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Feedback Loops and Organizational Learning at Whole Foods Market
To remain competitive and responsive to internal and external pressures, firm need to observe and monitor the outcomes of their activities (Mintzberg et al., 2011). Feedback loops explain the way in which processes may be maintained, or change takes place. In line with other businesses, Whole Food Markets cannot avoid the presence of feedback loops. When the feedback loops are recognized, they can provide a useful source of data that a firm may use to maintain and improve performance. The aim of this report is to review the two different types of feedback loop which may exist, and then look at some of the feedback looks that are found in While Foods Market.
Types of Feedback Loops
There are two types of feedback loop exist, the first type is a reinforcing loop and the second is a balancing loop,…
Argyris. C, Schon. D, (1996), On Organization Learning: A Theory of Action Perspective, London, Addison-Wesley
Bellinger, G. (2004), theWay of systems, accessed at http://www.systems-thinking.org/theWay/theWay.htm
Buchanan, D; Huczynski, A, (2010) Organisational Behaviour, Harlow, FT/Prentice Hall
Kotler Philip; Keller Kevin, (2011), Marketing Management, Prentice Hall
System Feedback Loops
einforcing Loop reflects the ability of one action to produce an outcome that influences more of the similar action thus resulting into eventual growth or decline (Bellinger, 2004). einforcing loop represents one of the foundational structures in relation to systems of thinking. Virtuous Cycle is the ability of reinforcing loop structure to produce desirable result in the process of its application. In the incidence of desired result, organizations and business entities have the tendency of ignoring the influence of reinforcing loop. This is dangerous for growth and development of the organization because aspects of the entity do not grow forever. In the presence of desirable results, individuals and business entities have the opportunity to adopt new strategies to ensure that the systems and processes continue to experience growth. Viscous cycle is the ability of reinforcing loop to produce undesirable results in relation to growth and…
Bellinger, G. (2004) theWay of systems. http://www.systems-thinking.org/theWay/theWay.htm Retrieved on 2/20/12.
Bellinger, G. (2004) Archetypes. http://www.systems-thinking.org/arch/arch.htm Retrieved on 2/20/12.
Bellinger, G. (2004) Introduction to systems thinking. Retrieved from http://www.systems-thinking.org/intst/int.htm on 2/20/12.
Larsen, K., McInerney, C., Nyquist, C., Santos, A., & Silsbee, D. (1996) Learning Organizations (Part VI: Systems Thinking) Retrieved from http://leeds-faculty.colorado.edu/larsenk/learnorg/index.html on 2/20/12
System Feedback Loops of Whole Foods
Systems model use two basic feedback loops, so-called Balancing and einforcing loops, to illustrate the relationships between growth and goals. This paper identifies one Balancing Loop and one einforcing Loop that are critical to Whole Foods Market's performance and success. An explanation of each of these feedback loops, including the causal factors and how they affect each other, is followed by a discussion concerning an area of growth for the einforcing Loop and goal behavior for the Balancing Loop. An assessment concerning how Whole Foods Market has generated organizational learning and how this organization can go further and generate additional organizational learning is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Balancing and einforcing Loops at Whole Foods Markets
All systems thinking models use two basic feedback loops, Balancing and einforcing loops, to depict the relationships…
Anderson, J.A. (2008, March). Bright spots in a tough market. Black Enterprise, 38(8), 36-39.
Baker, J. (2006, Winter). Systems thinking and counterinsurgencies. Parameters, 36(4), 26-29.
Berry, K. (2007, March 30). Grocers excelling as relationship builders. American Banker, 15(3),
In these cases, Whole Foods will encourage executives and staff members to work together in helping to enhance the quality of life for everyone inside the communities where various stores are located. This increases favorable perceptions and it allows the organization to build upon the image it has established. This shapes their global behavior, by showing the way Whole Foods is taking into account the needs of the environment, specific regions and the people who live there. ("Feedback Loops," 2012) ("Whole Foods Market History," 2013)
These elements are important, in illustrating how the different loops are building off each other. This helps the firm to establish basic procedures for improving their reputation and offering customers with more. The way they affect each other, is one practice will influence the perceptions of clients and if they choose to shop at different locations. ("Feedback Loops," 2012) ("Whole Foods Market History," 2013)
Feedback Loops. (2012). ISEE Systems. Retrieved from: http://www.iseesystems.com/Online_Training/course/module3/3-03-5-0-feedback.htm
Green Mission. (2012). Whole Foods. Retrieved from: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/sites/default/files/media/Global/PDFs/2012GreenMissionReport.pdf
Whole Foods Market History. (2013). Whole Foods Market. Retrieved from: http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/company-info/whole-foods-market-history
The goal in this loop is to improve the perception. Thus, more innovations are required. However, there is not a clear-cut reinforcement mechanism, if only because the industry is highly competitive and many firms are viewed as innovators. The perception of being innovative in the smartphone industry is more of a hygiene factor than anything else -- you need to be an innovator to even be in the market right now. Thus, while Palm may focus on improving its perception as an innovator, this does not create a reinforcing loop.
hat Palm needs right now is to take advantage of the opportunities that these loops and the interference of HP in these loops provide. The company is now aware of the relationships that form the foundation of these two loops. It understands that perception must match reality with respect to the company's innovation in order to attract not only better…
Bellinger, G. (2004). Balancing loop. Systems Thinking. Org. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from http://www.systems-thinking.org/theWay/sba/ba.htm
Scacco, R. (no date). Palm handheld computers: A case study in innovation. Brandchannel.com. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from http://www.brandchannel.com/images/papers/palm_pilot.pdf
These learning opportunities will ensure that the University maintains and indeed improves its reputation for excellence among existing and future students. Hence, the growth of the University will be ensured.
Organizational learning opportunities also exist within the balancing feedback loop. The geographic expansion of the University means the appointment of additional personnel, as indeed indicated by obert Silberman (2009). As representatives of Strayer University, these personnel will need to be trained in order to maintain consistent standards of excellence within the University. Those in charge of training also have the opportunity to create a shared vision of the components of the University, and in this way maintain the high standard that the institution is known for. The challenge is to create and maintain a shared a vision for all the geographic locations of the University, and to not only maintain, but improve this throughout the years of the institution's existence.…
Bellinger, G. (2004) Introduction to systems thinking. Retrieved from http://www.systems-thinking.org/intst/int.htm
Larsen, K., McInerney, C., Nyquist, C., Santos, a., & Silsbee, D. (1996) Learning Organizations (Part VI: Systems Thinking) Retrieved from http://leeds-faculty.colorado.edu/larsenk/learnorg/index.html
Silberman, Robert S. (2009). Letter to Shareholders. Strayer Education, Inc. Annual Report 2009. Retrieved from http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/STRA/916322741x0x353509/C4984D55-27AA-440A-B370-CE3D306CF2D5/STYR_09AR_Final.pdf
Strayer Education, Inc. (2010). Financial Performance. Retrieved from http://www.strayereducation.com/growth.cfm?pageSection=growth
Many times, people who lose weight on very low calorie diets gain it back again due to a resetting of homeostatic mechanisms to a lower than normal value. This reduction in the body's metabolic rate is an attempt by the body to avoid starvation. After the initial weight loss, patients find they gain weight back, even at the lower caloric intake level, simply because a change in the metabolic set point. Some patients may be able to overcome the metabolism by effective levels of exercise, since the metabolism responds to exercise by providing energy for muscle work based on expenditure needs rather than reduced intake.
It is unlikely that humans are genetically predisposed to metabolic set point reduction. While obesity and weight problems often run in families, no studies to date have associated this issue with genetic problems, except in the very rare cases of congenital abnormality. Rather, it is…
Feedback Loops at Whole Foods Market
In any business there will be the presence of feedback loops. Effective businesses are likely to pay attention to the different feedback loops which exist, using them loops to support and enhance the businesses in achieving its' goals. Whole Foods Market has a number of different types of feedback loops, looking at the firm in more detail will allow the loops to be identified. The paper will start by discussing the manifestation of feedback loops and the different types of loop that exist, and then apply the theory to Whole Foods Market.
Different Types of Feedback Loops
Feedback loops may be divided into two categories; referred to as reinforcing loops and balancing loops (Bellinger, 2004). The category names are relatively self explanatory, defining the way in which the two loops may be observed operate. The first category, the reinforcing loop refers to…
Bellinger, G. (2004), theWay of systems, accessed at http://www.systems-thinking.org/theWay/theWay.htm
MSN Money, (2014), Whole Foods Market, accessed at http://investing.money.msn.com/investments/stock-price?symbol=WFM
Whole Foods Market, (2014), About our Benefits, accessed at http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/careers/about-our-benefits
Electronic Prescribing is a critical feedback loop that helps maintain master patient index along with routes inquires and allows enrolled pharmacies to route prescriptions to desired locations. The pharmacy receives the benefit of quickly receiving prescription status and is able to then communicate to the prescriber the prescription fill status as well as whether the medication is covered under the patient's insurance or if it must be paid for. Things like patient information, history, and eligibility are passed back and forth from the pharmacy to the pharmacy benefit manager to the prescriber. What would normally take longer now happens within minutes.
