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In 1954 the first settlements were created using H-shaped blocks (Chan, 1998). Today, however, building block styles include Double H-shaped, Cruciform, Twin Tower, Trident, and Linear (Wong & Yau, 1999). These are designed to be easily constructed and work well for heating and cooling, but they are also designed to prevent a total building collapse in case of a fire. Re-engineering a process that needs some assistance has become popular in many areas of industry but the construction industry has been slow to make changes (Koskela, 1992). Much of this has to do with the fact that re-engineering usually has to do with processes, and the construction industry is primarily project based, instead (Chan & Yu, 1999).
This re-engineering to help protect against fire and other dangers, however, is expected to focus on projects that are designed for the customer and therefore work to enhance the final outcome that these…
Chan, D.W.M. And Kumaraswamy, MM. (1995). Effects of technology and site productivity on construction times of building projects in Hong Kong. Proceedings of the 16th Annual ASEM Conference, American Society for Engineering Management, 21-23 September 1995, Washington DC, USA, 309-316.
Chan, A.P.C. And Yu, A.T.W. (1999). Effecting innovation through construction process re-engineering (CPR). Australian Institute of Building Papers, 9,7-16.
Chan, D.W.M. And Chan, A.P.C. (2002). Review of design and construction innovations in Hong Kong public housing. Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Building Technology, Faculty of Construction and Land Use, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 4-6 December 2002, Hong Kong, (in press).
Chan, D.W.M. (1998). Modelling Construction Durations for Public Housing Projects in Hong Kong. PhD thesis, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
In the case of the former, its purpose is to form a protective layer on fuels to raise their combustion temperature; in the case of the latter, the purpose of Triple F. is to cover the entire exposed surface of the combustible agent (Wright 1997). Certain chemical fires such as those fueled by petroleum products and byproducts, are attacked with light water consisting of water with special chemical agents allowing water to penetrate and mix more readily with high-viscosity liquids. Likewise, halon has been used where water is considered too damaging, such as in electrical environments or where expensive computer equipment is susceptible to significant water damage.
Compressed air foam (CAF), when it is available, is preferable to halon, because of environmental concerns (Jones 2008). Compressed air foam is applied in varying combinations and relative concentrations of air and water for different types of fires.
Modern firefighting equipment has…
Finucane, J. (2007) When the Bronx Burned. Bloomington, in: iUniverse Hanrahan, B. (2008) Thermal Imaging for Fire Ground Operations. New York: Delmar.
Jones, a. (2008) Fire Protection Systems. New York: Delmar.
NFPA (2005) 1977 Standard on Protective Clothing and Equipment for Wildland Fire Fighting, 2005 Edition. Washington: NFPA
NYFD (2006) History of the New York City Fire Department. Official Website of the New York City Fire Department. Retrieved May 26, 2008, at http://www.nyc.gov/html/fdny/html/history/fire_service.shtml
According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency United States Fire Administration (1996), "Emergency medical services respond to urgent situations that are related to the health and welfare of the community's citizens. Emergency management services protect the community from the effects of natural disasters. escue teams safely remove citizens from dangerous predicaments, avoiding the risk of injury or death that untrained, unprepared citizens might face if they tried to perform that mission. Hazardous materials response teams protect the population and the environment from the effects of uncontrolled releases of hazardous materials. The common thread among the missions of all those teams is the community's need for protection from potentially harmful or undesirable events." (Federal Emergency Management Agency United States Fire Administration, 1996)
The element of fire within risk management practices is perhaps the most readily identifiable threat that organizations face today. Fire can commence at any moment, can be triggered by…
Akhter, W. (2010). Risk management in takaful. Enterprise Risk Management, 2(1), 128-128-144. Retrieved fromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview/845921496?accountid=13044
Federal Emergency Management Agency United States Fire Administration (1996) Risk management Practices in the Fire Service.
McCafferty, F. (1977, Basic elements of risk management. Management Accounting (Pre-1986), 59(1), 43-43. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/198689939?accountid=13044
Many foresters supported Pinchot's policies along with pulp, timber and paper companies, and in fact the U.S. Forest Service (commanded by Chief Forester Henry Graves) adopted "fire control" as the "principle duty of the agency" (Fowler). However there was plenty of opposition to Pinchot's strategy of suppressing fires, both from state and federal agencies that supported "light burning" and "Indian fires" policies. By 1910, Fowler writes in the Forest Encyclopedia, the Forest Service began experimenting with "prescribed fires" but concluded that prescribed fires were more "destructive' than useful.
In 1924 Congress passed the Clark-McNary Act that allocated money to states to develop their own fire-fighting capabilities. The Smokey Bear fire-fighting campaign was launched in 1944, "teaching two to three generations of Americans that all fires are harmful to forests" (Fowler, FE). In fact, prescribed burning was "banned on many public lands in the South" for over 50 years. It wasn't…
Fowler, C. (1999). The Period of Fire Suppression and Other Fire Regimes (1890s to 1980s).
Forest Encyclopedia. Retrieved April 29, 2009, from http://fire.forestencyclopedia.net /p/p843.
Fowler, C. (1999). Human Use of Fire in History (1540s to 1900s). Forest Encyclopedia.
Retrieved April 29, 2009, from
A clear example of the use of this technique is the fact that the closest responder can be sent by the dispatch to a fire incident regardless of whether the responding unit is not within the particular defined region.
As a significant technique in modern fire research, ultrafine water mist systems enable a more effective translation of water into steam. The steam permits a gas-like spreading that will flood the space for increased extinguishing effects (Dan, n.d.). Ultrafine water mist systems have been embraced in the use of C-gypsum wall board that entrenches moisture pellets. The fire restrictive attributes of the wall are enhanced when the surface of the gypsum board cools through exposure to heat of fire.
Compressed Air Form:
The compressed air form systems are primarily used to enhance the soaking and penetrating abilities of water to enhance its effectiveness as an extinguishing agent. Due to…
Barbour, J. (2007, September 28). Accelerating the Adoption of Fire Science and Related Research. Retrieved from Joint Fire Service Program website: http://www.firescience.gov/projects/05-S-07/project/05-S-07_final_report.pdf
DanDnAZ. (n.d.). Modern Fire Research and Fire Science. Retrieved February 11,
2012, from http://dandnaz.hubpages.com/hub/Modern-Fire-Science
fuels management in urban areas that might be affected by wildfire. Specifically, it will discuss the education of homeowners, and fuel management techniques that can reduce the risk of loss of property during a wildland fire.
With the proliferation of urban areas encroaching on wilderness areas, wildfire now is a much more common threat to homes and property. "Since 1970, more than 10,000 homes and 20,000 other structures and facilities have been lost to severe wildland fire" (Editors). Drought throughout the country has dried out forests, making them much more susceptible to wildfire. Wildland fires can be caused by any number of events, some natural, and some man-made.
Lightning is a common source of fire in natural vegetation. It is a weather phenomenon that is associated with both frontal and convectional movements of air. Lightning fire depends on the presence of dry organic materials, either in dry climates or in…
Ahern, Jack, and Jestena Boughton. "Wildflower Meadows as Sustainable Landscapes." The Ecological City: Preserving and Restoring Urban Biodiversity. Eds. Rutherford H. Platt, Rowan A. Rowntree, and Pamela C. Muick. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1994. 172-185.
Author not Available. "Creating a Defensible Space: A Step-by-Step Guide." Living With Fire. 2002. http://www.extension.unr.edu/fire/frontpage.html
Backes, David. "The Biosocial Perspective and Environmental Communication Research." Journal of Communication, 45.3 (1995): 147-163.
Clark, Lee, and Hardy, Kathryn D. "1996 Alaskan Wildland-Urban Interface Fire -- A Catalyst For Public Involvement." Fire Management Notes. Volume 57, No. 4, 1997. http://www.fs.fed.us/fire/planning/fmt/fmt-pdfs/fmn57-4.pdf
Deng, Tzu-Jeng, Charng-Horng Hsieh, Her-Jiun heu, Chyan Yang. (2001) A conceptual framework for improving fire-fighting service quality of a public fire department.
Includes results of a study on improving fire-fighting services by improving fire fighting and recognition techniques. Good for those interested in other than wildland fires, and those interested in going into fire management.
International Journal of Public Administration, Vol. 24, 405.
Drysdale, Dougal. (1999, October). An introduction to fire dynamics, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & ons.
Problems addressed include: the conditions necessary for ignition and steady burning of combustible materials to occur, how large a fire has to become before fire detectors and sprinkler heads will operate, and the circum- stances that can lead to flashover in a compartment.
