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hat happened to the Ford Pinto? Ford Motor Company had intended to compete with other automobiles on the market that were smaller and used less gas. But something went terribly wrong along the way. This paper explores the details that led ultimately to the demise of the Ford Pinto -- and to the deaths and injuries of innocent consumers.
hy was the Pinto developed in the first place? Ford Motor Company was seeing strong competition from Volkswagen -- and from other compact-style cars such as the Chevrolet Vega, AMC's Gremlin, the Dodge Colt and Plymouth Cricket -- in the late 1960s, and the company wanted to get into that market. The television commercial that Ford produced opened up with a wide angle shot of a lush green open field. In that field is a very cute pinto colt that stands up a bit shakily. "Meet the Pinto," the…
Cherry, Kendra. (2010). Transformational Leadership. About.com. Retrieved November 23,
2012, from http://psychology.about.com .
Consumer Guide. (2008). 1971-1980 Ford Pinto. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved November 21,
2012, from http://auto.howstuffworks.com .
Ford Pinto -- Case Analysis
On August 10, 1978 a group composed of three young women, two were eighteen and one was sixteen, were the subject of a rear end automobile accident by another vehicle while driving in a 1973 Ford Pinto (Epstein, 1980). The car was engulfed in flames due to an explosion in the gas tank of the car and the three young women lost their lives in a horrific manner. This represents one example of a trend that was recognized to be associated with the Ford Pinto manufactured during a range of production years. The design of the Pinto was arguably constructed with a faulty fuel system that caused the case tank to explode on a rear end collision in the car.
It has also been argued that Ford actually had sufficient evidence that the design was a problem before so many people lost their lives. Ford…
Baron, J., 2006. Prospects for utilitarian decision analysis. [Online]
Available at: http://www.rff.org/Documents/Events/090622_Risk_Regulation/090623_Baron2.pdf
[Accessed 25 January 2012].
Epstein, R., 1980. Is Pinto a Criminal. [Online]
here other ethical theories can provide some wiggle room with respect to actions -- Ford's attempt at a utilitarian cost-benefit analysis, for example -- human life has a special place in ethics, precisely because it cannot be replaced or repaired once taken. This categorical imperative supersedes all other philosophies because of the special status of human life. Clearly, all reasonable codes of ethics were violated in this case.
In terms of the five schools of social responsibility, Ford sought to maximize profits. It did not consider a moral minimum, as it violated even the most minimal of corporate ethics codes. Stakeholders other than shareholders do not appear to have been given much consideration in Ford's decision making process, and clearly there was no demonstration of corporate citizenship for if any citizen were to choose to kill hundreds of people one would presume that act to be criminal. For whatever reason,…
Dole, C. (1980). Pinto verdict lets U.S. industry off hook. Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved November 13, 2012 from http://www.csmonitor.com/1980/0314/031435.html
Dowie, M. (1977). Pinto madness. Mother Jones. Retrieved November 13, 2012 from http://www.motherjones.com /politics/1977/09/pinto-madness
Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved November 13, 2012 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
Lako, C. (2011). Ethics for my scholars. University of Central Florida. Retrieved November 13, 2012 from http://www.bus.ucf.edu/faculty/clako/page/ETHICS.aspx
Because it was deemed to cost too much, relative to the target price of the car, Iacocca negated the proposed mechanical reform. "Safety doesn't sell," was his motto. The Pinto was deemed acceptable for the roads because it was a 1971 model and new National Highway Traffic Safety dministration (NHTS) regulations regarding vehicle safety that would have prevented the release of the Pinto were not passed until 1977.
The 'pros,' however, of avoiding lawsuits seem obvious in retrospect, but within the hothouse managerial atmosphere at Ford, the focus on increasing sales and the bottom line was nearly obsessive, as was meeting set benchmarks.
Feasibility of alternatives
What grabbed the public's attention about the Pinto, in addition to Ford's rigid actuarial calculations of how many lawsuits were likely to ensue per customer death, was the fact that the safety mechanism was so inexpensive and easy for Ford to install. The only…
Are recommendations workable and affordable?
Tragically, the modifications to the Pinto that could have saved many lives were both workable and affordable. The mechanism to prevent the exploding gas tank would have only cost $11, and would have resulted in a delay of the car's release that would have been far less cumbersome for Ford than the recall, the time and effort put into court cases, and the need to fight the negative publicity against the company in the media. Ford's reputation as a company that cared about its drivers was damaged for many years.
Additionally, Ford knew that it would eventually have to adopt the required standard, due to pending changes in the law. After 1977, all Pintos had to have a rupture-proof fuel tank design. Ford's decision was clearly taken as part of a marketing ploy to stress the cheapness of the Pinto, and to fulfill Iacocca's arbitrarily set numerical figure of $2,000.
WAS FOD TO BLAME IN THE PINTO CASE?
The Ford Company and Lee Iaccoca are fully responsible for every single death that has occurred due to the Pinto's design flaw. There is ample evidence and testimony that the design flaw was known of long before the car was released. Ford's management decided to produce the car despite the obvious safety issue. A car was released that the manufacturers knew would cause unnecessary deaths, deaths that could be avoided by installing a part for less than ten dollars. With this knowledge in mind, Lee Iacocca committed an act that is tantamount to murder. He ordered the production to continue undisturbed.