Patients remain satisfied with the service and get quick access to their medications. The loop exists from the communication that exists with the pharmacy and the prescriber. A doctor, nurse, or other healthcare professional licensed to prescribe medication, needs a continual pathway to send prescription information. This helps avoid…
Eton, D., Beebe, T., Hagen, P., Halyard, M., Montori, V., & Naessens, J. et al. (2014). Harmonizing and consolidating the measurement of patient-reported information at health care institutions: a position statement of the Mayo Clinic.PROM, 7. doi:10.2147/prom.s55069
Leventhal, R. (2015). E-Prescribing Market To Reach $794M by 2017, Study Says.Healthcare-informatics.com. Retrieved 10 June 2015, from http://www.healthcare-informatics.com/news-item/e-prescribing-market-reach-794m-2017-research-says
Philpott, C., & Menter, I. (2014). Theories of Professional Learning. Northwich: Critical Publishing.
The second and third runs, therefore, were largely based on making adjustments to the first run strategy. In each instance, the adjustments made increased the total profit over the four years and it is believed that continuing along that same path of making slight adjustments would consistently increase the profits earned. It is for this reason that the strategy changed little -- there was no insight that was believed to lead to a better strategy and in lieu of such major insight there was no reason to pursue a radically different strategy.
The most useful concepts in this exercise were contribution margin (CVP analysis) and elasticity of demand. Understanding the cost structure of each product allowed for more intelligent pricing decisions. For example, the price cut in the X7 was significant at 25% from the base price in the base case run to 31.5% of that price in the later…
Richards, D. (2010). How to do a breakeven analysis. About.com. Retrieved June 5, 2010 from http://entrepreneurs.about.com/od/businessplan/a/breakeven.htm
QuickMBA.com. (2007). Price elasticity of demand. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved June 5, 2010 from http://www.quickmba.com/econ/micro/elas/ped.shtml
QuickMBA/Porter, M. (2007). Porter's generic strategies. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved June 5, 2010 from http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/generic.shtml
Balancing loop and einforcing Loop
Understanding how systems works constitute one of the most challenging aspects of information technology irrespective of the significance of the phenomena. The aspects of structures and how they are associated with systems is essentially one decisive factor. The way in which various components influence one another depends on the way structures are instituted within a system. Thus, structures are the main determinants of relationships between components. The processes of looping clearly indicate these trends and serve generally to indicate the interaction between productivity with the view of adding to the finished goods inventory. As a matter of fact, this process indicates instances where resources are added or subtracted within certain tasks. The two kinds of looping systems in Information Technology are the balancing loop and the reinforcing loop, all of which are classified into a number of categories. These loops are found in various…
Banathy, B.H (1996). Designing Social Systems in a Changing World: Contemporary System Thinking, New York: springer publisher
Bellinger, G (2004). Balancing Loop, Retrieved, http://www.systems-thinking.org/theWay/sba/ba.htm
These loops are focused towards existing Harley-Davidson customers, but they can also be adapted to reach out to non-customers as well. The Internet and motorcycle events are two of the best places to reach bike enthusiasts who ride other brands. If Harley can adapt these loops to non-customers they may be able to gain insight into how they can expand their potential market by reaching non-customers better.
Organizational learning can flow from strong feedback loops. Harley-Davidson has supported their brand with strong balancing and reinforcing feedback loops directed at existing customers. The techniques and technologies behind these loops can be applied to non-customers as well. This would represent a shift in thinking for the Harley-Davidson organization, which to this point has focused on existing customers. Such a move would require a shift in goals for Harley, but in the face of a strong but stagnant market share, such a goal…
Bellinger, Gene. (2004). Introduction to Systems Thinking. Systems Thinking.org. Retrieved January 18, 2009 at http://www.systems-thinking.org/intst/int.htm
Bellinger, Gene. (2004). The Way of Systems. Systems Thinking.org. Retrieved January 18, 2009 at http://www.systems-thinking.org/theWay/theWay.htm
Bellinger, Gene. (2004).
Archetypes. Systems Thinking.org. Retrieved January 18, 2009 at http://www.systems-thinking.org/arch/arch.htm
This means that problems are dealt with quickly, before they become a drag on performance. The singling out of underperformers for the week helps in the problem identification process. By bringing different store and regional managers together (between 400 and 600 each week), al-Mart also eliminates the possibility that problems can arise independently in different stores. Instead, problems are identified and rectified while they are still minor is scope.
The Saturday Morning Meetings also have several long-term impacts on al-Mart's organizational effectiveness. One of their most important roles is to reinforce the organizational culture. The culture of al-Mart is essential to its cost leadership strategy and its ability to deliver a high level of customer service despite the focus on cost reduction. The meetings also reinforce key messages regarding strategy. One component of the Saturday Morning Meeting is the use of media presentations regarding merchandising. These presentations in part represent…
Schlender, Brent. (2005). "Wal-Mart's $288 Billion Meeting" Fortune. Retrieved November 27, 2008 at http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2005/04/18/8257009/index.htm
Larsen, Kai; McInerney, Claire; Nyquist, Corinne; Santos, Aldo & Silsbee, Donna. (1996). "Learning Organizations" Retrieved November 27, 2008 at http://home.nycap.rr.com/klarsen/learnorg/#_Toc356579328
Baertlein, Lisa. (2008) "Wal-Mart Customers Delay Buying Necessities" Reuters. Retrieved November 27, 2008 at http://www.reuters.com/article/businessNews/idUSTRE49K94K20081021?feedType=RSS&feedName=businessNews
In essence Palm can learn through acknowledgment of the lack of communication taking place, as well as the lack of application of current resources. New technology continues to be added in the loop however there is no indication of the application and refinement process associated with the research and development.
Burrows, P. (2009, March 24). Palm's Secret Weapon for the Pre. Business Week. etrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/mar2009/tc20090323_446801.htm
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Tofel, K. (2010, April). Could a Better Carrier Have Sold Palm's Pre. Business Week. etrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/apr2010/tc2010046_479038.htm
Weigelt, C., & Sarkar, M. (2009). Learning from Supply-Side Agents: The Impact of Technology Solution Providers' Experiential Diversity on Clients' Innovation Adoption. Academy of Management…
Burrows, P. (2009, March 24). Palm's Secret Weapon for the Pre. Business Week. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/mar2009/tc20090323_446801.htm
Cangelosi, V., & Dill, W. (1965). Organizational Learning: Observations toward a Theory. Administrative Science Quarterly, 10(2), 175-203.
Schimmel, R., & Muntslag, D. (2009). Learning barriers: a framework for the examination of structural impediments to organizational change. Human Resource Management, 48(3), 399-416.
Tofel, K. (2010, April). Could a Better Carrier Have Sold Palm's Pre. Business Week. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/apr2010/tc2010046_479038.htm
When io de Janeiro recently won its bid to host the 2016 Olympic Games, they had one world famous representative on their Olympic committee that may have actually been more famous than our President Barak Obama. This individual may not be a household name in America, but he is most famous for scoring 2 goals in the 1958 World Cup championships when he was only 17 years old. This made him the youngest player to ever play in these renowned championships and over the course of his distinguished career; the majority of the football world would certainly consider him to be the best soccer player ever. Brazil actually has declared this individual as a national treasure in order to thwart other teams and countries from stealing him away and out of their country. His name is Edson Arantes Do Nascimento, but you may know him simply as --…
Adams, James A. (1971). "A Closed-Loop Theory of Motor Learning." Journal of Motor Behavior 3:111-150.
Keele, Steven W. (1968). "Movement Control in Skilled Motor Performance." Psychological Bulletin 70:387-403.
Leawoods, Heather. "Gustav Radbruch: An Extraordinary Legal Philosopher." Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from http://law.wustl.edu/journal/2/p489leawoods.pdf.
Magill, R, A. (2007) "Motor Learning Control: Concepts and Applications. McGraw Hill: Louisiana State University, USA.
MSFT Skype V
Microsoft purchased Skype for $8.5 billion, and immediately critics of the deal questioned the value that Skype could bring to Microsoft (Bright, 2011). Skype was plagued with old technology that it did not even develop itself (Ricknas, 2008; Kharif, 2009). The company's 2009 SEC filing revealed that its financial condition was terrible. hile the company has been rapidly increasing its user base, less than 10% of users are paying customers and the rate at which paying customers are growing is slower than the rate at which customers in general are growing. There are two feedback loops that are critical to Skype, one of which is negative and one of which is positive. These feedback loops can be identified through the analysis of the company's business and financial statements.
Making a Case
The key balancing feedback loop at Skype is that which keeps the company unprofitable, and this…
Bellinger, G. (2004) Introduction to systems thinking. Retrieved from http://www.systems-thinking.org/intst/int.htm on 2/20/12.