A very comprehensive information on fire behavior, especially from an engineering viewpoint. Identifies fire science and fire dynamics and provides the scientific back- ground necessary…
Staff. (2002) Introduction to fire behavior. University Corporation for Atmospheric Research.
Provides an overview of factors that affect the ignition and spread of wildfire. Information is presented with 3-dimensional graphics and animations as well as audio descriptions and commentary provided by a fire behavior expert.
A good description of the different weather patterns affecting fire behavior, for a management and layman audience. http://meted.ucar.edu/fire/fwx
There are several methods for achieving these conditions within the forest. The first is prescribed burning. The goal of prescribed burning is to reduce the amount and density of surface fuels in a controlled manner. Prescribed burns also scorch and kill the lower branches of trees, preventing laddering (Fitzgerald 2005). This technique lifts the canopy off the surface, lowering the ability of the fire to climb to the high-density crown. Prescribed burns are typically carried out in regular intervals, much like the natural low-intensity fires of the past.
One of the key difficulties in prescribed burns is that some preparation may be necessary in order to reduce the amount of fuels. Otherwise, the controlled burn could easily become an uncontrollable raging forest fire. Pruning and thinning of tree stands may be necessary in order to reduce the available fuel before the prescribed burn (Fitzgerald 2005). Mowing and grading…
1. Agee, J.K. 2002. Fire behavior and fire-resilient forests. In Fitzgerald, S.A., editor. Fire in Oregon's forests: risks, effects and treatment options. A synthesis of current issues and scientific literature. Special Report prepared for the Oregon Forest Resources Institute, Portland, or; 119-126. In Fitzgerald, Stephen. 2005. Fire Ecology of Ponderosa Pine and the Rebuilding of Fire-Resilient Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; Available from:
2. Brown, Richard, Agee, James and Franklin, Jerry. 2004. Forest Restoration and Fire: Principles in the Context of Place. Conservation Biology. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; 18 (4): 903-912. Available at http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118784304/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
3. Fitzgerald, Stephen. 2005. Fire Ecology of Ponderosa Pine and the Rebuilding of Fire-Resilient Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; Available at
Fire Suppression Systems
Fire results when fuel, oxidant, and sufficient heat combine in time and place (New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, n.d.). The fuel is typically a carbon-based material like paper, wood, oil, or gas, while ambient air typically provides the oxidant in the form of oxygen. Other oxidants include nitrates, chlorates, and peroxides and therefore should never be stored alongside fuel materials. For combustion to occur the heat must sufficient to ignite the fuel. Once ignited the chemical reaction is typically extremely exothermic and becomes self-perpetuating in the presence of fuel and oxidant. If heat accumulates faster than it can be dissipated to the surrounding environment an explosion will occur.
The three ways in which heat can be dissipated is through conduction along a temperature gradient, convection due to movement of the gaseous fire matter, and radiation to other surfaces (New Zealand Institute of Chemistry, n.d.). The primary method…
IFSTA (International Fire Service Training Association). (2009). Fire Inspection and Code Enforcement, Seventh Edition. Stillwater, OK: Fire Protection Publications.
Knowlton, B.E. (2012). The effects of using fire-fighting foams: GC-MS pattern analysis of fire debris. (Masters of Science dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest. UMI No. 1520731.
Moore, P.E. (1996). Suppressants for the control of industrial explosions. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 9(1), 119-123.
New Zealand Institute of Chemistry. (n.d.). Chemistry in fire fighting. Retrieved from http://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/environment/14C.pdf .
First you have to list why this misconception is correct.
Misconception: Energy gets used up or runs out
Reasons why this is false: One of the basic laws of science is the Law of Conservation of Energy is that energy can be neither created nor destroyed. It can only be changed from one form to another.
Describe a non-mathematical way to help your students correct their misconception of this idea.
Suppose you were freezing in your home and wanted to get warm. You could use the Law of Conservation of Energy to warm yourself. Take some wood and put it into the fireplace. The wood has potential energy within it. Next, light a match and apply the small flame to the dry wood. By burning the wood, the potential energy from the material is released into the air and produces fire. The change from potential energy to kinetic…
hat all this shows is that "there is something about a crowd of bystanders that inhibits helping behavior" (101).
The results of Latane and Darley's research were shocking. hy do some people act in altruistic or pro-social ways while others do not? To act altruistically means to work in a way that goes beyond our selves, our own egos, and work for the benefit of someone else. A true act of altruism has two properties: It must benefit someone else and it must be potentially costly to the benefactor (Clarke 6). alster and Poliavin define altruism as, "helping behavior that is voluntary, costly to the altruist and motivated by something other than the expectation of material or social reward" (6). This definition is a good one as it makes clear that there is a great distinction between egoism and altruism. True altruism is a regard for others without the concern…
Barber, N. Kindness in a Cruel World: The Evolution of Altruism. Prometheus Books, 2004.
Changing Minds. "The Bystander Effect. Changing Minds. 2011. Web. Accessed on March 14,
hen an airplane catches on fire and jet fuel is the catalyst, the amount of time that the plane and the object around it will burn is dependent on many different factors. One of the primary factors is the amount of fuel that is still contained on the plane. For instance a jet that is taking a transatlantic flight will have more jet fuel than a regional flight. Investigators would need to know this type of information so that they can estimate how much time it might take for the fuel to burn off or the types of measures that need to be taken to extinguish the fire.
Investigations can also be effected by the presence of cabin fires. According to Improved Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials for Commercial Aircraft Interiors: A Proceedings, (1995) post crash Cabin fires have been extensively researched. A great deal of this research has occurred in…
Aircraft Accident Investigations." Retrieved June 6, 2008 from; http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/aircraft-accident-investigations
"Fire and Explosion Investigation." Retrieved June 6, 2008 from; http://www.scsi-inc.com/FEI.html
History and Mission. Retrieved June 6, 2008 from; http://www.ntsb.gov/Abt_NTSB/history.htm
Improved Fire- and Smoke-Resistant Materials for Commercial Aircraft Interiors: A Proceedings, (1995). Retrieved June 6, 2008 from; http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=4970#toc
role fire has played throughout my life. Perhaps that should not be too surprising that fire should be my frame of reference. After all, I have made my living in the field of firefighting.
Fire itself is a study in contrasts. The substance that can cause searing burns also brings pleasant warmth. Its forms range from flickering candlelight to blazing infernos.
Its power to destroy and consume is matched only by its power to nurture and support life.
Even before I entered firefighting, I believe that the dual qualities of fire can be seen as a metaphor for my life. Like most young boys, I was confident but unfocused, like a flame spread in all directions. With the supreme confidence of one who thought he knew it all, I dropped out of school at ninth grade. Back then, I though that school had nothing left to teach me.
We have never prescribed a "let-it-blow policy for tornadoes and hurricanes, a "let-it-erupt" policy for volcanoes or a "let-it-grind" policy for glaciers. Why, then, did we need a "let-it-burn" policy for fires, or surrogate strategies like prescribed fire? Humans and fire have an inseparable history." (p.5) Agee states that the classical view of the succession of plants "...persisted much of the 20th century: the Clementsian view of regional convergence towards a vegetation life-form created by autogenic succession in the presence of stable climate." (p.6)
Agee relates that the primary obstacle to conducting an "appropriate economic analysis of fire in wilderness as understanding "the natural state" was defined by Mills in 1985 who held that the objective of wilderness policy then would be to "allow resource change to be viewed as cost or benefit." (p. 14) Agee reports that in 1983 the Wilderness Fire workshop was held in Missoula in which…
Aplet, Gregory H. (2006) Evolution of Wilderness Fire Policy. International Journal of Wilderness APRIL 2006 • VOLUME 12, NUMBER 1-9.
Agee, J.K. (2000) Wilderness Fire Science: A State-of-Knowledge Review. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-5. 2000.
Leong, J.C. (nd) Evolution of Fire Science. Online available at: http://188.8.131.52/mainpages/teacher/J_C_Leong/updata/lab/syllbi/fires/Lesson%20a1%20-The%20Evolution%20of%20Fire%20Science.pdf
The apathy of private landowners discussed earlier may be due to the feeling that one may not feel that individual efforts are important. However, the case in Waldo, Florida demonstrates just how important the actions of one individual can be in averting danger.
Bend, Oregon has developed large community efforts to help reduce fuel in the area. They open up the landfill several times a year free of charge to allow citizens to dispose of debris from thinning and pruning (NCS, 2003). Thinning and pruning around houses creates a barrier of defensible space should a fire threaten. The landscape and fire resistance efforts in Bend have become a social factor.
