc.
Blumstein, a., Farrington, D., & Piquero, a.R. (2003). The criminal career paradigm. Crime and Justice, 30, 359-506.
Are Fingerprint Identifications Such that Can be Considered Valid Evidence
Fingerprint identification is a means of personal identification that is infallible and this is the reason that fingerprints have replaced other methods of identification of criminals. The science of fingerprint identification is stated to stand out among all other forensic sciences for the following reasons: (1) fingerprint identification has served governments across the globe for more than 100 years in the provision of accurate identification of criminals. In billions of human and automated computer, comparisons there are no two fingerprints found to be alike. Fingerprints are the basis for criminal history in every law enforcement agency worldwide; (2) the first forensic professional organization, the International Association for Identification (IAI) was established in 1915; (3) the first professional certification program for forensic scientists was established in 1977; (3) fingerprint identification is the most commonly used of all forensic evidence…
Cherry, Michael and Imwinkelreid, Edward (2006) How we can improve the reliability of fingerprint identification. Judicature. Vol. 90, No.2. September-October 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.ajs.org/ajs/publications/Judicature_PDFs/902/Cherry_902.pdf
Fingerprint Identification (2012) FBI. Retrieved from: http://www.fbi.gov/about -us/cjis/fingerprints_biometrics/fingerprint-overview
Leo, William (2005) What are the Effects of the Daubert Decision on Fingerprint Identification? e Southern California Association of Fingerprint Officers, The Print, July/August 2005, Vol. 21, #4
William Daubert, et Ux., Etc., et Al., Petitioners V. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 509 U.S. 579; 113 S. Ct. 2786; 125 L. Ed. 2d 469; 1993 U.S. LEXIS 4408; 61 U.S.L.W. 4805; 27 U.S.P.Q.2D (BNA) 1200; CCH Prod. Liab. Rep. P13,494; 93 Cal. Daily Op. Service 4825; 93 Daily Journal DAR 8148; 23 ELR 20979; 7 Fla. L. Weekly Fed. S 632.
The stage was set for violent onflit (Inident at Oglala).
The Amerian Indian Movement
The Amerian Indian Movement (AIM) emerged in the 1960s during the ivil rights era. It started in urban areas to protest oppression of the Indian people and to support their traditional way of life. They desribed themselves as "an indigenous, land-based spiritual movement, a all to Indian people to return to their sared traditions and, at the same time, to stand firm against the tide of...European influene and dominane" (ited in Sanhez, Stukey, and Morris, 1999).
The AIM tried to attrat attention to Indian problems by demonstrating and protesting the government's refusal to honor its treaty agreements with the Indians. The government pereived the AIM ativism as subversive, militant, and dangerous. A onfidential FBI report written in 1974 titled, "The Amerian Indian Movement: A Reord of Violene," began: "Sine 1971, the Amerian Indian Movement (AIM) has…
cited in Sanchez, Stuckey & Morris, 1999, p. 38). The government was sympathetic to the Wilson regime and unwilling to protect members of the AIM.
On the day of the incident, two FBI agents, Coler and Williams, drove onto the Reservation, looking for an Indian named Jimmy Eagle who was wanted for stealing a pair of cowboy boots. The agents were in separate cars. They had learned that Jimmy Eagle was seen driving a red pick-up truck the night before and radioed that they were following a vehicle that matched the description. They came fast into a camping area where families were staying in teepees. Witnesses who were in their tents said they heard shots. Because of all the violence they had been experiencing, the men immediately got weapons and went to see what was happening. They saw the agents exchanging fire with people
Each level of the counter-terrorism strategy present in the United States has its own flaws and its own weaknesses.
Law enforcement cannot be left behind in the pursuit for more professional counter-terrorist elite units. The New York Police Department sets the bar for what municipal police can put together in terms of counter-terrorism, NYPD Shield, as its known, has conducted several successful operations since its inception in the aftermath of the September 11th attacks. Naturally, New Yorkers feel a special need to create a strong counter-terrorism unit beyond that of the United States government, due to the nature that the city is under constant threat from attacks. (Economist, the 2009). London, too is under this threat, however the London Police are not as well prepared for counter-terrorism efforts as the NYPD has proven to be. (Brant, 2011). Law enforcement's participation is a necessary part of counter-terrorism work for three reasons.…
Alexander, J.B. (2010, July). Convergence: Special Operations Forces and Civilian Law Enforcement. Retrieved from, http://www.afio.com/publications/JSOU10-6alexanderConvergence_final1.pdf .
Amnesty International. (2010, March 17). Control of U.S. special forces in Afghanistan a step toward accountability. Retrieved from, http://www.amnesty.org/en/news-and-updates/control-us-special-forces-afghanistan-step-toward-accountability-2010-03-17 .