The Ford company went on to block safety legislature for the next eight years that would have forced a recall on all the unsafe Pintos. Instead, the assembly lines churned out millions of rolling firebombs to take the lives…
Dowie, Mark. (1977,September/October) Pinto Madness. Mother Jones, pp. 18-32. http://www.motherjones.com /news/feature/1977/09/dowie.html
Design defects of the Ford Pinto Gas Tank. Retrieved May 19, 2004. From Ford Pinto.com. http://www.fordpinto.com/blowup.html
The Ford Pinto case offers an ideal opportunity to apply utilitarian ethics to a real world situation. First, it is important to list the actors and stakeholders in this case. Lee Iacocca was the leader of the Ford Motor Company. He is credited with creating the inflexible parameters for the Pinto automobile as weighing no more than 2000 pounds and costing no more than $2,000. Therefore, the utilitarian analysis can and should apply primarily to Iacocca and his corporate brethren at the helm of Ford. It was their decision that led to the consequences associated with the poor design of the automobile, causing deaths.
However, the Ford Pinto case also highlights the ethical responsibilities of all members of the Ford Motor Company. In particular, the case showcases the role that engineers play in carrying out their jobs. It can easily be said that any engineer who felt that Iacocca's…
DeGeorge, Richard T. "Ethical Responsibilities in Large Corporations."
Horas, Matthew R. "The Ford Pinto." Retrieved online: http://thelittlecarefreecar.webs.com/
"Utilitarianism" Trinity University. Retrieved online: http://www.trinity.edu/cbrown/intro/utilitarianism.html
Ethics and Ford Pinto Crashes
For any organization, the ethics that are embraced will have a dramatic impact on their long-term profit margins and ability to quickly troubleshoot critical challenges. Those who are supporting the highest practices will receive better favorability ratings for the firm, management and brands. These factors will play a critical role in determining if customers will do business with them and the potential litigation from missing critical mistakes that were not disclosed. (Winter, 2011)
In the case of the Ford Pinto, there are obvious problems which were ignored in the design and products phases. These variables created a major product liability with the gas tank exploding in rear end collisions. To fully understand how ethics influenced the decisions made by the firm requires examining the best philosophical approach, Ford's moral awareness and the best approach. Together, these different elements will illustrate the importance of certain values…
Recalling his Time at Ford. (2015).
Bazerman, M. & Tenbrunsel, A. (2011). Ethical Breakdowns. Harvard Business Review.
Trevino, L. & Nelson, K. (2011). Managing Business Ethics. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Wilson, J. (2014). Essentials of Business Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Legally, forcing Ford to make costly payments to the families of the victims of its maleficent inaction was good for society as well as for the individuals who were harmed. Companies are less likely to make such criminally negligent risk/benefit calculations when they know the legal system will penalize the organization financially and legally. Only by increasing the hazardous potential of financial loss from acting immorally can the tort system truly protect consumers. Even in utilitarian ethical calculations, forcing Ford to make costly payments to victim's families makes acting as Ford did in the Pinto case 'wrong' even in terms of corporate profitability analysis as the company is potentially harming the profit margins of shareholders as well as unwitting drivers.
Of course, it could be argued that such an ethical rationale is undeniably influenced by the current litigious environment -- few companies would feel, in today's environment that they could…
De George. (2006). The Ford Pinto case. Business ethics, pp.298-299.
Leggett, Christopher. (1999, Spring). The Ford Pinto case. Law & Valuation.
Retrieved September 14, 2009 at http://www.wfu.edu /~palmitar/Law&Valuation/Papers/1999/Leggett-pinto.html
Newton & Ford. (2008). Chapter 4/Issue 15: Was Ford to blame in the Pinto case? Taking sides,
Case Study Discussion & Executive Summary Objectives Identify ethical problems faced managers. Apply steps ethical moral decision-making address management issues. Use ethical perspectives make management decisions.
Ford Pinto case study discussion & executive summary
Managers must continually balance their own, personal sense of ethics with the need to render a company profitable. In the case of Ford, the pressure to create an affordable car resulted in the company making unethical decisions that hurt customers and also hurt Ford's reputation and bottom line. While setting certain benchmarks of quality and cost are vitally important, Ford's stubborn refusal to install a basic safety control device in the Pinto is an example of how a failure of diverse sources of information and unwillingness to deviate from the chosen path of an organization can result in folly.
Ethical and moral decision-making must be integrated into the managerial decision-making process. Just as Ford set…
One Ford vision and mission. (2012). Ford. Retrieved:
Sustainability report 2010/2011. (2012). Ford. Retrieved:
These costs are far greater than what Ford originally anticipated. In addition, the improvements to the gas tank gave Ford a valuable opportunity. They could use this improvement as a means of differentiating themselves from the competition. Although safety may not have been a primary concern in the 1970s, the proper marketing campaign could have made Ford a leader in safety, like Volvo, which could still be serving the company now, nearly 40 years later.
On paper, the decision to leave the faulty gas tanks on the Pintos as is seemed to be a good business decision. However, it turned out to be a poor ethical decision. Ford failed to realize that they could not put a dollar value on human life. In addition, they failed to take into account a variety of secondary costs that could have led to the downfall of the entire organization. In an effort…
Becker, P., Jipson, a., & Bruce, a. (Feb 2000). The Pinto legacy. Justice Professional, 12(3). Retrieved November 4, 2009, from Business Source Complete.
Gioia, D. (No date). Pinto fires.
Halpern, P. (1982). The Corvair, the Pinto and corporate behavior. Policy Studies Review, 1(3). Retrieved November 4, 2009, from SocINDEX.
Ford Motor Company's experience with its Ford Pinto model are some of the darkest in the long history of the company. Although the company only manufactured the Pinto for a short number of years, the vehicle left a lasting impression on the company's operation (Dowie M., 1977).
The production and marketing of the Ford Pinto began in 1970 in response to the public's demand for small, economical vehicles. Over the subsequent years, the Pinto became subject to repeated complaints about its susceptibility to catching fire in low-speed, rear-end collisions. There were numerous such complaints but little was done to address the problem but Ford did little to address the problem until the summer of 1978 when three teenage mid-American girls were tragically burned alive inside a Pinto that had been struck from behind. This time the prosecutor of the county in which the young girls had been killed decided to…
Dowie, M. (1977). How Ford put two million fire traps on wheels. Business and Society Review, 51-55.