Bright, P. (2011). Microsoft buys Skype for $8.5 billion. Why, exactly? Wired Magazine. Retrieved June 15, 2012 from http://www.wired.com/business/2011/05/microsoft-buys-skype-2/
Dignan, L. (2011). Skype: Ad revenue provides third revenue stream. ZD Net. Retrieved June 18, 2012 from http://www.zdnet.com/blog/btl/skype-ad-revenue-provides-third-revenue-stream/45769
Kharif, O. (2009). Skype legal settlement clears path for expansion. Business Week. Retrieved June 18, 2012 from http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/nov2009/tc2009116_153601.htm
WITEAID Cite text One page question Please answer sequentially Question 1 Organizational Development OD - How OD relate Strategy? How top management team National Presto Systems OD inform thinking strategy? Inputs - What important inputs organization belong? Marketing Strategy (Generic Strategy) - price product development.
The company's organizational development must reflect its strategy and objectives. In order to be successful, the strategy must be supported by an organizational structure that is intended to increase the efficiency of processes and activities within the company. The top management team at National Presto Systems could use organizational development in developing a flexible structure that ensures the successful development and implementation of the company's strategy.
The most important inputs to this organization are represented by technical, financial, and human resources. The company invests in technological developments in order to create competitive advantage. The financial resources are necessary in order to be allocated to activities…
1. Rothwell, W. et al. (2005). Practicing organization Development: A Guide for Consultants. Pfeiffer. Retrieved September 16, 2011 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=61sec7mJjBsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=organizational+development&hl=ro#v=onepage&q=organizational%20development&f=false .
2. Philbin, A. & Mikush, S. (2010). A Framework of organizational Development: The Why, What, and How Organizational Development Works. Retrieved September 16, 2011.
organization 25 employees worked, em-ployed, a -employer organization . Using congruence framework, analyze organization 12 components model: history, environment, resources, & strategy (inputs); task, informal & formal organization, & individuals (throughputs); individual, group, & organizational outputs; feedback loop.
The congruence model as put forth by Nadler and Tushman (1980)
suggests that organizations need to have a particular degree of consistency and fit for twelve components in order to achieve success in their strategies. They define congruence as how well the various components within the organization fit together. This means that for any organization, the components that lead to the effectiveness of the model need to be of high quality in order to fit with the others. It can be argued that the congruence model suggests that inputs for the organization must match outputs through making an efficient transformation process and feedback loop. These are the four major categories…
Bessant, J., & Tidd, J. (2011). Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Wiley.
Grundy, T., & Brown, L. (2002). Strategic Project Management: Creating Organizational Breakthroughs. Hampshire: Thomson Learning.
Hellriegel, D., Slocum, J., & John W. Slocum, J. (2010). Organizational Behavior. Stamford, Connecticut: Cengage South-Western.
Mohapatra, S. (2009). Business Process Automation. New Delhi: Prentice-Hall Of India Pvt. Ltd.
Engage options in open discussion and debate
Use debate to identify the two most viable options in the dilemma
Hold a secret ballot vote to determine which of the two options resonates with the decision-making team
Construct a timetable marking off expectations according to projected dates
Use these dates as a feedback loop for evaluating the decision as its implications unfold
Establish a second level in the feedback loop creating proper procedures and illuminating avenues to whistelblowing
Encourage personnel to serve as whitleblowers when they witness abuses of the ethical policy
Consult and renew the ethical code once a year to ensure that it still comports with the needs to address any ethical dilemmas which might arise in the foreseeable future
With many of the corporate scandals of the early millennium implicating the highest offices of some leading firms, today's corporate atmosphere is informed by an emphasis on ethically…
Since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, cities have been drivers of economic growth. The critical mass of resources (labor and capital) that cities represent allows them to deliver economic production with a high rate of efficiency. However, this efficiency and productivity relies on heavy infrastructure investment to support the city. Critical infrastructure includes transportation, utilities, governance, law enforcement and education, each of which contributes directly to the economic health of the city. In recent years, there has been a push to include other components of infrastructure into the limelight as well, such as living space, recreational space and sustainability. This paper will analyze the key success factors of the world's cities and draw conclusions about how governments can foster successful cities in the future.
There are many different measures of success for cities. The most basic form of measure comes from macroeconomics -- GDP, unemployment rate and investment…
AT Kearney. (2011). Global cities index. AT Kearney. Retrieved November 8, 2011 from http://www.atkearney.com/index.php/Publications/global-cities-index.html
Benfield, K. (2011) Sustainable cities: What makes an urban area successful? The Atlantic. Retrieved November 8, 2011 from http://www.theatlantic.com/life/archive/2011/04/sustainable-cities-what-makes-an-urban-area-successful/237668/
Brooke, N. (2004). What makes for a successful city? Real Estate Issues. Retrieved November 8, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3681/is_200301/ai_n9313893/
De Leon, E. & Boris, E. (2010). The state of society: Measuring economic success and human well-being. Urban Institute. Retrieved November 8, 2011 from http://www.urban.org/publications/412101.html
Systemic thinking is the method used to deal with the complex problems and it is used to understand the relationships and pattern within the components of network of relationship. Traditionally, linear relationship focuses on the cause and effect where people view everything in a straight line. However, with interrelationship of dynamic organization and society, linear relationship is inadequate to address the societal and organizational complex problem and linear relationship is inadequate to capture the complex multifaceted relationships. (Senge et al. 1994). Based on the shortcomings of linear relationship, the system thinking has been developed to address the complex problem. The causal loop diagram based on the systemic thinking approach is being developed to capture the multifaceted complex problem and is able to provide complete understanding to the problem. (Dyehouse, Bennett, Harbor et al. 2009).
The objective of this assignment is to explore the strategy the feedback loops could be used…
Argyris, C. (1992) On Organizational Learning. Oxford, Blackwell.
Dyehouse M, Bennett D, Harbor J, et al. (2009). A comparison of linear and systems thinking approaches for program evaluation illustrated using the Indiana Interdisciplinary GK-12. Eval Program Plann.32(3):187-96.
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Progress: Community Sharing vs. Individualistic Consumption
In an unsustainable society, priority is placed upon economic growth at all costs, regardless of how this may affect variables such as climate change, a condition which will hurt all of humanity in the long run. Our current worldview or paradigm prioritizes all societies moving to an urban model of development which emphasizes consumption. Even modern agriculture has been influenced by this profit-oriented focus and does not focus upon preserving land and minimizing waste instead. Thus to foster sustainability, as noted by Wessels, the concept of progress as something that is linear and equally beneficial to all societies must change. We now conceive of progress as increasing consumption and increasing GDP but this is not a sustainable model for the future, particularly if all developing societies also adopt this worldview that 'more stuff' is better.
Rather, newer, greener, and more sustainable measures must be…
The employees should be firmly committed to the firm, they are the face of a firm (also its eyes and ears). The staff focus should be involved in the process management, also their measurement and knowledge as well as initial contact with customers, all contribute to the performance of the organization.
Firms need to provide results on a consistent basis, be innovative and should respond quickly to any changes in environment for giving exceptional results and satisfying customers. Further in continuous improvement, aspects such as redesign of processes or services, upgraded technology systems, proper paperwork should be focused upon. Continuous improvement requires all firms' members to look for opportunities to improve. Overall, the continuous improvement process involves customers, leadership, employees and quality. It is the customers who determine if the firm is providing quality. They are the judges of it. The leadership is useful for setting direction of the firm.…
Brown, S.A. (1998). Breakthrough Customer Service. Toronto: John Wiley & Sons.
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At the same time, a series of interrelated events occur between the communication partners over time and space.
The active sender is comprised of encoder / interpretation / decoder. The passive-recipient, on the other hand, constitutes decoder / interpreter / encoder. Similar to the Shannon & eaver theory, each encodes and decodes the message according to her own interpretation of content.
Ultimately, communication is made up of signs. It is we who invest it with meaning and who provide those signs (or symbols) with a referent. The person on the other end (the decoder) cannot always understand the referent, or, if of a different culture, may have no knowledge of that referent altogether. Language is also diachronic, meaning that is constantly in flux from situation to situation. Thinking of the gap in the middle as well as the attendant 'noise' and the fact that the recipient always changes helps us…
Davis, Alanah. "Media Richness Theory." Theories Used in IS Research. Appalachian State University, 2 Feb. 2006. Web. 08 Mar. 2012. .
Heath, R.L., & Jennings B. (2000). Human Communication Theory and Research: Concepts, Contexts, and Challenges. 2nd ed. Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum.
Lee, Jaesub. Chapter 2 Anatomy of the Communication Process. PowerPoint.
Lee, Jaesub. Chapter 4 Information and Systems. PowerPoint.
informal forms of education. I need to look clean and manicured. Details are important. I would wear something casual yet stylish. It is important to dress for success, too, since success is part of what I am selling. I cannot look too casual - I must look like I have achieved something in life because of my educational track.
