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As a result China and the U.S. have drastically different approaches to the managing of information systems and their supporting technologies.
Enterprise Software Adoption and Use
With a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) that is consistently well above global median levels (Chen, 2010) China is rapidly becoming a leader in global manufacturing, services and supply chain coordination with other manufacturing nations. As the underlying infrastructure is weak in the interior regions of China yet exceptionally strong along its coastlines (ayburn, Conrad, 2004) China continues to define a pluralistic strategy to enterprise software adoption throughout its nation (Suttmeier, 2005). This is evident in the approach toe country is taking to define when, how, and which software will be used for managing manufacturing, distribution and pricing within its manufacturers. Companies looking to move into China must comply not only to their specific data format standards (Suttmeier, 2005) but also to their unique approaches…
Chen, L. (2010). Business-it alignment maturity of companies in China. Information & Management, 47(1), 9.
Jing Quan, Qing Hu, & Xinan Wang. (2005). It is not for everyone in China. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 48(4), 69-72.
J Mike Rayburn, & Craig Conrad. (2004). China's Internet Structure: Problems and Control Measures. International Journal of Management, 21(4), 471-480.
Chris Sprigman. (2003). Democratic hacks. Foreign Policy,(138), 90.
Doing business in foreign countries inevitably means exposure for foreign cultures and customs. How business reacts to these cultures often dictates whether or not that business is going to succeed in the foreign market. International business trainers face cultural issues when teaching American business skills and practices to foreign audiences. Often, things that are taken for granted when dealing with an American audience can be challenging for a foreign audience. The trainer needs to be able to understand what the cultural differences are that they will be dealing with and how to handle those differences so that no offense is caused and the objectives of the activity are met. This paper will outline some of the different cultural pitfalls that can occur when doing business internationally and will present a case of how to business can deal with these challenges. Hunt (n.d.) describes cultures as being comprised of…
Hunt, D. (no date). The role and impact of culture on international business. Powerpoint presentation, in possession of the author.
Wade, J. (2004). The pitfalls of cross-cultural business. Risk Management. In possession of the author.
Burkitt, L. (2012). Starbucks plays to local Chinese tastes. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324784404578142931427720970.html
Gibson, R. (2006). Foreign flavors. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB115885298624870137.html
Outsourcing: A Net-Positive? Positively Not
The world economy is a very different beast than it was even a decade ago. No longer are countries, industries, and companies bound by national borders or even continental structures.
Rather, the global village truly exists today, at least from a capitalistic perspective. A perfect example of this borderless world economy is the process of outsourcing.
There exist several points that politicians make in support of outsourcing in America. These points attempt to prove that outsourcing is a net-positive for the American economy. For instance, they argue economic efficiency -- that outsourcing has improved productivity and growth and has created more jobs and has left our economy stronger.
The correct string of argument, however, dictates that outsourcing is a burden on our economy. How can outsourcing possibly be a positive force for our economy and help us when in reality it forces jobs outside of…
Outsourcing is an inevitable market reality, however, adequate measures must be taken to support the displaced employees, and to retrain them for better employment prospects.
Outsourcing has become a highly controversial and much debated issue over the last few years. The economic dynamics of the 21st century have vastly altered the mode of business. While globalization has opened new markets for companies, at the same time, it has forced them to seek ways to be more productive and competitive. This drive for competitive advantage has resulted in many U.S. companies taking their non-core jobs (in some cases, core jobs as well) to offshore locations, which offer both cheap labor and quality output. Outsourcing is not a totally new concept, as companies have all along been outsourcing their training operations, clerical works, shipping and forwarding operations, etc. However, the surge in information technology has bought a paradigm shift in the way…
1) Murray Weidenbaum, "Outsourcing and American Jobs,"
Accessed on 9th Oct 2005,
2) The Detroit News, "Policy Focus on Jobs Outsourcing Is Misplaced,"
S. directly. Evidently, the long-term objectives indirectly face the smooth running of the U.S. government. Priority should be given to those aspects that will pull the resources of the country to extreme levels. The U.S. As a super-power is privileged when tackling issues affecting other nations; it is mandated to help developing long-term solutions.
Long-term also implies that the impacts and effects need to be widespread in order to maintain balance and ensure the prosperity of all sectors is recognized. The above long-term objectives are issues that need time and resources in order to be able to resolve the issue that affects the stability of these countries among other issues. The Soviet Union, for example, is crying to have political relations with ussia. This means that the military forces will be deployed to this country. However, the negotiation process is hefty and requires time and adequate resources in order to…
Bruce, J. & Bennett, M. (2008). "Foreign Denial and Deception: Analytical Imperatives,"
Analyzing Intelligence: Origins, Obstacles, and Innovations. Washington, DC:
Burch, J. (2008). The Domestic Intelligence Gap: Progress Since 9/11? Homeland Security
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: What it Is and What it Does
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 as amended was passed in response to the discovery of numerous corporate misdeeds, including accounting irregularities, by Northrop, Lockheed, Gulf Oil by the Watergate special prosecutor and a subsequent investigation by the Securities and Exchange Commission that found these practices were prevalent in American business, including nearly a quarter of the Fortune 500 companies. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature to determine the rationale in support of the passage of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and what it prohibits. An analysis concerning the impact that the Act has had on American business at the national and international level is followed by a discussion concerning penalties for violations of the Act. An assessment of the impact on U.S. commerce is followed by a discussion concerning enforcement responsibility for the Act…
Boedecker, K.A. (2011, July 1). Rising risks and uncertainties for U.S. firms' gifts, travel and entertainment expenses for marketing in foreign countries: The implications of increased
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act enforcement. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory
Issues, 14(2), 73-77.
