Feedback Loops and Organizational Learning at Whole Foods Market
To remain competitive and responsive to internal and external pressures, firm need to observe and monitor the outcomes of their activities (Mintzberg et al., 2011). Feedback loops explain the way in which processes may be maintained, or change takes place. In line with other businesses, Whole Food Markets cannot avoid the presence of feedback loops. When the feedback loops are recognized, they can provide a useful source of data that a firm may use to maintain and improve performance. The aim of this report is to review the two different types of feedback loop which may exist, and then look at some of the feedback looks that are found in While Foods Market.
Types of Feedback Loops
There are two types of feedback loop exist, the first type is a reinforcing loop and the second is a balancing loop,…… [Read More]
System Feedback Loops of Whole Foods
Systems model use two basic feedback loops, so-called Balancing and einforcing loops, to illustrate the relationships between growth and goals. This paper identifies one Balancing Loop and one einforcing Loop that are critical to Whole Foods Market's performance and success. An explanation of each of these feedback loops, including the causal factors and how they affect each other, is followed by a discussion concerning an area of growth for the einforcing Loop and goal behavior for the Balancing Loop. An assessment concerning how Whole Foods Market has generated organizational learning and how this organization can go further and generate additional organizational learning is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Balancing and einforcing Loops at Whole Foods Markets
All systems thinking models use two basic feedback loops, Balancing and einforcing loops, to depict the relationships…… [Read More]
System Feedback Loops
einforcing Loop reflects the ability of one action to produce an outcome that influences more of the similar action thus resulting into eventual growth or decline (Bellinger, 2004). einforcing loop represents one of the foundational structures in relation to systems of thinking. Virtuous Cycle is the ability of reinforcing loop structure to produce desirable result in the process of its application. In the incidence of desired result, organizations and business entities have the tendency of ignoring the influence of reinforcing loop. This is dangerous for growth and development of the organization because aspects of the entity do not grow forever. In the presence of desirable results, individuals and business entities have the opportunity to adopt new strategies to ensure that the systems and processes continue to experience growth. Viscous cycle is the ability of reinforcing loop to produce undesirable results in relation to growth and…… [Read More]
In these cases, Whole Foods will encourage executives and staff members to work together in helping to enhance the quality of life for everyone inside the communities where various stores are located. This increases favorable perceptions and it allows the organization to build upon the image it has established. This shapes their global behavior, by showing the way Whole Foods is taking into account the needs of the environment, specific regions and the people who live there. ("Feedback Loops," 2012) ("Whole Foods Market History," 2013)
These elements are important, in illustrating how the different loops are building off each other. This helps the firm to establish basic procedures for improving their reputation and offering customers with more. The way they affect each other, is one practice will influence the perceptions of clients and if they choose to shop at different locations. ("Feedback Loops," 2012) ("Whole Foods Market History," 2013)
Identify…… [Read More]
The goal in this loop is to improve the perception. Thus, more innovations are required. However, there is not a clear-cut reinforcement mechanism, if only because the industry is highly competitive and many firms are viewed as innovators. The perception of being innovative in the smartphone industry is more of a hygiene factor than anything else -- you need to be an innovator to even be in the market right now. Thus, while Palm may focus on improving its perception as an innovator, this does not create a reinforcing loop.
hat Palm needs right now is to take advantage of the opportunities that these loops and the interference of HP in these loops provide. The company is now aware of the relationships that form the foundation of these two loops. It understands that perception must match reality with respect to the company's innovation in order to attract not only better…… [Read More]
These learning opportunities will ensure that the University maintains and indeed improves its reputation for excellence among existing and future students. Hence, the growth of the University will be ensured.
Organizational learning opportunities also exist within the balancing feedback loop. The geographic expansion of the University means the appointment of additional personnel, as indeed indicated by obert Silberman (2009). As representatives of Strayer University, these personnel will need to be trained in order to maintain consistent standards of excellence within the University. Those in charge of training also have the opportunity to create a shared vision of the components of the University, and in this way maintain the high standard that the institution is known for. The challenge is to create and maintain a shared a vision for all the geographic locations of the University, and to not only maintain, but improve this throughout the years of the institution's existence.…… [Read More]
Many times, people who lose weight on very low calorie diets gain it back again due to a resetting of homeostatic mechanisms to a lower than normal value. This reduction in the body's metabolic rate is an attempt by the body to avoid starvation. After the initial weight loss, patients find they gain weight back, even at the lower caloric intake level, simply because a change in the metabolic set point. Some patients may be able to overcome the metabolism by effective levels of exercise, since the metabolism responds to exercise by providing energy for muscle work based on expenditure needs rather than reduced intake.
It is unlikely that humans are genetically predisposed to metabolic set point reduction. While obesity and weight problems often run in families, no studies to date have associated this issue with genetic problems, except in the very rare cases of congenital abnormality. Rather, it is…… [Read More]
Feedback Loops at Whole Foods Market
In any business there will be the presence of feedback loops. Effective businesses are likely to pay attention to the different feedback loops which exist, using them loops to support and enhance the businesses in achieving its' goals. Whole Foods Market has a number of different types of feedback loops, looking at the firm in more detail will allow the loops to be identified. The paper will start by discussing the manifestation of feedback loops and the different types of loop that exist, and then apply the theory to Whole Foods Market.