Barrett, R. (2006, October 26). The broader impact of terrorism on financial stability. Retrieved from, http://www.imf.org/external/np/seminars/eng/2006/mfl/rb.pdf .
Brant, Robin (2011, November 23). Police Not Ready for New 'Counter-Terror Powers'. Retrieved from, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-15847349 .
CONTACT ME BEFOE ASSIGNING TO ANOTHE WITE. The ole Federal Agencies Fighting Digital Crime in United States, a number law enforcement agencies, including Secret Service, FBI, Department Homeland Security,, roles fight computer crimes terrorism.
Law enforcement can be understood as a thorough process in which the police act step-by-step and enforce the law in order to ensure justice and the decrease of crime. Precise and adequate investigation is what marks one of the most important responsibilities and duties in this respect. This is because the outcome of the investigation decides not merely upon the well being of victims but indeed secures that the system is just in applying the law. Certain procedures need to be followed accordingly in order to facilitate problem solving and careful attention is required when collecting forensic evidence. These are but a few of the requirements that are proficiently mandatory in assessing and fighting crime. However,…
Congress of the United States, Office of Technology Assessment (1985). Federal Government Information Technology: Electronic Surveillance and Civil Liberties (OTA -- CIT -- 293 Report No. 85 -- 600609). Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/jmd/ls/legislative_histories/pl99-508/fgit-1985.pdf
National Institute of Justice (2008). Electronic Crime Scene Investigation: A guide for first responders (second ed.) (No. NCJ 219941). Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/219941.pdf
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (2012). Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide (ACLU EC -- 105). Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/files/pdfs/email-content-foia/FBI%20docs/June%202012%20FBI%20DIOG.pdf
CIA FBI 911
Both the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation are part of the larger, 17 unit organization that is known as the United States Intelligence Community. The CIA and FBI have had a history of conflict and disagreement as history dictates. The most obvious and direct failure of cooperation of these two organizations was revealed in the aftermath of the attacks of 9/11. The institutional differences between these organizations were fully exposed as the intelligence relating to these events have been partially revealed throughout the last decade plus. This essay will provide some details about this conflict and provide some links to some related information about this idea.
The CIA and FBI are both separate units with different missions regarding the safekeeping of America's resources. In past years the CIA has been much more associated with foreign affairs and…
Here is another condensed version: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-911REPORT/content-detail.html
Here is an argument suggesting that the attacks were a product of a false flag operation designed to stir emotion and begin a war in the Middle East: http://www.presstv.com/detail/2013/09/11/323227/falseflag-meme-goes-viral-on-911-anniversary/
Here is another that describes Operation Northwood's a model of previous false flag attempts: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Northwoods
Law Enforcement -- Computer Security
Three agencies that are part of the U.S. Federal Government's effort to thwart computer crimes are the Department of Homeland Security, the FBI, and the Secret Service. Computer crime (also known as cyber crime) is a growing and dangerous menace, not just to the government -- and to all 50 state governments -- but to corporate networks, private computers and educational institution computer networks as well.
hat challenges face the three departments mentioned above based on the independent nature of these agencies, and can they cooperate to provide steadfast collaboration against terrorists and other hackers who seek to steal important information and interrupt normal business cycles?
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a massive, multi-agency department with many responsibilities, and cybersecurity is just one of its duties. It is also responsible for border security, customs (including enforcing immigration laws) and emergency management (FEMA) (www.dhs.gov).…
Harlow, R. (2011). Two Missions, One Secret Service: The Value of the Investigative Mission.
Naval Postgraduate School. Retrieved March 14, 2014, from http://www.hsdl.org .
Department of Homeland Security. (2012). Our Mission. Retrieved March 14, 2014, from http://www.dhs.gov.
Krieger, M. (2013). How the FBI Wants to Penalize Internet Companies for Providing "Too
Privacy" Does Not Love an explores darkness lurking beneath dom
James Adcox's novel Love Does Not is many things; a dystopian fantasy, a biting satire, a tale about the perversity of love. Yet it is also a scathing social commentary about the state of privacy in the world today -- and in America in particular -- in the wake of the burgeoning ar on Terror. Beneath the undercurrent of sex, intrigue, and murder, lies a pervasive sense of espionage and an abandonment of the right of individuals to enjoy basic civil liberties such as privacy. hen interpreted with this perspective, the novel is one in which characters and scenes are carefully constructed to illustrate the gradual eroding of the very laws that were initially formed to guarantee autonomy and an egalitarian, republican state as envisioned by the Founding Fathers. There are a number of salient similarities between these characters and…
Adcox, James. Does Not Love. Chicago: Curbside Splendor Publishing. 2014. Print.