This attitude should also be reflected in non-verbal behaviors. I would focus my nonverbal cues on energy and enthusiasm. I want my audience to be excited about traditional education. Part of what I am presenting in an educational track that will give students power and control over their life, so I need to move in a way that shows those two attributes. Movements should not be too exaggerated, but I cannot be stiff either. Audience sizes will probably range from dozens to hundreds, sufficient that nonverbal cues such as an expressive…
No author. (2008). How to give a persuasive presentation. eHow.com. Retrieved November 12, 2008 at http://www.ehow.com/how_18316_give-persuasive-presentation.html
Pierce, Sarah. (2007). The perfect presentation: appearance. Entrepreneur.com. Retrieved November 12, 2008 at http://www.entrepreneur.com/marketing/marketingbasics/article182438.html
Newell-Legner, Ruby. (2004). Ways to Promote Active Listening. RubySpeaks.com. Retrieved November 12, 2008 at http://www.rubyspeaks.com/articles/listening.asp
On our own team, we found, a lack of hierarchy was actually task-facilitating. Instead of a series and carrots and sticks method of keeping on task, overall team goal accomplishment was stressed, rather than personal performance.
In this model of organizational development, the process of performing was always in our minds, one of the most successful aspects of the team. Quality control was maintained through feedback loops between team members. For our team, the project of data-gathering was evaluated on a daily basis, with an eye upon the implementation or reporting phase.
Innovation is built into the process of constant team organization and reorganization, collaboration, and reformation, rather than resulting power-plays or a crisis. ith frequently reorganized and diverse teams, members of the organization must get to know one another well across horizontal and vertical leadership chains, and everyone gets a chance to play different roles and to have…
Chang, Yue Cathy; Johnson Wu, & Scott Roodvoets. Kaizen-Teian Improvement Systems
Module 10.1. Presentation for: ESD.60 -- Lean/Six Sigma Systems
MIT Leaders for Manufacturing Program (LFM). Summer 2004. May 6, 2009.
Each will be tied to different tactical objectives and timeframes. The effectiveness of the process will be measured in terms of adherence to time frames, cost and key market variables such as penetration and market share. Each variable should be quantitative to facilitate ease of measurement and evaluation.
A wide variety of legal issues will need to be considered. Doing business is foreign countries creates significant exposure to risk, in that the foreign legal environment can be substantially different from the domestic one. The nature and intensity of these differences will be considered. Also, it will be considered if there are any legal or ethical considerations domestically as a result of overseas expansion. To use an extreme example, setting up a factory in Cuba would create a host of legal and ethical concerns that would need to be accounted for in the option evaluation process. It will be critical to…
Mitchell, Charles & Curry, Jeffrey E. (2003). A Short Course in International Business Ethics: Combining Ethics and Profits in Global Business. World Trade Press, Petaluma. 2003.
No author. (2000). Chapter Four: The Legal, Political/Trade Environment. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved February 22, 2009 at http://www.fao.org/docrep/W5973E/w5973e08.htm
Boyce, Sharon Yvette. (2007). Using Intellectual Capital and Organizational Capacity to Enhance Strategic Implementation for Pharmaceutical Firms. Journal of Business and Public Affairs. Retrieved February 22, 2009 at http://www.scientificjournals.org/journals2007/articles/1072.htm
As a manager, if you see multiple archetypes you could view this as multiple problems, yet the presence of all of these archetypes could well point to the same underlying systemic problem. These archetypes, in systems thinking, are a problem identification mechanism.
For each archetype, you will soon notice its theme, generic patterns of behavior, a generic feedback loop diagram, the typical mental models that underlie the archetype, and soon you will begin to understand the implications of the archetype and the leverage points to resolve the archetypal behaviors. Once you can identify archetypes and understand leverage points, problem solving at the systems level can take hold -- the archetypes can be broken and real solutions developed.
Once we understand the root of the problem, we can propose and implement interventions, which we can then test back against our vision. We use the image of the iceberg to illustrate how…
The timing of the quantitative easing is therefore essential. The first round of QE in 2009 essentially served the purpose of stabilizing the economy; the second round is intended to sustain the ongoing economic recovery by providing sufficient capital in the system that the positive momentum generated in the economy will eventually become a feedback loop of its own that results in the restoration of GDP growth and a reduction in the unemployment rate.
To analyze the effectiveness of this strategy, the case of Japan can be analyzed. The Bank of Japan's QE policy, which was aggressive in nature, resulted in creating strong liquidity in the Japanese economy. Market expectations of inflation were impacted as well. However, the Japanese experience did not result in improving job creation. In these Japanese experience, the stimulative effects of quantitative easing did not extend beyond the stabilization of the financial sector, "suggesting that the…
Bean, C. (2010). Your Questions Answered on Quantitative Easing. Bank of England | Monetary Policy | Quantitative Easing Explained | Ask the Deputy Governor. Retrieved March 26, 2010, from http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/monetarypolicy/qe/askqa.htm
Bernanke, B. & Blinder, a. (1988). Credit, money and aggregate demand. NBER Working Papers. Retrieved March 26, 2011 from http://www.nber.org/papers/w2534.pdf
Bernanke, B.S., & Reinhart, V.R. (2004). Conducting monetary policy at very low short-term interest rates. American Economic Review, 94(2), 85 -- 90.
Borio, C.E.V., English, W., & Filardo, a. (2003). A tale of two perspectives: old or new challenges for monetary policy? BIS Working Papers No. 127. Bank for International Settlements. Retrieved March 26, 2011 from http://ideas.repec.org/p/bis/biswps/127.html
They have grandparents who visit them during the holidays. However, for the most part family members deal with their problems as individuals, not as a family unit.
Information provided by the family is an important source of information about the family. However, one cannot ignore outside sources of information as well. For instance, the worker may contact the school, neighbors, or others who are involved with the family to examine factors that may influence the current situation. The assessment plan will involve contacting the school to find out about Conrad's performance in terms of grades, attendance and overall performance.
The case of the Jarretts is complex, with many individual goals that must be completed on the way to resolution of the systemic problems. In this case, the identified patient is Conrad, as he was the one who tried to commit suicide. The goal of family therapy is the…
Bowen Center for the Study of the Family. (2010). Bowen Theory. Retrieved April 13, 2010
Missouri Department of Social Services. (2007). Child Welfare Manual. Retrieved April 13,
2010 from http://www.dss.mo.gov/cd/info/cwmanual/section7/ch1_33/sec7ch25.htm
Specifically, feedback is a necessity for assessing the immediate needs of the team, for evaluating both individual and team performance, for enabling individuals to improve their performance, and for enabling teams to improve their joint performance and teamwork.
Where the sports analogy breaks down again is in the different level of immediacy that applies to feedback in the realm of sports and professional business. In sports, feedback loops exist on a momentary basis at the operational level, whereas in business functions, it is very rare to have such immediacy of feedback. However, other than the temporal difference, feedback loops provide many of the same essential functions in both realms. In general principle, teams without efficient feedback mechanisms are destined to remain at their current levels of performance and success. Conversely, teams that succeed do so partly by accurately evaluating past performance with the express purpose of implementing the changes necessary…
Creating Word Class Performance in a Jaguar Assembly Plant
Multiple Cause Diagram
In the above multiple cause diagram, six feedback loops exist and they relate to the following sub-systems.
Stores, and Production
The model indicates that the goal is matching the demand with production and is causal to seamless back-to-back activities in the areas of purchasing, production and planning. The diagram explores significant areas such as the impact changes in customer schedule has on production requirements. Customer schedule changes are difficult to determine precisely, especially as pertains to production due dates and material needs (Tomar, 2008).
The diagram below can be very helpful in identifying the factors driving a certain change event. It can be used to identify "cause chains" and help in the identification of key elements. While it is relatively simple, it indicates clearly why a change is taking place and in doing so…
Belogolovsky, E. & Bamberger, P., 2014. Signaling in Secret: Pay for Performance and the Incentive and Sorting Effects of Pay Secrecy. Academy of Management Journal, 57(6), pp. 1706-1733.
Ahmed, A. & Hussain, E., 2014. Effect of Disturbance on Closed-Loop Control System. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 3(8), pp. 15672-15676.
Andrews, R., Boyne, G. & Enticott, G., 2007. Performance failure in the public sector. Public Management Review, 8(2), pp. 273-296.
Bajorek, Z. & Bevan, S., 2015. Performance-related-pay in the UK public sector: A review of the recent evidence on effectiveness and value for money. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 2(2), pp. 94-109.
8. Protethria-egg laying, medium length gestation inside the mother. Lactation occurs after hatching.
Metatheria-marsupial, short length gestation period inside skin pouch on the outside of mother. Lactation occurs upon gestation.
Eutheria-develop from embryos inside of the mother, long gestation period and lactation occurs throughout gestation.
9. First Row: Propagation is stopped as the two waves would cancel one another out. Propagation would occur if the nerve was stimulated in the middle and the two waves moved towards the tips.
Second Row: Initiation is slowed or will stop and result in cramps of the involved muscle. The ion channels are slow to respond or will not respond at all without sodium being present.
Third Row: Transduction will not occur as it relies on the Ca2+ gates to transfer the signal and change the stimulus.
10. Sight-Photoreceptor / Cells react to light hitting them / Optic Nerve
Smell-Olfactory, a-Rodopsin-like receptors / Binds…
As a consequence, we feel this new structure better insulates the firm against the risk of economic downturn, high fuel prices and even intense competition.