Different Types of Feedback Loops
Feedback loops may be divided into two categories; referred to as reinforcing loops and balancing loops (Bellinger, 2004). The category names are relatively self explanatory, defining the way in which the two loops may be observed operate. The first category, the reinforcing loop refers to…… [Read More]
Electronic Prescribing is a critical feedback loop that helps maintain master patient index along with routes inquires and allows enrolled pharmacies to route prescriptions to desired locations. The pharmacy receives the benefit of quickly receiving prescription status and is able to then communicate to the prescriber the prescription fill status as well as whether the medication is covered under the patient's insurance or if it must be paid for. Things like patient information, history, and eligibility are passed back and forth from the pharmacy to the pharmacy benefit manager to the prescriber. What would normally take longer now happens within minutes.
Patients remain satisfied with the service and get quick access to their medications. The loop exists from the communication that exists with the pharmacy and the prescriber. A doctor, nurse, or other healthcare professional licensed to prescribe medication, needs a continual pathway to send prescription information. This helps avoid…… [Read More]
The second and third runs, therefore, were largely based on making adjustments to the first run strategy. In each instance, the adjustments made increased the total profit over the four years and it is believed that continuing along that same path of making slight adjustments would consistently increase the profits earned. It is for this reason that the strategy changed little -- there was no insight that was believed to lead to a better strategy and in lieu of such major insight there was no reason to pursue a radically different strategy.
The most useful concepts in this exercise were contribution margin (CVP analysis) and elasticity of demand. Understanding the cost structure of each product allowed for more intelligent pricing decisions. For example, the price cut in the X7 was significant at 25% from the base price in the base case run to 31.5% of that price in the later…… [Read More]
Balancing loop and einforcing Loop
Understanding how systems works constitute one of the most challenging aspects of information technology irrespective of the significance of the phenomena. The aspects of structures and how they are associated with systems is essentially one decisive factor. The way in which various components influence one another depends on the way structures are instituted within a system. Thus, structures are the main determinants of relationships between components. The processes of looping clearly indicate these trends and serve generally to indicate the interaction between productivity with the view of adding to the finished goods inventory. As a matter of fact, this process indicates instances where resources are added or subtracted within certain tasks. The two kinds of looping systems in Information Technology are the balancing loop and the reinforcing loop, all of which are classified into a number of categories. These loops are found in various…… [Read More]
These loops are focused towards existing Harley-Davidson customers, but they can also be adapted to reach out to non-customers as well. The Internet and motorcycle events are two of the best places to reach bike enthusiasts who ride other brands. If Harley can adapt these loops to non-customers they may be able to gain insight into how they can expand their potential market by reaching non-customers better.
Organizational learning can flow from strong feedback loops. Harley-Davidson has supported their brand with strong balancing and reinforcing feedback loops directed at existing customers. The techniques and technologies behind these loops can be applied to non-customers as well. This would represent a shift in thinking for the Harley-Davidson organization, which to this point has focused on existing customers. Such a move would require a shift in goals for Harley, but in the face of a strong but stagnant market share, such a goal…… [Read More]
This means that problems are dealt with quickly, before they become a drag on performance. The singling out of underperformers for the week helps in the problem identification process. By bringing different store and regional managers together (between 400 and 600 each week), al-Mart also eliminates the possibility that problems can arise independently in different stores. Instead, problems are identified and rectified while they are still minor is scope.
The Saturday Morning Meetings also have several long-term impacts on al-Mart's organizational effectiveness. One of their most important roles is to reinforce the organizational culture. The culture of al-Mart is essential to its cost leadership strategy and its ability to deliver a high level of customer service despite the focus on cost reduction. The meetings also reinforce key messages regarding strategy. One component of the Saturday Morning Meeting is the use of media presentations regarding merchandising. These presentations in part represent…… [Read More]
In essence Palm can learn through acknowledgment of the lack of communication taking place, as well as the lack of application of current resources. New technology continues to be added in the loop however there is no indication of the application and refinement process associated with the research and development.
Burrows, P. (2009, March 24). Palm's Secret Weapon for the Pre. Business Week. etrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/mar2009/tc20090323_446801.htm
Cangelosi, V., & Dill, W. (1965). Organizational Learning: Observations toward a Theory. Administrative Science Quarterly, 10(2), 175-203.
Schimmel, ., & Muntslag, D. (2009). Learning barriers: a framework for the examination of structural impediments to organizational change. Human esource Management, 48(3), 399-416.
Tofel, K. (2010, April). Could a Better Carrier Have Sold Palm's Pre. Business Week. etrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/apr2010/tc2010046_479038.htm
Weigelt, C., & Sarkar, M. (2009). Learning from Supply-Side Agents: The Impact of Technology Solution Providers' Experiential Diversity on Clients' Innovation Adoption. Academy of Management…… [Read More]
When io de Janeiro recently won its bid to host the 2016 Olympic Games, they had one world famous representative on their Olympic committee that may have actually been more famous than our President Barak Obama. This individual may not be a household name in America, but he is most famous for scoring 2 goals in the 1958 World Cup championships when he was only 17 years old. This made him the youngest player to ever play in these renowned championships and over the course of his distinguished career; the majority of the football world would certainly consider him to be the best soccer player ever. Brazil actually has declared this individual as a national treasure in order to thwart other teams and countries from stealing him away and out of their country. His name is Edson Arantes Do Nascimento, but you may know him simply as --…… [Read More]
MSFT Skype V
Microsoft purchased Skype for $8.5 billion, and immediately critics of the deal questioned the value that Skype could bring to Microsoft (Bright, 2011). Skype was plagued with old technology that it did not even develop itself (Ricknas, 2008; Kharif, 2009). The company's 2009 SEC filing revealed that its financial condition was terrible. hile the company has been rapidly increasing its user base, less than 10% of users are paying customers and the rate at which paying customers are growing is slower than the rate at which customers in general are growing. There are two feedback loops that are critical to Skype, one of which is negative and one of which is positive. These feedback loops can be identified through the analysis of the company's business and financial statements.
