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It is also in society that they recall, recognize and localize their memories." (Halbwachs, 1992, p. 38, as cited in Olick, nd)
III. New Study on Flashbulb Memories
The work of Roger Highfield (2006) entitled: "9/11 Study Reveals How Flashbulb Memories Form" states that a study conducted among individuals in New York who witnessed the events of September 11, 2001, "has revealed a brain region that may be responsible for creating what psychologists call 'flashbulb memories', remarkable picture-like collections." The findings in this study indicate that "flashbulb memories arise when a person witnesses events first hard, not from any special neural process."(Highfield, 2006) According to Highfield the results of the study which was reported "in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, indicate personal involvement may be important in engaging the amygdale when recalling 9/11 events." (2006) The amygdale is "a small, almond-shaped brain structure known to mediate emotion's…
Cook, Jason and Wilson, David (nd) Flashbulb Memories. Online available at: www.ualberta.ca/~nrbrown/pubs/LeeBrown2003.pdf
Flashbulb Memory (2008) Memory Loss & the Brain. Winter 2008. Online available at: http://www.memorylossonline.com/glossary/flashbulbmemory.html
Highfield, Roger (2006) 9/11 Study Reveals How Flashbulb Memories Form. Telegraph.co.uk 21 Dec 2006. Online available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/scienceandtechnology/science/sciencenews/3350048/911-Study-Reveals-How-Flashbulb-Memories-Form.html
Olick, (unknown) (nd) Olick Articles. Virginia State University. Collective Memory. Online available at: http://www.virginia.edu/sociology/publications/faculty%20articles/OlickArticles/galecm.pdf
A psychologist named Ulric Nessier believes that flashbulb memories are formed because they represent an intersection of historical and personal trajectories, and this makes them events that people want to retell and rehearse again and again. t is through these rehearsals and retellings that inaccuracies manage to creep in, and as they are reinforced through repeated retellings they become just as much a part of the memories as the actual events. That is, retelling the flashbulb memory to others is the same as rehearsing the memory, or reliving it to a certain degree, and when there are inaccurate elements in this reliving they eventually become as firmly entrenched in the memory of the true-life event as the factual memories. This explains why so many people remember seeing both planes hit on 9/11 when this was actually impossible.
For this assignment, completed the test found at http://www.intelligencetest.com/, after searching…
For this assignment, I completed the test found at http://www.intelligencetest.com/ , after searching the term "intelligence test" at askjeeves.com. While many of the questions did seem to be fairly accurate ways of gauging intelligence in certain areas, such as pattern recognition or mathematical abilities, many of the questions seemed to depend on knowledge that would have to be acquired prior to taking the test. While this information was fairly basic for the most part, it was easy to see that someone who simply hadn't been exposed to the facts would be gauged as having a lower intelligence than they might actually possess based on this feature of the test. While I feel that I possessed the knowledge that was required in these certain items on the test, this reflects the cultural bias that exists in many intelligence tests, and arguably in all intelligence tests. It also calls into question the definition of intelligence as it is defined in various intelligence tests, including this one.
As far as how it felt to take this test, I actually found it kind of exciting -- especially when I was pretty sure (or positive) that I had the right answer. Many of the items appeared incredibly easy, while others were less so, and the fact that I didn't get a perfect score means that the test obviously had some items that were more difficult than I thought. I was very eager to see my results, and throughout the test I found it difficult to concentrate only on the questions/items as they were presented because I kept wondering what each specific item was supposed to measure and what my answer would say about my intelligence. Ultimately, I don't think any internet-administered test that takes a maximum of fifteen minutes to complete can accurately assess anyone's intelligence, so I do not have a great deal of faith in my score, but the experience was definitely fun and made taking the test worthwhile.
Its a good idea to leave behind information that is not necessary for us any more like past phone numbers and names of strangers whom we may not meet again.
Episodic memories are the autobiographical events of a person's life based on his or her experiences, relationships, learning and ideas. In a loss of episodic memory, the links that exist in the temporal and frontal lobes of the brain are broken. This happens when the patient has suffered a head injury or has been in any form of trauma. Also, episodic memory failure happens when the frontal lobes are damaged and as a result, the patient is able to remember some information though not in the order in which it happened. Further more, this leads to false recollection of events that could not have happened.