These initiatives should be conducted rapidly once the plan is initiated. The typical multi-year lead time for new strategies will leave us in a poor position, caught transitioning between different objectives and tactics. Thus, a timeframe should be set to implement the new personnel rewards system, the new job descriptions and to increase integration of the different business units within one year.
The first three months should see increased communications technology investment, and design of the training programs. The next step, for the 3-6-month time frame, will be to roll out the human resource changes, install the training programs, roll out the improved communication and communicate these changes to our customers.
The final 6 months will involve several tasks. One will be removing from the…
Falletta, Salvatore V. (2005). Organizational Diagnostic Models. Leadersphere. Retrieved May 18, 2009 from http://www.leadersphere.com/img/Orgmodels.pdf
Raine, George & Herel, Suzanne. (2009). On the Record: FedEx CEO Frederick W. Smith. SF Gate. Retrieved May 18, 2009 from http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2009/02/22/BU6I160DLR.DTL&feed=rss.ontherecord
Kinney, Marla J. (1998). How time Flies: FedEx Delivers the 21st Century. FedEx Corporation. In possession of the author.
An ongoing concern at the NASA Ames esearch Center pertains to the human factors in the safety of aviation, which was considered to a great extent during the development of the ASS. The data analysts, who are principally experts in air traffic control and aircraft operations, give insight relating to the nature of human errors and other fundamental factors regarding the incidents. Even though the reports are encoded in detail, the entire narrative text of all the reports is preserved, in case they are needed for evaluation at a later stage. (Office of Technology Assessment, United States Government Printing Office, 1988)
The effectiveness with which the data is collected and stored by a program like ASS is just one part of the reporting side of the incident. More important is the potency of the feedback loop, of the reporting system, to the industry and the reporters to whom its serves.…
N.A. (n. d.) "ASRS: The Case for Confidential Incident Reporting Systems"
Retrieved 28 April, 2008 at http://asrs.arc.nasa.gov/docs/rs/60_Case_for_Confidential_Incident_Reporting.pdf
N.A. (n. d.) "Aviation Safety Reporting System: Program Briefing"
Retrieved 28 April, 2008 at http://asrs.arc.nasa.gov/overview/summary.html
Gaia Theory: A Critical Analysis
In the 1960's, James Lovelock, a British atmospheric chemist, was engaged in research commissioned by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration
NASA) in the United States. Specifically, the studies were intended to develop a method for determining reliably whether or not biological life existed on Mars. Part of Lovelock's work involved analyzing certain elements of Earth's atmospheric properties and mechanisms, in order to understand how a planet teeming with biological life might be differentiated accurately from interplanetary distances from a planet completely devoid of biological life (Enteractive, 1995).
While Lovelock's NASA research project originally pertained to Mars rather than to the Earth, his findings led him to postulate a theory in which he characterized
Earth as a complex living organism, rather than merely an inanimate host for the many terrestrial life forms dependent on it for sustenance. Lovelock called his theory
Gaia" after an ancient…
American Association for the Advancement of Science. Science (Feb 3/98)
Gaia Hypothesis to Get Some Respect? Accessed August 20, 2004, at http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1P1:28868503&num=18&ctrlInfo=Round5b%3AProd%3ASR%3AResult&ao=
Enteractive. Earth Explorer (Feb 1/95) Gaia: Theory of a Living Earth. Accessed August 20, 2004, at http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1P1:28013470&num=11&ctrlInfo=Round5b%3AProd%3ASR%3AResult&ao=
Gould, S.J. (1991) Bully for Brontosaurus: Reflections in Natural History
Global warming, or more accurately, climate change, is the phenomenon that has been scientifically observed over repeated studies that the planet is experiencing warming and changing climates at a pace much more rapid that has been observed in any prior era. The increase in the pace of the climate change has been correlated with the coming of the industrial age, and in particular with the mass adoption of fossil fuels. The burning of hydrocarbons to create energy unleashes a chemical reaction that ends with carbon entering the atmosphere, where it then traps solar radiation in the atmosphere, leading to the warming process. This paper will outline this process and the evidence supporting the fact of anthropogenic global warming.
Observations of Climate Change
The first step in understanding climate change is understanding how it is determined to be occurring. Weather is an observable phenomenon, and over a long period of time…
Antonio, R. & Brulle, A. (2011). The unbearable lightness of politics: climate change denial and political polarization. The Sociological Quarterly. Vol. 52 (2011) 195-202.
Cox, P., Betts, R., Jones, C., Spall, S. & Totterdell, I. (2000). Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate change model. Nature. Vol. 408 (9 November 2000) 184-187.
Crowley, T. (2000). Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years. Science. Vol. 289 (14 July 2000), 270-277.
Dansgaard, W., Johnsen, S., Clausen, H. Jensen, D., Gundestrup, N., Hammer, C., & Oeschger, H. (1984). North Atlantic climate oscillations revealed by deep Greenland ice cores. Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity.
AbstractToday, organizations of all sizes and types rely on different types of projects to achieve their objectives. Indeed, project management has become a discipline unto itself in recent years and a growing body of scholarship has been developed in response to this trend. Moreover, there are also international organizations such as the Project Management Institute which are dedicated to helping business practitioners improve their project management skills. Although there remain some mixed views concerning optimal project management strategies, there is a growing consensus that successful project outcomes depend in large part on how well a specific project is organized from the outset, including most especially the initial conditions under which it will be pursued. In addition, the initial conditions of a given project also include the respective design and structure of an organization, which are the primary focus of this study. In sum, the likelihood of successful project management initiatives…
ReferencesAdewumi, A., Kagamba, J. & Alochukwu, A. (2016). Application of chaos theory in the prediction of motorized traffic flows on urban networks. Mathematical Problems in Engineering. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5656734 .Djavanshir, G. & Khorramshahgol, R. (2006). Applications of chaos theory for mitigating risks in telecommunication systems planning in global competitive market. Journal of Global Competitiveness. 14(1), 15-24. URL: web.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.Doherty, N. & Delener, N. (2015, December). Chaos theory: Marketing and management implications. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 9(4), 66-75. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/10696679.2001.11501904 .Englund, R. L. (2009). Applying chaos theory in a project-based organization. Paper presented at PMI Global Congress 2009EMEA, Amsterdam, North Holland, The Netherlands. Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute.Gayeski, D. M. & Majka, J. (1996, September). Untangling communication chaos: A communicator\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s conundrum for coping with change. Communication World, 13(7), 4-9. URL: web.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxyGlenn, J. E. (1996). Chaos theory: The essential for military applications. Newport Papers. 10. URL: https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/usnwc-newport-papers/10 .Levy, D. (2007, June). Chaos theory and strategy: Theory, application, and managerial implications. Strategic Management Journal, 15(S2), 167-178. DOI: 10.1002/smj.4250151011.Millerd, P. (2020). Integrating chaos: Building resilient organizations with chaos theory. Boundless. Retrieved from https://think-boundless.com/chaos-theory/ .Moshiri, S. (2002, Fall). A review on chaos and its applications in economics. Iranian Economic Research, 4(12), 29-68. URL: https://www.sid.ir/en/Journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=38072 .Namaki, Z. (2018, January). The application of chaos management theories in organizations. International Journal of Management Technology, 5(1), 39-45. URL: https://www. eajournals.org/wp-content/uploads/The-Application-of-Chaos-Management-Theories-in-Organization.pdf.Oestreicher, C. (2007, September 9). A history of chaos theory. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 9(3), 275-285.Safian, R. (2012, February). Generation flux. Fast Company, 162, 37-41. URL: web.a.ebsco host.com.ezproxy.Schmarzo, B. (2017, August 10). Why understanding chaos theory is important to your business. Dell Technologies. Retrieved from https://infocus.delltechnologies.com/william_ schmarzo/why-understanding-chao s-theory-is-important-to-your-business/.Stapleton, D., Hanna, J. B. & Ross, J. R. (2006, March 1). Enhancing supply chain solutions with the application of chaos theory. Supply Chain Management. DOI: https://www. emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/13598540610652483/full/html.van de Vliet, A. (2020). Order from chaos: Chaos theory. Management Today. Retrieved from https://www.managementtoday.co.uk/uk-order-chaos-chaos-theory/article/409520 .Yudin, A. (2008, April). From chaos to trends in forex. Futures: News, Analysis & Strategies for Futures, Options & Derivatives Traders. 37(4), 38-40. URL: web.a.ebscohost.com. ezproxy.
Nichols and McChesney (2013) write about election spending and the negative effect that it has on democracy and governance in America in their book Dollarocracy: How the money-and-election complex is destroying America.. They have divided the book into central themes, including the concept of privilege, spending by the very wealthy, advertising and the role of the media in the election machine, finally arriving at some suggestions for reform to restore balance to the democratic system of the United States.