These case studies demonstrate how communities can be spurred into action. The study conducted by eams, Haines, & enner et al., (2005) found owner apathy as the number one obstacle that they faced in preparing communities in case of a…
Bureau of Land Management (BLM)(2005) Snapshots: Successful BLM Projects Supporting the National Fire Plan. May 13, 2005. Retrieved February 23, 2009 at http://www.blm.gov/pgdata/etc./medialib/blm/nifc/snapshots0/2005.Par.64322.File.dat/05-13-05.pdf
Davis, C. (2001). The West in Flames: The Intergovernmental Politics of Wildfire Suppression and Prevention. The Journal of Federalism. 31-93): 97-110.
FireWise. (2009). About Firewise. National Fire Protection Association. Retrieved February 21, 2009 at http://www.firewise.org .
FireWiseCommunities/USA. (2009). Fire wise Communities/USA. National Fire Protection Association. Retrieved February 21, 2009 at
Pescibed Buns to Pevent Wildland Fies
While technology may help solve many poblems in fiefighting, it is man's use of the pescibed bun that is ultimately his best weapon against unwanted wildland fies and the theat they pesent.
Wildland fies continue to theaten the foest aeas of United States at an alaming pace. Although we can neve eliminate them, we can limit the damage caused by wildland fies by using a combination fie suppession, fie pevention, and most impotantly, fie use.
This is the belief of seveal diffeent fie management oganizations including the Society of Ameican Foestes, the U.S. Depatment of the Inteio and the USDA Foest Sevice.
Pevention of foest fies is the message that has been hammeed home to us since we wee all young by eveyone fom Native Ameicans with teas in thei eyes to Smokey the Bea. But nonetheless, pevention still emains a top pioity of…
references several works: a. Society of American Foresters. 1984. Forestry Handbook. Second Edition. Karl Wenger, Editor. p 235. New York, NY: Wiley-Interscience; b. MacCleery, D.W. 1992. AMERICAN FORESTS: A History of Resiliency and Recovery. FS-540. Washington, DC: States Department of Agriculture; c. U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of the Interior. 1995. Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review. Final Report. Boise, ID: National Interagency Fire Center; d. Northern California Society of American Foresters. 1997. Position Statement: The Need for Expanded Wildland Fuel Management in California. Rancho Cordova, CA. ( http://www.safnet.org/policy/psst/psst20.html )
National Interagency Fire Center, Boise, Id.; National Fire News, June 17, 2002.
hether involvement is through full time employment or volunteer service, the challenges of today's fire service demand commitment to training, education, experience and self-development. One's professional development is a journey, not a destination. Remember Patience, persistence and perspiration make an unbeatable combination for success.
You've achieved success in your field when you don't know whether what you're doing is work or play.
First In, Last Out Review in Publishers eekly, Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. (2004)
International Association of Fire Chiefs Officer Development Handbook First Edition, November 2003, Published in partnership with the IAFC Foundation, (2003), New York: International Association of Fire Chiefs, http://www.iafc.org/associations/4685/files/OffrsHdbkFINAL3.pdf (Retrieved August 20, 2006).
Salka, John, and Neville, Barret. First In, Last Out: Leadership Lessons from the New York Fire Department (New York, Penguin Group, USA, Inc. 2004).
Thomas M. Cunningham, Emergency Services Information Site: Leadership…
First In, Last Out Review in Publishers Weekly, Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc. (2004)
International Association of Fire Chiefs Officer Development Handbook First Edition, November 2003, Published in partnership with the IAFC Foundation, (2003), New York: International Association of Fire Chiefs, http://www.iafc.org/associations/4685/files/OffrsHdbkFINAL3.pdf (Retrieved August 20, 2006).
Salka, John, and Neville, Barret. First In, Last Out: Leadership Lessons from the New York Fire Department (New York, Penguin Group, USA, Inc. 2004).
Thomas M. Cunningham, Emergency Services Information Site: Leadership 101: Integrity, http://www.withthecommand.com/2002-Aug/MD-TMC-leader-integ101.html (Retrieved August 20, 2006)
It was then important to see the degree at which technology and training played a role in combating each fire.
1.2.4.ationale of the Study
What is that can be gained from this study? The reasoning behind such a study is born out of a need to provide better training for fire fighters so that fire management systems will improve and reduce the amount of loss due to the fire. By studying such a topic, one can gain the knowledge of how to better train fire fighters and how to make his or her job safer in the process. This in turn, results in reduced losses due to the fire. This also results in higher service ratings for the fire department and an increase in morale for the community.
1.3.Definition of Terms
The Underlying Causes of Fire.
It has already become a general knowledge that the majority of forest and…
Allan, C. (2003). A Ponderosa Natural Area Reveals its Secrets. USGS. Retrieved July 11, 2005 from the World Web Wide: http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/sw153.htm4/10/03 .
Anderson, H.E. (1983). Predicting Wind-Driven Wild Land Fire Size and Shape. Research Paper INT-305. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, pp. 1-26.
Beer, T. (1990). The Australian National Bushfire Model Project. Mathematical and Computer Modeling, 13, 12, 49-56.
Calabri, G. (1982). Recent evolution and prospects for the Mediterranean region, Forest Fire prevention and control. Proceedings of an International seminar.
he introduction of Capsaicin to mice that have prostrate cancer will cause many of the cancer cells to die."
According to a team of researchers from the Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, in collaboration with colleagues from UCLA, the pepper component caused human prostate cancer cells to undergo programmed cell death or apoptosis (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/03/060319150754.htm)."
When the Capsaicin was introduced to mice that had prostrate cancer growing it killed approximately 80% of the cancer cells.
his was done by leading the capsaicin to follow molecular pathways that lead to the apoptosis of those cells.
Prostate cancer tumors treated with capsaicin were about one-fifth the size of tumors in non-treated mice. Capsaicin had a profound anti-proliferative effect on human prostate cancer cells in culture," said Sren Lehmann, M.D., Ph.D., visiting scientist at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and the UCLA School of Medicine. "It also dramatically slowed the development…
The article provides a clear overview of the experiment and results and allows the reader to understand the significance of the consequences without creating a bias about those results.
REFERENCE ( http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/03/060319150754.htm )
Pepper Component Hot Enough to Trigger Suicide in Prostate Cancer Cells. Science Daily.
This occurred in 330 BC, and Zoroaster's date would then be 588 BC, and this date we may take to refer to the initial success of his prophetic mission which consisted in the conversion of King Visht-spa when Zoroaster was forty years old. Since he is traditionally said to have lived seventy-seven years, we will not be far wrong in dating him at 628-551 BC. It seems also to be generally agreed that the Prophet's sphere of operation in which his message was proclaimed was ancient Chorasmia -- an area comprising, perhaps, what is now Persian Khorasan, estern Afghanistan, and the Turkmen Republic of the U.S.S.R. (Zaehner, R.C., 1961, 33)."
Ayala's science takes the mitochondrial Eve back even before what we know about Zoroastrianism, but we really have no accurate date of the monotheistic tradition as it arises out of Zoroastrianism, because there are no written artifacts that support its…
Blackwell, Richard J. 1999. Science, Religion and Authority: Lessons from the Galileo Affair. Milwaukee: Marquette University Press. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=29306390.Internet . Accessed 3 November 2008.
Dembski, William and Charles Colson. 2004. The Design Revolution: Answering the Toughest Questions about Intelligent Design. Intervarsity Press, Downers Grove, Il.
Dembski, William and McDowell, Sean. 2008. Understanding Intelligent Design: Everything You Need to Know in Plain Langauge. Harvest House Publishers. Eugene, Oregon. http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103534752
The organization mainly focused on analyzing the history of the construction of the building by examining its two main sections, floors, and walls.
Cause of the Collapse:
Following its extensive and detailed investigations, alter J. Hickey Associates, Inc. presented a report on the possible cause for the collapse of the hotel. After making computations, it was discovered that the load on the cast iron column from the dead load alone was approximately 200,000 pounds in consideration of a minimal allowance for the corbelling action. However, a study revealed that the arching or corbelling effect of the C-Line all was only of slight importance. Due to the load, the bearing stress on the wall was estimated at around 7 to 8 times the permissible stress for a wall of good grade brick that has a good line cement mortar ("Investigation of Collapse," p. 45).
hile the bearing stress at the opening…
CROMBIE, EDWARD. "Significant Fires - the Vendome Hotel Fire." Hooks & Irons. EDWARD CROMBIE, 11 June 2011. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .
Fire Rescue Magazine. "Hotel Vendome: Remembering the Worst Firefighting Tragedy in Boston's History - My Firefighter Nation." My Firefighter Nation. Firefighter Nation, 17 June 2010. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .
"Investigation of Collapse at the Hotel Vendome." Internet Archive. USA Government Documents. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .
"Learning the Lessons from the Past." The Company Officer. Elsevier Public Safety and Hosted Bloggers. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. .
aising standards and building codes makes fire prevention a priority and legal requirement that will save the government and community money and protect lives. Another critical recommendation by FEMA and the USFA is to ensure the health and safety of fire fighters. Fire departments are staffed with paid employees, and often volunteers. These individuals deserve adequate funding to invest in necessary training, equipment, and technology to make their jobs more efficient and protect their lives (Bernstein, 2002).
The fire problem in the U.S. spans across the decades and infects the entire nation. Today, in regards to both frequency and total losses of life, America has the highest total fire losses than any modern technological society, the fact of which can no longer be ignored. The tens of thousands of deaths and injuries and the billions of dollars in property losses each year to fires are a testament to the severity…
Bernstein, G.U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency.
(2002). America at risk findings and recommendations on the role of the fire service in the prevention and control of risks in america (FA-223)
Federal Emergency Management Agency, United States Fire Administration National Fire Data
Center. (1999). Profile of the urban fire problem in the United States (FA-190)TriData Corporation.
Wildfire is an uncontrolled fire occurring in combustible vegetation, typically in an wilderness area or countryside (Pyne, Andrews, & Laven, 1996). They are commonly referred to as forest fires, brush fires, or grass fires depending on the type of vegetation involved. Wildfires are characterized in terms of the cause of ignition, their physical properties such as speed of propagation, the combustible material present, and the effect of the weather on the fire (Pyne, Andrews, & Laven, 1996). A wildfire is distinguished from other types of fires due to its size, the speed at which it can spread, and its ability to suddenly change direction and traverse inflammable gaps like rivers (Pyne, Andrews, & Laven, 1996).
In the past wildfires were viewed as strictly a local phenomena; however, wildfires now are recognized as a comprehensive global scale environmental process (Collins, 2009). Wildfires have greatly influenced the biosphere and atmosphere of the…
Collins, M. (2009). Hell on earth: The rise of more dangerous wildfires forces communities worldwide to think how they handle infernos. Government Technology's Emergency
Management, 4 (6), 22-30.
McCaffrey, S. (2002). For want of defensible space a forest is lost: Homeowners and the wildfire hazard and mitigation in the residential wildland intermix at incline village, Nevada.
Berkeley: University of California Press.
Leadership - Gates of Fire by Steven Pressfield
Gates of Fire written by Steven Pressfield is a famous historical novel published in 1998. It tells the story of 480 B.C when Persian King decided to attack Greece. Persia was the biggest power of the world in those times and it used all its supremacy to focus on this singe goal.
Persian King brought with him a huge army of around two million soldiers with a simple message of "surrender or death" for the Greeks. On the other side, Greece put forward their 300 finest Spartan warriors under the commandment of King Leonydas and ordered them to take immediate action.
Spartans knew very well that they will be killed in this battle with Persian invaders but they did not quit and moved forward towards their mission. They bravely resisted against the Persian forces for six days and created an unbalanced fight…
Bass, B and Riggio, R. (2008). Transformational Leadership. Second edition. Lawrence Erlbaum
Cohen, W. (2010). Heroic Leadership. Leading with Integrity and Honor. Chapter 7: Put Duty Before
Self. Published by Jossey Bass.
Goblet of Fire
International Relations in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire
Rowling's series of books concerning the boy wizard Harry Potter have garnered a lot of attention since the publication of the first volume over a decade ago. Much of it has been positive -- the books have been credited with encouraging children to read, and even with rekindling faith in juvenile fiction altogether. Critics applaud Rowling's storytelling abilities, and her business savvy (with the help of Hollywood and other marketers) has made her one of the wealthiest individuals in the world, all from a seemingly simple series of books. Not all of the attention given to the Harry Potter series has been positive, however. The portrayal of witchcraft has angered many people, especially conservative Christians, and there are many who believe the books are simply frivolous stories with little point and absolutely no literary value. Given the…
Rowling, J.K. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. New York: Scholastic Press, 2000.
There are several patterns and outcomes that are fairly common in the realm of political science. Similarly, there are some subjects and points of study that are more common than others. Just a few that come to mind include the ethics of congressional staff, whether third party candidates could or should be a viable option and the demarcation that could or should exist between federal and state authority. For each of these three major examples, there will be an example given of such a thing and an analysis of the overall paradigm and question. While there are some ideas and concepts that make a lot of sense to the common voter, the people in Washington seem to be less than inclined to listen.
One member of Congress that has been accused of ethics violations would be Charles Rangel, the former Democrat member of the House of Representatives. It…
Rodgers, Jr. (Rodgers, 2006). The "no contest" plea, said Rodgers, will "…alleviate the victims' families and broader community from being subjected to an emotional reliving of the tragedy at trial."
Moreover, the judge said the "no contest" plea actually means that the defendants (Jeffrey Derderian and Michael Derderian) accept responsibility for installing foam in the club that was not fireproof. The Rhode Island Fire Code requires fireproof insulation and foam for buildings like the club in question.
Duval, Robert F. (2006). NFPA Case Study: Nightclub Fires. National Fire Prevention
Association. Retrieved July 20, 2010, from http://www.nfpa.org/assets/files//PDF/Research/case_study_nightclub_fires.pdf.
Madrzykowski, Daniel, Bryner, Nelson, and Kerber, Stephen I. (2008). The NIST Station Night
Club Fire Investigation: Physical Simulation of the Fire. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved July 20, 2010, from http://www.fire.nist.gov/bfrlpubs/fire08/PDF/f08033.pdf.
Parker, Paul Edward. (2007). Tally of a tragedy: 462 were in The Station on night of fire.
Duval, Robert F. (2006). NFPA Case Study: Nightclub Fires. National Fire Prevention
Association. Retrieved July 20, 2010, from http://www.nfpa.org/assets/files//PDF/Research/case_study_nightclub_fires.pdf .
Madrzykowski, Daniel, Bryner, Nelson, and Kerber, Stephen I. (2008). The NIST Station Night
Club Fire Investigation: Physical Simulation of the Fire. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved July 20, 2010, from http://www.fire.nist.gov/bfrlpubs/fire08/PDF/f08033.pdf.
In the late 1930s he wrote, "[G]ood is... everything that brings a spiritual growth to the world" (King 166). Thus, he explains his ability to balance science and faith. Science, at least in his mind, brings a spiritual growth to the world by explaining how systems work and live together, and how they have evolved. Science has made broad achievements in the world, from halting illness to discovering life-changing global problems that must be solved to ensure the survival of humankind. Thus, science brings knowledge, but also brings spiritual growth, and in that, it cannot be bad.
This analogy certainly worked throughout Teilhard de Chardin's life. While his theories were not accepted during his lifetime, he managed to always combine his love for his scientific studies with his passion for his faith. This was not incongruous to him - in fact, he felt he could not fully experience one without…
King, Ursula. Spirit of Fire: The Life and Vision of Teilhard de Chardin. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1996.
National Fire Academy
Established in 1971, the purpose of the National Fire Academy is to provide up-to-date training in fire service coursework, including a 4-year executive-level course. In addition, the Academy collaborates with other federal agencies, including the Fire esearch Laboratory, the National Institute of Standards and Technology's Building and Fire esearch Laboratory, the International Association of Arson Investigators, the United States Fire Administration, and the National Fire Protection Association to develop improved investigative, prosecutorial and training methodologies (Donahue, 2002). The responsibilities for the administration of the National Fire Academy fall to Academy Superintendent, Dr. Denis Onieal and the stated mission of the Academy is to, "Promote the professional development of the fire and the emergency response community and its allied professions" (National Fire Academy, 2013). In addition, the Academy is also tasked with developing, delivering and managing educational and training programs with a national focus that transcends state and…
Application forms. (2013). U.S. National Fire Academy. Retrieved from http://www.usfa.fema.
Donahue, M.L. (2002, January). The ATF Fire Research Laboratory: A new forensic resource for fire-scene investigations. Forensic Science Communications, 4(1), 37-39.
Eligibility. (2013). National Fire Academy. Retrieved from http://www.usfa.fema.gov/nfa/about / attend/eligibility.shtm.