Dowie, M. (1977, September). Pinto Madness. Mother Jones, p. 18.
Schwartz, G.T. (1991). The Myth of the Ford Pinto Case. Rutgers Law Review, 1013-1015.
Wheeler, M.E. (1981, January 14). Product Liability, Civil or Criminal - The Pinto Litigation. ABA Tort and Insurance Law Journal .
Ford Pinto Fuel Tank Controversy
businesses for the most part do not offer products and services for the joy of going through the motions of production, marketing and sales. The driving motivation for any business is to earn a profit. In fact profits are the principal reason any private company is in business. Earning profits is as American as motherhood and the Fourth of July. But what are the ethical boundaries a company should adhere to in order to assure a profitable outcome for stakeholders? This is the central issue to be addressed in this paper, and the issue that will be focused on is a darkly unethical decision by executives in the Ford Motor Company in the 1970s. Knowing full well that the gas tank on the Ford Pinto could (and did) explode on impact, the decision-makers at Ford went ahead with production and balanced the cost of upgrading…
Becker, J. Paul, Jipson, Arthur J., and Bruce, Alan. "The Pinto Legacy: The Community as an Indirect Victim of Corporate Deviance. The Justice Professional, Vol. 12, 305-326. 2000.
Dowie, Mark. "How Ford Put Two Million Firetraps on Wheels." Mother Jones. Issue 23.
Retrieved December 20, 2014, from EBSCO Host. 1977.
Privileging the rights and needs of people with financial stakes in the American auto industry runs counter to American ideals of equality and Rawlsian justice.
Should we try to restrain, in this and other product liability situations, the litigiousness that seems to characterize American life? How might we do this?
Litigation that is blatantly foolish against corporations, such as a recent lawsuit against Quaker Oats for false advertising because Crunchberry cereal did not contain real fruit, usually fails, or is reversed upon appeal (inter 2009). The appeals process is the constitutional 'check' to juror's tendency to award too much to aggrieved plaintiffs. ithout the ability to sue corporations, the corporate lack of concern at Ford for the safety of the Pinto can occur once again. Litigation can be a powerful tool of consumers against large corporations.
Ford Pinto. Engineering.com. Retrieved June 17, 2009 at http://www.engineering.com/Library/ArticlesPage/tabid/85/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/166/Ford-Pinto.aspx
Shaw, .H. &…
Ford Pinto. Engineering.com. Retrieved June 17, 2009 at http://www.engineering.com/Library/ArticlesPage/tabid/85/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/166/Ford-Pinto.aspx
Shaw, W.H. & Barry, V. (2007). Moral issues in business. (10th ed.). USA: Thomson
Winter, Michael. (2009, June 8). Judge kills suit claiming crunchberries aren't real fruit.
Product Liability Claims: Grimshaw v. Ford Motor Company
What is the official citation?
Grimshaw v. Ford Motor Company, 9th Circuit, 849.F.2d 460 (1968).
On August 10, 1978, three teenage girls driving a 1973 Ford Pinto sedan stopped to refuel the car they were driving. After they got done filling up, the driver then loosely put the gas cap back on the tank which then by accident fell off as they drove back down U.S. Highway 33. Looking to find the cap, the girls made a stop again directly in the right lane of the highway shoulder. They did this because there was not any kind of space on the highway for cars to be able to safely pull away from the roadway (Boyce, 2015). Not long after, a van that weighed over 400 pounds and improved with an unbending plank for a front bumper was moving at fifty five…
$128 Million -- Fuel System Fire. (2015, July 16). Retrieved from http://www.rcrsd.com/verdicts-settlements/fuel-system-fire/
Boyce, D. (2015, July 16). Ford Pinto Case Information. Retrieved from The Ford Pinto Case: http://fordpintoethics.webs.com/
Grimshaw v. Ford Motor Co. . (2013, May 16). Retrieved from Court of Appeals of California, Fourth Appellate District, Division Two: http://online.ceb.com/calcases/CA3/119CA3d757.htm
Ford's tests also determined that the gas tanks could be protected by the installation of a simple part that would have cost the company $11 per vehicle. To make matters even worse, Ford was also aware that rear-end collisions typically caused the Pinto's doors to malfunction and become inoperable, sealing occupants inside the vehicles to burn to death when their cars caught fire.
Because the applicable government safety tests had been changed to include rear-end crashes only after the Pinto was already in production, the company was not under any statutory obligation to meet the new government standards. The company calculated the price of recalling the Pinto and of installing the $11 part on all 12.5 million affected vehicles at $137 million. t also calculated the total monetary cost of paying out the damage awards to the owners of 2,100 Pintos statistically likely to be involved in burns from crashes…
In the early 1970s, Ford was rushing to design its Pinto model automobile to capture the entry-level car market. Whereas the typical development cycle for new automobiles was then nearly four years, Ford had condensed that time to approximately one half as long, partly by omitting various safety tests or by executing them contemporaneously with other production and design steps to safe time and capture the 1971 market. The Pinto was purposely designed as a very small vehicle to comply with directions and design specifications issued by the top level of management to produce a vehicle that weighed less than 2,000 pounds and that cost less than $2,000, the approximate equivalent of $11,000 in today's dollar value.
By the time the model was ready for rollout, Ford engineers had already identified a serious and potentially deadly problem with the Pinto's design. Specifically, because of its very compact size and the positioning of the gas tank to maximize trunk space, there was insufficient space to protect the gas tank from being ruptured in rear-end crashes of 30 miles per hour or greater. Ford's tests proved that the gas tank was extremely vulnerable and that it would likely result in deadly fires in many ordinary rear-end collisions in situations where the collisions themselves would not necessarily have caused significant bodily injury or deaths to occupants of the vehicle. Ford's tests also determined that the gas tanks could be protected by the installation of a simple part that would have cost the company $11 per vehicle. To make matters even worse, Ford was also aware that rear-end collisions typically caused the Pinto's doors to malfunction and become inoperable, sealing occupants inside the vehicles to burn to death when their cars caught fire.