Implicit memories are those that do not require intentional remembering or…
Gibb, Barry. (2007). The Rough Guide to the Brain. New York: Penguin
Squire. L; Kandel. E. (2000). Memory: From Mind to Molecules. New York: Scientific American Library
Schacter, Daniel. (2001). The Seven Sins of Memory. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Classical conditioning for instance is defined as a "simple form of associative learning that enables organisms to anticipate events" while Operant Conditioning is defined as learning to do/not do actions as a result of being conditioned to know what consequences to expect of the said actions. The chapter looks at the contributions of B. F. Skinner to the field work of conditioning, reinforcements and punishments used in conditioning, different methods of reinforcement (fixed-interval schedule versus variable-interval schedule). Chapter touches on the effects of violence in media on aggression of subjects watching, indicates that there is a circular relationship between media violence and aggression in persons who watch.
Chapter 6 examines the subject of memory, the three stages of memory according to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model (sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory). Information processing theory describes how sensory memory impacts working memory which in turn impacts and is then impacted by long-term…
Mind and Behaviour
Episodic memory, a type of explicit memory, includes memory for specific times, places and events that can be clearly and explicitly described. Impairment to episodic memory is one of the most common presenting clinical symptoms of Alzheimer's in its early stages. How does episodic memory function and what mechanisms are involved and affected by its dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease? Sperling et al. (2010) describe how a default network comprised of the medial temporal lobe and cortical regions are most prominently involved in memory function, in which the posteromedial cortices play a key role in the encoding and retrieval of memories. These regions are particularly susceptible to early amyloid deposition involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease (Sperling et al., 2010). Functional abnormalities in these regions have been detected through magnetic resonance imaging studies of individuals with clinical presentations of Alzheimer's disease, as well as individuals at risk…
Fleischman, D.A., Wilson, R.S., Gabrieli, J.D., Schneider, J.A., Bienias, J.L., Bennett, D.A. (2005). Implicit memory and Alzheimer's disease neuropathy. Brain, 128(9), 2006-15.
Lanciano, T., Curci, A., Semin, G.R. (2010). The emotional and reconstructive determinants of emotional memories: an experimental approach to flashbulb memories. Memory, 18(5), 473-85.
Sperling, R.A., Dickerson, B.C., Pihlajamaki, M., Vannini, P., LaViolette, P.S., Vitolo, O.V., Hedden, T., Becker, J.A., Rentz, D.M., Selkoe, D.J., Johnson, K.A. (2010). Functional alterations in memory networks in early Alzheimer's disease. Neuromolecular Medicine, 12(1), 27-43.
Yes, America Has Changed" by Andrew Sullivan
In the article entitled, "Yes, America Has Changed," author Andrew Sullivan discussed his interpretation of one of the numerously-written and -- opined topics in the country these days: the September 11 bombing at the World Trade Center in New York City. In it, Sullivan provides the readers with his own argument, positing that the event that was the World Trade Center bombing elicited feelings of rage among Americans.
Sullivan, in order to establish the assertion that, indeed, Americans felt rage after the 9/11 bombing, cited specific facts in which he considered are issues that his countrymen should feel angry about. Thus, he went on to describe the alleged involvement of other Middle Eastern, Muslim countries to the bombing, which included, among others, Saudi Arabia. He furthermore established his stance by comparing the bombing with events such as the Second World War and Cold…
limit your summary to 8 sentences.
The research area is in cognitive processes related to performance, skill learning, and execution. It is related to research on mathematics anxiety, stereotype threats, and how those factors affect performance on math-related tasks. In particular, the researchers are interested in the "choking under pressure" phenomenon in which individuals perform poorer than expected on a task they have mastered, because they are under pressure. Moreover, the research touches upon working memory and its relationship to performance on mathematics tasks. Working memory is defined as a short-term memory system that can be especially relevant to concentration on a specific task at hand. Anxiety has been shown to impede working memory, basically by clogging it up with the worrisome thoughts.
Why was the current study conducted?
The current study was conducted to identify the individual traits and circumstances in which choking under pressure is most likely to…
Beilock, S.L. & Carr, T.H. (2005). When high-powered people fail: Working memory and "choking under pressure" in math. Psychological Science 16(2), 101-105.