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hile they were free to marry, they could not marry anyone that lived outside their manor without their lord's permission. This type of landed estate began to cause problems of loyalty just before feudalism began to crumble under the popularity of capitalism. Some vassals were multiplied in the sense that they would attempt to acquire as much land as possible. This caused a conflict in loyalties, as one vassal could owe loyalty to many lords. This situation brought forth the term "liege lord" (335), which identified one lord that had power over the other lords should a conflict ever arise.
Noble points out how the feudal system "shows vertical bonds in its hierarchy of vassalic ties and its command of the peasant population" (353). It should also be noted that nobility also "joined in horizontal associations" (353) as well. Noble groupings were a "kind of substitute kinship, especially for the…… [Read More]
Feudalism can be described as the series of legitimate and military customs that prospered between the 9th and 15th centuries in medieval Europe. hile there are controversies among scholars regarding the emergence of this government structure, its first definite form appeared in the 9th and 10th centuries in the Frankish lands ("History of Feudalism" par, 1). This concept was a system for structuring the society through relationships emanating from the possession of land in exchange for labor or service. However, feudalism and the involved system were not considered as an official political system by the people living during this period. As a series of reciprocal legitimate and military customs among the warrior nobility, feudalism mainly consisted of three major ideas i.e. lords, vassals, and fiefs.
During the Middle Ages period, feudalism regarded as the law of the land and acted as the foundation with which the upper nobility classes would…… [Read More]
As mercantilism and world trade grew, so too did the economic foundation of both Church and State. One of the main reasons reformers challenged Church authority was to point out the endemic corruption within the papacy, especially in relation to its unquestioned dominance.
However, the revival of Classical traditions and the enaissance humanist tradition also sparked the eformation. eformers like Martin Luther continued to revere the core tenets of Christian doctrine without respecting the hegemonic power of the Papacy. Some of the main issues reformers opposed included the hierarchical clergy. However, the eformation took a different form in different regions of Europe and was characterized largely by local factors.
The medieval Crusades were partly a response to the spread of Islam throughout Europe. In fact, the Islamic crusades sparked the fervent Christian crusades and both movements had their roots in religious fanaticism. Crusaders were like modern-day terrorists who envisioned a…… [Read More]
Industrialization Benefits and Negatives
Feudalism was the primary economic base during the Middle Ages and enaissance. This was more of a patron system in which the means of production (land, any equipment, etc.) was owned by the Church or royalty. Workers then "leased" the right to work on the land, paying their tax in the form of product or service. However, with increased urbanization and tradecraft, ties to a feudal lord or castle were becoming rarer, thus necessitating a different form of monetary exchange. Steam as power for machines changed everything -- mining, farming, manufacturing, and transportation. With this change came changes in the social and cultural system as well. Every aspect of daily life in Europe, Canada, and the United States- and later other countries, changed because of industrialization. (More, 2000).
Once machinery deadly technologies with which to make war, and the move towards a larger middle and artisan…… [Read More]
Feudalism and Manorialism in Europe and Japan
Europe and Japan together with other parts of the world experienced a period when politics was decentralized. During this period, loyalty was owed to a lord and combat was part of everyday life. Some of the trends that characterized this period include feudalism and manorialism, which manifested differently despite extending across regions. Feudalism and manorialism were two frameworks in which the Japanese and European medieval culture was developed. While feudalism was an economic structure that influenced how land was managed, feudalism was a social structure that was embedded in an exchange of pieces of land for military service. This paper examines how Europe and Japan dealt differently with feudalism and manorialism. The evaluation is conducted on the premise that while trends may extend across geographical regions, they manifest differently as shown in World History. The Basis for European and Japanese Feudalism As previously…… [Read More]
This kept strict limits on society and what it could accomplish. In addition, Japan placed extreme importance on the family, with a very strong paternal leader, who was the "law" of the family unit. Thus, the landowners were powerful in society, but in the community, the fathers were the most powerful, and who the family looked to for guidance and understanding. Therefore, complete control did not lie with the feudal lords, and so, society was less constricted, and held on to feudal values longer. In fact, much of modern Japanese society still has roots in the feudal system, such as the continuing importance of the father in Japanese families and society. Writer Scalapino continues, "The element of feudal influence can be seen most clearly in two respects: the feudal system greatly strengthened the hierarchical nature of the family, and also facilitated the integration of the family into larger social-economic units"…… [Read More]
Any one who tried to gain enough power and wealth would be considered a threat to the power of the church and was therefore quickly deposed of their wealth.
Weber proposed that even though Catholics tolerated a greater display of outward wealth, Protestant doctrines asked the followers to concentrate on mundane pursuits. It also asks its followers to accept a lower station in life without a hierarchical structure to force the issue. There were no examples of upward mobility or examples of extravagance to follow. The Protestant faith in promoted a pride in one's work and the "work and Save" ethic. The members were self-motivated, not forced into submission by the Church. This was a key difference between these two philosophies. Weber claimed that this attitude was much more productive than the Catholic idea of wealth attainment. The Calvinists had a word which meant ones calling, or duty on earth.…… [Read More]
fragmentation and integration of economic and political power has contributed to the growth of market economies, but this has in fact historically been the case since the Middle Ages. The sprawling political and economic entities of the Middle Ages - especially, of course, the Holy Roman Empire - were (like feudalism) based on ancient ties of family and fealty. Until these entities were broken down by the series of lengthy wars newer and more purely economic relations between newly defined political entities could not be established.