Because the applicable government safety tests had been changed to include rear-end crashes only after the Pinto was already in production, the company was not under any statutory obligation to meet the new government standards. The company calculated the price of recalling the Pinto and of installing the $11 part on all 12.5 million affected vehicles at $137 million. It also calculated the total monetary cost of paying out the damage awards to the owners of 2,100 Pintos statistically likely to be involved in burns from crashes (including approximately 180 injuries from burns and 180 deaths from burns) and determined that the total cost of compensating the victims of the design defect would be less than $50 million. As a result of the decision to value corporate profits over human lives and welfare, hundreds of people died horrific deaths and hundreds more suffered painful and debilitating injuries and disabilities. Today, the decision by the company to value corporate profits over human lives and welfare stands as a model of bad corporate ethics and ethical decision making in business organizations.
Ford is a car company that has endured many challenges and travails over the years. Indeed, they are not unlike General Motors and Chrysler in this regard. While they have generally been unscathed as compared to the other two "American" car companies and they are only one of two of the original Big 3 that is still entirely American-controlled, Ford is not dominating the market by any means. Their overall sales figures are going up in terms of volume but their market share and a lot of their important financial metrics reflect flatness or falling rather than rising. Ford has certainly learned some lessons since the Ford Pinto scandal in the 1970's and some other companies are suffering recall problems in more modern days while Ford is doing quite well. Even so, Ford is not keeping up with the market and they need to address that right away (Ford Motor…
Edelstein, S. (2015). Tesla Buys Supplier, New Car Fuel Economy, Hybrid & Electric Car Sales: Today's Car News. Green Car Reports. Retrieved 26 September 2015, from http://www.greencarreports.com/news/1098200_tesla-buys-supplier-new-car-fuel-economy-hybrid-electric-car-sales-todays-car-news
FCA. (2015). FCAGroup - Home. Fcagroup.com. Retrieved 26 September 2015, from http://www.fcagroup.com/en-U.S./Pages/home.aspx
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Kimbrough, B. (2015). Editorial: Did Ford Take Bailout Money Too? Yes They Did. - Chevy Hardcore. Chevy Hardcore. Retrieved 26 September 2015, from http://www.chevyhardcore.com/news/editorial-did-ford-take-bailout-money-too-yes-they-did/
(2001, October 1) Self-esteem at work, Psychology Today, etrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200310/self-esteem-work
6. Describe the needs present in Maslow's hierarchy. How can organizations attempt to meet these needs so that employees are motivated to produce more work? Discuss the answer in detail.
According to Abraham Maslow (1970), there is a hierarchy of needs that define human development. These are: Basic Needs (food, shelter, clothing), Safety, Love and Belonging, Skill Accomplishment and Self-Actualization. In Maslow's view, as each need becomes adequately satisfied, the next highest need becomes dominant. The first three are deficiency needs because they must be satisfied if the individual is to be healthy and secure. The last two are growth needs because they are related to the development and achievement of one's potential (Maslow, 1970). In Maslow's view, as long as we are motivated to satisfy our deficiency needs, then we are moving in a positive direction towards personal…
Maslow, a., (1970) Motivation and personality, 2nd ed., Harper & Row (orig. 1954)
Ethical Reasoning," Donaldson and Werhane outline the three fundamental theories of ethics: consequentialism, deontology, and human nature ethics. Consequentialism, also known as teological ethics, can be further divided into ethical egoism and utilitarianism. Ethical egoism is based on the theory that to act out of self-interest will ultimately be the most ethical decision. Ethical egoism is rarely supported by philosophers, especially in relation to other ethical reasoning theories such as utilitarianism. Philosophers like Bentham and John Stuart Mill argued that the ethical decisions should be based on the principle of the greatest good for the greatest number. Although Mill framed the concept of "good" in terms of happiness, the "greater good" does not necessarily entail happiness and may refer to other abstract concepts like aesthetics. Utilitarianism can itself be subdivided into pluralistic utilitarianism and preference utilitarianism: the former embraces all abstract concepts that can be classified as "good" whereas the…
Love Canal Scandal
The Love Canal situation dealt with a chemical company that buried there toxic chemical waste and then sold the land that was contaminated. The Hooker Chemical and Plastics, Co. bought a canal that was unfinished because the owner went bankrupt before he got to finish it. Hooker then filled a large area, a 3,200 ft. section of the canal with chemical waste. It wasn't Hooker alone who dumped in this area. In the same period, several other chemical companies as well as The City of Niagara alls also were also adding to the waste. Hooker claims to have chosen this site for hazardous waste due to the clay composition in the subsoil and the fact that not many people lived nearby. The company reported to have buried approximately 21,800 tons of chemical waste in the canal.
The company later sold the land for…
On August 10, 1978 a group composed of three young women, two were eighteen and one was sixteen, were the subject of a rear end automobile accident by another vehicle while driving in a 1973 Ford Pinto. Other similar reports of the cars combustion upon an accident also began to emerge. However, Ford understood the cause of the problem well before any of the accidents occurred. Ford had actually conducted a cost benefit analysis that factored items such as the cost of fixing the fuel system problem on existing cars compared to the estimated legal costs associated with the lawsuits that were directed at Ford due to the unneeded loss of human life. Even though the part was not very expensive, Ford decided that it would still be cheaper to provide compensation through legal settlements than it would be to conduct a product recall to fix the systems.