Jaeger, Paul T., McClure, Charles, R., Bertot, John Carlo, Snead, John T. The U.S.A. Patriot Act, The Foreign Intelligence Patriot Act, And Information Policy Research in Libraries: Issues, Impacts and Questions for Libraries and Researchers. The Library Quarterly. 74(2), 99-121.
Matz, Chris. Libraries and the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act: Values in Conflict. Journal of Library Administration. 47(3-4), 69-87. 2008. Print.
They were released only to be followed on the highway and shot dead.
Attorney General Robert Kennedy who was informed of the disappearance of the three men, arranged for Joseph Sullivan of the FBI to go to ississippi and investigate the situation together with FBI eridian-based agent John Proctor. Their findings would be splendidly presented in Court by John Doar, who prosecuted the federal case. Local officials were not sympathetic with the case and showed little interest in finding the ones responsible for the murders. Nevertheless, federal interest in the case was overwhelming, thus the investigation was impressive and finally led to the discovery of the killers.
The population of the country was reluctant to offering any kind of information regarding the killings; in fact, it was children who gave the investigators the most clues. The two agents used tactics such as the observation of the sheriff's behavior as he…
Mississippi Burning." Spartacus Educational. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAburning.htm
Mississippi Burning." AfricanAmericans.com. http://www.africanamericans.com/CivilRightsSlaying.htm
The Ku Klux Klan: A Hundred Years of Terror." Indiana University: Southern Poverty Law Center, 2000. http://www.iupui.edu/~aao/kkk.html
Prostitution is sex between two willing adults and one of the adults pays the other adult for that sex.
While it is illegal to be the prostitute or the John it shouldn't be. Both are adults, that is not illegal, both are engaging willingly is sex, that isn't illegal, and one hands the other one money. If the John handed the prostitute money without getting sex, he would not be breaking the law. If the prostitute slept with one man, called him her boyfriend and the only thing he asked is that she maintain her figure and be available for Friday night visits, and in exchange he paid all of her bills it would not be illegal. But if that same woman decides to sleep with a dozen men a month and let them each contribute to her bill fund that makes her a criminal. The bottom line is one…
Eggen, Dan (2003) Major Crimes Rose Slightly, FBI Reports; Incidents Up in Suburbs, Down in Cities. The Washington Post
Marshall, Gordon (1998) victimless crime
Dictionary of Sociology
Walker, Bruce (2002) Reparations, Moral Crimes, and Real Justice (accessed 7-30-06)
Other determining factors influencing long-term affects of abuse to a child include:
Whether the child's mother is supportive and child can confide in her.
Whether the child's experiences success at school
Whether the child has nurturing relationships with peers. (Ibid.)
Childhood intimacy problems and sexual abuse, interacting with family background, contribute the child's developing self-esteem and sense or "world" mastery being disrupted. These deficits, in turn, increase the probability of a child experiencing psychological problems later in his/her adult. These developmental deficits may lead to social and personal vulnerabilities later in life, and consequently contribute to the risk of mental health problems developing and/or increasing. (Ibid.)
Sexual Abuse "Signs"
Effects of early sexual abuse, which include childhood intimacy problems, last well into a person's adulthood and effect their relationships, family and work. Individual symptomatology tends to be reflected into the following four areas:
1. "Damaged goods: Low self-esteem, depression, self-destructiveness…
Profile: Sexual predators solicit children on the Internet," All Things Considered (NPR), June 19, 2001.
BETTER ANSWER to SEXUAL PREDATORS.(Editorial)(Editorial)," Seattle Post Intelligencer (Seattle, WA), June 15, 1997.
Bolen, Rebecca M.. "Child sexual abuse: prevention or promotion?," Social Work, April 1, 2003.
saying that one country's terrorist is another country's freedom fighter. If you were to use the definition of terrorism provided by Hall (2003) above, what other techniques would factor into counter-terrorism operations besides military tactics and investigation?
Hall says that whatever the reason, killing an innocent other is always 'terrorism'. This is so regardless of whether the act was for political, religious, sociological, or other reasons. The only case when terrorism may be excuse is if the act of murder was committed in self-defense; only when the perpetrator is in immediate danger of being harmed and he is trying to evade violence from the other.
Given that one country's terrorist is another country's freedom fighter, issues of terrorism may become quite complex since denouncement of terrorism by one factor may be refuted by another as heroism. The only way to make the distinction -- and this is too following Hall's…
And it does this by conducting investigations and enforcing laws that deal with public health, order, and decency.