Yet even as entities like the Habsburg Empire were disintegrated, nations were integrating their economic and political power through the process of colonization, a process that supplied the colonial powers with sufficient raw resources and cheap labor to commit themselves (without too much sacrifice to their own citizens) to the process of industrialization.
Feudalism and capitalism are based on fundamentally different assumptions about the…… [Read More]
Nature of Capitalism
Susan Strange's theories of capitalism
Giovanni Arrighi's theories of capitalism
Capitalism, an economic which has dominated the Western world after the catastrophic failure of feudalism (Encyclopedia Britannica,2006). No consensus exists for an accurate definition of the term as well as how the term has been employed as a historical category (owman & Littlefield, 1999, p.1). . In this paper however, we analyze and define the capitalism while also comparing as well as contrasting the theories of Susan Strange, Karl Polanyi and Giovanni Arrighi on capitalism. We also explain how the three of them handled the issues of capitalism.
Capitalism, an economic which has dominated the Western world after the catastrophic failure of feudalism (Encyclopedia Britannica,2006). No consensus exists for an accurate definition of the term as well as how the term has been employed as a historical category (owman & Littlefield, 1999, p.1).However, a general agreement exists…… [Read More]
capitalistic economy surfaced right after the era of feudalism ended. The capitalistic economy system favors a handful of wealthy private entities that control rest of the economy. These corporate actors utilize the resources and labor in their favor to create a monopoly of their own. The profits are multiplied by these corporations and the government acts responsible for ensuring taxes payments and in return the masses are provided social justice. In the first quarter of 20th century when industrial revolution was taking place, capitalism seemed like a great idea as formulation of unions and governments helped the under privileged.
Originally the idea of capitalistic economy was supposed to keep check and balances on the supply and demand functions. The scenario should have been in the best interest of the society as corporations were compelled to share profits with the overall society. But after orld ar 2 as the industrialization period…… [Read More]
crusades on the west?
Effects of Crusades on the West
For centuries, the Muslims had been attacking and usurping Christian lands. With no real boundaries differentiating territories, it was impossible to fathom any measure of cordiality to exist between the two
The wars that then raged, The Crusades, as the western world sought to exact revenge have altered the present and the future so much that the effects are being felt even today. According to Edward Gibbon
, a chronicler belonging to the Enlightenment era, the effort would have been better utilized to seek and forge better and peaceful relations with the Muslims. This, according to him and others of his ilk, was highly improbable, because the warmongers would have instead indulged in infighting, instead. According to the eminent historians of the Enlightenment age, the crusaders were instigated by vested interests and were a rather gullible misdirected lot that were…… [Read More]
In this encouragement, American would help to touch off something
perhaps all the more miraculous given the proximity to its oppression to
the European peasantry at large. First in the doctrines which would be
formulated in the wake of French independence and secondly in the way that
Napoleon Bonaparte would begin the spread of such doctrines to a continent
driven by inequality, America's revolution could be said to have been the
opening round in the deconstruction of colonialism and feudalism throughout
Europe and thus, the world.
Drafted in the image of the American Declaration of Independence,
though perhaps more ambitious and sweeping even in its trajectories, the
Declaration of the Rights of Men would dictate a universal principle
arguing that all men are born equal and that any distinctions made between
men according to the social conditions must be terms agreed upon by all
parties. The constitutional document underscoring the…… [Read More]
The final crisis of the French Monarchy occurred in 1789, with the official beginning of the French Revolution. Although this was the year in which the first official battle of this martial encounter was fought, it is vital to realize that the monarchy had been floundering for some time prior. There were numerous factors that contributed to the disfavor the monarchy found itself in at the end of the 18th century. Some of the more eminent of these political, financial, and environmental causes helped to weaken the French Monarchy's hold over its subjects, as judged by the standards of the present 1. Concurrently, there were military woes that accompanied these factors and which contributed to the mounting unpopularity of this government. However, an analysis of these factors reveals that the most prominent cause of the French Revolution pertained to the zeitgeist of the time in with Enlightenment ideals…… [Read More]
Many different views abound on the origins of modern capitalism, causalities that range from economic to political, from religious to cultural, or for some, an amalgamation of societies need to expand and the resources necessary to fuel that expansion. Max Weber's the Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism is a study of the relationship between the ethics of ascetic Protestantism and the emergence of the spirit of modern capitalism. An ascetic Protestant is one who practices self-denial and self-discipline. Weber argues that the religious ideas of groups such as the Calvinists played a role in creating the capitalistic spirit. Calvinism focused on predestination and God's infinite power, a hierarchical system that transcended religion and moved into economic and social activities.
This is true not only in cases where the difference in religion coincides with one of nationality, and thus of cultural development . . . . The same thing…… [Read More]
One of the major problems faced by Charlemagne in his efforts to extend the level of education was the fact that there were very few educated persons available to teach others. Years of neglect had left the educational field with few individuals possessing the background necessary to teach others. hat little scholarship that still existed in Europe was concentrated in and around Rome and Charlemagne initiated an aggressive program to attract the leading Italian scholars to his court. By recruiting these scholars to his court, Charlemagne ensured that the full body of available knowledge would be made available to himself and his subjects. From this pool of scholars, Charlemagne built his program of learning and began slowly to establish his own body of Frankish scholars. From this group, the future European learning environment would be built (Einhard) and the future of the European educational system would be ensured.