Ford's actions were definitely unethical in many regards. Even it would have been cheaper for the company to provide compensation to the families would have been cheaper than fixing the problem, the company was still unethical. When considering the costs of human life, protecting lives should certainly come before profits. Not only was the Ford company unethical, but they were also bad at judging the costs. They were forced to pay heavily in settlements, but the total damage was far worse. The company's brand lost a significant amount of value among many consumers which cost them business for years.
Definitions / Descriptions of Trait Leadership
According to Peter Northouse's book, trait leadership focuses on identifying several qualities: intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity and sociability. Published in 2009, Northouse's book (Leadership: Theory and Practice) goes into great detail as to what constitutes trait leadership and what behaviors and values do not qualify vis-a-vis trait leadership. Northouse isn't alone in providing narrative that defines and describes trait leadership. A University of Cincinnati publication (Army Leadership Traits & ehaviors) explains that leadership trait theory focuses on a leader's: a) values and beliefs; b) personality; c) confidence; and d) mental, physical, and emotional attributes (www.uc.edu).
In the book The Anatomy of Leadership (West, 2000), the author asserts that trait leadership "makes the assumption" that there are "distinctive physical and psychological characteristics" -- above and beyond standard leadership -- that account for the effectiveness of a leader. Those traits include "height, attractiveness, intelligence,…
Bazerman, Max H., and Tenbrunsel, Ann E. 2011. 'Ethical Breakdowns,' Harvard Business Review. Retrieved January 10, 2013, from http://hbr.org .
Dowie, Mark. 1977. 'Pinto Madness,' Mother Jones. Retrieved January 10, 2013, from http://www.motherjones.com .
Gioia, Dennis A. 1994. 'Pinto Fires and Personal Ethics: A Script Analysis of Missed Opportunities', in The Ford Pinto Case: A Study in Applied Ethics, Business, and Technology, D. Birch and J. Fielder, Eds. State University of New York: Albany, NY.
Leggett, Christopher. 1999. 'The Ford Pinto Case: The Valuation of Life As It Applies To The Negligence-Efficiency Argument,' Retrieved January 10, 2013, from http://www.wfu.edu .
eber and Marx on Labor
In the 19th century, leading social theorists such as Karl Marx and Max eber believed that because its many inherent contradictions, the capitalist system would inevitably fall into a decline.
More than a century later, however, the capitalist system is far from dead. Rather, it appears to be further entrenched, encircling the world in the stranglehold of globalization.
Despite the continued growth of capitalism, however, this paper argues that both Marx and eber's writings remain relevant to explaining many aspects of advanced industrial capitalism. In this paper, the Marx and eber's writings on estranged labor are explored in detail, to examine if the labor theories both men used to analyze capitalism and the plight of workers in the 19th century can also be applied to 21st century capitalism.
The first part of this paper discusses Marx's theory of estranged labor, as written in The Economic…
Alarcon-Gonzales, Diana and Terry McKinley, "The adverse effects of structural adjustments on working women in Mexico" Latin American Perspectives, 26, 3, May 1999, 103-117. Available from Proquest Database.
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The simple listing of "180 burn deaths & 180 serious burn injuries" (Hartman & DesJardins, 2008) does not capture the sheer human suffering that the expected rate of 2,100 accidents is sure to cause. Finally, the influence of my peers within the management structure of Ford would affect my decision significantly, because if I felt that advocating for a costly recall was undermining my status, it would admittedly be difficult to stand alone on the issue.
3.) What sort of financial impact will your decision have upon the company?
In the short-term the decision to recall all Ford Pintos would cost the company upwards of $72 million, in addition to any ancillary losses suffered from negative media publicity and public image. What Ford's executives failed to understand is that they are playing a long-term game, one in which a loss of $72 million pales in comparison to the diminished reputation…
Hartman, L.P., & DesJardins, J.R. (2008). Business ethics: Decision-making for personal integrity & social responsibility. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.
Is the Chevrolet station wagon a defective product?
The station wagon is defective. This is because the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has implemented §571.301. Under the law, the fuel tank must be placed in a location that will prevent the spillage of petroleum. In the event that this does occur, the manufacture is provided with a certain amount of flexibility (as there can be no more than 142 g of fuel lost within the first five minutes after a crash). The fact that the gas tank was located in an area that caused it to ignite, is a sign that the company manufactured a defective product. ("Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards")
as the station wagon unsafe for its intended use? as the accident foreseeable?
The station wagon was unsafe for its intended use. This is because they could have placed the fuel tank in a different location on…
"Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards." FMCSA, 1975. Web. 25 Jul. 2012
"Ford Pinto Fuel." Auto Safety, 2002. Web. 25 Jul. 2012 < http://www.autosafety.org/ford-pinto-fuel-fed-fires >
Tort reform has been on the lips of politicians and attorneys for many years. In the United States, it is a contentious political issue with strong feelings on both sides of the issue. U.S. tort reform advocates propose procedural and time limits on the right to file claims as well as capping the amounts of damage awards. The supporters of the existing tort system argue that the reformers have misrepresented the issues and criticize tort reform as favoring corporations. In this essay, the author will briefly look at both sides of the issue. Then, we will examine possible solutions in the form of a social security type of system that would issue payments to tort recipients from a government run accident insurance fund that corporations and citizens would both contribute to. Such an approach would however constitute a major change in the tort system of the U.S. which is fundamentally…
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There is a lot of predictability and patterns when it comes to economics. There are many examples that one can point to. First, there is a bit of a cycle to things. Even when there are economic "booms" in the United States or other capitalistic countries, there are eventually "busts" of varying size and degree called recessions. Most of the time, the recessions are fairly brief and not a lot of damage is done. Other times, one sees recessions like the Great Depression in the 1930's and the Great Recession in the 2000's. There was also the fairly dark period that occurred during the latter part of Jimmy Carter's Presidency and into the early 1980's when Reagan took over (24/7 all Street). Of course, there are behaviors that are expected and realized when economic travails come. People tend to tighten their spending, stick to their current job if…
24/7 Wall Street. "The 13 Worst Recessions, Depressions, And Panics In AmericanA History." 247wallst.com. N.p., 2015. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.