"Morals" and "decency" are not words one would expect to see in the core values of a secular institution like a police department, but they are definitely in line with the stated core beliefs of SLU. As stated previously, SLU has it basis in a strong Catholic ideology, which is permeated with morality and decency. Catholic teachings, which are at the center of the core values of SLU, teach a person to be a moral individual who acts with decency. While maintaining the core values of maintaining excellence, respecting the law, protecting communities, and acting with integrity, the Lubbock Police Department does not forget to maintain a code of moral conduct that also expects society to act within the norms of decency.
One of the causes of the failure of the United…
Casteel, Philip. (2011, Feb. 24). "Mayor Reacts to Terrorist Arrest in Lubbock." KCBD
Webpage. Retrieved from http://www.kcbd.com/story/14136417/mayor-reactas-to-terrorist-arest-in-lubbock?redirected=true
"Core Values." (n.d.) St. Leo University Webpage. Retrieved from http://www.saintleo.edu/About-SLU/Florida-Catholic-University
"Lubbock Police Department swears in 13 New Officers." (2011, Sept. 9). Lubbock
Protection of Intellectual Property
Intellectual property is any form of an idea that originates from a person or company and used to create innovative products, or services. Theft of these ideas by foreign entities to produce similar knock off goods has had a negative effect to both the owners of the idea and economy as a whole.
The United States Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) have taken a number of steps to fight against intellectual property theft. According to their websites, they both run complex investigations on cases that arise from theft of intellectual property. Since intellectual property includes copyright, patents, proprietary products, trade secrets and internet protocols, the two offices have contingencies that are there to resolve unique legal and investigative issues being raised by telecommunication technology. They also, according to their websites have the mandate to pursue local and international cases that relate…
Johnson, C and Walworth, D.J (March 2003). Protecting U.S. intellectual property rights and challenges to digital piracy. Office of industry working paper: U.S. international trade commission. Retrieved from http://www.usitc.gov/publications/332/working_papers/wp_id_05.pdf
NW3C, (September, 2010). Intellectual property theft. National white collar crime center. Retrieved from http://www.nw3c.org/docs/whitepapers/intellectual_property_theft_september_201008B6297ECEB4FAE7EAA79494.pdf?sfvrsn=3
Qui D.L & Yu H, (2010). Does the protection of foreign intellectual property rights stimulate innovation in the U.S. Review of international economics, 18(5). Retrieved from http://infojustice.org/download/gcongress/dii/Qui%20article.pdf
Setec. Investigating intellectual property theft. www.Setecinvestigations.com. Retrieved from http://www.setecinvestigations.com/resources/whitepapers/Investigating_Intellectual_Property_Theft.pdf
The common characteristics of all property crimes
Property crime can encompass aspects of burglary, theft, or motor vehicle theft and this also includes attempted as well as completed crimes. In accordance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010), property crime comprises of the wrongdoings of motor vehicle theft, larceny-theft, burglary, as well as, arson. In particular, the object of the theft-kind transgressions encompasses the taking of money or property, however with the lack of force or threat of force against the victims. Imperatively, the property crime classification takes into account arson for the reason that the offense consists of the destruction of property. Nonetheless, arson victims may be subjected to force. There are two crime measures in the United States with regard to crimes against property. One is the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) by the Bureau of Justice Standards (BJS), which encompasses reported and unreported crime from the perspective…
The charts show us why.
2. ape: There were also a huge number of rapes during these 5 years but interestingly rapes actually increased from 644 cases in 1990 to 763 cases in 21995 (1998 and 2001 showed the level to remain approximately consistent and then to drop to 294 cases in 2010). N This may have been due to the case that the Bronx, always a hotbed of violence and unrest had to defuse their energy somewhere. Hence, they turned to rape instead of murder to do so. Nonetheless, the fact that rape did not decrease is interesting
Staten Island 1990-1995
1. Murder -- There were 29 murder cases in 1990 compared to 26 in 1995. The level had dropped but not dramatically. In fact, the decline was an insignificant -- 34.6%. Nonetheless, we see Guilliani's influence here too. (Murder levels greatly decreased in the years following although recently,…
BJS. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Police Department City of New York
The DHS is consistent with the larger social trend on a global scale concerning institutional security measures insofar as Risley (2006) reports that "the securitization of an ever-expanding number of realms is a distinguishing feature of the contemporary political landscape." (1) This is to argue that in addition to the events such as 9/11 which can be seen as a clear catalyst to the changes in structure which have been underway since the end of 2001, there is also something of a broader sociological pattern which is reflected in the merger undertaken in the national security sector. The diminishing lines between commerce, governance and military engagement are perhaps best reflected in this parallel between the security community and the corporate world. The sociological implications are therefore rather significant in coming to understand why certain changes have been sought and in producing reasonable expectations as to what these changes may produce.…
Ball, H. (2005). U.S. Homeland Security. ABC-CLIO.