The book opens with an explanation of one of the core principles that underpins their arguments, that America is a society driven by class differences. Those with privilege consistently seek to use that privilege to enhance it. The authors make the case that such practices at this point are so rampant that "the United States is now rapidly approaching a point where the electoral process itself ceases to function as…
Nichols, J. & McChesney, R. (2013). Dollarocracy: How the money-and-election complex is destroying America. New York: Nation Books.
Water in Sub-Saharan Africa is of special interest because of my background but water is a fascinating issue in general, one that I think will play an increasingly large role in the 21st century, as the effects of population growth and climate change bring about significant changes to our water usage and availability. A lack of water in particular has a substantial destabilizing effect.
Water as a social issue combines a lot of different elements. As an issue, water sits at the intersection of social justice, politics, economics and agriculture are all areas weather. This is probably because water is so essential to human life. We drink it, we use in for domestic purposes, agricultural, industrial, transportation. Yet clean water is not always easy to come by. Some feel that access to clean water is a human right. So there is a significant importance attached to water in most parts…
Acerman, M. & Hollis, G. (1996). Water management and wetlands in sub-Saharan Africa. IUCN: Switzerland.
Bayliss, K. & Fine, B. (2007). Privatization and alternative public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa: Delivering on electricity and water. Palgrave MacMillan.
Bojo, J. (1996). The costs of land degradation in sub-Saharan Africa. Ecological Economics. Vol. 16 (2) 161-173.
Conway, D., Persechino, A., Ardoin, S., Hamandawana, H., Dieulin, C. & Mahe, G. (2008). Rainfall and water resources variability in sub-Saharan Africa during the 20th century. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Retrieved April 18, 2014 from http://tyndall.ac.uk/sites/default/files/wp119.pdf
The balanced scorecard is a concept used in strategy to bring about a sublime alignment of different stakeholder interests within an organization. The concept arises from the understanding that shareholders are just one of many stakeholders for a given organization. For the organization to sustain success, it must be able to meet the needs of all critical stakeholders. Thus, the most effective strategy will create a symbiosis between the interests of different stakeholder groups. The balanced scorecard is an output-based perspective, with the outputs being in one of four different categories -- financial, internal business process, knowledge and innovation, and customer. This perspective is the opposite of the traditional approach that only places the interests of shareholders (i.e. The financial interests) as important in the business. It is understood, in the balanced scorecard, that financial interests are most effectively met when all of the other interest are met…
Alexa.com (2015). Top 500 sites. Alexa.com. Retrieved March 22, 2015 from http://www.alexa.com/topsites
Andersen, E. (2014). How Google picks new employees. Forbes. Retrieved March 22, 2015 from http://www.forbes.com/sites/erikaandersen/2014/04/07/how-google-picks-new-employees-hint-its-not-about-your-degree/
BSI (2014). Balanced Scorecard basics. Balanced Scorecard Institute. Retrieved March 22, 2015 from http://balancedscorecard.org/Resources/About-the-Balanced-Scorecard
eMarketer (2014). Google, Facebook continue on as the market's leaders. eMarketer.com. Retrieved March 22, 2015 from http://www.emarketer.com/Article/Microsoft-Surpass-Yahoo-Global-Digital-Ad-Market-Share-This-Year/1011012
Should the outcomes perform well against the goals, then the performance appraisal process must undergo a re-evaluation. Theories about the underperformance of key outcomes can be matched against feedback from the appraisers and the employees. From that point, a course of action can be developed that will alter the appraisal process to better align it with its objectives. The final step in the control mechanism is the adjustment process. The new ideas must be incorporated into the existing appraisal system. These new ideas must then be tested to determine if they have been as effective as intended, or if they have even moved the outcomes further from the objectives. At this point, the manager is engaged in a feedback loop that exists to continuously improve the performance appraisal process.
Performance appraisals are often conducted poorly, and this has led to considerable criticism of the tool. There are three fundamental…
Heskett, Jim (2006). What's to be Done About Performance Reviews? Harvard Business School. Retrieved November 26, 2008 at http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/5563.html
No author. (2008). Performance Reviews. Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved November 26, 2008 at http://www.cmu.edu/hr/hr_services/performance/reviews.html
Culbert, Samuel a. (2008) Get Rid of the Performance Review! MIT Sloan Management Review. Retrieved November 26, 2008 at http://sloanreview.mit.edu/wsj/insight/hr/2008/10/20/
No author. (2004) Performance Appraisal Handbook. United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved November 26, 2008 at http://www.doi.gov/hrm/guidance/370dm430hndbk.pdf
Open Systems ISA, Inc.
Due to the delay of my understanding, I was able to complete the writing but haven't inserted the APA footnotes yet. I'm doing that now but I opted to upload the text first. I will use the message system and provide you with another version with the footnotes shortly. Sorry, but I wanted to show you it would be ready pretty close to the due date and time! You should have the second version with the footnotes in less than an hour.
Whether one goes to a large medical facility or to a free community clinic, step one is generally the same: Someone in the organization initiates both a financial and a physical assessment of your condition. It's as if the doctor needs to know your symptoms and what resources are at hand before he or she can even consider how to plot out their response.…
Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Performance & Change (1992) -- The end result of the experiences of the past, this approach is seen as introducing a broad-based assessment of the best of the above. It introduces new or more refined constructs and anticipates the differences between an operational climate (which may be time or location specific) and culture in similar ways to how transactional and transformative considerations come into play. Invested with a strong theoretical foundation, this approach is deemed measurable and is nearly fully encircled with feedback loops that are now thought to be measurable because of their inclusion in the theories that support the complexity.
MAKING THE ISA CASE
As previously noted, ISA is well appreciated because it deems itself responsive to both the patient and the circumstances (including costs) for prescribing and implementing a cure to what ails the many communities/clients that have waste disposal issues. It has learned how to maximize and resell what it reclaims and has survived into a market where the repurposing of recycled materials is now as cost-effective as finding the raw resources themselves. The company has experienced some quarterly profit fluxuations, but overall is has continued to grow in response to the needs and expectations of its mission, or perhaps more importantly, the varying levels and spectrums of its many missions that are thought to be highly responsive to the needs of its many clients. It is this variability in the company that has allowed it to be successful in the emerging environmental market and thus enable reviewers to diagnose its organizational functionality. However, because the conditions for environmental understanding and complexity are somewhat decentralized and tied to the needs of particular locations, it is best diagnosed using not the final, most interactive of models (Burke-Litwin), but instead the DIGB model. In diagnosing individual and group behavior that is specific to its various clients' conditions, it is possible to get a greater understanding of the dynamics of what is brought to each condition and enables them to adapt as needed to local requirements and expectations. The feedback they receive in being able to provide everything from basic transportation to appropriate uses of "each pound" of their reclamations allows for the kind of responsiveness that is tied to the actions and reactions of particular players. While it might generally be said that any environmental entity of this sort must be conceived of as being effectively without boundaries -- because of the diversity of expectations of their clients -- in reality, they appear to be operating within measurable expectations that exist at the time of their activity. In so doing, however, they appear to allow for growth and change that comes as communities or political forces bring about new expectations and as governing laws evolve.
Project Management: Case Study in Managing a Complex Shipyard Project in Singapore
Background of Complex Shipyard Construction Project
Project Overview and Objective
ork Process of Building Construction
Issue Analysis in Shipyard Construction Project Management
Literature Review of Project Management
Issues in Scope Management
Methodology of Scope Management
Lessons Learned from Scope Management
Issues in Cost Management
Methodology of Cost Management
Lessons Learned from Cost Management
Issues in Human Resources
Methodology of HR Management
Lessons Learned from Human Resource Management
Case Study in Managing a Complex Shipyard Construction Project in Singapore
This paper introduces the special features of a completed shipyard project, together with its construction and human resource management processes as well. The organization of the paper provides an introduction to the topic, an overview and background of the In the first part, this project illustrates overview of the complex background of a complex ship-building project as…
Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. Best Practices for Project Scope Planning. [Online]. Available: http://www.tensteppb.com/5.2.02TSProjectScopePlanningTechniques.htm .
About Us. (2004). Keppel Shipyard. [Online]. Available: http://www.keppelshipyard.com/corporate/aboutus.asp.
Badiru, Adedeji Bodunde. Quantitative Models for Project Planning, Scheduling and Control. Westport, CT: Quorom Books, 1993.
BP awards U.S.$20 million follow-up job to Keppel yard. (July 26, 2004). Keppel Corporation. [Online]. Available: http://www.kepcorp.com/press/press.asp.
The reinforcement power of this feedback loop strengthens the customer service culture to the point where it has become for HMS Host a source of competitive advantage.