The curriculum…… [Read More]
... In general, the further East one got, the slower new techniques were to spread. Thus there were supply-side reasons for grain exports from preemancipation eastern Europe to stagnate at a level far below what was ecologically possible" (Pomeranz 258). hile there were distinct differences involved in these regions, there were some commonalities as well.
According to Dean, Hann, Overton and hittle (2004), there remains a paucity of studies concerning the role of women and early economic history based on a misperception that women either did not have a role in the wider economy or that women were affected by economic and social change in the same way as men. An early study that challenged these assumptions conducted of women's work in the seventeenth century divided production into three co-existing types:
Domestic industry." This type of work was done exclusively for the use of the family;
Family industry." This type…… [Read More]
Modern Political Thought
The transition from a feudal serf economy to a capitalist market economy was one of the fundamental shifts which have produced modernity as we know it. This essay aims to understand how the authors of The Prince and Leviathan, Niccolo Machiavelli and Thomas Hobbes would think about the transition and how these two great minds would relate to the issue of capitalism. Capitalism is a funny game that continually creates a series of boom and bust cycles throughout our modern history. Take the 1926 real estate craze that occurred in Florida. The United States economy was cooking along on all cylinders and good times were everywhere. No one was thinking about the Great Depression that would occur just a few years later. The rich and happy of 1926 figured that all was well as often is the case in Capitalism. Prosperity and growth were infinite --…… [Read More]
New scholarship suggests that Byzantine Empire was as successful as was ome in shaping modern Europe (Angelov, 2001).
Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age (also called the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic enaissance) was a center of government and political, cultural and religious traditions that arose in the early 6th century AD from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed and reached its height between the 8th to 13th centuries (Kraemer, 1992). The Golden Age was centered around the Saudi Arabian peninsula. Its first capital was Media; at its greatest extent, the Caliphate controlled all of the present day Middle East, northern Africa and parts of Spain, and extending to the Indus Valley. It was thus one of the few empires that rules over three continents (Kennedy, 2001).
After the end of the classical empires of the Middle East (such as Egypt and Assyria) the region was politically and…… [Read More]
religious, social, economic, and legal elements of town life that made the city so difficult for feudal and manorial society to contain. As town life grew, the town's citizens became resentful of the control feudal society held over them. Cities grew, trade grew, and people began working for themselves, rather than someone else. The people no longer wished to pay their lord part of their wages or earnings, and they began forming their own town councils and guilds, removing control from the manorial society. As a result, manorial society became archaic and declined, while the towns grew and prospered. eligion grew, building increased, and the first companies came into existence as the towns grew and feudalism declined. Feudalism served a purpose, but it had outlived its usefulness and towns developed and society changed.
Early medieval life revolved around the manor and a feudal society who served the lord of the…… [Read More]
In that same year as well, Portuguese ships reached China, re-establishing direct trade for the first time since its termination 150 years prior. The Chinese were particularly eager to purchase Spanish silver from the Andes, which the Portuguese provided in exchange for Chinese silk, highly coveted throughout Europe. The Portuguese even went as far as Japan, where they established contact briefly before that country's isolation. Expeditions were also sent to conquer Malacca and explore Borneo in 1511 and 1524.
Odd as it may seem, the Portuguese were the first to establish viceroys to govern over their colonies in India. Beginning under King Manuel I, the Portuguese presence in India was cemented by the appointment of the first viceroy, Francisco de Almeida, who governed from 1505-08. His capital was established at Cochin, where he waged wars against a number of Indian rulers for control of commerce in the region. His successor…… [Read More]
The powers of the lords reduced a central government, but the overall loyalty to the Shogunates did protect the realm for 150 years, as well as act as an organizational tool for later Japanese governmental philosophy (Duus).
During the Kamikura period, there was also heavy influence from China in the exporting of Zen Buddhism. This view was popular, particularly among the samurai, which were now one of the leading social classes in the realm. Combining Buddhism with samurai traditions, for instance, allowed for a radical and intolerant sect, the Lotus Sutra, to grow in popularity from 1253 on. This Nichiren viewpoint remained and important force in Japan well into the 20th century (Buddhism).
Possibly due to the role of the Shogun and the need for order, the Shikimoku legal code arose in 1232 along with the traditions of the Samurai and the Bushido Code. Shikimoku stressed Confucian values like the…… [Read More]
To counter the fast moving armies, some European nobles started fighting on horseback too. Since maintenance of horses was expensive and cavalry training difficult, the feudal lords or kings began to grant land to the mounted warriors called 'knights.' The knights were expected to provide military service to the feudal lords in exchange for the land provided to them. The unwritten 'contract' between the knights and the kings / feudal lords was based on the principles of bravery and loyalty. The knights were men of noble birth and adhered religiously to the chivalric code. Chivalry thrived as long as feudalism flourished and mode of fighting on horseback in armor was relevant. In the 14th century feudalism began to decline and the development of gun-powder made the knight-warriors less relevant. From then onward, chivalry survived only as a set of rituals and fashion amongst the nobility.
To his feudal lord… [Read More]
Due to a shortage in labor supply, the demand for the working class increased exponentially. As such, the peasants were no longer at the bottom of the hierarchy in terms of the social and the economic class -- they were suddenly a highly desirable commodity that began charging fees to provide ti. The following quotation corroborates this fact.