Making a Case
The key balancing feedback loop at Skype is that which keeps the company unprofitable, and this…… [Read More]
WITEAID Cite text One page question Please answer sequentially Question 1 Organizational Development OD - How OD relate Strategy? How top management team National Presto Systems OD inform thinking strategy? Inputs - What important inputs organization belong? Marketing Strategy (Generic Strategy) - price product development.
The company's organizational development must reflect its strategy and objectives. In order to be successful, the strategy must be supported by an organizational structure that is intended to increase the efficiency of processes and activities within the company. The top management team at National Presto Systems could use organizational development in developing a flexible structure that ensures the successful development and implementation of the company's strategy.
The most important inputs to this organization are represented by technical, financial, and human resources. The company invests in technological developments in order to create competitive advantage. The financial resources are necessary in order to be allocated to activities…… [Read More]
organization 25 employees worked, em-ployed, a -employer organization . Using congruence framework, analyze organization 12 components model: history, environment, resources, & strategy (inputs); task, informal & formal organization, & individuals (throughputs); individual, group, & organizational outputs; feedback loop.
The congruence model as put forth by Nadler and Tushman (1980)
suggests that organizations need to have a particular degree of consistency and fit for twelve components in order to achieve success in their strategies. They define congruence as how well the various components within the organization fit together. This means that for any organization, the components that lead to the effectiveness of the model need to be of high quality in order to fit with the others. It can be argued that the congruence model suggests that inputs for the organization must match outputs through making an efficient transformation process and feedback loop. These are the four major categories…… [Read More]
Engage options in open discussion and debate
Use debate to identify the two most viable options in the dilemma
Hold a secret ballot vote to determine which of the two options resonates with the decision-making team
Construct a timetable marking off expectations according to projected dates
Use these dates as a feedback loop for evaluating the decision as its implications unfold
Establish a second level in the feedback loop creating proper procedures and illuminating avenues to whistelblowing
Encourage personnel to serve as whitleblowers when they witness abuses of the ethical policy
Consult and renew the ethical code once a year to ensure that it still comports with the needs to address any ethical dilemmas which might arise in the foreseeable future
With many of the corporate scandals of the early millennium implicating the highest offices of some leading firms, today's corporate atmosphere is informed by an emphasis on ethically…… [Read More]
Since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, cities have been drivers of economic growth. The critical mass of resources (labor and capital) that cities represent allows them to deliver economic production with a high rate of efficiency. However, this efficiency and productivity relies on heavy infrastructure investment to support the city. Critical infrastructure includes transportation, utilities, governance, law enforcement and education, each of which contributes directly to the economic health of the city. In recent years, there has been a push to include other components of infrastructure into the limelight as well, such as living space, recreational space and sustainability. This paper will analyze the key success factors of the world's cities and draw conclusions about how governments can foster successful cities in the future.
There are many different measures of success for cities. The most basic form of measure comes from macroeconomics -- GDP, unemployment rate and investment…… [Read More]
Systemic thinking is the method used to deal with the complex problems and it is used to understand the relationships and pattern within the components of network of relationship. Traditionally, linear relationship focuses on the cause and effect where people view everything in a straight line. However, with interrelationship of dynamic organization and society, linear relationship is inadequate to address the societal and organizational complex problem and linear relationship is inadequate to capture the complex multifaceted relationships. (Senge et al. 1994). Based on the shortcomings of linear relationship, the system thinking has been developed to address the complex problem. The causal loop diagram based on the systemic thinking approach is being developed to capture the multifaceted complex problem and is able to provide complete understanding to the problem. (Dyehouse, Bennett, Harbor et al. 2009).
The objective of this assignment is to explore the strategy the feedback loops could be used…… [Read More]
Progress: Community Sharing vs. Individualistic Consumption
In an unsustainable society, priority is placed upon economic growth at all costs, regardless of how this may affect variables such as climate change, a condition which will hurt all of humanity in the long run. Our current worldview or paradigm prioritizes all societies moving to an urban model of development which emphasizes consumption. Even modern agriculture has been influenced by this profit-oriented focus and does not focus upon preserving land and minimizing waste instead. Thus to foster sustainability, as noted by Wessels, the concept of progress as something that is linear and equally beneficial to all societies must change. We now conceive of progress as increasing consumption and increasing GDP but this is not a sustainable model for the future, particularly if all developing societies also adopt this worldview that 'more stuff' is better.
Rather, newer, greener, and more sustainable measures must be…… [Read More]
The employees should be firmly committed to the firm, they are the face of a firm (also its eyes and ears). The staff focus should be involved in the process management, also their measurement and knowledge as well as initial contact with customers, all contribute to the performance of the organization.