Another way in which HMSHost develops its customer service expertise is through its partnerships. The company utilizes these partnerships to institute a two-way transfer of a wide range of competencies, including technology, logistics and training (QSR Magazine, 2002). These partnerships allow partners like Starbucks and Burger King to contribute their own strong customer service values to HMS managers, who can in turn transfer this knowledge throughout the organization. This infusion of creativity allows for a wider range of ideas and best practices to be introduced into the organization, thereby enhancing organizational learning. The same occurred when HMSHost was taken over by Autogrill -- the parent company was able to influence customer service standards and bring in new ideas with regards to enhancing the…
HMS Host website. Various pages. (2010). Retrieved March 13, 2010 from http://www.hmshost.com
No author. (2010). Host/Hostess. Simply Hired. Retrieved March 13, 2010 from http://www.simplyhired.com/job-id/jv4ritjh67/host-hostess-jobs/
QSR Magazine. (2002). HMSHost and Burger King improve efficiency with a two-phase kitchen upgrade. QSR Magazine. Retrieved March 13, 2010 from http://www.qsrmagazine.com/articles/news/story.phtml?id=3641
Turner, C. (2009). How Etihad's marketing set new global airline standards. UTalkMarketing.com. Retrieved March 13, 2010 from http://www.utalkmarketing.com/Pages/Article.aspx?ArticleID=11214&Title=How_Etihad%27s_marketing_set_new_global_airline_standards
Human resources must also become involved at the solution level. The department may not set strategy but it may be able to provide counseling for employees during a period where the company has identified an acceleration trap and is attempting to resolve it. Human resources can also ensure that the needs of the company during this period -- such as additional employees to relieve some workload -- are met thereby facilitating the recovery process.
Burnout is a major strategic issue for any organization, and it often comes as the result of an acceleration trap. Today's intense competitive environment and increasing pace of life are driving burnout in the workforce. hen burnout hits on an organization wide level, it can erode productivity, profits and the company's employer brand. The strategic implications of burnout, therefore, are long-term and self-sustaining.
hile companies do need to enter periods of accelerated activity, managers need…
Bruch, H. & Menges, J. (2010). The Acceleration Trap. Harvard Business Review. In possession of the author.
Schaufeli, W., Leiter, M. & Maslach, C. (2009). Burnout: 35 years of research and practice. Career Development International. Vol. 14 (3) 204-220.
Peterson, U., Demerouti, E., Bergstrom, G., Asberg, M. & Nygren, a. (2008). Work characteristics and sickness absence in burnout and nonburnout groups: A study of Swedish health care workers. International Journal of Stress Management. Vol. 15(2) 153-172.
ole-based EP systems are critical for the siloed, highly inefficient architectures of legacy EP systems to be made more relevant, contribute greater financial performance, and lead to higher levels of overall customer satisfaction.
c. Purpose of the study
The purpose the study is evaluate how enterprises who adopt role-based EP system implementations are able to attain higher levels of financial and operations-based performance vs. those that rely on silo-based, more functionally defined EP structures. ole-based EP systems have been proven to lead to greater order accuracy, velocity and customer satisfaction as a result. The ability to gain greater visibility throughout supply chains, better manage pricing, discounts, implement and maintain contract management systems, and also deliver consistently high customer service have all been attributed to role-based EP systems. Conversely siloed EP systems that are managed strictly to functional areas have been shown to severely limit the ability of enterprises to be…
Aberdeen Research (2005) -- New Product Development: Profiting from Innovation. Aberdeen Research. Boston, MA. December 2005
Abrams and Andrews 2005, Management Update: Client Issues for Service-Oriented Business Applications, 2005. Gartner Group. 20 July 2005.
Aimi, G. (2005).- AMR Research (2005, October 25). Retailers Save Money by Controlling in-Bound Logistics. (Alert). Boston, MA
Akkermans, H., & van Helden, K. 2002. Vicious and virtuous cycles in ERP
The Congruence Model for Organizational Analysis appears thorough in terms of both the internal and external environment. The model operates on the basis of inputs, throughputs and outputs, with the external environment providing feedback on inputs and outputs. The organization is regarded as a dynamic system, which is influenced by means of a number of variables. Of all the models, this one appears to be the most applicable to Walgreens.
Tichy's TPC Framework and Diagnosing Group and Individual ehavior are also regarded as particularly applicable to Walgreens, as a result of the significant influence of the environment. Tichy's model increases the complexity of the internal environment by recognizing that some relationships among variables are stronger than others. Environmental influence is recognized through inputs, outputs and the feedback loop. Diagnosing Individual and Group ehavior focuses mainly upon human relationships within the internal environment. It is also assumed that there are minimal…
Falletta, S.V. (2005)
Organizational Diagnostic Models: A Review and Synthesis. Retrieved at http://www.leadersphere.com/img/Orgmodels.pdf
Walgreens Health Services. (2009).
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CNSs need skills in mental health. (2009). Cancer Nursing Practice, 8(1), 6. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1651343051).
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Retrieved March 1, 2009, at http://www.patheyman.com/essays/neuman/short.htm
Okamura, Masako Shigeto Yamawaki, Tatsuo Akechi, Koji Taniguchi, & Yosuke
Uchitomi. (2005). Psychiatric disorders following first breast cancer recurrence:
Prevalence, associated factors and relationship to quality of life. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 35(6), 302-9. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest
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" (Health Care System, Canada, 2007)
V. THEORETICAL ASIS of OREM'S SELF-CARE MODEL
Social Learning Theory was developed by andura (1987, 1986) who held that behavior results from the individual's personal and environmental factors. It was stated in findings of a study reported by Hyndman et al. (1993) that there is a need to change the individual's environment in order to encourage positive health behavior and that there is a need to correct misperceptions about health. Training and development of skills is necessary in creation of new behaviors and in approaching solutions as well as are role models and self-efficacy. In Orem's conceptualization of health "the concept of wholeness, soundness and well-being are closely integrated." (Health Care Canada, 2007) Orem's definition of health includes "...psychological, interpersonal and social aspects of living as well as the commonly emphasized physical aspects." (Health Care Canada, 2007) Well-being has been associated with health in…
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Keeratiyutawong, P.; Hanucharurnkul, S.; Panpakdee, O.; and Melkus, G. (2006) a Self-Management Program for Improving Knowledge, Self-Care, Activities, Quality of Life, and Glycosylated HbA1c Among Thai Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Online available at
Google is a Learning Organization
Worth more than General Motors, Disney and McDonald's combined, Google is a leading provider of information services today. This company achieved its meteoric growth in large part due to its ability to respond to changes in the marketplace and provide innovative solutions to consumer and business information needs (Morrison, 2003). Innovation, though, requires creativity and experimentation, but Google has learned how to accomplish this effectively by encouraging a reinforcing loop process throughout its organization (Sungkhawan, 2011). In fact, engineers and managers at Google are allowed 20% of their work time to devote to their own personal projects and tacit knowledge is shared in a reinforcing feedback fashion (Tidd & Bessant, 2013). For example, Tidd and Bessant report that, "Technical employees are expected to spend 20% of their time on projects other than their core job, and similarly managers are required to spend 20% of their…
Morrison, D. (2003). E-learning strategies: How to get implementation and delivery right first time. New York: Wiley.
Senge, P. (1994). The fifth discipline. New York: Doubleday.
Signorelli, P. & Reed, L. (2011, May-June). Professional through growth learning communities:
Knowledge comes with teamwork, and fun-all across the organization. American Libraries, 42(5-6), 56-59.
That is management. Leadership also involves addressing unknown problems. It involves understanding what the rest of the organization does not, and then shoring up these organizational blind spots without alienating the organization's core values.
The ability to identify problems and address them in such a manner is known as organizational intelligence. The leader of the firm can demonstrate this trait and lead the firm to success, but in a large conglomerate one leader cannot do it all. The leader must develop organizational intelligence in order to help the entire company to take leadership roles, to identify issues and to solve them. Organizations are, after all, a series of connected feedback loops. The leader's role involves understanding these loops, and the people within them. This is where emotional intelligence comes into play. It has been determined in the education field that the higher the level of emotional intelligence in pupils, the…
Koda, S. (2001) Schooling your emotions. The Hindu. Retrieved March 12, 2010 from http://www.hinduonnet.com/jobs/0102/05210035.htm
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Goleman, D. (2010). Emotional intelligence. Daniel Goleman.info. Retrieved March 12, 2010 from http://www.danielgoleman.info/topics/emotional-intelligence/
Longatan, N. (2009). How to increase your emotional intelligence. Suite101.com. Retrieved March 12, 2009 from http://soft-skills-development.suite101.com/article.cfm/how_to_increase_your_emotional_intelligence
New York Times
Leadership and Culture
The New York Times has a corporate culture based around a tradition of excellence. As the "newspaper of record," the New York Times has long been considered a leader in the industry, capable of setting trends and innovating. At the same time, the Times Company is also fairly conservative, because of its tradition of excellence. There is an expectation within the company of being the best. Integrity is held in utmost regard. These philosophies are incorporated in the company's "Rules of the Road," which include the usual components of integrity, creating shareholder value, good corporate citizenship as core values. Innovation and collaboration are among the traits in the rules of the road, in addition to customer service, respect, challenging oneself -- basic frameworks enshrined in strategy to various degrees (New York Times website, 2010).