Labour had become scarce and expensive and labourers well-off. Thos who survived the plague suddenly found they could pick and choose their masters, name their price for services, build up their landholdings and begin to employ their neighbors (Jones).
Since feudalism (a precursor to capitalism) was the system upon which England's economics and society was based, the government had to change its focus so that it could attempt to restore the exploitive practices in which laborers were readily cheated out of their labor. The English government became much more active in the…… [Read More]
knight was "a mounted warrior in the service of his liege-lord." Knights were professional soldiers. They were higher in rank in the cavalry. They wore coat of arms that bore the names of their heritage. They carried the colors of their Lords. (Hopkins, 1990) Their job was protecting the lands that belonged to their Lords and by extension the domain of the king. The rise of knights was associated with a martial meritocracy and an eventual aristo-meritocracy. Those knights who won battles for their masters rose through the hierarchical ranks. They were accorded greater power, lands and servants. The raison d' tre for knights was martial supremacy. Fighting was an often occurrence, because the common person could not defend themselves against an invading foe. In time of danger the people fled to the castle. When not engaged in combat, knights would participate in tournaments to win favors, power, and money.…… [Read More]
Crusaders were able to implement feudal states throughout their travels during this period of warfare, many of which have been termed Crusader states and which were erected throughout the Holy Land and in parts of Asia Minor as well as Greece. The most famous of these, of course, was the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which took place in 1099 and reigned until its fall in 1291.
Kingdom of Jerusalem
It should be remembered that for the vast duration of the reign of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, European settlers were widely outnumbered by Franks and Muslims, and only comprised approximately 15 to 25% of the entire population (Kedar 148). The Europeans lived in areas which were both rural as well as urban, and despite attempts to integrate with the surrounding foreigners, they did not infiltrate areas which were predominantly Muslim and which had never had many Christian dwellers (Ellenblu…… [Read More]
Human Society -- Economic or State Power
Background (State Power and Economic Power) -- The political and sociological aspect of power is the ability for an organization to control its own environment, including the behavior of other entities with which it reacts. Authority is seen as the perception of legitimate power by the social structure of dominant culture. Power can be, of course, seen as good or evil, but the exercise of power is both endemic and necessary for the modern state as we know it. Certainly within the paradigm of political and economic power there are various permutations that surround sources of power, the balance of power, and theories of power (Kuusisto).
Balances of power are necessary within any reciprocal arrangement in order for statecraft to even exist: what are the relative strengths, weaknesses, and dimensions to a stable relationship? Given that power is never innate, and one must…… [Read More]
Silence, Endo uses the background of persecution to contemplate these knotty questions. ("Silence")
Endo seeks to show within Silence, then, how the missionaries themselves misunderstood which aspects of Christianity to emphasize to Japanese would-be converts, just as he himself had misunderstood the universal appeal that Christianity could potentially have in areas outside the western world, including Japan, until he had visited Palestine. As a missionary religion, as Endo also implies, Christianity must rely on persuasive power in order to truly capture the hearts and minds of people anywhere that it seeks to convert. Japanese feudalism and European trade, on the other hand, rely only on force, coercion, and violence - no match for Christian missionaries in an area like Japan, especially if those missionaries' Christianity is not accepted in Japan in the first place. Religious zeal, then, in order to have any real hope of vanquishing competing economic forces, must…… [Read More]
Dark Ages or Early Middle Ages is that historical time period of the Western Europe that came after the collapse of the West oman Empire in the fourth and fifth centuries. It ended when the period of the enaissance started in the 15th century. The western civilization adopted a number of its ideas and institutions from the unstable and tumultuous events of the Early Middle Ages. It won't be incorrect to state that the culture in West in fact experienced a revolution in the Middle Age. The most important reason why Middle Age can be considered advancement in the humanities is that its effects influenced the world greatly. The significance of this specific time period "has been increasingly recognized as scholarship based on newly published source material, archaeological findings, and studies of demographics and migration patterns presents more accurate and detailed analyses of events and trends" ("Middle Ages," 2013).
Even…… [Read More]
Although there are some elements of Napoleon's domestic and foreign policies that would suggest he was extending Enlightenment idealism through his autocratic regime, his coming to power is more accurately framed as marking an end to the French Revolution. Some of the French Revolution's core principles did emerge during Napoleon's rule. For example, Napoleon's legal and judicial reforms offered a more egalitarian model than the ancien regime had due to the doing away with a two-tiered system treating aristocracy and peasantry differently under the law (Lecture Notes, p. 8). Napoleonic law dismantled the feudalism of the ancien regime, and established in its place a code of Enlightenment legal principles (Lecture Notes, p. 8). In spite of the promising legal reforms Napoleon implemented as the supreme leader of France, his rule can be deemed nothing but a dictatorship. The means by which Napoleon seized, maintained, and wielded power were purely…… [Read More]
The study of physics, optics and biology of the eye contributed to the development of the quadrant and sextant. The Islamic world also created the concept of a library.
The Crusades of the eleventh century brought the learning of the Islamic world to Europe unfortunately this information was acquired by the act of war. The Crusades also increased the flow of trade, bringing new spices, gemstones and foods to Europe. The Crusades marked the beginning of religion as the basis for society. The Pope and the Catholic Church emerged as the leaders of society and religion as the unifying morality.