Firms need to provide results on a consistent basis, be innovative and should respond quickly to any changes in environment for giving exceptional results and satisfying customers. Further in continuous improvement, aspects such as redesign of processes or services, upgraded technology systems, proper paperwork should be focused upon. Continuous improvement requires all firms' members to look for opportunities to improve. Overall, the continuous improvement process involves customers, leadership, employees and quality. It is the customers who determine if the firm is providing quality. They are the judges of it. The leadership is useful for setting direction of the firm.…… [Read More]
At the same time, a series of interrelated events occur between the communication partners over time and space.
The active sender is comprised of encoder / interpretation / decoder. The passive-recipient, on the other hand, constitutes decoder / interpreter / encoder. Similar to the Shannon & eaver theory, each encodes and decodes the message according to her own interpretation of content.
Ultimately, communication is made up of signs. It is we who invest it with meaning and who provide those signs (or symbols) with a referent. The person on the other end (the decoder) cannot always understand the referent, or, if of a different culture, may have no knowledge of that referent altogether. Language is also diachronic, meaning that is constantly in flux from situation to situation. Thinking of the gap in the middle as well as the attendant 'noise' and the fact that the recipient always changes helps us…… [Read More]
informal forms of education. I need to look clean and manicured. Details are important. I would wear something casual yet stylish. It is important to dress for success, too, since success is part of what I am selling. I cannot look too casual - I must look like I have achieved something in life because of my educational track.
This attitude should also be reflected in non-verbal behaviors. I would focus my nonverbal cues on energy and enthusiasm. I want my audience to be excited about traditional education. Part of what I am presenting in an educational track that will give students power and control over their life, so I need to move in a way that shows those two attributes. Movements should not be too exaggerated, but I cannot be stiff either. Audience sizes will probably range from dozens to hundreds, sufficient that nonverbal cues such as an expressive…… [Read More]
On our own team, we found, a lack of hierarchy was actually task-facilitating. Instead of a series and carrots and sticks method of keeping on task, overall team goal accomplishment was stressed, rather than personal performance.
In this model of organizational development, the process of performing was always in our minds, one of the most successful aspects of the team. Quality control was maintained through feedback loops between team members. For our team, the project of data-gathering was evaluated on a daily basis, with an eye upon the implementation or reporting phase.
Innovation is built into the process of constant team organization and reorganization, collaboration, and reformation, rather than resulting power-plays or a crisis. ith frequently reorganized and diverse teams, members of the organization must get to know one another well across horizontal and vertical leadership chains, and everyone gets a chance to play different roles and to have…… [Read More]
Each will be tied to different tactical objectives and timeframes. The effectiveness of the process will be measured in terms of adherence to time frames, cost and key market variables such as penetration and market share. Each variable should be quantitative to facilitate ease of measurement and evaluation.
A wide variety of legal issues will need to be considered. Doing business is foreign countries creates significant exposure to risk, in that the foreign legal environment can be substantially different from the domestic one. The nature and intensity of these differences will be considered. Also, it will be considered if there are any legal or ethical considerations domestically as a result of overseas expansion. To use an extreme example, setting up a factory in Cuba would create a host of legal and ethical concerns that would need to be accounted for in the option evaluation process. It will be critical to…… [Read More]
As a manager, if you see multiple archetypes you could view this as multiple problems, yet the presence of all of these archetypes could well point to the same underlying systemic problem. These archetypes, in systems thinking, are a problem identification mechanism.
For each archetype, you will soon notice its theme, generic patterns of behavior, a generic feedback loop diagram, the typical mental models that underlie the archetype, and soon you will begin to understand the implications of the archetype and the leverage points to resolve the archetypal behaviors. Once you can identify archetypes and understand leverage points, problem solving at the systems level can take hold -- the archetypes can be broken and real solutions developed.
Once we understand the root of the problem, we can propose and implement interventions, which we can then test back against our vision. We use the image of the iceberg to illustrate how…… [Read More]
The timing of the quantitative easing is therefore essential. The first round of QE in 2009 essentially served the purpose of stabilizing the economy; the second round is intended to sustain the ongoing economic recovery by providing sufficient capital in the system that the positive momentum generated in the economy will eventually become a feedback loop of its own that results in the restoration of GDP growth and a reduction in the unemployment rate.
To analyze the effectiveness of this strategy, the case of Japan can be analyzed. The Bank of Japan's QE policy, which was aggressive in nature, resulted in creating strong liquidity in the Japanese economy. Market expectations of inflation were impacted as well. However, the Japanese experience did not result in improving job creation. In these Japanese experience, the stimulative effects of quantitative easing did not extend beyond the stabilization of the financial sector, "suggesting that the…… [Read More]
They have grandparents who visit them during the holidays. However, for the most part family members deal with their problems as individuals, not as a family unit.
Information provided by the family is an important source of information about the family. However, one cannot ignore outside sources of information as well. For instance, the worker may contact the school, neighbors, or others who are involved with the family to examine factors that may influence the current situation. The assessment plan will involve contacting the school to find out about Conrad's performance in terms of grades, attendance and overall performance.
The case of the Jarretts is complex, with many individual goals that must be completed on the way to resolution of the systemic problems. In this case, the identified patient is Conrad, as he was the one who tried to commit suicide. The goal of family therapy is the…… [Read More]
Specifically, feedback is a necessity for assessing the immediate needs of the team, for evaluating both individual and team performance, for enabling individuals to improve their performance, and for enabling teams to improve their joint performance and teamwork.