LeClerc, P. (2006). Review: The New Politics of Surveillance and Visibility. Canadian Journal of Sociology Online.
Noakes, J.A. (2000). Official Frames in Social Movement Theory: The FBI, HUAC, and the Communist Threat Hollywood. The Sociological Quarterly, 41(4), 657-680.
Risley, S.H. (2006). The Sociology of Security: Sociological Approaches to Contemporary and Historical Securitization. Annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Online at http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p105192_index.html
4. Explain each of Samuel Huntington's 8 cultural paradigms. What does this model for culture and civilization around the world have to do with terrorism? What are the implications for law enforcement if terrorism has deeper roots -- namely, rooted in a clash of civilizations? Also, what are the implications for American foreign policy in terms of our efforts to thwart terrorism?
First, the post-Cold War reorganization of nations causes conflicts between and among the resulting civilizations left after national fracturing. Second, the continued promotion by the West of quasi-Western values and political philosophy on the rest of the world antagonizes non-Western civilizations. Third, the deterioration of economic, military, and political power of the West facilitates increased resistance of other nations, such as in the Far and Middle Eastern societies (i.e. China and Islamic countries) to follow the international order established by the West in previous eras and to combine…
"When a court strikes a contract provision for unconscionability it is declaring that provision is so unfair or oppressive that the court will refuse to enforce it." (Gillespie, 2007). The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that, "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." (U.S. Const. amend. XIII, 1). The contract that the parties signed purported to make Mrs. Lowell the property of Mr. Lowell. Because the Lowells are Americans and purchased their ticket in America, it is unlikely that an American court would recognize Mr. Lowell's ability to contract away his wife's right to be recognized as a legal individual in a contract dispute. Furthermore, the Fourteenth Amendment guarantees Mrs. Lowell the equal protection of the laws, (U.S. Const. amend. XIV, 1)…
Cruise Lines International Association. (2008). Personal safety and security. Retrieved December 9, 2008 from Cruise Lines International Association
Web site: http://www.cruising.org/industry/personal_safety_security.cfm
Fl. Stat. 731.301(b)(1).
Gillespie, D. (2007). Survey of Illinois law: contract law. Retrieved December 9, 2008 from Southern Illinois University School of Law
The United States Department of Homeland Security was formed in response to the growing threat of international terrorism. Since its official inception in 2002, the Department's mandate has expanded to encompass immigration law enforcement and bolstered response to natural disasters affecting the United States. The DHS represented a significant restructuring of several American federal government agencies.
The stated mission of the Department of Homeland Security, indicated on the Department's Web site, includes five core areas: the prevention of terrorism, the security of national borders, the enforcement of immigration law, the safeguarding of cyberspace, and the ensured resilience to natural disasters (DHS 2011 "Department of Homeland Security Missions and esponsibilities").
The Department of Homeland Security operates as a coordination body, which "leverages resources within federal, state, and local governments, coordinating the transition of multiple agencies and programs into a single, integrated agency focused on protecting the American people and their…
Department of Homeland Security (DHS 2011). Department of Homeland Security Missions and Responsibilities. Retrieved online: http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/responsibilities.shtm
Department of Homeland Security (DHS 2011). Department Six-Point Agenda. Retrieved online: http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/history/editorial_0646.shtm
Department of Homeland Security (DHS 2011). History.
Department of Homeland Security (DHS 2011). Mature and Strengthen the Homeland Security Enterprise. Retrieved online: http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/gc_1240838201772.shtm
" The 'number' of witnesses later turned out to be a single witness who was not even sure about who he saw at the window.
Palm prints on the cardboard box: Similarly Oswald's palm prints were said to have been found on a cardboard box found at the window of the depository building from which Oswald allegedly shot Kennedy. Oswald's prints were not found anywhere else in the room except on a 'convenient' carton that could easily find its way to the police station where Oswald was kept in custody. (Lane,
Apart from these, not insignificant, inconsistencies in the "evidence" presented by the Dallas Attorney General, it is highly unlikely that Oswald, using the Carcano, could have shot with the accuracy and speed required at a moving target.