Rather than a change in politics, a mini-renaissance occurred during Romanesque period. The study of art, science and culture brought about a change in architectural styling and building materials; increased use of rounded arches and barrel vaults emerged at the same time as the use of metal, enamel, ivory, bronze,…… [Read More]
An empty self wishes for nothing more than to e guided and taken care of, easy prey for an abuse therapist, or even one who is not intentionally abusive but is not trained to recognize and understand the underlying issues. Wide and varied research supports Cushman's theory on this point, proving that decontextualization of the individual, the devaluation of the patience, a belief in the universality of a therapeutic technology and the encouragement of idealization can all lead to therapeutic abuse (608). Cushman compares patients who are exploited by life-style therapy to people who are victimized by cults. Their empty selves make them susceptible to feeling "transformed" because they cannot see themselves within a larger communal matrix. Cushman argues that a main component of preventing this kind of abuse is part of what he is after in writing this article -- straightforward talk about life-style solutions and their possible dangers.…… [Read More]
My views tend to classify modern societies first by their political system: socialist, democratic, representative, totalitarian, and then move more into demographics and psychographics.
1.2 Political Quarrels -Describe, in a 250-300-word post, one of the quarrels faced by the Britons or the French. Analyze the role of that country's history, geography, political institutions, and its culture in relation to the quarrel.
For centuries, Britain and France have been at odds with one another. This likely goes back to Medieval times, then progressed through the Age of Discovery, claims to colonies -- especially in the new world, and the age old rights to economic development of Europe and the oceans. Historically, in 1066 the Duke of Normandy led and invasion of England, defeating the English at the battle of Hastings. William, the Duke, had himself crowned King of England, but remained a vassal of the French King, which became humiliating to…… [Read More]
In Medieval times Christianity took over as the dominant form of ethics and through feudalism, divine law organized social and political hierarchy. As religiosity was replaced by humanism, and the Catholic church by alternative viewpoints (Protestantism) political and social structures were torn apart, forcing change and a decline in the structure of feudalism and the opening of a new, more individualistic, some say greedy, system of capitalism. Philosophies of the Age of Englitenment further distanced themselves from using religion as the sole basis for structure with such philosophers as John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Rene Descartes and others holding that human existence was more individual -- and therefore more dependent upon individual morals and judgements. Romanticism took these ideas and, through fusion, merged them with ideas on nature, emotion, and the grand capacity for actualization, but again, through the individual (Tumin and Plotch, 1977; (luhm and Heineman). The modern age is…… [Read More]
England faced huge debts and the expense of maintaining a militia in America, after the costly Seven Years' War. The English parliament believed that the colonies should finance a significant portion of their own defense and thus in 1765 levied the first direct tax, the Stamp Act. Nearly every document, such as newspapers, legal writs, licenses, insurance policies, and even playing cards had to include a stamp proving payment of the required taxes. The colonists, like the barons, revolted against this economic control and the fact that they were never asked to vote on these taxes. It simply came down to "taxation without representation." They also disagreed with the condition that anyone who disobeyed could be tried in admiralty courts without a jury of peers.
The colonists condemned the Stamp Act, and when Benjamin Franklin and others in England powerfully argued the American side Parliament quickly repealed the bill. It…… [Read More]
..Of course, her earnings were also meager, but it was better than relying on farming alone" (Nagatsuka, 1). Oshina, the wives' character in the novel, could be the impersonation of any hardworking farmer's wife during the Meiji Restoration in Japan. The hardship of the life in a village struggling to adjust to the wave of modernity swiping the country, but still very deeply rooted in the previous period was plausible in the case of those who did not own much land or the means to improve their living standards from other not farm-related activities. "At all hours of the day, as long as there was light, Oshina kept busy at one task or another; soaking straw from rope making, sweeping up leaves, her hands were never idle" (Nagatsuka, 1). The lives of the farmers like those described by Nagatsuka were subject to rapid change since the early stages of the…… [Read More]
Indeed the Germans, the French, and the rest looked back to an antiquity in which their ancestors had been subjugated by the legions. Nothing is more remarkable therefore than the rapid and irrevocable penetration of Italian ideas and practices among the "barbarians," as the Italian writers referred to them, some of whom were currently invading the peninsula." (Wiener, 124) it's also important to note that influence of antique classicism typical for Italian architecture of the 14-16th centuries is not observed in the north. Classical style of Italian cathedrals and churches, typical for Ancient Greek and oman pagan temples is usually not observed in buildings of enaissance epoch in Germany, Britain or France, where architecture was influenced by Gothic style, which got earlier spread in Europe.
eformation and Counter eformation
The spread of Protestantism over Europe, which is considered to be one of the most historically significant achievements of enaissance and…… [Read More]
To some degree, this may be considered a concession to peasants who were largely upset with their station in life as urban areas benefited more significantly from the economic expansion. There is little indication that prosperity was widespread among the peasant classes during the Tokugawa period. Other historical signs point to the real possibility that most farmers suffered during this period.