Car Scoops. "Want A Car 'Made In The U.S.A.'? Then Check The First Digit Of The VIN Code." Carscoops. N.p., 2015. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.
Crawford, Steve. "How Does Consumer Spending Change During Boom, Recession, And Recovery?: Beyond The Numbers: U.S. Bureau Of Labor Statistics." Bls.gov. N.p., 2015. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.
Fiat. "Fiat.Com - Homepage." fiat.com. N.p., 2015. Web. 21 Dec. 2015.
However, the growth of the corporation introduced the concept of a fiduciary duty between stockholders and board members, in both open and closed corporations. (Stevenson, p.1144). Put succinctly, the board of directors has a duty to its shareholders to increase profits, and majority shareholders may have a duty to the corporation to vote in a way that increases profits. As a result, business ethics can actually conflict with both corporate social responsibility and global corporate responsibility; because business ethics may indicate a less ethical means of practice if it would increase profits. As a result, many corporations have included responsible practices in their corporate mandate, thereby making it clear to any and all potential stockholders that one of the goals of the company is to engage in responsible and morally ethical behavior. Starbucks appears to be one such company.
Corporate Social Responsibility
It is difficult to define the notion of…
Corporate Social Responsibility Initiative. "The Initiative: Defining Corporate Social
Responsibility." Harvard Kennedy School. 2008. The President and Fellows of Harvard University. 12 Nov. 2008 http://www.hks.harvard.edu/m-rcbg/CSRI/init_define.html .
Ethics and Policy Integration Center. "Welcome to the EPIC Global Corporate Responsibility
Web Page." EPIC. 2008. Ethics and Policy Integration Center. 12 Nov. 2008 http://www.epic-online.net/global/index.html .
The author of this report has been asked to review the legal and ethical considerations in play given the test case scenario surrounding Pharmacare and Compcare. As is quickly apparent while reading the case study, the company engaged in a long and extensive list of ethical and/or legal violations as a means to maximize profit and minimize the legal and other red tape that seems to bother them even though it is there for a very good reason. The ethical issues involved will be touched upon and analyzed. There will also be an exploration and analysis of direct-to-consumer marketing of drugs, whether John is the "investor" of AD23, the arguments about John being a whistleblower and the associated protections he would have if he is and examples of intellectual property theft that have occurred in the last two years or so. While bad things do incidentally happen and…
Leadership Self-Assessment Analysis
In the wake of the corporal scandals of Enron and the Arthur Anderson Company, there have been increased calls for strong ethical leadership. Leadership had always been regarded as a key factor in ensuring the effectiveness of any organization. However, new models are also being developed to challenge the limitations of the prevailing classical theories of leadership.
This paper argues for a tempered approach, one that combines effective leadership with good management. Both factors are important, since over-managed and under-led organizations tend to lose sight of their goals. By the same token, while charismatic leaders can lead their organizations to high levels of success, the lack of management skills means that such victories do not last in the long run.
The growing awareness of corporate and white-collar crime has likewise presented new challenges to the classical leadership model. Organization leaders should now be wary of lawsuits the…
Bolman, Lee G. And Deal, Terrence E. 1997. Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2nd ed.
Northouse, Peter G. 1997. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishing.
Companies focus on speed to market for a couple of reasons. There are first-mover advantages, and in some markets like smartphones there are a lot of consumers who are early adopters, so the market is strong for products that come to the market quickly (Smith, 1999). Companies can position themselves as innovators if they are consistently first to market with new ideas. Speed to market is also reflected in firms that are not the innovators, but the followers. Following the leaders quickly is a method that can allow a company to remain competitive but with a lower level of innovation expense; following the leader slowly can leave a company with a noticeably inferior product.
Yet, there are disadvantages to the idea of speed to market. First, it is sometimes a more complex strategy. The company will need to develop an agile supply chain, and have its systems dialed…
Kingsely, A. (2008). The day Microsoft killed the Vista name -- January 31, 2006. ZD Net. Retrieved March 22, 2015 from http://www.zdnet.com/article/the-day-microsoft-killed-the-vista-name-january-31-2006/
Robinson, A. (2013). 6 benefits of logistics automation in a transportation management system. Cerasis. Retrieved March 22, 2015 from http://cerasis.com/2013/10/25/logistics-automation/
Bowersox, D. (1990). The strategic benefits of logistics alliances. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved March 22, 2015 from http://gkwl.nbu.edu.cn/4pl/gwxsrw/12.pdf
Harps, L. (2005). Cool stuff, blazing speed. Inbound Logistics. Retrieved March 22, 2015 from http://www.inboundlogistics.com/cms/article/cool-stuff-blazing-speed/
6. Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Abraham Maslow constructed a pyramid of five levels, each level presenting the types of needs that motivate people. At the bottom level sit the physiological needs, followed by needs of safety, needs of loving, being loved and belonging to a community. At the fourth level sit the needs of esteem, followed by the needs of self-actualization. In order to maintain an organizational staff member motivated and satisfied on the job, it is necessary for the leadership team to strive and manage to satisfy as many of these needs as possible. Below are some pointers as to how the desiderate could be achieved:
Physiological needs -- the first thing is that of remunerating the employee in a means that allows him to exchange the salary for the purchase of primary commodities and services. The second thing is that of ensuring that the employee is able to…
wrong for the applicants to take an unauthorized peek at their application files. The intent of the school was clearly to have those files closed, so the viewing of those files was a breach of the school's intentions. There is an implicit duty on the part of the applicant to avoid looking at those files, even if the opportunity presents itself.