Culp, C.L. & Niskanen, W.A. (2003). Corporate aftershock: The public policy lessons from the collapse of Enron and other major corporations. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Foreign Corrupt Policies Act
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and its Effects on U.S. Business
The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) of 1977 was a ground-breaking step that the U.S. government took in order to deal with the increasing awareness of the amount of inappropriate payments that were taking place overseas. If truth be told, it wasn't that the American companies were exclusively practicing such offensive acts. However, America was the first country that tried and outlined its international interest (Harris, 2011). The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act makes "any act done in furtherance of an offer, payment, promise to pay, or authorization of the payment of any money, or offer, gift, promise to give, or authorization of the giving of anything of value" illegal (Dorman & Martin, 2007).
Many critics inspect the FCPA in an unorthodox manner by considering it an interruption to the performance of American businesses running abroad. On…
Dorman, W., & Martin, B. (2007, December 17). The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977. Retrieved July 28, 2012 from http://www.andrewskurth.com/pressroom-publications-FOREIGNCORRUPTPRACTICESACTOF1977.html
Harris, A. (2011). The Impact of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act on American Business from 1977-2010. Retrieved July 28, 2012 from
Pizza Hut has also managed to open franchise stores across Iraq and they could also pose serious competition. But there also exists the chance that the Iraqi consumer will not make a major difference between the American fast food stores, but will compare them to the local food providers in the street. This would also bring about serious competition.
4. McDonald's Social esponsibility
McDonald's corporate website presents the user with a wide variety of reports on their implemented social responsibility practices. These include the employment practices, relationships with the suppliers, animal and environment welfare, corporate giving or educational programs and scholarships as well as the promotion of a healthy life style or the continual support offered to the development of the communities where McDonald's operates. The primary aim of these programs is to help the company better adapt and function in accordance to the changes affecting the micro and macro…
Docena, H., October 24, 2003, Dying for a McDonald's in Iraq, Asia Times
Druckman, E., January 22, 2007, George Bush's New Iraq Plan Includes McDonald's of Baghdad, Associated Content
Goering, L., July 5, 2003, Kurds Offer Troops a Holiday Haven for Rigors of Iraq, Chicago Tribune
McCarthy, T., August 16, 2006, Golden Arches With a Twist: Iraqi Burger Joint, ABC News
National Council of State Boards of Nursing, "NCLEX, http://www.ncsbn.org/research_stats/nclex.asp (17 September 2005);
National Sample Survey of egistered Nurses, 1992 and 2000.
M. Sison, "Exodus of Nurses Grows, Health System Feels Effect," CyberDyaryo, 8 May 2002, www.cyberdyaryo.com/features/f2002_0508_04.htm (17 September 2005);
C. Prystay, "U.S. Solution Is Philippine Dilemma -- As ecruiters Snap Up More Nurses, Hospitals in Manila Are Scrambling," Wall Street Journal, 18 July 2002.
J. Buchan, "International ecruitment of Nurses: United Kingdom Case Study," July 2002, http://www.rcn.org.uk/publications/pdf/irn-case-study-booklet.pdf (17 September 2005)
M.N. Fongwa, "International Health Care Perspectives: The Cameroon Example," Journal of Transcultural Nursing 13, no. 4 (2002): 325-330
U.S. Agency for International Development, "The Health Sector Human esource Crisis in Africa: An Issues Paper," February 2003, www.aed.org/publications/H_IssuesPaper.pdf (17 September 2005)
E. Spratley et al., the egistered Nurse Population, March 2000: Findings from the National Sample Survey of egistered Nurses (ockville, Md.: BHPr, September 2001); and Buchan et al., International Nurse…
National Center for Health Workforce Analysis, Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and Services Administration, "Projected Supply, Demand, and Shortage of Registered Nurses: 2000-2020," 2002, bhpr.hrsa.gov/healthworkforce (17 September 2005);
J. Buchan, T. Parkin, and J. Sochalski, International Nurse Mobility: Trends and Policy Implications (Geneva: World Health Organization, 2003);
Division of Nursing, BHPr, National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses, 1980-2000.
U.S. General Accounting Office, Information on Foreign Nurses Working in the United States under Temporary Work Visas (Washington: GPO, 1989).