The one-size-fits-all approach is not applicable in the context of social networking in corporate firms and workplaces. The advantages of social media are contingent on the type of networking platform, its features, and the organization itself. Since their inception, social networking sites have been known to play a critical role in improving the communication and productivity of compliant firms. In the contemporary society, the fire service also uses mainstream social networking platforms for receiving and disseminating information. The traditional reliance on print media as a source of information has faded away as social media provides an unlimited amount of data at a mere keystroke. With the help of media sources, firefighters are linked to the outside world and their communication is not limited to scanners and radios. Social media has transformed the manner in which people operate, and the fire department has stay attuned to the trends. Therefore, the fire…
) Hydrochloric acid, formic acid, nitric acid, hexanes, and toluene are all available in ACS grade through Carolina, which, with a bit of imagination, could turn into some spectacular experiments. (Toluene is, of course, a component in the production of TNT -- talk about an exothermic reaction.)
Laboratory equipment is also widely available. A simple search of the popular site Shopwiki.com reveals hundreds of beakers, pipettes, test tubes, alcohol burners, syringes, etc. More advanced items are also available, such as hot plates which automatically stir the contents of a flask placed on them, and a wealth of thermodynamic devices for pressure, temperature, and volume control.
Perhaps the best route for a truly interested young chemist to take is to begin with the CHEM 3000, working through its experiments and gaining insight, then proceed to a regime of self-education using the internet and libraries, and supplementing the capabilities of the CHEM…
1. Cook, Rosie "Chemistry at Play." Chemical Heritage Magazine 28.1 (2010) Web 11 April 2010
2. Nicholls, Henry "The Chemistry Set Generation." Chemistry World (December 2007) Web 11 April 2010
3. Salter, Rose "Chemistry sets safer, boring." Chicago Sun Times (20 December 1987) Web 11 April 2010
4. "Thames and Kosmos | Science Kits." Thames and Kosmos Home Page. Thames and Kosmos 2010. 11 April 2010
Circle in the Fire," and "Everything that Rises Must Converge" by Flannery O'Connor
This is a paper on the analysis of the two books "A Circle in the Fire," and "Everything that Rises Must Converge" by Flannery O'Connor, which exposes many similarities between them.
The two stories of Flannery O'Connor are written from a matriarchal perspective and depict the lives of women in control of other's lives or property. They show that no matter how much wealth a person may amass, they are all still prone to suffer. Thus, there is an element of 'twist of fate' in both these pieces of literature. It also shows that as these leading characters are women they should understand the world from their softer perspective because of the fact that there are still others of their type in a worse of position financially, as well as politically. Instead, we see the opposite from…
Brittain, C. The Architecture of Redemption: Spatiality in the Short Stories of Flannery O'Connor. 2001 http://jsr.as.wvu.edu/2001/brittainart.htm
Heller, L. Pastoral Landscapes and Flannery O'Connor. Accessed 27-06-02 http://www.poetess77.com/writing/pastoral.html
Smith, P. "Flannery O'Connor's Empowered Women." Southern Literary Journal 26.2: 35-47. (Spring 1994)
Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. Figures in Black: Words, Signs, and the "Racial" Self. New York: Oxford UP, 1987.
As the road is being laid the fumes from the chemical materials and the concussive force of the construction equipment are devastating to local wildlife (Forman & Alexander, 1998). The result, is displaced organisms which ultimately put increased pressure for food, land, and water on other ecosystems. The extent of these ripple effects are still yet to be fully known.
In instances where above or below ground water supplies must be altered in order to make way for a new road system the effects are if anything more dire. When laying the bed of a road, it is nearly impossible to prevent a percentage of the chemicals used in the road surface itself from leeching into the soil (Forman & Deblinger, 2000). When in the presence of water those toxins are carried the course of the water supply affecting all of the vegetation and wildlife which it comes into contact…
76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…
(the ole of Science and Technology in Society and Governance, 1998) the most important thing to do is to redefine the role of science for the society and governance.
Looking at the relationship
Science does change society as much as society influences science. In the last century there were tremendous progress in scientific invention and discoveries. The vast expansion both in terms of facilities and information has affected the society to a great extent. The unfortunate part of the advancement is that science benefits the affluent, the corporate and the powers that be. While the changes in the society like medical advancements were brought about by science, they are still available to the affluent, but even insurance is not available to the poor. (Crow, 2001, p. B20)
The role of science and scientists, the thinkers of today is to figure out how they can stream line their progress so as…
Crow, Michael M. 2001. Harnessing Science to Benefit Society. The Chronicle Review
Ross, Andrew. 1996. Science Wars. Duke University Press. Durham, NC.
Gruss, Peter. 2005. History of Science Particular Ethical and Moral Obligation. [Online] Available at http://www.mpg.de/english/illustrationsDocumentation/multimedia/mpResearch/2005/heft03/3_05MPR_66_67_pdf.pdf
Often, bones have different shapes and/or sizes depending on whether they belonged to a male or female individual, and age also plays an important factor in the way bones look (Maples, 142). hereas doctors usually specialize in a certain branch of medicine, as in pediatrics or gerontology, forensic anthropologists must retain a broad range of knowledge because they might be called in to identify bones or other remains from any individual of any age or pathology. If they only knew a small portion of the type of details that could aid them in such identification, that particular forensic anthropologist's usefulness would be severely limited. Throughout his book, Dr. Maples demonstrates quite clearly how vital it is that observation, research, and learning continue throughout one's career as a forensic anthropologist, especially in the area of biology. As medical and biological knowledge grows, the forensic anthropologist must stay up-to-date or run the…
Maples, William R. Dead Men Do Tell Tales. New York: Random House: 1994.
ole of females in science [...] achel Carson and Barbara McClintock and compare each scientist to general principals characterizing the careers of women in science.
WOMEN IN SCIENCE
One becomes a scientist by viewing the world in a particular manner; scientists select for study those aspects of the world that are amenable to analysis by scientific methodology. A person acting as a scientist constructs a scientific domain out of the world when s/he adopts a scientific attitude (Grinnell 2).
Most scientists face obstacles at some point in their career. Their research does not produce the results they expected. They lose their funding and must move to another research location. Critics do not agree with their findings or methods. When the scientist is a woman, she often faces even greater obstacles than her male counterparts. achel Carson and Barbara McClintock are two such women scientists, who worked relentlessly toward their goals,…
Aisenberg, Nadya, and Mona Harrington. Women of Academe: Outsiders in the Sacred Grove. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1988.
Carson, Rachel. Silent Spring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002.
Editors. "The Barbara McClintock Papers." National Library of Medicine. 20 Sept. 2001. 9 Oct. 2002. http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/LL/Views/Exhibit/narrative/missouri.html
Grinnell, Frederick. The Scientific Attitude. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1987.
Urban Political Science: Questions and Answers
MIAMI-DADE EHICS COMMISSION:
Miami-Dade County is seeking a new chief for its ethics board.
What is the primary purpose of this ethics board?
he ethics committee was first enacted to change the Miami home rule charter. It was set up as an committee that has semi-judicial powers and it is independent of all other government offices in the county for the purpose of maintaining its ability to look into the ethical practices of government offices with an unbiased view (Miami Dade.gov).
What issues has the Commission handled that do NO relate to the member of the Board itself?
Since the board is now just conducting the search for a new boss (Hiaasen, 2011) it is not doing any business save that. It has recently worked to create a new ordinance on conflict of interest standard because it has had an issue with the county…
The budget for the entire county is $3 billion, and that has been cut from a previous proposal. The center itself also is going to be operated at an expenditure which was reduced from previous estimates, but specific numbers were not given (Varian, 2011). The articles did say that a community room would cost a group $850 per night which makes it unreasonable for most groups.
4: Was this an appropriate use of government funds? (A: No)
No it was not. The term community center cannot be adequately applied to this center because the entire community will not be able to access it. Also, the cost to tax payers was very high. The people who are supposed to be able to use the center cannot because of the high cost and they cannot afford the taxes
Teach like your hair's on fire: The methods and madness inside room 56 by afe Esquith. Specifically it will contain a book report on the book. This book, written by a teacher with nearly 25 years experience, talks about how to make a difference in the classroom, and make a difference in children's lives. He writes about his classroom, "It's a world where character matters, hard work is respected, humility is valued, and support for one another is unconditional" (Esquith x). That is the thesis of this book, that our culture is insane, and that the right things no longer matter to society, which he is attempting to change through his teaching. He believes if you teach as if your hair is on fire and you do not know it (which happened to him in the classroom), you are moving in the right direction as a teacher, and you will…
Esquith, R. (2007). Teach like your hair's on fire: The methods and madness inside room 56. New York: Viking.