Where the sports analogy breaks down again is in the different level of immediacy that applies to feedback in the realm of sports and professional business. In sports, feedback loops exist on a momentary basis at the operational level, whereas in business functions, it is very rare to have such immediacy of feedback. However, other than the temporal difference, feedback loops provide many of the same essential functions in both realms. In general principle, teams without efficient feedback mechanisms are destined to remain at their current levels of performance and success. Conversely, teams that succeed do so partly by accurately evaluating past performance with the express purpose of implementing the changes necessary…… [Read More]
Creating Word Class Performance in a Jaguar Assembly Plant
Multiple Cause Diagram
In the above multiple cause diagram, six feedback loops exist and they relate to the following sub-systems.
Stores, and Production
The model indicates that the goal is matching the demand with production and is causal to seamless back-to-back activities in the areas of purchasing, production and planning. The diagram explores significant areas such as the impact changes in customer schedule has on production requirements. Customer schedule changes are difficult to determine precisely, especially as pertains to production due dates and material needs (Tomar, 2008).
The diagram below can be very helpful in identifying the factors driving a certain change event. It can be used to identify "cause chains" and help in the identification of key elements. While it is relatively simple, it indicates clearly why a change is taking place and in doing so…… [Read More]
8. Protethria-egg laying, medium length gestation inside the mother. Lactation occurs after hatching.
Metatheria-marsupial, short length gestation period inside skin pouch on the outside of mother. Lactation occurs upon gestation.
Eutheria-develop from embryos inside of the mother, long gestation period and lactation occurs throughout gestation.
9. First Row: Propagation is stopped as the two waves would cancel one another out. Propagation would occur if the nerve was stimulated in the middle and the two waves moved towards the tips.
Second Row: Initiation is slowed or will stop and result in cramps of the involved muscle. The ion channels are slow to respond or will not respond at all without sodium being present.
Third Row: Transduction will not occur as it relies on the Ca2+ gates to transfer the signal and change the stimulus.
10. Sight-Photoreceptor / Cells react to light hitting them / Optic Nerve
Smell-Olfactory, a-Rodopsin-like receptors / Binds…… [Read More]
As a consequence, we feel this new structure better insulates the firm against the risk of economic downturn, high fuel prices and even intense competition.
These initiatives should be conducted rapidly once the plan is initiated. The typical multi-year lead time for new strategies will leave us in a poor position, caught transitioning between different objectives and tactics. Thus, a timeframe should be set to implement the new personnel rewards system, the new job descriptions and to increase integration of the different business units within one year.
The first three months should see increased communications technology investment, and design of the training programs. The next step, for the 3-6-month time frame, will be to roll out the human resource changes, install the training programs, roll out the improved communication and communicate these changes to our customers.
The final 6 months will involve several tasks. One will be removing from the…… [Read More]
An ongoing concern at the NASA Ames esearch Center pertains to the human factors in the safety of aviation, which was considered to a great extent during the development of the ASS. The data analysts, who are principally experts in air traffic control and aircraft operations, give insight relating to the nature of human errors and other fundamental factors regarding the incidents. Even though the reports are encoded in detail, the entire narrative text of all the reports is preserved, in case they are needed for evaluation at a later stage. (Office of Technology Assessment, United States Government Printing Office, 1988)
The effectiveness with which the data is collected and stored by a program like ASS is just one part of the reporting side of the incident. More important is the potency of the feedback loop, of the reporting system, to the industry and the reporters to whom its serves.…… [Read More]
Gaia Theory: A Critical Analysis
In the 1960's, James Lovelock, a British atmospheric chemist, was engaged in research commissioned by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration
NASA) in the United States. Specifically, the studies were intended to develop a method for determining reliably whether or not biological life existed on Mars. Part of Lovelock's work involved analyzing certain elements of Earth's atmospheric properties and mechanisms, in order to understand how a planet teeming with biological life might be differentiated accurately from interplanetary distances from a planet completely devoid of biological life (Enteractive, 1995).
While Lovelock's NASA research project originally pertained to Mars rather than to the Earth, his findings led him to postulate a theory in which he characterized
Earth as a complex living organism, rather than merely an inanimate host for the many terrestrial life forms dependent on it for sustenance. Lovelock called his theory
Gaia" after an ancient…… [Read More]
Global warming, or more accurately, climate change, is the phenomenon that has been scientifically observed over repeated studies that the planet is experiencing warming and changing climates at a pace much more rapid that has been observed in any prior era. The increase in the pace of the climate change has been correlated with the coming of the industrial age, and in particular with the mass adoption of fossil fuels. The burning of hydrocarbons to create energy unleashes a chemical reaction that ends with carbon entering the atmosphere, where it then traps solar radiation in the atmosphere, leading to the warming process. This paper will outline this process and the evidence supporting the fact of anthropogenic global warming.
Observations of Climate Change
The first step in understanding climate change is understanding how it is determined to be occurring. Weather is an observable phenomenon, and over a long period of time…… [Read More]
Nichols and McChesney (2013) write about election spending and the negative effect that it has on democracy and governance in America in their book Dollarocracy: How the money-and-election complex is destroying America.. They have divided the book into central themes, including the concept of privilege, spending by the very wealthy, advertising and the role of the media in the election machine, finally arriving at some suggestions for reform to restore balance to the democratic system of the United States.