Many of the candidates in question apply a consequentialist view of the ethics surrounding this situation. However, the schools are applying a deontological view. That there were no negative consequences related to viewing the files is irrelevant in this situation because the issue relates to trust. With trust, there is always a categorical imperative and trust therefore needs to be maintained at all times. The candidates in question violated the trust that they were attempting to form between themselves and the school. As a result, these candidates committed an…
The Pinto gas tank vulnerability situation in the 1960s and 1970s was an embarrassment for the Ford Motor Company but moreover, it was a defining moment in a corporate decision-making process that was highly unethical and hence, in hindsight, repugnant to the American public.
If I was deciding whether to have a recall of the Pinto or settle the cases, which one would I choose?
Certainly it seems easy in hindsight to choose the moral, ethical thing to do (recall all the vehicles to save lives and avoid injuries to passengers), but that is exactly what I would choose to do. As the Decision Point narrative points out: "…health and safety" have a value over and above the value of replacing a part on a car that is unsafe.
It brings to mind the well-known advertisement for Master Card -- "There are some things money can't buy." The…
Product Recalls: Reaction
Every now and then, I will turn on the morning news and hear that there has been a product recall for something I consider vaguely absurd, such as a product that can possibly cause harm if it is misused in some extraordinary fashion. However, I have also heard about product recalls in which there are serious questions about the safety of the product. An excellent example of this occurred several years ago, when some Mattel toys were found to contain harmful substances like lead that could injure a small child if swallowed, which is a common occurrence when children play with toys. Given the bad publicity which can ensue if a company's product results in an injury or the death of a user, being aggressive about instituting product recalls, versus taking a 'wait and see' approach, seems to be the superior strategy.
The Dell and Pinto instances…
Perceptual map is a marketing tool that is used to help place a brand in context of its competitors in terms of public perception of the brands with respect to critical industry variables (Daye, 2009). The two-dimensional nature of the map means that there are two dimensions (elements) that are evaluated. Consumer opinions about these variables and a variety of brands are taken in order to construct the map. The objective of the perceptual map is to understand how the brand's position in perceived by the public, and use this information to shape marketing strategy either to reinforce this perception or to change it.
Two major variables that people consider when purchasing a vehicle, other than price, are safety and prestige. For car buyers, safety is an important issue because of the inherent dangers in driving and the need to minimize the risk to yourself and your family. Prestige is…
Daye, D. (2009). Brand positioning and perceptual maps. Branding Strategy. Retrieved October 27, 2012 from http://www.brandingstrategyinsider.com/2009/09/brand-positioning-and-perceptual-maps.html
Ethics are "an individual's personal beliefs about whether a behavior, action, or decision is right or wrong" (Griffin, 2010). Is everyone considered a manager? Why, or why not?
The traditional functions of management include planning, organizing, staffing, and directing. All of these involve certain ethical considerations which will reflect both the individual's personal beliefs as well as the belief systems of the organization. Ethics is more than a gut instinct or a general sense of morality While moral inclinations arise as a result of custom and general, personal upbringing, ethical decisions involve making a decision in accordance with a belief system that assumes a certain degree of consistency.
In this sense, being a 'manager' is a very specific 'hat' to wear. No one is a manger all of the time. When at home, all of us make decisions that are inconsistent on occasion. We may insist that our dog does…
Alexander, Larry and Moore, Michael. (20080). Deontological ethics. The Stanford
Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved:
Dowie, Mark. (1977). Pinto madness. Mother Jones Magazine. Retrieved at:
The author of this report is to offer a fairly extensive essay about three general questions relating to utilitarianism. The first question pertains to John awls and his deconstructions of utilitarianism and what came to be known as "the analogy." The second question pertains to the views of Peter Singer as stated and enumerated in Famine, Affluence and Morality. Last up will be Bernard Williams. Like awls, he generally viewed utilitarianism poorly and offers specific examples and explanations of why he did not agree with the subject. For all three questions, there will be a critique or criticism of the overall argument. While cases can be made for both utilitarianism and its opposite, there are some rather gaping holes in the logic that justifies utilitarianism and how it works.
Of all of the ethical and moral philosophers out there, awls is certainly one of the more notorious…
Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard
Singer, P. (1972). Famine, Affluence, and Morality. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 1(1).
Smart, J., & Williams, B. (1973). Utilitarianism; for and against. Cambridge [England:
S. consumers. Although the government should not support protectionism and protect inefficient American industries simply because they are American, it should require that companies selling products in the U.S. Or even partially based in the U.S. meet certain basic human rights standards (no slave labor, for example) and safety standards. This is necessary to protect U.S. consumers and also to ensure that America's reputation for freedom as well as economic growth is sustained.
Some unintentionally redistributive effects, such retaining a progressive income tax system to help poorer families survive while still remaining part of the workforce seem to be beneficial and necessary. Making charitable contributions tax-deductible is also an excellent idea to encourage redistributive effects, but no government can or should engineer a system where everyone is the same economically, without taking away the incentive to work.
However, government production would be acceptable when private marginal…
Cliques in the orkplace: The Strength of orkplace Diversity
Many workplaces can be just as clique-ish as a high school. In the new global marketplace, an intolerant company is not simply immoral and illegal -- a lack of diversity is also economically unproductive for the business. Although having a diverse workplace can pose challenges in terms of employee communication and creating a cohesive sense of mission, ultimately the benefits of diversity outweigh any potential detriments.