Darwinism and the Standard Social Science Model
If the Standard Social Science Model is mistaken, then we are less altruistic than would otherwise be the case'.
Put another way, the same statement could read, "If culture is not the underlying cause of human behavior, then human beings are more selfish than they would be if culture were the underlying cause of human behavior." An evaluation of this statement rests not only on an assessment of the truth of each part, but also on the relationship between the two parts of the claim. Is having A (a false presumption put forth by the SSSM) the condition for having B (self-centered human beings)? Let us investigate the premise as well as the argument.
The Standard Social Science Model claims that "only genetically determined human behavior is 'natural' or biological" (Zimmer, 1.) This means that when an infant pulls away from fire, or…
Young, J. Valid Argument Forms. As retrieved June 11, 2004 from http://www.uncfsu.edu/jyoung/chapter_4_notes.htm
Dawkins, Richard. Interview as retrieved June 11, 2004 at http://www.pbs.org/faithandreason/transcript/dawk-body.html
Social Science Model as retrieved June 11, 2004 at http://www.facub.stjohns.edu/~beasleyt/socialsciencemodel.pdf
Zimmer, J.Raymond. Evolutionary Psychology Challenges the Current Social Sciences. As retrieved June 11, 2004 at http://www.asa3.org/ASA/topics/Evolution-PSCF9-98Zimmer.html
Legend' is a sci-fi thriller about a New York scientist who is abandoned in Manhattan in the year 2012. This one hour 40 minutes movie stars Will Smith and Alice Braga with Francis Lawrence as its director the movie is rated at PG-13 for violence. The movie offers a stunning view of how the city as the world knows it today, might look in 2012 if in the event it were abandoned in 2009.
Going back in trivia, this is the third adaption of the ichard Matheson's 1954 novel, originally in the film it was vampires instead of zombies. Such movies are always inspired by our fears and hence hold special interest, especially if it's a scientist abandoned in New York struggling to survive a virus that turns humans into flesh-eating mechanical looking zombies.
If we go through its adaptations, the first time the novel was turned into a movie…
Ebert, Roger. Rev. Of I am Legend, Dir. Francis Lawrence Chicago Sun-Times. (14 Dec 2007. Web. 21 Mar. 2011)
Jack Matthews. Rev. Of I am Legend, Dir. Francis Lawrence. New York Daily News. (14 Dec 2007. Web. 21 Mar. 2011)
David Hughes. "Legend of the Fall: Will Ridley Scott's I Am Legend Rise From The Dead." The Greatest Sci-Fi Movies Never Made. Chicago Review Press. 2002.
Lewis Beale. "A variation on vampire lore that won't die." The New York Times. 2007.
Godzilla (1954) was the original science fiction class that inspired a large number of sequels over the next twenty years, and as usual with this genre reflected contemporary Cold War fears and anxieties about nuclear weapons. In this case, hydrogen bomb tests is the Pacific created a radioactive dinosaur that made its way bad to Japan and destroyed okyo. Japan's cities had been firebombed into destruction during World War II, and it was the only country in history to ever experience a nuclear attack -- just nine years before this film was made -- so the idea that some prehistoric monster might devastate the country had a special relevance there. In the 1950s, of course, there were many science fiction films about radioactive monsters, such as the giant ants in hem or the dinosaur that attacked London in Behemoth, so the symbolism of these mutations destroying the world was commonplace.…
This is what happens in the climax of Godzilla, when a reluctant scientist, Professor Serizawa, uses a new super weapon that destroys all the oxygen in water and kills Godzilla in Tokyo Bay. Serizawa is a wounded veteran of the Second World War, missing one eye, and does not want the world to possess another terrible weapon like this. He decides to destroy all the records of his research and then dies in Tokyo Bay with Godzilla after placing his oxygen destroyer near the monster. By the standards of 1954, the special effects in the film were quite advanced, and the actor wearing the Godzilla costume had the best role, although the monster looked quite impressive when it breathed out radioactive fire all over the models of Tokyo. A young Aaron Burr also had an early role in this film as an American reporter covering the Godzilla story as the creature goes on a rampage.
At the beginning of the film, a ship is destroyed in a mysterious explosion and a salvage team is sent to investigate, but their ship is also blown up. On Odo Island, three survivors from these ships report that a giant monster was responsible, while fishermen report that they are unable to catch anything. This is when an old man first mentions the name of Godzilla, an ancient Japanese legend about a dinosaur that lives in the ocean. That same night, during a typhoon, Godzilla actually comes ashore and destroys some houses, and a scientific team is sent from Tokyo to investigate. They discover that Godzilla is a radioactive monster that has been disturbed by the recent hydrogen bomb tests in the Pacific, and has already destroyed a number of ships in retaliation. Although the Japanese navy drops depth charges on the monster, conventional weapons do not seem to have much effect, which is when the scientists turn to Professor Serizawa.
At first the scientist denies that he has created a new weapon, but the truth is that he does not want the world to know about it since it could cause the extinction of all life on earth. He shows his fiance Emiko what it can do, by testing a small sample in a fish tank and turning every living thing into a skeleton. Emiko is horrified and agrees to say nothing about the weapon, although shortly afterward Godzilla comes ashore twice and destroys Tokyo. With the city in ruins and Godzilla still sitting at the bottom of Tokyo Bay, Serizawa agrees that the weapon must be used, but he makes sure that he will die with it. He goes to the bottom of Tokyo Bay in a diving suit and places the device near Godzilla, but then cuts his own air hose and remains in place when it detonates. Godzilla is reduced to a skeleton and sinks to the bottom of the bay, although he returned many times in the sequels.
The largest difference exists in the basis of the Western holistic treatment and the basis of Ayurveda. Western holistic treatments are based on TCM or 'Traditional Chinese Medicine'. The key components of TCM are as follows:
Qi (pronounced like "chee") - this is the vital energy necessary for life (blood, body fluid)
Zang-Fu - the internal organs; and Jing-Luo: - this governs the meridian and collateral systems of the body. (rown, 2001)
Practitioners of TCM also used a system referred to as "The Eight Principles" which are used to categorize illness or disease. These eight principles are comprised of "four pairs of polarities, including:
deficiency/excess; and Yin/Yang." (rown, 2001)
These principles are stated to determine:
1) Disease location;
2) the nature of imbalance;
3) the presence of a pathological (disease) factors; and 4) the strength of the body's own energies. (rown, 2001)
Summary and Conclusion
Ayurvedic medicine is…
Brown, Liz (2001) East Meets West and Western Medicine Takes a Back Seat: Why Ayurvedic and Chinese Medicines are at the Core of All That's Right with Holistic Healing Today. Better Nutrition Journal. December 2001. Online available at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FKA/is_12_63/ai_83076770/print .
Cooper, Edwin L. (2004) 12th International Congress of Oriental Medicine. Oriental Medicine and Biotechnology in the Post-Genomic Era - WHO's Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002 Date: November 6-9, 2003. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Journal. 2004 1(1):103-106 Oxford University Press.
Healing Choices (2007) Guide to Complementary and Alternative Healthcare. Online available at http://www.healingchoicesonline.com/ .
Herlihy, John a. (2003) the Mystery and the Miracle Ayurveda. 13 April 2003. AuthorsDen.com. Online available at http://www.authorsden.com/visit/viewShortStory.asp?AuthorID=1363&id=7866 .
Policy Efficacy: Terrorist Activity since 9/
The terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 changed the world forever. This one of the most successful and large-scale attacks in the history of transnational terrorism. These attacks sent effects and shockwaves into the everyday lives of Americans and New Yorkers for over a decade. This paper asks how the counterterrorist policies measure up? Are they working? How do we know if they are or not? The paper clearly defines the terms to be used and considered over the course of the discussion as a means to add transparency to an already vague and opaque topic. The paper concludes that counterterrorism tactics as they currently stand are ineffective for several reasons including lack of political, international cooperation and no standard by which to gauge policy efficacy.
esearch & Policy Efficacy: Terrorist Activity since 9/11
Criminology is a truly a science of the nature…
Adams, N., Nordhaus, T., & Shellenberger, M. (2011) Counterterrorism since 9/11: Evaluation the Efficacy of Controversial Tactics. The Science of Security, Breakthrough Institute.