The book opens with an explanation of one of the core principles that underpins their arguments, that America is a society driven by class differences. Those with privilege consistently seek to use that privilege to enhance it. The authors make the case that such practices at this point are so rampant that "the United States is now rapidly approaching a point where the electoral process itself ceases to function as…… [Read More]
Water in Sub-Saharan Africa is of special interest because of my background but water is a fascinating issue in general, one that I think will play an increasingly large role in the 21st century, as the effects of population growth and climate change bring about significant changes to our water usage and availability. A lack of water in particular has a substantial destabilizing effect.
Water as a social issue combines a lot of different elements. As an issue, water sits at the intersection of social justice, politics, economics and agriculture are all areas weather. This is probably because water is so essential to human life. We drink it, we use in for domestic purposes, agricultural, industrial, transportation. Yet clean water is not always easy to come by. Some feel that access to clean water is a human right. So there is a significant importance attached to water in most parts…… [Read More]
The balanced scorecard is a concept used in strategy to bring about a sublime alignment of different stakeholder interests within an organization. The concept arises from the understanding that shareholders are just one of many stakeholders for a given organization. For the organization to sustain success, it must be able to meet the needs of all critical stakeholders. Thus, the most effective strategy will create a symbiosis between the interests of different stakeholder groups. The balanced scorecard is an output-based perspective, with the outputs being in one of four different categories -- financial, internal business process, knowledge and innovation, and customer. This perspective is the opposite of the traditional approach that only places the interests of shareholders (i.e. The financial interests) as important in the business. It is understood, in the balanced scorecard, that financial interests are most effectively met when all of the other interest are met…… [Read More]
Should the outcomes perform well against the goals, then the performance appraisal process must undergo a re-evaluation. Theories about the underperformance of key outcomes can be matched against feedback from the appraisers and the employees. From that point, a course of action can be developed that will alter the appraisal process to better align it with its objectives. The final step in the control mechanism is the adjustment process. The new ideas must be incorporated into the existing appraisal system. These new ideas must then be tested to determine if they have been as effective as intended, or if they have even moved the outcomes further from the objectives. At this point, the manager is engaged in a feedback loop that exists to continuously improve the performance appraisal process.
Performance appraisals are often conducted poorly, and this has led to considerable criticism of the tool. There are three fundamental…… [Read More]
Open Systems ISA, Inc.
Due to the delay of my understanding, I was able to complete the writing but haven't inserted the APA footnotes yet. I'm doing that now but I opted to upload the text first. I will use the message system and provide you with another version with the footnotes shortly. Sorry, but I wanted to show you it would be ready pretty close to the due date and time! You should have the second version with the footnotes in less than an hour.
Whether one goes to a large medical facility or to a free community clinic, step one is generally the same: Someone in the organization initiates both a financial and a physical assessment of your condition. It's as if the doctor needs to know your symptoms and what resources are at hand before he or she can even consider how to plot out their response.…… [Read More]
Project Management: Case Study in Managing a Complex Shipyard Project in Singapore
Background of Complex Shipyard Construction Project
Project Overview and Objective
ork Process of Building Construction
Issue Analysis in Shipyard Construction Project Management
Literature Review of Project Management
Issues in Scope Management
Methodology of Scope Management
Lessons Learned from Scope Management
Issues in Cost Management
Methodology of Cost Management
Lessons Learned from Cost Management
Issues in Human Resources
Methodology of HR Management
Lessons Learned from Human Resource Management
Case Study in Managing a Complex Shipyard Construction Project in Singapore
This paper introduces the special features of a completed shipyard project, together with its construction and human resource management processes as well. The organization of the paper provides an introduction to the topic, an overview and background of the In the first part, this project illustrates overview of the complex background of a complex ship-building project as…… [Read More]
The reinforcement power of this feedback loop strengthens the customer service culture to the point where it has become for HMS Host a source of competitive advantage.
Another way in which HMSHost develops its customer service expertise is through its partnerships. The company utilizes these partnerships to institute a two-way transfer of a wide range of competencies, including technology, logistics and training (QSR Magazine, 2002). These partnerships allow partners like Starbucks and Burger King to contribute their own strong customer service values to HMS managers, who can in turn transfer this knowledge throughout the organization. This infusion of creativity allows for a wider range of ideas and best practices to be introduced into the organization, thereby enhancing organizational learning. The same occurred when HMSHost was taken over by Autogrill -- the parent company was able to influence customer service standards and bring in new ideas with regards to enhancing the…… [Read More]
Human resources must also become involved at the solution level. The department may not set strategy but it may be able to provide counseling for employees during a period where the company has identified an acceleration trap and is attempting to resolve it. Human resources can also ensure that the needs of the company during this period -- such as additional employees to relieve some workload -- are met thereby facilitating the recovery process.