According to the arren Commission that investigated Kennedy's assassination, three shots were fired from the Depository window, the first and…
Lane, Mark. "Oswald Innocent? A Lawyer's Brief." A Guardian Special. Nov. 22, 1963, December 7, 2004. http://karws.gso.uri.edu/JFK/the_critics/lane/Natl-Guardian/Natl_Guardian.html
Roffman, Howard. "Presumed Guilty." Chapter 9 Oswald's Rifle Capability. A Book by a.S. Barnes and Co., Inc. 1976. http://www.ratical.org/ratville/JFK/PG/PG.html#TOC
Oswald insisted that he was innocent and said he would prove it when he was brought to trial; he persisted in his denial despite the fact that he was questioned for 48 hours without the benefit of counsel; he even refused to admit to the killing as he lay dying
Even this 'fact' has not been proven beyond a shadow of doubt, but we will discuss the point later.
"ccording to a 2001 Department of Justice survey, 20% of students aged 12 through 18 reported that street gangs had been present at their school during the previous 6 months. More than a quarter (28%) of students in urban schools reported a street gang presence, and 18% of students in suburban schools and 13% in rural schools reported the presence of street gangs. Public schools reported a much higher percentage of gang presence than private schools." These gangs were often responsible for selling drugs in schools, and used the profits gained from the trafficking of drugs to garner new recruits, soliciting dealers from the student population with the promise of profits. The gangs thus begat violence, just as the users whom they sell their drugs to also begat violence in their attempts to get enough money to buy more drugs.
According to the annual Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) cited by the Justice Information Center, there is a strong correlation between drug and alcohol abuse and violent crime. Data collected from male arrestees in 1998 in 35 cities showed that the percentage testing positive for any drug ranged from 42.5% in Anchorage, Alaska, (the lowest percentage) to 78.7% in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (a rather staggeringly high percentage). ( http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/factsht/crime/index.html ) Additionally, 27% of Federal prisoners admitted committing their offense to get money to buy drugs.
Gangs and drugs
Drug-related crimes are not merely the result of desperate actions of individuals in thrall to their addiction. Drug-related crimes also often have an organized source, and organized sources of drugs also are a source of violent crime. According to the FBI ( http://www.usdoj.gov/ndic/pubs11/13157/index.htm#relation ) one must look at the organized face of drug-related crime to gain a full picture of the negative impact drugs have on society. "According to a 2001 Department of Justice survey, 20% of students aged 12 through 18 reported that street gangs had been present at their school during the previous 6 months. More than a quarter (28%) of students in urban schools reported a street gang presence, and 18% of students in suburban schools and 13% in rural schools reported the presence of street gangs. Public schools reported a much higher percentage of gang presence than private schools." These gangs were often responsible for selling drugs in schools, and used the profits gained from the trafficking of drugs to garner new recruits, soliciting dealers from the student population with the promise of profits. The gangs thus begat violence, just as the users whom they sell their drugs to also begat violence in their attempts to get enough money to buy more drugs.
Fire is inherently associated with fear, although a major aspect of the action is the financial cost to the manufacturers and dealers and gaining attention. The aspect of political content may be more subjective. While it may be argued that the vehicles are legal, environmentalists may take a more ethical stance, arguing that was something is legal it is not necessarily mean that it is right. While legislation may force vehicle manufacturers to adopt more fuel-efficient standards for SUVs, it is possible for the manufacturers themselves to choose this path, adopting what the environmentalist may perceive ethical behavior. By creating a cost associated with continuing producing inefficient vehicles there may be a desire to create a fear that more attacks will occur, with the of these attacks possibly creating a motivation for the manufacturers to change, and for dealers to put pressure on manufacturers to change. In effect, environmentalists are…
John Woo (1997)
In 1997, John Woo directed Face/Off movie that is action thriller movie. The report studies the roles played by actors and the plot of the movie critically. It sorts out the quality of sounds used in the movie and the styles adopted by actors and directors. The movie uses concept of face changing faces which are not new yet the movie makes an effort towards elaborating the concept. The movie is based on blood-shed genre with thrilling adventure that goes on as the characters fight to get to the bomb ticking in L.A. Movie is not only about the story but it is also about the cinema experience that is based on quality of acting, style, direction, sounds, lights, timing and use of technology. The report covers different technical aspects as used in the movie Face/Off by John Woo.
Dargis, M., (2009). "Action! The New York Times." Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com
Face/Off, (2012), Retrieved from:
Maslin, J., (2003), "Face/Off (1997); Review Summary," Retrieved from:
What Do You Think?
Crime eporting: UC and NCVS
The Uniform Crime eport is a compilation of offensives collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from all police stations in the United States. Data collected is divided into two groups, Part I and Part II. Part I data includes violent and property crimes such as aggravated assault, forcible rape, murder, robbery, arson, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft. Part II offenses include simple assault, curfew offenses and loitering, embezzlement, forgery and counterfeiting, disorderly conduct, driving under the influence, drug offenses, fraud, gambling, liquor offenses, offenses against the family, prostitution, public drunkenness, runaways, sex offenses, stolen property, vandalism, vagrancy, and weapons offenses ("Uniform Crime eports.," 2012).