First and foremost, a diverse workplace is more likely to mirror a company's client base. Diverse employees can provide insight about the needs of consumers. A workplace that is overrepresented by one gender, race, or class may forget needs or concerns that are specific to a particular demographic. For example, the painkiller Motrin was recently forced to 'pull' an advertisement which showed a woman carrying around her child, complaining about the pain that the baby…
"Accelerating into trouble." The Economist. 2010. [September 28, 2011]
"Moms and Motrin." The New York Times. November 17, 2008. [September 28, 2011]
The implications of a successful lawsuit in this instance would have been a great boon; the medical equipment and pharmaceutical industries seem ironically to be unethical and uncaring. While they manufacture goods that can potentially save lives, they base corporate decisions not on the welfare of others but solely on profit. Legislation could prevent unscrupulous business procedures in the future.
3. Manufacturers should indeed be held liable for withholding or failing to market products that could prevent injuries, even if they do hold the exclusive patent rights. Public safety and welfare should trump the pursuit of profit; a balance must be struck between the rights of corporations or individuals to maximize profit and their obligations as citizens to prevent harm. In many ways, withholding the patent of a product like the safety syringe actually causes injury because a piece of information or technology is being deliberately held back. It is…
Ethical Behavior Theory in Organizations
This analytical research report discusses the debatable issue of the much-needed ethical behavior in working milieu. The research paper highlights the fundamental characteristics, a well-drafted research design, a separate section of suggestions; a orks Cited an appendix featuring important data and relevant diagrams pertaining to the organizational behavior theory and the underlying ethical issues. The orks Cited nine sources in MLA format.
ETHICS AND ORGANIZATIONS
Ethics and ethical behavior: a challenge for organizations
UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS
Reasons for unethical behavior in organizations
Prevalent justifications of unethical behavior
Results from Baucus and Near's research model
SOCIAL SYSTEMS AND BEHAVIORS
NEED FOR ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORAL THEORY
hat is organizational behavior?
Purpose of organizational behavior
An overview of organizational behavior and its cardinal components
Basic models of organizational behaviors
PRAGMATIC SUGGESTIONS FOR AMELIORATION
Drucker P. Claremont Graduate Univ., Managing Oneself., Harvard Business
Review, 03-01-1999, pp 65.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Employees are being rewarded for their honesty, and managers continue to encourage communication between supervisors and subordinates. Management is also looking for ways to encourage employees to tell the truth about other employees who may be involved in something dishonest or illegal (Jones, 1982). Not all employees will take advantage of this, of course, because some still believe that they will face punishment for being a 'whistle-blower', but there are laws in place now to protect the rights of employees who blow the whistle on other employees or their employers.
Employee rights have become increasing important over the last 20 years, and this is another area in which Enron had difficulties. Those people who advocate employee rights make two different arguments. The first argument is that tougher laws and regulations are needed to ensure that employees get the rights that they deserve. It cannot be left up to the companies…
Bernstein, S. (2000). "Shell in Nigeria." Business Students Focus on Ethics. Eds. Ryan, Leo V., Wojciech W. Gasparski, & Georges Enderle. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.
Donaldson, T. & Gini, a.R. (1984). Case Studies in Business Ethics. 2nd ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Garrett, T.M., and Klonoski, R.J. (1986). Business Ethics 2nd ed. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Goodpaster, K.E. (1984). Ethics in Management. Boston: Harvard Business School.
Doing so, of course, turns out to be a lot harder than expected for Isabella and the pair of priests (Evan Helmuth and Simon Quarterman) she recruits to aid her. here's other exorcisms to behold before they can get to poor Maria, so as to acquaint unsuspecting Isabella with the process as well as to drum up a few gratuitous scares -- or attempts, at least. Soon enough, Isabella and her pals are caught up in a whirlwind of multiple possessions, exorcisms, and rituals that combine both modern technology and conventional religious practices -- the best that science and faith can offer.
Although the film has been widely reviled for its questionable acting and an ending that makes the Blair Witch Project seem outright climactic, there are certain aspects of it that make it passable for a (late) night's entertainment. he special effects are featured prominently, with bodies flying wall-to-wall…
The Devil Inside is loosely based upon the experience of a woman who murdered three people in 1989 while allegedly possessed and undergoing an exorcist. The film intersperses actual footage from that traumatic occurrence -- such as the 911 call made by murderer Maria Rossi (portrayed in the film by Suzan Crowley) -- in an attempt to simultaneously underscore a sense of historical austerity and cash in on the contemporary voyeuristic value that is so popular in today's television. Confined to a mental institution in Rome that is assumed to be part of the Catholic Church, Maria spends the next 20 years or so mutilating her skin in both conspicuous and inconspicuous locations, leaving no doubts as to why she's there. The action heats up when her daughter Isabella (Fernanda Andrade) attempts to aid her mother by having another exorcism performed on her to restore her degenerate mind.
Doing so, of course, turns out to be a lot harder than expected for Isabella and the pair of priests (Evan Helmuth and Simon Quarterman) she recruits to aid her. There's other exorcisms to behold before they can get to poor Maria, so as to acquaint unsuspecting Isabella with the process as well as to drum up a few gratuitous scares -- or attempts, at least. Soon enough, Isabella and her pals are caught up in a whirlwind of multiple possessions, exorcisms, and rituals that combine both modern technology and conventional religious practices -- the best that science and faith can offer.
Although the film has been widely reviled for its questionable acting and an ending that makes the Blair Witch Project seem outright climactic, there are certain aspects of it that make it passable for a (late) night's entertainment. The special effects are featured prominently, with bodies flying wall-to-wall and horrific crunching sounds of bones being twisted out of place. Andrade, Helmuth and Quarterman are no slouches when it comes to screaming, as the high-paced action gives them plenty of opportunity to practice. Those looking for a thought-provoking flick with true suspense and a plot worthy of the name, however, had best keep looking. The Devil Inside is great for graphic images, eerie music, and sound effects that go from soft to blaring in a moment's time…all the standard horror film treats. Anyone asking for more than that, however, may be asking too much.