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…
Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=34158088
Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=53424557
Sardesai, D.R. (1974). Chapter 6 India: A Balancer Power?. In Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power, Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.) (pp. 94-104). New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691923
Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.). (1974). Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power. New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691822
American and Afghan justice systems.
A criminal justice framework denotes the collection of processes and organizations instituted by the governments of countries for controlling crime as well as levying punishment on lawbreakers. America doesn't have any single system of criminal justice; rather, it possesses several similar, independent systems. The working of individual area's criminal justice structure is dependent on what jurisdiction governs the place: military rule, or federal, state, county, tribal, or city government (The Criminal Justice System, n.d). Laws vary with jurisdiction, as do law enforcement agencies and techniques of handling process of criminal justice. The key systems are as follows:
Federal: This system deals with crime perpetrated in two or more states, or on any federal property.
State: These systems deal with crime perpetrated within the boundaries of individual states.
As regards judicial systems or judicial review, most Afghan nations continue to have very less,…
Grono, N. (2011, April 28). Homepage - International Crisis Group. Rule of Law and the Justice System in Afghanistan - International Crisis Group. Retrieved January 5, 2015, from http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/publication-type/speeches/2011/rule-of-law-and-the-justice-system-in-afghanistan.aspx
Segraves, J. (n.d.). EHow -- How to - Discover the expert in you! -- eHow. What Is the United States Criminal Justice System? -- eHow. Retrieved January 5, 2015, from http://www.ehow.com/about_6524678_united-states-criminal-justice-system_.html
(n.d.). Welcome to the National Center for Victims of Crime. The Criminal Justice System. Retrieved January 5, 2015, from http://www.victimsofcrime.org/help-for-crime-victims/get-help-bulletins-for-crime-victims/the-criminal-justice-system
Foreign Monetary System
A monetary system is any structure initiated by the government and mandated to issue currency, acknowledged as the medium of exchange by its citizens and governments of other nations. The central bank manages the monetary system of a country; this same bank has the responsibility of printing money and controlling the economy. Since the colonial period, coins from the European colonies had circulated in all the colonies. The Spanish coins gained dominance due to the scarcity of coins, during this time; the main form of trade was barter trade. The trade-involved items such as rice, tobacco, or animal skins, which took the form of money paper and notes, had varying rates of discount in different colonies rendering them of very low value (onald & Wright, 2006).
The high population in the U.S. called for increased trade and commerce. This forced the United States government to look for…
Ronald, M. & Wright, R.E. (2006). Development of the U.S. Monetary Union. Journal of Financial History Review, 13(1), 19-41.
Anonymous, (2011). Challenges and risks of the International Monetary System. Journal of Economic Review, 22(5), 768.
Eichengreen, B.J. (2008). Globalizing capital: A history of the international monetary system.
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Foreign Health Care Policy
Over the last several years, issues affecting the U.S. health care system have been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because rising costs are impacting demand for different services. What has been happening is these increases are forcing insurance companies, employers and providers to pass on more of these fees to the individual. This is problematic, as they are unable to afford these costs and premiums for coverage. When this happens, the total number of people who are uninsured will increase exponentially. Evidence of this can be seen with the fact that there are 48 million Americans who have no form of health care coverage. (Johnson, 2010) (Harrington, 2009)
While in Germany, the costs of care are lower and 90% of the population is insured. This is because they are using a different model. To fully understand which system is better requires comparing the two…
Armstrong, E. (2011). The Health Care Dilemma. Singapore: World Scientific.
Greenwald, H. (2010). Health Care in the United States. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.
Harrington, C. (2009). Health Policy. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Johnson, J. (2010). Comparative Health Systems. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Pakistan is the South Asian country and was established in 1947. It shares border with India, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Iran and China. It has a coastline spanning of 1,046 km with Arabian Sea. The country has highest peaks in the world that are K2 and Nanga Parbat of Karakorum and Pamir in the northern and western highlands of Pakistan. Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi provide the major by air gateways to Pakistan. India and Iran also provides the way to reach Pakistan by train.
There are several favorable characteristics that make Pakistan an ideal country for an international business. However, the country is facing imbalanced economic, societal and political conditions since independence due to which investors gets reluctant to invest in the country. This report reviews the favorable and unfavorable aspects of Pakistan for U.S. investors.
Investors need to consider various factors before making investment for an international business. First…
Dawn. (2012, May 27). Taxation and Foreign Investment. Retrieved July 23, 2012, from Dawn: http://dawn.com/2012/05/27/taxation-and-foreign-investment/
Khan, A.H. (2012, January 31). Instability and Economy. Pakistan.
Mahmood, J. (2012, 07-16). Pakistani Stock Market, Rupee Exchange Rate Rise. Karachi, Pakistan.
Masood. (2010, June 3). Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan. Pakistan.
GM's Chevy Volt and its all-electric design, as well as diesel-electric and conventional gas-electric hybrids could and must replace the image of the 'old' GM in the public's imagination. The company has shed the Hummer stigma, now it must create a new image for itself in the future, not just domestically, but internationally.