In fact, much of the economic woes for rural Japan at this time can be traced to developments that were taking place in the cities because of the still feudal organization of Japanese society. The daimyo were lords in the feudal sense; though their holdings varied, agricultural lands -- and taxes on those lands -- formed the basis of their wealth and power. Therefore, when the shogun made it law that each daimyo had to keep up a residence both in their own hometown as well as in Edo,…… [Read More]
here are variations on these four schools but, in essence, these four schools dominate the field. hese four schools are: Marxist, Kenyesian, Monetarist, and neoclassic.
he Marxist school is built upon the theories and writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. hese gentlemen believed that all economic societies go through a period of development wherein different economy systems are used beginning with a form of primitive communism through feudalism, capitalism, and then eventually ending in pure communism. he economy of the Soviet Union was based on the theories of Marx and Engels and, as a result of the failure of that government it has fallen out of favor among modern day economists.
he decline of Marxism seemed to served as an impetus for the remaining major economic schools to re-examine their positions. In the last two decades of the twentieth century the schools began to build a consensus. his consensus…… [Read More]
..) Are the benefits of modernity worth the costs we must pay to be modern?
In my opinion, the benefits of modernity are worth some of the costs we must pay to be "modern," although not worth all of them. In today's world, the internet, for instance, arguably makes us better off than before, yet worse off as well. For example, almost everyone nowadays enjoys, at least to an extent, the easily available online conveniences of e-mailing; online shopping or bill-paying, web surfing, etc. However (also as a result of such technological convenience) many of us have grown so dependent on computers that if our home, school, or work computers crash, contract a virus, or otherwise cease to function, our productivity immediately ceases. Who has not experienced being unable to acquire a much-needed a bank account of credit card balance; enroll in a course, or check availability of a particular…… [Read More]
The Golden Bull of 1356 fixed the number and identity of the electors. And while the Empire finally received an orderly method of choosing its sovereigns, the power of these sovereigns had largely passed from the center to the periphery. The old empire existed in name only.
Italy too is part of the story of the German rulers of the Holy Roman Empire. The part of Italy north of the Papal States was an actual part of the Holy Roman Empire, while Sicily, in the extreme south, was at times under the rule of the Emperors. In particular, Frederick II was famed for the glorious, and learned, court he maintained in Sicily. Italy was very strongly affected by political developments North of the Alps. The same divisions between Church and State that plagued the rest of the Empire were prominent in the Italians city states as well. For Italy, like…… [Read More]
Charles Van Doren has concluded that the Copernican Revolution is actually the Galilean Revolution because of the scale of change introduced by Galileo's work.
The technological innovation of the Renaissance era started with the invention of the printing press (the Renaissance). Even though the printing press, a mechanical device for printing multiple copies of a text on sheets of paper, was first invented in China, it was reinvented in the West by a German goldsmith and eventual printer, Johann Gutenberg, in the 1450s. Before Gutenberg's invention, each part of metal type for printing presses had to be individually engraved by hand. Gutenberg developed molds that permitted for the mass production of individual pieces of metal type. This permitted a widespread use of movable type, where each character is a separate block, in mirror image, and these blocks are assembled into a frame to form text. Because of his molds, a…… [Read More]
It was founded on the knowledge that spurred during the Renaissance and has placed significance on rational thought and cultural emphasis, which was not present before.
Furthermore, with regards to the popularity of Baroque during this period, it is important to note that this style was able to combine the principles of science and the philosophies and doctrines of early Christianity, which has been very prominent in architectures built on such style. During the earlier period, the Renaissance, art was simpler and characterized by simple rhythms. With Baroque, however, a dynamic change has occurred, as art and architecture became more ostentatious and it has shown how art can move from the previous period (Saisselin).
The Scientific Revolution has presented a new perspective and shows a shift from the orthodox. It has also allowed the use of the past in order to create the future. In the field of arts, the…… [Read More]
Private Property & the Commons of 16th Century Spain
Private Property in 16th Century Spain
Historically, 16th-century Castile was considered to be fundamentally an urban society that depended on cities and towns for the articulation of its local and centralized administration (Elliott, 1991). Privilege was considered to be a matter of a priori rights founded on traditions associated with nobility and wealth. The lower social stratum was maintained in order to provide fiscal and military support for the crown. The qualities of separateness -- both cultural and logistical -- between the urban central and diffuse local jurisdictions engendered very different perspectives regarding authority. ather than arbitrating reasonable agreements, local authority worked to undermine what was considered to be overreaching by the crown. I contend that the autonomy of local jurisdictions worked against the crown's insistence on absolutism and a monarchy of estates that were grounded in medieval social concepts, however,…… [Read More]
Speech to Support Mortgage for Independent Spanish Village
The focus of this study is to consider the scenario of making a choice in the use of inheritance money and specifically to gain a mortgage for an independent villa which will be a town or villa in realengo and to compose a speech to support this objective
It is my belief that gaining a mortgage for an independent villa is the most appropriate approach to investing of my inheritance money. For to do otherwise would be to render my inheritance under the control of another individual who will hold all power and decision-bearing capacity and who will not be as interested in the profitability or long-term success of the villa since they do not in reality hold ownership to the property. Under the system of feudalism which is a "social system of rights and duties based on land tenure and…… [Read More]
Chinese Communism and its Future.
The Chinese revolution came in the year 1949; it refers to the final stage of military conflict. hen the armies of Mao Test Tung and of General Chu crossed the Yangtse River in April 1949, the seal of defeat was almost set on the forces of Chiang Kai Shek. According to the bourgeois revolution, their beliefs would be followed by the proletarian socialist revolution. (Gao, Mobo 2008).