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is conducted by telephone and collects information on nonfatal crimes reported and not reported to the police against persons age twelve and older from a nationally…
"Crime rates are down." (2012, June 11). Crime in the United States 2011. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2012/june/crimes_061112/crimes_061112
Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminolology today: An integrative introduction. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.
Truman, J.L. & Planty, M. (2012, October). Criminal victimization, 2011. U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cv11.pdf
"Uniform crime reports." (2012, October). Crime in the United States 2011. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from
Crime ates by egions
The FBI document the crimes that are experienced across the U.S.A. By recording and tabulating the crimes bot only by the number of people arrested but more significantly by the number of arrests that are made and the type of crime that prompted the arrest. This is a more accurate procedure since it helps in cases of multiple arrests of the same person within a year that may also be prompted by different crimes each time of subsequent arrest.
The paper is predominantly on the crime rates within four states; Northeast, Midwest, South and West within the year 2009 according to the data found in the FBI official website. An analysis of the crime rates and the reasons behind the variance in crime rates is also of essence here.
In 2009, Northeast experienced 1,624,285 crimes that were charged in the courts and this represented 3,625.2 crime…
Federal Bureau of Investigation, (2010). Number and Rate of Arrests by Region, 2009. Retrieved June 7, 2012 from https://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2009/data/table_30.html
Ontario Ministry of Children and Youth Services, (2010). Review of the Roots of Youth Violence: Literature Reviews Volume 5, Chapter 4: Social Disorganization Theory. Retrieved June 7, 2012 from http://www.children.gov.on.ca/htdocs/English/topics/youthandthelaw/roots/volume5/chapter04_social_disorganization.aspx
Breadth of Responsibilities
All of the DHS responsibilities relate back to the primary jurisdiction and mission responsibilities listed above. Information sharing and analysis, prevention and protection, preparedness and response, research, commerce and trade, travel security, and immigration all are functions of keeping our country safe from terrorists and responding to both manmade and natural disasters.
The auxiliary functions of the department such as the Secret Service, U.S. Coast Guard, FEMA, Immigration and Customs, the Transportation Security Administration, and the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) all add to the breadth of DHS functionality, and fall under the primary mission statement of the department. Even the OIG, which is responsible for auditing the internal functioning of DHS including fraud and abuse indirectly operates as a function of ensuring this primary mission is carried out effectively.
Is the DHS Effectively Organized?
After a couple of re-organizations over the years, yes, it is,…
he other major component of the Department of Homeland Security that doesn't belong is FEMA, the Federal Emergency Management Agency. his is the only component of the Department that is not involved in preventing security threats that human in nature; its main purpose is to aid citizens and local governments in times of natural disaster. Again, communication with the Department would be necessary, but involving the response agency's involvement in a department whose main goal is detection and prevention of criminally threatening or destructive acts against the nation seems a very inefficient way to handle emergency situations.
here are also several agencies not represented in the Department of Homeland Security whose role in the protection of our nation and its citizens has long been a vital part of the United States' defense system. Most notable among the missing are the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Central Intelligence Agency, and the National…
There are also several agencies not represented in the Department of Homeland Security whose role in the protection of our nation and its citizens has long been a vital part of the United States' defense system. Most notable among the missing are the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Central Intelligence Agency, and the National Security Agency. The functions of these three independent government are often nebulously defined and seem to be rather redundant. All are involved in the detection and prevention of acts against the United States; though the FBI tends to be more involved in home-soil affairs and the CIA and NSA are known -- at least in the popular folklore -- for their infiltration of foreign governments and other international activities, they ostensibly share the same collective goals of keeping the people of the United States safe, which is also the primary function of the Department of Homeland Security. Again, the creation of this Department was to in large part to create a consolidation of the information and powers that could be effectively used in the protection of our national security. The exclusion of these organizations from under the umbrella of the Department can only have been politically motivated, and makes no practical sense.
In it's brief history spanning slightly less than seven years, the Department of Homeland Security has undergone several massive reorganizations. It's first proposal by President Bush in 2002 was a stated attempt to consolidate the patchwork of office concerned wit national security into one centralized and coordinated department, and the 2003 organization structure did much to accomplish that, with approximately nine offices and three directorates -- Border and Transportation Security, Emergency Preparedness and Response, and Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection. This set-up seems far more streamlined and efficient tan the current system, which was set up in 2005, though many of the redundancies and inefficiencies that exist today were problems then, too. The 2005 reorganization was a further attempt at centralization, but meant to accomplish this through the creation of new offices such as the Office of Intelligence and Analysis and the Office of Operations Coordination. A more effective way to streamline the Department would have been to consolidate current offices under more direct leadership, rather than the creation of new ones.