Bacevich, A.J. & Prodromou, E.H. (2003) God is not Neutral: Religion and U.S. Foreign Policy after 9/11. Foreign Policy Research Institute, Elsevier Limited, 43 -- 54.
Hoffman, B. (2002) Rethinking Terrorism and Counterterrorism since 9/11. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 25(1), 303 -- 316.
Kunreuther, H. & Michel-Kerjan, E. (2004) Policy Watch: Challenges for Terrorism Risk Insurance in the United States. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18(4), 201 -- 214.
The art and science of protection has evolved and transformed over the past decades where new levels of its requirements are in high demand. This structural shift in the needs for protection have also created the environment where stark contrasts between approaches and industry becomes rather evident. These noticeable differences need to be addressed in order to successfully and truly understand how this process can be maximized for effectiveness, efficiency and economics.
The purpose of this essay is to highlight and describe the different requirements, limits of authority, limits of force, material assets, ethics and best practices of three differing and distinct realms of protection. The essay will first examine physical protection be highlighting aspects of its use in the U.S. Federal Government. The essay will then explain information protection highlighted how the U.S. Military uses this type of protection and how it is reflected in their practices.…
Chen, D., & Zhao, H. (2012, March). Data security and privacy protection issues in cloud computing. In Computer Science and Electronics Engineering (ICCSEE), 2012 International Conference on (Vol. 1, pp. 647-651). IEEE.
Gordon, P. (2013). What to Expect when Force Protection Conditions Change. U.S. NAVY.Mil, Navy Public Release, 21 Feb 2013. Retrieved from http://www.navy.mil/submit/display.asp?story_id=72213
Hertig, C. (2001). The Evolving Role of Protection Officers. Security Solutions, 1 Nov, 2001. Retrieved from http://securitysolutions.com/mag/security_evolving_role_protection/
Markon, J. (2014). Can the Federal Protective Service meet new demands for heightened security? The Washington Post, 30 Oct 2014. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/federal-eye/wp/2014/10/30/can-the-federal - protective-service-meet-new-demands-for-heightened-security/
He commonly regales his backers with strong, repetitive phrases that carry a sermon-like quality of affirmation: "Yes we can." Obama's catchphrase has helped to attract even greater media support in the form of entertainment industry backing of the kind that appeals to the candidate's often young, white base. The musical group, the lack Eyed Peas recorded as song entitled "Yes We Can," that contains words from Obama's speeches as lyrics, and provides a powerful musical beat to his campaign while giving it the cachet of popular culture.
The media's love affair with arack Obama recently became a theme of the Clinton campaign when, beginning at the Texas debate, Hillary Clinton drew attention to a Saturday Night Live skit in which, during a simulated debate, arack Obama was offered a pillow to make him comfortable rather than asked the hardball questions that were hurled at his opponent.
The televised lampoon of…
Colmes, Alan and Hannity, Sean.
Discussion of the Media's Treatment of Sen. Hillary Clinton." Hannity & Colmes, 27 February 2008.
Clinton, Obama Trade Jabs on Health Care." Associated Press, 28 February 2008.
Should the United States Normalize elations with Cuba?
It has been more than forty years now since Fidel Castro and his communist insurgents captured control of the Island of Cuba. Originally supported by the American government, Castro quickly lost United States backing once the communistic nature of his government became clear. The evolution did its work, and thousands upon thousands of Cubans were deprived of their property, property that was taken over by the Cuban State, and in accordance with Marxist tenets, "redistributed" among the workers. In response, huge numbers of Cuban citizens fled the country. Many settled in the United States, especially in and around Miami, where they quickly came to constitute a powerful bloc with strong influence over American policy toward their homeland. Of course, over the years, attitudes have softened. Originally cut off from all except its fellow communist nations, and from the non-aligned states of…
Augustine, Jean P.C., M.P. Secretary of State. "Speaking Notes on the Occasion of The 7th Annual Toronto-Cuba Friendship Day," Toronto, Canada: 24 August 2002.
Buaza, Vanessa. "
Comedians and Levity Have Their Limits." The Sun Sentinel. 16 February 2003.
Feehan, Colleen E. "Prague in the '90's: The Paris of the '20s?" 1995. URL:
Aircraft escue and Firefighting
escues and firefighting often go hand in hand, but depending on the conditions of the rescue or the whereabouts of the fire, they can be very different in what they require from those who are charged with the duty of keeping others safe. In aviation, rescues and firefighting have often been problematic. Those who work in firefighting and other rescue operations look for better ways they can use in order to make aviation a safer proposition for everyone involved with it. Specifically, aircraft rescue and firefighting (AFF) is in a category of its own. esponse, rescue, mitigation of hazards, and evacuation are all included in AFF, which typically takes place in an airport setting FA, n.d; elyea & Garnett, 1993).
It is not always easy to address fire safety issues when it comes to airports and aviation, however, because only specific types of equipment and chemicals…
Adams, K. (1999). A new approach to cockpit and cabin fire safety. Air Safety Week.
Cote, Arthur E. (2003). Basics of Fire and Fire Science. Organizing for Fire And Rescue Services. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Essentials of Fire Fighting and Fire Department Operations 5th Edition. 2008.
FAR Part 139, 139.317 Aircraft rescue and firefighting: Equipment and agents
Obvious concerns, such as when a firefighter entering a high-rise building loses communications with his team because tall buildings are not conducive to radio wave transmission and therefore do not allow firefighters' radios to work properly has not been addressed during the recent trend of building higher and higher.
Even something as simple as an external fire on a high-rise cannot be defended with the conventional firefighting techniques used throughout history. Unless helicopters or airplanes are deployed, a simple fire on say the 75th floor could wreak havoc. These concerns regarding safety and building size were logged from fire service representatives long before September 11th. As early as 1995, retired Fire Chief of the FNY, Vincent unn wrote that the World Trade Centers were lacking proper evacuation avenues and that if the buildings ever encountered a serious fire, existing procedures would be useless and that people above a certain threshold…
Harbin, China 2000 336 1,103 (Infoplease, 2004)
Teen Plastic Surgery: A Controversial Medical Practice
According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, in 2007, more than 87,000 teenagers had cosmetic surgery; and that number has grown exponentially since. Although aesthetic cosmetic surgery is popular amongst United States teens, physicians and plastic surgeons worry that such invasive surgery on teens' still growing bodies can be dangerous. Other developed countries, including Germany and Australia, are considering banning all but medically necessary plastic surgery for anyone under the age of 18. However, the question remains, if such a measure were taken like that in the United States for minors stem the tide of teenagers going under the knife? This paper will address the controversy associated with teenagers and aesthetic cosmetic surgery in the United States, and the business of plastic surgery for teens, from a legal, ethical, and social responsibility standpoint.
In a country, and dare say…
Ali, K., & Lam, T. (2008). Teens under the knife: Is plastic surgery too dangerous for teens? Current Events, 108(1), 7-14.
American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (2003). National totals for cosmetic procedures. Cosmetic Surgery National Data Bank.
www.surgery.org/download/2003-stats.pdf:10. Accessed 25 July, 2011.
Bourdieu, P 1977, Outline of a Theory of practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Species of California (Common Teasel)
The Common Teasel (Dipsacus fullonum) is a plant species identified by several alternate names, including wild teasel, Indian teasel, card teasel, card thistle, gypsy-comb, Venus-cup, and finally Fuller's teasel. With the exception of the great plains region in the north, it can be found growing wild throughout the continental United Staes and parts of Canada. Fuller's teasel is actually a cultivated variety (Dipsacus sativus), which is often confused with its wild form, the common teasel. The teasel is not native to California, having originated in Eurasia and Northern Africa and proliferated accidentally during the eighteenth century as a contaminant in imported seed stocks and in flower arrangements. The cultivated teasel variety was used as an ornamental item in dried flower displays, as well as a hairbrush, and for creating wool. Common teasel is classified in the United States as a noxious invasive species that is…
"Calflora: Dipsacus fullonum." 2011. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.
DiTomaso, Joseph M., and Healy, Evelyn A. "Dicots: Dipsacacae (Teasel Family)." Weeds of California and Other Western States. Vol. 1. University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resouces, 2007. 685-688. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.
Gucker, Corey L. "Dipsacus fullonum, D. laciniatus." U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer). 2009. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.
"Invasive Species - Common Teasel (Dipsacus fullonum subsp. sylvestris) - WDNR." 3 Sept. 2004. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.
How does the study of heat relate to the kinetic theory of matter?