The revolution of how China differs from its counterpart is that in both countries (Russia and China) were backward at the beginning of this century. Their relations of production and their patterns of exploitation were semi-feudal (or related to feudalism) and were predominantly founded on agriculture. Both societies had Religious beliefs, reflecting the social conditions: in China Confucianism, and in Russia Greek Orthodoxy. However they had different traditions, culture practices and language. Both Russia and China had different…… [Read More]
Nineteenth century ideologies emerged concurrently with the ongoing entrenchment of secular values and the principles of scientific inquiry. With empirical methods at the fore, philosophers and social scientists also grounded their theories in the prevailing political themes and realities of their time. The industrial revolution had a profound impact on political ideology and practice throughout Europe.[footnoteRef:1] When Karl Marx developed the theories that would inform his most influential works like Das Capital and the Communist Manifesto, his theories blended the methodologies used in history and political theory with those used in social sciences, most notably economics. Marx’s scientific socialism reflected the shift from an economic and political model dominated by feudalism and tight authoritarian political control towards one that reflected the tenets of independence, self-governance, and human rights. [1: Joshua Cole and Carol Symes., Western Civilizations: Their History & Their Culture, Brief 4th ed. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2017) v.…… [Read More]
oth religions are not technically held to be systems of belief by their adherents, but rather as systems of service or patronage to higher powers. The idea was present in African feudalism, but seems to be enhanced and highlighted in Creole religions by the slave experience. Seeking for a path away from the rule of cruel Europeans, African slaves turned to the rule of benevolent and helpful Orishas and Loas. Practitioners serve the demi-gods, and the demi-gods in turn serve the practitioners. The relationship between god and man is mainly business, although love and respect are also required. However, no true worship -- as a westerner would understand it -- is required; instead the Orishas and Loas are propitiated by sacrifices, and communicate their assistance mainly by oracles. In both Vodou and Santeria each Orisha or Loa is associated with a certain constellation of symbols, fetishes, sacrifices, and drum-rhythms…… [Read More]
Byrd's work also predated the Lewis and Clarke journals in his information on the natural history of the area. In fact, he wrote about the Native American tribes and the flora and fauna, much still unknown at the time. This, too, was part of the Enlightenment though, a rather Lockean concept of using one's knowledge to both understand and interpret the universe. By attempting definition, Byrd was following the path of the philosopher who sought to better understand himself by describing his world -- and by describing his world, having the ability to better understand the complex relationships therein. Thus, the settlement of a mere 1728 boundary dispute had significance far beyond colonial law. We may be sure that Byrd had studied Locke, for there is much in the journals that reads as if Locke edited the passages. Locke, for instance, thought childhood was a type of innocence…… [Read More]
) and towards the more practical needs for Aryan survival.
c. hy did a growing number of Germans support Hitler and the Nazi Party in the years leading up to his appointment as chancellor?
There are many arguments to this question, but one that surfaces more often than others focuses on economics and self-preservation. The German people were humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles -- their military and economic system had been stripped away, their debt unbearable, and their economy was being controlled by other countries. The ideas of National Socialism were attractive to many: unification of the German Volk, reestablishing the German lands as a country dedicated to certain ideals, focusing on ethnic and linguistic similarities, the overthrow of Versailles, the idea of German self-determination, lebensraum (room for Germans to live, grow and prosper), and an improvement over the crippling inflation and economic woes of the eimar Government, seen…… [Read More]
The divisions ere as such:
1. The highest class amongst the slave as of the slave minister; he as responsible for most of the slave transactions or trades and as also alloed to have posts on the government offices locally and on the provincial level.
2. This as folloed by the class of temple slaves; this class of slaves as normally employed in the religious organizations usually as janitors and caretakers of priestesses in the organization.
3. The third class of slaves included a range of jobs for slaves i.e. slaves ho ere appointed as land/property etc. managers ere included in this class as ell as those slaves ho ere employed as merchants or hired to help around the pastures and agricultural grounds. A majority of this class included the ordinary household slaves.
4. The last class amongst the slaves also included a range of occupations of the slaves extending…… [Read More]
As shown later, the Japanese were able to successfully adapt use and excel successfully in using the estern technology against the other powers to repel advances and to build their own empire. Perry's mission successfully ended Japanese isolation but also indirectly brought on the very circumstances that led to the U.S.-Japanese competition in the Pacific and directly later on to orld ar II in the later twentieth century. In a nutshell, the Perry mission's negations were successful and the Treaty of Kanagwa was signed in Shimoda, Japan. This treaty permitted American ships to buy coal in Japan and memorialized the requested protection for shipwrecked American seaman, in particular whalers who steamed off of Japanese waters in their annual hunts at sea.
For more than two centuries previously, Japan had successfully isolated itself from the outside world by refusing to trade with other countries except Holland and China. They had even…… [Read More]
In some regards, the idea of 'culture' is highly mutable and subject to widespread variations in characterization. Quite in fact, the concept of culture is highly implicated in the weaponzation of words that may be used by one nation to subjugate another. Ideas about how cultures interact, about which cultures are superior and indeed about whether or not the practices of some peoples should even be called 'cultures' have been subjected to rationalization as colonialist nations have subjugated various parts of the developing sphere. It is this understanding that inclines Said's (2002) perspective in "The Clash of Definitions."
Here, Said opposes the idea that there are distinct incompatibilities which persist between civilizations. Instead, he argues that this is the impression which has been foisted upon us by the shifting notions of what is meant by culture, particularly as this depends upon the perspective of hegemonic ethnic groups. This…… [Read More]
Catholics played a main role in some of the first overseas explorations performed by estern European states. ith the purpose of inducing religious thinking into the people they conquered, Europeans brought priests with them. Most conquerors were not satisfied with imposing their religion on others, as they harshly condemned other religions they came across and subjected people worshiping other gods to great suffering.