The current structure of the Department of Homeland Security is not as well equipped to handle issues of national security as its older incarnations. The increased division and redundancies of the component offices and agencies makes the operation of this Department far less efficient. Specifically, the various offices meant to handle information gathering and sharing, and those devoted to day-to-day operations of law enforcement personnel in multiple agencies, ought to be consolidated into single office to maximize synthesis of information and action. The ever-increasing number of components at each tier of the Department's organization increases the inefficiency of the Department, which could lead to an unawareness of vital information or a hindrance of necessary action.
The Burger Court held that the prosecution simply needed to establish by a preponderance of the evidence that the evidence illegally obtained would have been lawfully and inevitably discovered. The Burger Court did not think that a police officer would act illegally on the 'off' chance that the evidence might be admissible under the inevitable discovery doctrine, and could not reasonably calculate if the evidence would inevitably be discovered (Hendrie 1997:2).
The Nix v. illiams finding is an important counterweight to the restrictions the exclusionary rule imposes upon law enforcement officials. In contrast to the arren Court, the Burger Court accepted that, although protecting constitutional rights is important, the exclusionary rule is often a "drastic and socially costly remedy" because it often results in obviously guilty people going free, meaning that the cost of releasing illiams back into the world would have been high, while the gain to society of…
Cooke, Michael. (2002). "Review of Nix vs. Williams." Retrieved 26 Jan 2008 at http://wawa.essortment.com/nixwilliamssup_rnjx.htm
Hendrie, Edward. (1997, Sept.). "The inevitable discovery exception to the exclusionary rule." FBI Law Bulletin. Retrieved 26 Jan 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2194/is_9_66/ai_54061501/pg_1
McInnis, Thomas. (2000). The Christian Burial Case. Prager Paperback.
Nix v. Williams." (1984). Great American Court Cases. Vol. 9. Retrieved 26 Jan 2008 at http://law.jrank.org/pages/13046/Nix-v-Williams.html
How does terrorism affect children?
Children are often the victims of terrorism, and sometimes die in terrorist attacks (Dyson, 2001). When children witness or survive a terrorist attack, psychological ramifications like post-traumatic stress disorder may result (Hall, 2003). In some cases, children lose their loved ones and their lives may be turned upside down by terrorist attacks as all that is familiar to them -- schools, family, homes, community -- are destroyed (FBI, 2007). The war on terrorism can also affect the lives of children, as the media perpetuates a culture of fear. Children may, for example, be raised to be suspicious of people of different races or ethnicities because their parents, teachers, and the media perpetuate stereotypes about who is and who is not a terrorist.
What makes "martyrdom" such an effective tool for terrorists? Discuss in terms of social construction.
Suicide bombings and other examples of terrorist…
Dyson, W.E. (2001). Terrorism: An investigator's handbook. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2007). Retrieved March 25, 2007, from www.fbi.gov.
Gunaratna, R. (2002), Inside Al Qaeda: Global network of terror. New York: Berkley Books.
Hall, H.V. (2003). Introduction: Psychological study of terrorism. Journal of Threat Assessment 2(3), 1-8.
Additionally, it has been observed that the Obama Administration's approach differs from the Bush Administration in that the latter was more short-sighted in its anti-trafficking goals (Ditmore, 2009). The Bush Administration was focused primarily on combating sex trafficking, while the Obama Administration aims to address a wider array of abusive labor practices (Ditmore, 2009). The aims of the Obama Administration reach for wider public support and attempting to deal with the problem more effectively by addressing important, related abusive practices.
States are also playing a critical role in anti-trafficking measures. State and local law enforcement officials are working on combating human trafficking (National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, 2010). Many states have their own human trafficking legislation (National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, 2010). Maryland is also committed to anti-trafficking measures. In particular, the Attorney General of Maryland, the Baltimore City State's Attorney, and the U.S. Attorney's Office created a Human Trafficking…
Ditmore, Melissa. (June 2009). The sweep of modern-day slavery. Guardian. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/10/ .
Maryland Human Trafficking Task Force. (April 2010). Human Trafficking. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/usao/md/Human-Trafficking/index.html.
National Underground Railroad Freedom Center. (February 2010). Anti-Human Trafficking
Efforts on the Home Front Remain a Work in Progress. Retrieved from http://freedomcenter.org/freedom-forum/index.php/2010/02/progress-slow-fighting-domestic-human-trafficking/ .