Burnout is a major strategic issue for any organization, and it often comes as the result of an acceleration trap. Today's intense competitive environment and increasing pace of life are driving burnout in the workforce. hen burnout hits on an organization wide level, it can erode productivity, profits and the company's employer brand. The strategic implications of burnout, therefore, are long-term and self-sustaining.
hile companies do need to enter periods of accelerated activity, managers need…… [Read More]
ole-based EP systems are critical for the siloed, highly inefficient architectures of legacy EP systems to be made more relevant, contribute greater financial performance, and lead to higher levels of overall customer satisfaction.
c. Purpose of the study
The purpose the study is evaluate how enterprises who adopt role-based EP system implementations are able to attain higher levels of financial and operations-based performance vs. those that rely on silo-based, more functionally defined EP structures. ole-based EP systems have been proven to lead to greater order accuracy, velocity and customer satisfaction as a result. The ability to gain greater visibility throughout supply chains, better manage pricing, discounts, implement and maintain contract management systems, and also deliver consistently high customer service have all been attributed to role-based EP systems. Conversely siloed EP systems that are managed strictly to functional areas have been shown to severely limit the ability of enterprises to be…… [Read More]
The Congruence Model for Organizational Analysis appears thorough in terms of both the internal and external environment. The model operates on the basis of inputs, throughputs and outputs, with the external environment providing feedback on inputs and outputs. The organization is regarded as a dynamic system, which is influenced by means of a number of variables. Of all the models, this one appears to be the most applicable to Walgreens.
Tichy's TPC Framework and Diagnosing Group and Individual ehavior are also regarded as particularly applicable to Walgreens, as a result of the significant influence of the environment. Tichy's model increases the complexity of the internal environment by recognizing that some relationships among variables are stronger than others. Environmental influence is recognized through inputs, outputs and the feedback loop. Diagnosing Individual and Group ehavior focuses mainly upon human relationships within the internal environment. It is also assumed that there are minimal…… [Read More]
(2009, March). omen's Health Law eekly, 34. Retrieved March 1, 2009 from Research Library database. (Document ID: 1651848781).
CNSs need skills in mental health. (2009). Cancer Nursing Practice, 8(1), 6. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1651343051).
Lance Armstrong Foundation. (2009). Official ebsite.
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Heyman, Patrick & Sandra olfe. (2001). Neuman's System's Model. University of Florida.
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Okamura, Masako Shigeto Yamawaki, Tatsuo Akechi, Koji Taniguchi, & Yosuke
Uchitomi. (2005). Psychiatric disorders following first breast cancer recurrence:
Prevalence, associated factors and relationship to quality of life. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 35(6), 302-9. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest
Medical Library database. (Document ID: 876421851).
Quinlin, Patrick. (2001). Beating cancer with nutrition. Nutrition Times Press.
Pengelly, Michele & Diana Purnell. (2009). An audit of levels of psychological support referrals for cancer patients. Cancer Nursing Practice,…… [Read More]
" (Health Care System, Canada, 2007)
V. THEORETICAL ASIS of OREM'S SELF-CARE MODEL
Social Learning Theory was developed by andura (1987, 1986) who held that behavior results from the individual's personal and environmental factors. It was stated in findings of a study reported by Hyndman et al. (1993) that there is a need to change the individual's environment in order to encourage positive health behavior and that there is a need to correct misperceptions about health. Training and development of skills is necessary in creation of new behaviors and in approaching solutions as well as are role models and self-efficacy. In Orem's conceptualization of health "the concept of wholeness, soundness and well-being are closely integrated." (Health Care Canada, 2007) Orem's definition of health includes "...psychological, interpersonal and social aspects of living as well as the commonly emphasized physical aspects." (Health Care Canada, 2007) Well-being has been associated with health in…… [Read More]
Google is a Learning Organization
Worth more than General Motors, Disney and McDonald's combined, Google is a leading provider of information services today. This company achieved its meteoric growth in large part due to its ability to respond to changes in the marketplace and provide innovative solutions to consumer and business information needs (Morrison, 2003). Innovation, though, requires creativity and experimentation, but Google has learned how to accomplish this effectively by encouraging a reinforcing loop process throughout its organization (Sungkhawan, 2011). In fact, engineers and managers at Google are allowed 20% of their work time to devote to their own personal projects and tacit knowledge is shared in a reinforcing feedback fashion (Tidd & Bessant, 2013). For example, Tidd and Bessant report that, "Technical employees are expected to spend 20% of their time on projects other than their core job, and similarly managers are required to spend 20% of their…… [Read More]
That is management. Leadership also involves addressing unknown problems. It involves understanding what the rest of the organization does not, and then shoring up these organizational blind spots without alienating the organization's core values.
The ability to identify problems and address them in such a manner is known as organizational intelligence. The leader of the firm can demonstrate this trait and lead the firm to success, but in a large conglomerate one leader cannot do it all. The leader must develop organizational intelligence in order to help the entire company to take leadership roles, to identify issues and to solve them. Organizations are, after all, a series of connected feedback loops. The leader's role involves understanding these loops, and the people within them. This is where emotional intelligence comes into play. It has been determined in the education field that the higher the level of emotional intelligence in pupils, the…… [Read More]
New York Times
Leadership and Culture
The New York Times has a corporate culture based around a tradition of excellence. As the "newspaper of record," the New York Times has long been considered a leader in the industry, capable of setting trends and innovating. At the same time, the Times Company is also fairly conservative, because of its tradition of excellence. There is an expectation within the company of being the best. Integrity is held in utmost regard. These philosophies are incorporated in the company's "Rules of the Road," which include the usual components of integrity, creating shareholder value, good corporate citizenship as core values. Innovation and collaboration are among the traits in the rules of the road, in addition to customer service, respect, challenging oneself -- basic frameworks enshrined in strategy to various degrees (New York Times website, 2010).
Culture is not, however, specifically cultivated at the company as…… [Read More]
If it cannot be effectively proven that God does not exist, then God apparently does exist. In fact, the lack of proof for atheism can be used as direct proof in the existence of God. "It is much easier to be persuaded that ontological arguments are no good than it is to say exactly what is wrong with them," (Oppy).