Gas-free cars future priority. (2009, April 20). China Daily. Retrieved August 6, 2009
General Motors. (2009). Company history. Updated August 4, 2009. The New York Times.
Retrieved August 6, 2009.
Hu, Lei. (2008). GM's joint venture is China's top-selling brand in 2007. Edmunds.
Retrieved August 6, 2009.
Jason. (2004). The global hybrid race: Is Europe catching the fever. GreenHybrid. Retrieved August 6, 2009 at http://www.greenhybrid.com/wiki/index.php/The_Global_Hybrid_Race:_Is_Europe_Catching_The_Fever%3F
ald, Matthew. (200, August 5) $2 million in grants to speed up electric car manufacturing.
The New York Times. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
Ying, Tina &…
Gas-free cars future priority. (2009, April 20). China Daily. Retrieved August 6, 2009
General Motors. (2009). Company history. Updated August 4, 2009. The New York Times.
Retrieved August 6, 2009.
S. billion in 1998. eported as the dominant source of inward FDI in China is that of Hong Kong, followed by Japan, the U.S. And Taiwan.
Summary and Conclusion
This study set out to examine Foreign Direct Investment in China by the multinational enterprise. At present China is a primary source for foreign direct investment due to the favorable laws and regulations governing Foreign Direct Investment in China and the attempt to make location siting of the organization equitable and fair. China has been attempting to pull the company in line with their own expectations as have the multinational enterprises who desire to directly invest foreign funds into China.
Investment (2008) Multinational Corporations. Cush & Wakefield. etrieved from: http://www.cushwake.com/cwglobal/jsp/audienceDetail.jsp?audienceId=18&Country=900095&Language=EN&groupBy=audience
Kroll, CA and Bardhan, a. (2007) Globalization and the eal Estate Industry: Issues, Implications, Opportunities Haas School of Business, UC Berkeley, Paper Prepared for the Sloan Industry Studies Annual Conference.…
Investment (2008) Multinational Corporations. Cush & Wakefield. Retrieved from: http://www.cushwake.com/cwglobal/jsp/audienceDetail.jsp?audienceId=18&Country=900095&Language=EN&groupBy=audience
Kroll, CA and Bardhan, a. (2007) Globalization and the Real Estate Industry: Issues, Implications, Opportunities Haas School of Business, UC Berkeley, Paper Prepared for the Sloan Industry Studies Annual Conference. Cambridge, April 2007. Retrieved from: http://web.mit.edu/sis07/www/kroll.pdf
MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS (nd) Cush and Wakefield. Retrieved from:
An interesting trend has been registered in the service industry, especially in the field of tourism. One of the main engines of Spanish economy in the past, now tourism in this country faces fierce competition from Eastern Europe countries. The beautiful resorts in Palma del Majorca and Costa rava must compete with low cost sea side resort, which offer similar services at incredibly low prices. Another field which needs reforms and reformulation policy is the agricultural and fishery one, which accounts only 4.1% out of GDP, although the important political forces attached to this sensible sector.
In order to be able to face the challenges and the opportunities on the regional and global market, Spain needs reforms in most fields of activity. Unemployment level is one of the highest in EU 9.2% at the end of 2005, while the rate of inflation was around 3.4 per cent in 2005, which…
1) Carol Matlack and Joan Tarzian - 'Spain: Immigrants Welcome', Business Week, May 21, 2007
2) 'Plain sailing no longer', the Economist print edition, 3rd of March 2007.
3) 'Spanish property - the pain in Spain', 26th of April 2007.
4) Human Development Index report, for the year 2006
he currency in South Africa is the rand. he rand is a free floating currency meaning that there are few controls on the value of the currency. While the rand is a reference currency in the southern Africa region, it is not considered to be a "hard" currency. he performance of the rand against the USD in the past year is as follows:
he chart shows the downward trajectory of the rand against the dollar. A year ago, the rand traded at 7.73 to the dollar, and today it is 9.12, a decline of 18%. his bodes well for a manufacturing operation in South Africa, where the already-low labor costs would be decreasing over time. It does not bode well for selling in South Africa, however, as the country's currency continues to get weaker, which means profits from South Africa will be worth less in dollar…
The Chinese yuan is not a floating currency. Its exchange rate is managed heavily by the Chinese government and as a result trades within a band set by the Chinese government, on a soft peg to the U.S. dollar. China's currency manipulation may perpetuate the band, but the country is under severe inflationary pressure. This puts the yuan on a steady, long-run appreciation, which can be seen in its chart for the past year:
The yuan one year ago traded at 6.29 to the dollar and today it trades at 6.23. This represents an appreciation of 0.9%. The country face high inflation for much of the year, but that inflation is reported to have dropped to 2.1% in March 2013. This inflation rate is not much different than that of the U.S., which would imply that the exchange rate should remain fairly stable. However, the overriding factor is China's currency band, which is likely to be maintained for the foreseeable future. As a result, the yuan will appreciate in the next year, but only by around the same amount as last year, so that the rate will be around 6.17 yuan to the dollar.