Unlike the French, most English and Spanish conquerors believed that it was abnormal for one to worship in any other way that was not Christian. The French managed to live along side of the Huron tribes, making it possible for Huron tradition to exist in the present. In contrast, the Spanish and the English imposed their cultural values on the people they conquered, to the point where they were assimilated and were left with no cultural identity other than the one that was forced on them.
orks…… [Read More]
There are also some words that are used, which do not translate into English such as privacy. This is because the cultural traditions of Russia do not understand such concepts, which makes translating certain ideas more challenging. (Richmond, 2009, pp. 109 -- 117)
Russian is a Slavic language that has close ties to all of the different European languages including: English and German. This means that many of the root words are similar to what is used in the common languages spoken throughout the West. However, as far as the alphabet is concerned, the language will utilize what is known as the Cyrillic alphabet. This is different from Western languages, as each of 32 different symbols will represent particular roots of certain words. When reading the language and learning Russian, the basic alphabet will help foreign business executives to navigate their way around. With the alphabet is pronounced…… [Read More]
There were several battles therefore that took place between France, Great ritain and American war ships. These battles occurred in European waters as well as in waters in the western hemisphere.
The most challenging ritish action was an order permitting seizure of neutral ships either sending food and supplies to France or trading goods produced in French colonies, above all the West Indies. When ritain obstructed French ships in the French harbors early in the French Revolution, American merchants moved swiftly to take over commerce in the West Indies. These American merchant ships were subject to seizure. The ritish Navy took approximately 300 American ships and forced thousands of captured American sailors to serve on ritish ships. When American tried to negotiate with ritain, France became outraged, which prompted France to start seizing American ships and the attempts to negotiate with France were utterly ineffective. France then started to imagine…… [Read More]
And it cannot be denied that there is evidence to support that concern in many respects. But for women, it would help to open certain pathways to personal advancement. According to Mackie, "the women's liberation movement developed out of a critique of modern Japanese capitalism, a dissatisfaction with the sexism of the New Left, and the need of women in Japan to theorise their place in East Asia." (p. 4)
Among the forces that would significantly aid in their ability to establish any such identity would be the new set of doors opened by the shift in Japan's educational principles. The goals of modernization and capitalist advancement -- which would ultimately call for more opportunities for women to make contributions -- would demand an emphasis on education in the evolving state of Japan. So would this be demonstrated by the policies on this front which passed into law concurrent with…… [Read More]
Dr. David Livingstone seemed to epitomize this view, "These privations, I beg you to observe, are not sacrifices. I think that word ought never to be mentioned in reference to anything we can do for Him….Can that be a sacrifice which is simply paid back as a small part of a great debt owing to our God, which we can never repay… it is a privilege."
With this attitude of sacrifice for the greater glory, and it was certainly that for many who endured pain, pestilence, disease, hunger and bodily harm, also came a certain attitude about modernizing and bringing the native populations into the modern world through Christ. In places as diverse as Hawaii, the Philippines, central Africa, and even the Muslim world, these well-meaning missionaries invariable also brought with them cultural baggage and xenophobia. While wishing to save the population from the fires of Hell through Christianity, there…… [Read More]
And in such instances where one might be sold, the selling nobleman was given the right to retain the individual's family and property.
hough the laws would stop short of allowing the right of the noble to kill a serf, the penalty for doing so was a nominal monetary fine of a negligible sum to a member of the landed gentry. herefore, prohibition on killing a serf was pointedly low. It is thus that the Russian feudalist system created a scenario in which the seeds of Communist revolution could ultimately be sowed. With literally half of its population living in abject slavery and the stability of the central government constantly threatened by invading Mongols and rebelling Cossacks, the slave population increasingly came to represent a serious threat to the continued survival of the ruling class. First through its constant undermining of the system by flight from ownership and thereafter by…… [Read More]
. . ' Their authority may only be of the order and breadth determined by the Idea of the whole; they may only 'originate from its might'. That things should be so lies in the Idea of the organism. But in that case it would be necessary to show how all this might be achieved. For conscious reality must hold sway within the state." (Marx, 77)
This suggests that independence is a pathway to authoritarian tyranny, whereas the 'might' of the state is accorded only by a collective population supporting this right. this resonates most closely with my own personal perspective, denoting something of a universal order in which central authority is necessary to retain civility but in which collectivism is elevated over materialism as a way of empowering such leadership.
The spread of capitalism as both a chief ideology and an aggressive response to the mores of socialism…… [Read More]
This would result in a proliferation of German success and influence throughout the continent and an effective solidarity amongst German immigrants.
5) hat was the "wolf by the ears" quandary that Takai suggests late century American slaveholders found themselves to be in? hat were they afraid of? hat solutions to the problems created by slavery were possible considering the existing conditions and mentalities in American societies at the time?
The problem of slavery had become pressing, not just insofar as it represented a serious humanitarian crisis for the U.S. But even further, as it presented the U.S. And many of its citizens a serious threat to stability. Jefferson's comments, which sound derisive enough, were actually couched in the understanding that the slave class of the United States was justifiably angry, restless and therefore, dangerous to its master. Accordingly, Takaki reports that "As it is,' Jefferson cried out, 'we have the…… [Read More]