The apparent manifest multiplicity of the universe is further proof of the necessity of God. "Abstract objects depend on God for their existence, and abstract objects exist in every world; therefore, God exists in every world," (Davidson). The crux of the necessary existence of God theory is that God is most certainly not a being that could have conceivably not existed. The fact that the thought of God exists illuminates the existence of God, and thus, the necessity of God.
Central to the theory of the necessity of God is…… [Read More]
" (Risse, 1998) First, the "Euro is about European union rather than just lowering transaction costs" and secondly "intuitionalists arguments about path dependent processes offer significant insights if they are linked to the more constructivist reasoning" which Risse develops in his work. (1998) Third stated is the primary argument is that "the visions about European order which give political meaning to EMU, need to be understood in the framework of identity politics." (Risse, 1998) Risse states that the controversial nature of relationships of political elites in the 'big three' as well as the various attitudes "can be explained by differences in the construction of national collective identities and their relationship to European order." (Risse, 1998) Risse note that historically, money "...has been closely linked to state- and nation-building." (1998) There is no exception when it comes to the Euro and while the Euro has been "incorporated into their (Germany and…… [Read More]
The Eurozone is currently facing a crisis on a number of fronts. The most pressing of these is Greece, which is heavily indebted to other Eurozone countries, creating a budget crisis in the country (Raman, 2011). As the risk of default on Greek sovereign debt increases, this puts downward pressure on the value of the euro. Other nations within the Eurozone are, in order to salvage the integrity of the currency, more or less obligated to back Greek debt. hile Greece is a significant problem for nations within the Eurozone, the currency would not be considered to be in a state of crisis if Greece was the only problem. The reality is that many peripheral Eurozone countries are in various states of financial disarray -- Spain, Italy, Portugal and Ireland all have problems (Ibid). Spain and Italy are in particular a problem, because they are too big to…… [Read More]
Barry Eichengreen (2011) has speculated that the U.S. dollar may be on the decline as the world's vehicle currency. The dollar has performed this role since at least Bretton oods, when the financial and political might of the United States allowed it to take the lead in the global financial system from Great Britain. However, that lead is being challenged today by two other currencies. One is the euro, which derives from the Eurozone, a basket of nations that has an economy around the same size as the United States. The other is from the Chinese yuan, a currency that is pegged to some degree to the U.S. dollar, but which is backed by the world's third-largest economy (behind the U.S. And Eurozone) and one that is growing rapidly. The creation of the euro immediately fuelled speculation that it would overtake the dollar as the world's vehicle currency, and the…… [Read More]
al-Mart faces an industry that is generally challenging, but its strength in the industry results in the industry being favorable. al-Mart's success is predicated on excellence execution of key components of the discount retail value chain -- procurement, logistics and merchandising. al-Mart has numerous strengths, but as befits the world's largest company it has relatively few weaknesses. In its intensely competitive businesses, al-Mart sees many threats, but there are still tremendous opportunities that al-Mart can take advantage of. In general, the external environment is favorable for al-Mart to continue to use its strengths to capitalize on its opportunities.
Porter's Five Forces. al-Mart's industry is intensely competitive, but the five forces work differently on al-Mart as an established, dominant player than they would on a new entrant. The five forces are power of suppliers, power of buyers, threat of substitutes, threat of new entrants and intensity of rivalry (QuickMBA.com, 2010). Supplier…… [Read More]
Bernstein also makes the point that government debt is not the same as household or business debt, and that is a valid point to make. There are a few differences of note. The first is borrowing -- government has much better ability to borrow than either business or households, the United States in particular. The size and diversity of the economy is one factor, the difficulty of putting a government into default is another, but also the U.S. has control over the value of its currency. It can devalue its way out of debt if need be, like Iceland did. Households and businesses do not have this luxury -- they are usually on very short leashes with their creditors, with grace periods measured in weeks and months, rather than decades.
Ultimately, the only logical choice in the face of a recession is to increase government spending in order to offset…… [Read More]
Moreover, it is unclear whether Jim has attempted to reestablish any meaningful contact with his children; rather, his entire focus has been on becoming a better person. While there is certainly nothing wrong with that goal in and of itself (it is, after all, a universal human quality), he appears to have pursued this goal to the total exclusion of making any substantive reparations to his family. Finally, it is interesting that Jim somehow feels compelled to tell others -- including potential employers -- about his criminal past and his current status in treatment, as if this ongoing commitment to all-out honesty somehow absolves him from a deceptive and duplicitous history, or at least helps to explain it (which it does if one is interested). According to Jim, "Entering into society again was very difficult. I had lost my business, my friends and was now divorced. After leaving jail, I…… [Read More]
"How to build your network": Interview
According to Uzzi & Dunlap (2005), while ability and talent are certainly important, who you know is often as important as what you know in the workplace. As well as restating this old cliche in their article "How to build your network," they also offer the reader important advice for targeting who is 'worth' knowing and cultivating within an organization. While power in an organizational hierarchy may be important, it is also vital to establish connections with people who generate social ties or bridges between other organizational members.
For my interview I selected Ms. H -- at the XYZ organization. Ms. H is a human resource manager, and I chose to interview her because of the important role H plays in many organizations. Virtually every employee at some point must deal with H. H is often the first organizational unit (other than the…… [Read More]