Overall, China represents the best option for Dorchester for selling it televisions. This is almost by default. South Africa is facing a weakening rand amid economic uncertainty. The country still has potential, but the timing is wrong given that the macroeconomic conditions are tough and the rand is depreciating faster than the inflation rate. The situation in Japan is worse. The economy might be better, but the yen is depreciating and there is deflation in the economy. This is bad news all round, and earning yen right now it not wise. This leaves China. China has its own problems -- growth is slowing and currency controls mean that there is a difference between earning yuan and being able to return those earnings to the United States. However, the slow appreciation of the yuan and some overtures to convertibility highlight the reality that China is a fairly safe country in which to invest, in terms of currency exchange rate expectations.
The government is trying to create an environment that is favorable for investing and the rapid pace of economic growth indicates that this is a success. However, there remains considerable political risk. Relations with many of Turkey's neighbors have been difficult in the past and relations with Greece in particular could sour a move by the country into the EU. If EU membership is taken off the table -- which could happen if the country fails to resolve the Cyprus issue, the Kurdish issue and the Armenian issue -- the political scene could become highly unstable.
Turkey has strong financial resources. There has been a strong influx of capital into the country. Despite strict government control of the banking sector, the government's desire to modernize its banking and investment climate means that capital is available. Talent is less available. hile many Turks speak English, it is difficult to find top…
CIA World Factbook: Italy. (2009). Retrieved November 4, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/it.html
CIA World Factbook: Turkey. (2009). Retrieved November 4, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tu.html
They have been committed to the development of what they deem to be Consciousness Cosmetics for more than a decade. Entry into the Portuguese market offers certain benefits, such as the Portuguese people's commitment to high moral standards, which would be conducive to cruelty-free, environmentally responsible products such as Alba Organics. However, there are risks as well that need to be taken into consideration.
The Portuguese market is small and growing at only a nominal rate, in comparison to other EU countries. The population is still primarily located in rural areas. Although the euro is quite stable currently, that could change, affecting Alba's profitability. and, there are three primary, well-established competitors that control the majority of the market share currently, with large financial backing that could out compete Alba.
About us. (2005). etrieved July 11, 2005, at http://www.avalonorganics.com/?title=About+Us.
Alba: FAQs. (2005). etrieved July 11, 2005, at http://www.albaorganics.com/index.php?title=FAQ%27s.
About us. (2005). Retrieved July 11, 2005, at http://www.avalonorganics.com/?title=About+Us .
Alba: FAQs. (2005). Retrieved July 11, 2005, at http://www.albaorganics.com/index.php?title=FAQ%27s.
Carioca, M., Diniz, R., Pietracci, B. (2004). Making Portugal competitive. McKinsey Quarterly, (3). Retrieved July 11, 2005, from Business Source Premier database.
Consciousness in cosmetics. (2005). Retrieved July 11, 2005, at http://www.avalonorganics.com/index.php?title=Consciousness+in+Cosmetics .
In addition, a series of joint ventures in which West German steel firms joined with East German firms and Krupp, Klockner, and Thyssen of Germany was pursuing other developmental initiatives in eastern Europe as well. Likewise, Arbed of Luxemburg was involved in steelmaking facilities in the former East Germany. According to Mangum et al., "The rising market for improved galvanizing for automobiles, appliances, canning, and other uses is producing a rash of joint ventures throughout the world. Some of these are internal to various countries and others involve international partners" (p. 74).
As a result, nearly 30% of the world's steel supply is now produced by plants belonging to companies that did not exist just 3 decades ago (Ahlberg, Pitkanen & Storsch 1999). As these authors point out, "Such upstarts have entered a global market that since 1980 has grown by less than 1% a year -- an average combining…
Ahlberg, J., A. Pitkanen and L.L. Schorsch. 1999. "Forging a New Era for Steel." The McKinsey
Altunisik, M.B. And O. Tur. 2004. Turkey: Challenges of Continuity and Change. New York:
Also very important index for investors is total tax on profit which is 4.6 in Bulgaria as compared to 9.8 in Eastern Europe and Central Asia saving a lot of money to be recycled into business again. (Simeon Djankov 2010)
5) Across the Border rade
According to Doing Business Bulgaria ranked 109 in across the border trade in 2010 and 109 in 2011. he index for clearance for export goods is 5 in Bulgaria as compared to 6.4 in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. All the required official documents -- from the contractual agreement between the 2 parties to the delivery of goods along with monetary requirement for completion. he total time taken to deal with all the legal conduct to export goods is 23 in Bulgaria as compared to 26.7 in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. he total cost to export goods is 1551 in Bulgaria as compared to…
The World Bank Group 2008, "World Bank: Data and Statistics: Country Groups." http://go.worldbank.org/D7SN0B8YU0.
The World Bank Group 2008. "Country Brief 2010." http://go.worldbank.org / SAV2JS3JA0.