Culture is not, however, specifically cultivated at the company as…
New York Times Company website. Various pages. (2010). Retrieved March 24, 2010 from http://www.nytco.com/careers/mission.html
2009 New York Times Annual Report. Retrieved March 24, 2010 from http://www.nytco.com/pdf/annual_2009/2009NYTannual.pdf
Sherman, G. (2010). New York Times ready to charge online readers. New York Magazine. Retrieved March 24, 2010 from http://nymag.com/daily/intel/2010/01/new_york_times_set_to_mimic_ws.html
Wortham, J. (2010). Foursquare signs a deal with Zagat. New York Times. Retrieved March 24, 2010 from http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/02/09/foursquare-inks-a-deal-with-zagat/
If it cannot be effectively proven that God does not exist, then God apparently does exist. In fact, the lack of proof for atheism can be used as direct proof in the existence of God. "It is much easier to be persuaded that ontological arguments are no good than it is to say exactly what is wrong with them," (Oppy).
The apparent manifest multiplicity of the universe is further proof of the necessity of God. "Abstract objects depend on God for their existence, and abstract objects exist in every world; therefore, God exists in every world," (Davidson). The crux of the necessary existence of God theory is that God is most certainly not a being that could have conceivably not existed. The fact that the thought of God exists illuminates the existence of God, and thus, the necessity of God.
Central to the theory of the necessity of God is…
Cline, Austin. "God Exists." About.com. Retrieved online: http://atheism.about.com/od/whatisgod/a/exists.htm
Davidson, Matthew. "God and Other Necessary Beings." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 29 April 2005. Retrieved online: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/god-necessary-being/
Oppy, Graham. "Ontological Arguments." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ontological-arguments/
Vaknin, Sam. "Is God Necessary?" Retrieved online: http://samvak.tripod.com/sciencereligion2.html#god
" (Risse, 1998) First, the "Euro is about European union rather than just lowering transaction costs" and secondly "intuitionalists arguments about path dependent processes offer significant insights if they are linked to the more constructivist reasoning" which Risse develops in his work. (1998) Third stated is the primary argument is that "the visions about European order which give political meaning to EMU, need to be understood in the framework of identity politics." (Risse, 1998) Risse states that the controversial nature of relationships of political elites in the 'big three' as well as the various attitudes "can be explained by differences in the construction of national collective identities and their relationship to European order." (Risse, 1998) Risse note that historically, money "...has been closely linked to state- and nation-building." (1998) There is no exception when it comes to the Euro and while the Euro has been "incorporated into their (Germany and…
Pettinger, R. (2007) Why the UK Will Never Join the EURO. 1 Mar 2007 Economics Essays. Online available at http://www.economicshelp.org/2007/03/why-uk-will-never-join-euro.html
Jones, Alistair (2007) Britain and the European Union. Edinburgh University Press. Online available at http://books.google.com/books?id=TPIVYIO4NsoC&pg=PA175&lpg=PA175&dq=british+reluctance+to+join+the+eu&source=web&ots=LSnWPXcjXM&sig=nEaqcfIyPijSiJofXJ8Y02DQEck&hl=en#PPT1,M1
To Euro or Not to Euro: The EMU and Identity Politics in the European Union. ARENA Working Papers WP 98/1. 15 Jan 1998. Online available at http://www.arena.uio.no/publications/wp98_1.htm#Note4+5
Buller, Jim (2003) the Disadvantage of Tying One's Hands: The Rise and Fall of the Europeanization of the British Monetary Policy. In University of Sheffield, Department of Politics, ESRC/UACES Series of Seminars on EBPP 19 Sept 2003. Online University of Pittsburg available at http://aei.pitt.edu/1717/
The Eurozone is currently facing a crisis on a number of fronts. The most pressing of these is Greece, which is heavily indebted to other Eurozone countries, creating a budget crisis in the country (Raman, 2011). As the risk of default on Greek sovereign debt increases, this puts downward pressure on the value of the euro. Other nations within the Eurozone are, in order to salvage the integrity of the currency, more or less obligated to back Greek debt. hile Greece is a significant problem for nations within the Eurozone, the currency would not be considered to be in a state of crisis if Greece was the only problem. The reality is that many peripheral Eurozone countries are in various states of financial disarray -- Spain, Italy, Portugal and Ireland all have problems (Ibid). Spain and Italy are in particular a problem, because they are too big to…
BBC. (2001). Greece joins Eurozone. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved November 23, 2011 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/1095783.stm
Gow, D. (2011). Shock as €6 billion German bond sale ends in failure. The Guardian. Retrieved November 23, 2011 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2011/nov/23/eurozone-doomed-without-central-control-barroso
Krugman, P. (2011). Romantic views threaten Europe. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved November 23, 2011 from http://www.chron.com/opinion/outlook/article/Romantic-views-threaten-Europe-Paul-Krugman-2281150.php
NPR. (2010). A brief history of the EU. National Public Radio. Retrieved November 23, 2011 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=128389419
Barry Eichengreen (2011) has speculated that the U.S. dollar may be on the decline as the world's vehicle currency. The dollar has performed this role since at least Bretton oods, when the financial and political might of the United States allowed it to take the lead in the global financial system from Great Britain. However, that lead is being challenged today by two other currencies. One is the euro, which derives from the Eurozone, a basket of nations that has an economy around the same size as the United States. The other is from the Chinese yuan, a currency that is pegged to some degree to the U.S. dollar, but which is backed by the world's third-largest economy (behind the U.S. And Eurozone) and one that is growing rapidly. The creation of the euro immediately fuelled speculation that it would overtake the dollar as the world's vehicle currency, and the…
Devereux, M. & Shi, S. (2008). Vehicle currency. University of Toronto working papers. Retrieved November 29, 2011 from http://ideas.repec.org/p/tor/tecipa/tecipa-315.html
Eichengreen, B. (2011). Why the dollar's reign is near an end. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 30, 2011 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703313304576132170181013248.html
Goldberg, L. & Tille, C. (2005). Vehicle currency use in international trade. Federal Reserve Bank of New York, staff report #200.
Lim, B. & Qing, K. (2011). China to step up ASEAN yuan trade settlement. Reuters. Retrieved November 29, 2011 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/10/20/us-china-economy-yuan-idUSTRE79J2JR20111020
al-Mart faces an industry that is generally challenging, but its strength in the industry results in the industry being favorable. al-Mart's success is predicated on excellence execution of key components of the discount retail value chain -- procurement, logistics and merchandising. al-Mart has numerous strengths, but as befits the world's largest company it has relatively few weaknesses. In its intensely competitive businesses, al-Mart sees many threats, but there are still tremendous opportunities that al-Mart can take advantage of. In general, the external environment is favorable for al-Mart to continue to use its strengths to capitalize on its opportunities.
Porter's Five Forces. al-Mart's industry is intensely competitive, but the five forces work differently on al-Mart as an established, dominant player than they would on a new entrant. The five forces are power of suppliers, power of buyers, threat of substitutes, threat of new entrants and intensity of rivalry (QuickMBA.com, 2010). Supplier…
Iwata, E. (2008). Some companies (like Wal-Mart) thrive despite recession. USA Today. Retrieved March 20, 2011 from http://www.usatoday.com/money/economy/2008-12-03-recession-proof-companies_N.htm
MSN Moneycentral: Wal-Mart. Retrieved March 20, 2011 from http://investing.money.msn.com/investments/stock-price?Symbol=wmt&s=qbeb
QuickMBA.com (2010). Porter's five forces. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved March 20, 2011 from http://www.quickmba.com/strategy/porter.shtml
Schmitt, E. (2009). The profits and perils of supplying to Wal-Mart. Business Week. Retrieved March 20, 2011 from http://www.businessweek.com/smallbiz/content/jul2009/sb20090714_270767.htm
Bernstein also makes the point that government debt is not the same as household or business debt, and that is a valid point to make. There are a few differences of note. The first is borrowing -- government has much better ability to borrow than either business or households, the United States in particular. The size and diversity of the economy is one factor, the difficulty of putting a government into default is another, but also the U.S. has control over the value of its currency. It can devalue its way out of debt if need be, like Iceland did. Households and businesses do not have this luxury -- they are usually on very short leashes with their creditors, with grace periods measured in weeks and months, rather than decades.
Ultimately, the only logical choice in the face of a recession is to increase government spending in order to offset…
Bernstein, J. (2012). Rethinking debt. Democracy Journal. Winter 2012. 71-82.
Moreover, it is unclear whether Jim has attempted to reestablish any meaningful contact with his children; rather, his entire focus has been on becoming a better person. While there is certainly nothing wrong with that goal in and of itself (it is, after all, a universal human quality), he appears to have pursued this goal to the total exclusion of making any substantive reparations to his family. Finally, it is interesting that Jim somehow feels compelled to tell others -- including potential employers -- about his criminal past and his current status in treatment, as if this ongoing commitment to all-out honesty somehow absolves him from a deceptive and duplicitous history, or at least helps to explain it (which it does if one is interested). According to Jim, "Entering into society again was very difficult. I had lost my business, my friends and was now divorced. After leaving jail, I…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bryant, J.K. (2009, June). School counselors and child abuse reporting. Professional School
Counseling, 12(5), 130-132.
Bryant, J. & Milsom, a. (2005, October). Child abuse reporting by school counselors.