How the Mind Works Memory and Motivation Essay

Excerpt from Essay :

Classical conditioning for instance is defined as a "simple form of associative learning that enables organisms to anticipate events" while Operant Conditioning is defined as learning to do/not do actions as a result of being conditioned to know what consequences to expect of the said actions. The chapter looks at the contributions of B. F. Skinner to the field work of conditioning, reinforcements and punishments used in conditioning, different methods of reinforcement (fixed-interval schedule versus variable-interval schedule). Chapter touches on the effects of violence in media on aggression of subjects watching, indicates that there is a circular relationship between media violence and aggression in persons who watch.

Chapter 6 examines the subject of memory, the three stages of memory according to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model (sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory). Information processing theory describes how sensory memory impacts working memory which in turn impacts and is then impacted by long-term memory. Types of long-term memory are explained: procedural knowledge (demonstrated during the performance of a task), declarative knowledge (verbal info, ideas, facts), and the relationship between working memory and long-term memory via rote learning, elaboration, priming, and reconstruction....
...Types of processing are discussed (bottom-up versus top-bottom). Obstacles to memory are examined (repression, interference, forgetting) and the return of memories as well -- flashbulb and recovered memories.

Chapter 7 discusses the way we think, speak and use our intelligence. Intelligence is defined as the ability to know and understand the world and overcome the obstacles it presents. Intelligence is thus associated with achievement. Howard Gardner asserts that there are a number of various types of intelligence; for example, emotional intelligence is one type -- the ability to read and process emotions. Factors that affect intelligence include, genetics, environment, home life/school life, health, socioeconomic status. Crystallized intelligence (formed over a long time) is compared with fluid intelligence (not automatic, basic reasoning processes). Visual-spatial processing (the ability to see visual patterns and stimuli and respond accordingly) is examined, along with auditory processing (hearing patterns). Gardner's 8 intelligences include the analytic, introspective and interactive branches.

Chapter 8 examines motivation and emotion. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are discussed (inner and external). Incentives vs. self-actualization as motivators are compared. Maslow's hierarchy of needs presents a system of motivators that begins with basic needs being meet first then up…

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