The World Bank Group, 2011. "Doing Business Bulgaria: Making a difference for entrepreneurs," http://www.doingbusiness.org/data/exploreeconomies/bulgaria/#starting-a-business .
Foreign Banks India
Foreign Banks in India
It was recently announced that foreign banks, for the first time in decades, will be allowed to enter into the Indian banking industry and "set up 'wholly owned subsidiaries' in India." ("India Eases ules for Foreign Banks") Since the nation obtained independence in the late 1940's, the Indian banking system has undergone radical changes, none more so than in the late 1960's when then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi began to nationalize the entire banking system. The effort was an attempt to change the focus of Indian banks from institutions of profit to ones that could aid in the economic transformation of the Indian economy, primarily the development of rural areas. This system of government direction for the banking system kept Indian banks somewhat isolated from the international banking industry. In 2008, when the collapse of the American banking giant Lehman Brothers precipitated a…
Bandyopadhyay, Tamal. (11 Sept. 2013). "How India's Banking Sector Weathered the Global Storm." The Live Mint and the Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://www.livemint.com/Specials/Jz0STkDuhEehFlOb6kVfoM/How-Indias-banking-sector-weathered-the-global-storm.html
Big Banking Reforms Coming Soon: Raghuram Rajan." (13 Oct. 2013). The Hindu.
Retrieved from http://www.thehindu.com/business/Economy/big-banking-sector-reforms-coming-soon-raghuram-rajan/article5231410.ece
"India Eases Rules for Foreign Banks." (13 Nov. 2013). BBC News: Business. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-24846760
The second part of the mixed methodology will consist of survey of a convenience sample of Libyan youths to determine what they feel is the most important foreign language for them to learn and how such instruction could best be accomplished within the existing Libyan public school infrastructure. This part of the mixed methodology is also highly congruent with a number of social researchers who emphasize the need to incorporate both secondary and primary research into such research projects whenever possible. For instance, Dennis and Harris (2002) report that, "Primary data are information that is being collected for the first time in order to address a specific research problem. This means that it is likely to be directly relevant to the research, unlike secondary data, which may be out of date or collected for a totally different purpose. Ideally, an effective research project should incorporate both primary and secondary…
Dennis, Charles and Lisa Harris. 2002. Marketing the e-Business. London: Routledge.
Gratton, C., and Ian Jones. 2003. Research Methods for Sport Studies. New York: Routledge.
Libya. 2009. U.S. government: CIA World Factbook. [Online]. Available: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ly.html .
Neuman, W.L. 2003. Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, 5th ed. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Country Study: China
International trade and finance
China Economic Issues with Trade
Suggestions for improving trading practices
COUNTY STUDY: CHINA
COUNTY STUDY: CHINA
COUNTY STUDY: CHINA
China, officially the People's epublic of China (PC), is considered to be a sovereign state located in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population that has over 1.35 billion. The People epublic of China is a single-party state which is supervised by the Communist Party, with its seat of government in the capital city of Beijing (Naughton, 2012). It handles a regions that is over some 22 provinces, five of them are autonomous districts, four are direct-regulated cities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and two typically self-governing special administrative districts (Macau and Hong Kong ). (Snyder, 2011)The PC People epublic of China likewise makes the claim that Taiwan -- which is mostly controlled by the epublic of…
Lin, Cai and Li, The China Miracle. (2003, September 26). Retrieved from Chinese University Press: http://books.google.com/books?id=_OEwbLZ2vYwC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Lin,+Cai+and+Li,+The+China+Miracle,+Chinese+University+Press,+2003&hl=en&sa=X&ei=8CRCUqmkFaTx2QX01oGwDg&ved=0CDEQuwUwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false
Penn World Tables. (2013, September 7). Long run time series of comparable main economic aggregates for many countries in the world. https://pwt.sas.upenn.edu/.
World bank World Development Indicators. (2013, September). Time series of economic and social indicators for every country in the world (annual frequency). http://databank.worldbank.org/data/home.aspx .
Assem Reda, A.H. (2012). Exploring egypt-china bilateral trade: Dynamics and prospects. Journal of Economic Studies, 39(3), 314-326.
America is much more diverse, and in some ways much less conscious of that diversity, while in England being from Manchester or London is a big to-do. And the class issue is different as well -- it's more about culture, schooling, parents still in England, and here what class is to us, money is to Americans. That's my analogy, anyway.
Have you ever been offended by someone while in the U.S. Briefly explain what happened.
Not really, although some people do think that everyone from England is aristocratic, wealthy, snobbish, and like someone from "Masterpiece Theater" which gets tiresome after awhile -- that and questions like 'do you know the queen.' Or the fact that we're all either 'Hello Harry' types or cockneys, fox hunting or eating fish and chips, that sort of thing. I don't like jokes about the food, or really jokes about my country in general…
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: How this affects U.S. business interests overseas
Simply because United States corporations do business in nations with different ethical standards does not mean that U.S. companies get a free legal 'pass' regarding how they comport themselves abroad. "The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, 15 U.S.C. § 78dd-1, et seq. ('FCPA'), was enacted for the purpose of making it unlawful for certain classes of persons and entities to make payments to foreign government officials to assist in obtaining or retaining business" (FCPA, 2012, DOJ). Even if bribery is an accepted aspect of doing business in the developing world, a U.S. business will still run afoul of the FCPA if it complies with this type of 'cultural tradition.' The "payment of money or anything of value to any person, while knowing that all or a portion of such money or…
Adkins, Robb & Segal, Dina. (2012). Is FCPA Enforcement in Russia the Next China? Law.com.