There is a close relationship between the study of heat and the kinetic theory of matter. It is significant therefore to first understand the principles behind the kinetic theory of matter. This theory seeks to explain the differences that exist between the three different states of matter. It indicates that, matter is made up of particles that are constantly moving known as the atoms or the molecules (Benjamin Crowell, 2009).
The temperature that the object is at will dictate the state that the matter will be at. According to the kinetic theory, solids have their particles tightly bound to each other that even though they can vibrate, they cannot move to another location. Here the particles have very low kinetic energy and the particles of that particular solid are held together by the existing intermolecular forces…
Benjamin Crowell, (2009). Heat is Kinetic Energy. Retrieved January 28, 2012 from http://www.vias.org/physics/bk2_03_02.html
Doug Haag, (2011). What Are the Various Properties of a Substance That Determine Its Heat Capacity? Retrieved January 28, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8458965_various-determine-its-heat-capacity.html
Gavin Sulivan & Campbell Edmondson, (2008). Heat and Temperature. Retrieved January 28, 2012 from http://ceaccp.oxfordjournals.org/content/8/3/104.full.pdf
ITP Nelson, (1997). Sources of Heat. Retrieved January 28, 2012 from http://resources.yesican-science.ca/lpdd/g07/lp/nelson/nel13.html
When the driver looked in the hole, he found a dog sleeping inside -- and only when the dog was chased away would the elephant place the log into the hole (Holdrege, 2001).
Octopi -- Suprisingly, octopi have been shown to use tools. The will retrieve discarded coconut shells, manipulate them, and then reassemble them to use as a makeshift shelter (Coghlan, 2009). Other octopi will use Jellyfish and Portugese Man o War tenticles that they shear as their own weapon. They are the only invertebrates known to use tools and show surprising cognitive ability in mazes, food training, and even handler recognition (Jones, 1963).
Implications - esearch into this new discovery is important because it redefines what it means to be "human," as well as implications about the evolution of violence and hominid predation. Finally, an understanding of non-human "culture" may help in answers questions about other intelligent species…
Coghlan, A. (2009, December 14). Octopuses Use Coconut Shells as Portable Shelters. Retrieved October 2010, from The New Scientist: http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn18281-octopuses-use-coconut-shells-as-portable-shelters.html
Cohen, J. (2010). Almost Chimpanzee: Searching for What Makes Us Human. Chicago: Times Books.
De Waal, F. (2007). Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex Among Apes. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
"Emerging Explorers," (2010). The National Geographic Society. Cited in:
With him, this vital energy goes its own way, independent of the pessimism and the disillusionment so typical of the age.' Hemingway did not go to the awards ceremony due to illness, some time before that same year his plane crashed and he lived to read his own obituaries. y then he was already experiencing the results of his fast paced lifestyle and at the end of his life he dealt with sicknesses such as mental depression, and eventually a form of paranoia. This was written of his last days 'After Hemingway began talking of suicide his Ketchum doctor agreed with Mary that they should seek expert help. He registered under the name of his personal doctor George Saviers and they began a medical program to try and repair his mental state. The Mayo Clinic's treatment would ultimately lead to electro shock therapy. According to Jefferey Meyers Hemingway received "between…
1. We didn't start the Fire, Billy Joel, http://www.teacheroz.com/fire.htm
2. Frederick W. Turner III, 1971
3. Morgan Kathryn, Associate Director for Special Collections Alderman Library, University of Virginia / Charlottesville, Virginia / 22903
4. Shelton Robert, Bob Dylan: "20-year-old singer is bright new face at Gerde's Club" September 29, 1961 New York Times.
Geological vs. Biological Energy
Geological Energy vs. Biological Energy
There are various differences as well as possible similarities between the geological and the biological energy. It is worth noting that energy is the ability to do work, and in many aspects causes movement.
The differences in the two types of energy have to do with the sources. The geological energy is noted to be predominantly from surface process like weather patterns, Hydrologic cycle, erosion and even the sun. The other significant process is the tectonic process that produces geological energy like earthquake and volcanoes that originate from the interior of the earth. The geological surface process that produces the geological energy is gravitational causing acts like evaporation and erosion. The interior process also has tectonic stress or pressure. The surface process is characterized by motion for instance the flowing of water, chipping of rocks and movement of air. The interior…
Ostatic, (2011). Seismic Tool-Kit Helps Scientists Research Earthquakes. Retrieved January 29,
USGA, (2012). Latest Earthquakes in the World - Past 7 days. Retrieved January 29,
When gone about the wrong way, the whole thing backfires on those who were only trying to help.
Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire also details the struggles of the classes, which is a universal lesson for humanity. There are the pure-blooded families in the wizarding world, who, for the most part, see themselves as superior to all those whose blood has been tainted. Right out of World War II, some of these pure-blooded families have become obsessed with purity of blood, to the extent that they are willing to murder any and all who aren't pure, as they are. and, just as Hitler was far from the Arian ideal he professed, the leader of these maniacal pure-blooded wizards is a half-blood himself.
Of course there are the exceptions to the rule, in Harry's world, just as there are in society in the real world. One pure-blooded family, the…
Augustine and Science
Science in the modern sense did not exist for Augustine, or indeed for any of his contemporaries, nor were the events of the material universe and the physical-temporal bodies located within it of any great importance to him. Nor was his purpose in writing the Confessions to explain the natural world, but rather to uphold the Truth (in the sense of absolute and eternal Truth as revealed by God) of the Bible and Christianity against its opponents, particularly the Manichean dualists. Augustine has no interest in the natural world in and of itself, or even any real curiosity about nature except as it turns the mind to reflection about the enteral nature of God and the soul (Confessions, 10.6). He rejects the pride, lust and vanity of the material world, including the pride that philosophers took on their wisdom and learning, in favor of following the example…
Augustine (2006). Confessions. Penguin Classics.
Wills, G.A. (2011). Augustine's Confessions: A Biography. Princeton University Press.
Interestingly enough, though, what is it that is so aesthetically pleasing that we want there to be a single theory of everything -- why does everything need to be explained in one fell swoop? This idea of a Theory of Everything is becoming more philiosophical than scientific. Aristotle and Plato were unsuccesful in their attempt to make a theory work, and Hawking said, in A Brief History of Time, that even if we had a Theory of Everything, it would necessarily be a large set of equations. "What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe?"(Hawking in Fletcher, 2008, 196).
Now, though, Hawking has revised his views. In the new book, The Grand Design, Hawking and Mlodinow (Caltech physicist) argue that it is a set of equations that will, indeed, tie theories together, but that a final theory may never have a…
Fletcher, A. (2008). Life, the Universe and Everything: Investigating God and the New Physics. Denver, CO: Lulu Publishers.
Hawking and Mlodinow. (2010, September 27). The Elusive Theory of Everything. Retrieved October 2010, from Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-elusive-thoery-of-everything
Hawking and Mlodinow. (2010). The Grand Design. New York: Bantam.
Pais, A. (1982). Subtle is the Lord.... The Science and Life of Albert Einstein. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
unaware that most of them deals with chemistry. When we cook food or clean things, chemistry is usually involved. The mixing of various spices is a form of chemistry. The cleaning materials such as soap, detergent, and cleaning acids we used in cleaning are all mixtures of chemicals. Chemistry is an important part of our daily habits. Even in some of the professions, chemistry plays an important role. In my job of arson, fire, and explosives' investigation for instance, understanding of chemistry is essential to find evidences for the resolution of these cases.
This paper aims to discuss the importance of chemistry in arson, fire, and explosives' investigation. From time to time, examples of investigation steps will be mentioned to point the use of chemistry in the process.
Forensic Chemistry is an essential science in the investigation of criminal cases. Often, criminals have different techniques when committing crimes.…
Borer, Keith. Forensic Chemistry.
Keith Borer Consultants Limited. 22 March 2003. http://www.borer.demon.co.uk/chemistry.htm
The Role of Forensic Scientist in Detection of Crime. http://assampolice.com/art2.htm
BSC Forensic Science.
The real fire that burns you is the fire that is produced by God as the natural regulatory forces of nature. While the fire that is hallucination is fire that is conjured through the ideation of finite spirits such as other individuals. Real fire, since it is a subjective creation of God, has the ability to burn us, while illusionary fires do not have that inherent ability. Therefore all objectives that are not perceived by other human beings are perceived by God and have an existence within the world.
Berkeley's fundamental argument about reality and matter is that they are all sensory perceptions. However, since God creates ultimate harmony within the world and moreover provides a system in which we live in, his rules applies to all objects that we possess and use. Therefore, although arsenic in itself is nothing more than an idea, it is an idea that is…