Barstow, David. (2012). Vast Mexico bribery case hushed up by Wal-Mart after top-level struggle. The New York Times. Retrieved:
From the very beginning, the U.S. "ar on Terror" and related foreign policy has not been popular globally (Drexner 34). Many leaders and analysts worry that the unpopular actions of the U.S. internationally have actually put our nation at more risk of terrorist attack by clearly making us the enemy (Drexner 34). European nations are therefore reluctant to enter into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. On many objectives since they do not want to be associated with the war due to perceived risk of attack; close borders and trade between EU countries have made it more difficult to protect European national borders. Additionally, Europe's smaller nation size means that politics more closely represents the feelings of the people. ith higher populations of sympathetic Muslims in Europe, it would be a very unpopular move to support the United States, even in the lesser foreign initiatives.
Drexner, Daniel .…
Drexner, Daniel W. "The New World Order," Foreign Affairs 86(2): 34-46.
There are price differences between the U.S. And UK sites for Toys 'r' Us. One example is the animated Talking Ben stuffed bear, which sells for $9.99 in the U.S. And £21.99 in the UK. The equivalent U.S. price in the UK should be £6.56, so there is a substantial price difference on this product.
Consumers do not, however, have the right to demand equal prices. Each nation represents its own market, so the economic conditions for each nation will be distinct. There are significant differences in the costs that underlie each product on retail shelves that are reflected in the retail price. Thus, the conditions for each market are different and the result will be different prices. Goods can flow across borders, but that does not imply that there is a global market -- each local market has its own conditions.
Furthermore, retail prices for consumer goods…
With this in mind communications strategy has to be developed and implemented. The central debate remains that of degree of uniformity. The pros and cons are obvious, i.e. economies of scale, consistent message across markets, centralized control, different market characteristics, media availability and costs and government regulations (alabanis & Diamantopoulos, 2011). The stronger argument appears to be that different strategy appears to work in different situations, rather than a totally standardized campaign. Once these geographical issues are decided upon then the scope of the campaign, objectives and elements of strategy can be worked on. If the organization develops a message for one market and then transposes this intact into others or if it develops a message with a number of markets in mind from the start, it may be centrally conceived in both cases (Han, 2009; Wills & Ryans, 1977).
This is popular because of co-ordination and control providing the…
Ahmed, S.A., a. d'Atrous and M.E. Adraoui. 1994. 'Country-of-Origin Effects on Purchasing Managers Product Perceptions.' Industrial Marketing Management 23 (July): 323-332.
Keller, Kevin Lane. 1993. Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 57, No. 1. pp. 1-22
Shirin, Khosrozadeh; Kambiz, Heidarzadeh Hanzaee. 2011. The Effect of the Country-of-Origin Image, Product Knowledge and Product Involvement on Consumer Purchase Decisions. Chinese Business Review, August Vol. 10, No. 8, 601-615
Bailey, W. And S.A. Gutierrez de Pineres. 2007. 'Country of Origin Attitudes in Mexico: The Malinchismo Effect.' Journal of International Consumer Marketing 9 (3): 25-41.
ussia has accused Georgia of allowing Chechen rebels to move freely and providing safe haven to them for launching terrorist attacks from across the border.
elations with Neighboring Countries
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was formed by 12 of the 15 former Soviet epublics after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 to preserve some of the political and economic ties. ussia's relations with the CIS countries have, however, been dogged by mutual distrust. Sources of tension between ussia and CIS members include the issue of claim over military assets belonging to the Soviet Union and the status of ussians settled in the former Soviet republics. Most of the disputes about assets have now been settled but such disputes have left a bad taste in the mouth and the initial optimism about the CIS becoming even a loose confederation has not been realized. ("ussia: Foreign elations," 2005)
Politics: Recent Political Events," (2004) Country Profile Russia 2004 Main Report
Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). Retrieved on February 16, 2005 from Economist.com
Russia at a Glance (2005-2006)." (2005). Country Report Russia January 2005 Updater. Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). Retrieved on February 16, 2005 from Economist.com
Russia: Foreign Relations." (2005) Political Overview Section from Countrywatch. Retrieved on February 16, 2005 at http://www.countrywatch.com/cw_country.asp?vCOUNTRY=142
Country Analysis - Jordan & Saudi Arabia
Country Analysis: Jordan
Labor -- Jordan suffers from chronic high rates of unemployment, poverty, and a huge budget deficit. Since 1999, significant economic reforms have been implemented, included a trade regime, elimination of fuel subsidies, and the privatization of state-owned companies. This has resulted in job creation and has attracted some foreign investment. Jordan's labor force was estimated at 1.719 million in 2010, distributed across services (77.4%), industry (20%), and agriculture 2.7% (2007 estimate).
LANGUAGES - Arabic (official), English (widely understood by upper/middle classes)
Capital -- GDP (purchasing power parity) was estimated at $33.79 billion in 2010. Jordan's GDP is depressed because of the global economic slowdown. The budget deficit is at 5-6% of GDP. The financial deficit requires foreign assistance in 2011. The global financial crisis had a limited effect because of low exposure to overseas capital markets.
natural resources -- Jordan's…
However, in the case of Sudan, it may be said that none of the above theories applies. This is largely due to the fact that there are specific internal factors which determine the orientation of the economy in a certain direction. These are most of the times related to the historical evolution of the country under discussion.
In the Sudanese case, the end of the war and the independence from the British rule marked the slow evolution of an autonomous economic system. However, the lack of experienced personal and the poor investment plans made these attempts fail. Also, the internal turmoil and conflicting situation between the North and the South aggravated the rift between the two regions of the country. Therefore, a sustainable development plan could not have been set in place because there was no cohesion both at the level of the political authority and the social one. (Country…
BBC. Country profile: Sudan. BBC World. 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2007, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/country_profiles/820864.stm#facts
CIA. The World Factbook. Sudan. 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2007, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/su.html#Intro
CIA. The World Factbook. United States. 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2007, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html
Country Studies. Sudan: Agriculture. N.d. Retrieved 4 September 2007, at http://www.country-studies.com/sudan/agriculture.html
Country Condition in Romania
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Chiva, Christina. "Ethnic Minority Rights in Central and Eastern Europe: The Case of the Hungarian 'tatus Law'." Government & Opposition. ummer 2006, Vol. 41 Issue 3. 401-421. (EBCO database).
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Culic, Irina. "Dilemmas of Belonging: Hungarians from Romania." Nationalities Papers. May 2006, Vol. 34 Issue 2. 175-200. (EBCO database).
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Editors. "Ethnic Minorities. Embassy of the Republic…
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Foreign business environment: Columbia
A. What events (political, economic, and technological) are the most important in recent years that might have impacted the business culture in Colombia?
Individuals who perceive Colombia as still being paralyzed by crime networks and drug cartels are skeptical and bewildered by the notion of a confederation of politicians, business leaders, and academicians visiting the nation. However, in reality, the situation in Colombia is far different from what it was a mere ten years ago.
Colombia’s infamous cruel and powerful drug cartels emerged during the latter part of the seventies era and developed in the subsequent two decades. Specifically, the Cali Cartel and Pablo Escobar’s Medellín Cartel were politically, socially and economically influential in the nation in this period. During the last two decades of the twentieth century, the world regarded the nation as being well on its way to becoming a failure as a state.…
One of the more popular analytical methods that is used with MT4 that is used to coordinate share trades is based on the Fibonnaci series (each number in this series except one is the product of the preceding two numbers; i.e., 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13 & #8230;). This Fibonacci series is used in quantitative trading systems such as MT4 to help traders modify their investments in real-time as the market changes as described further below.
The Fibonacci series can be found throughout nature in the way a pinecone grows when viewed from above or the patterns in a seashell such as the nautilus. Humans have a natural affinity for the Fibonacci series which is also known as the "Golden atio" because it provides an aesthetic that is pleasing to humans (Gelet, 2009). Also pleasing to humans is the power of the Fibonacci series to help manage…
Artis, M. & Weber, A. (2000). The Euro: A challenge and opportunity for financial markets.
About Us. (2010). PIPPoint Forex Brokerage. Retrieved from http://pippoint.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=frontpage&Itemid=75.
Salcedo, Y. (2004, April). Forex FCM report. Futures, 33(5), 33-34.
It is difficult to state that the national security apparatus is underperforming when you have clear statistical results: no attacks in the last five years. This means that something must be functioning at full parameters there and that the informational community is also operating with those in other countries to obtain these results (the attacks planned for London and stopped are a good example in this sense).
On the other hand, a counter argument to this statement is that the war is not against national terrorism: it is a global war on global terrorism, the U.S. have pledged to wipe out terrorism on a global scale and this, as shown in the article, is not yet giving full results. Indeed, the attacks in London and Madrid are a good example in this sense, if we consider only some of the most important cases of extremist Arab terrorism.
As to the…
1. Foreign Policy and the Center for American Progress. The Terrorism Index. July/August 2006. On the Internet at http://web0.foreignpolicy.com/issue_julyaug_2006/TI-index/index.html
Foreign Policy and the Center for American Progress. The Terrorism Index. July/August 2006. On the Internet at
As there is an exceptional level of diversity and heterogeneity in the country, and websites often are created in response to unique market requirements in a given region. For S3 (Ski, Surf, Skate)'s Products, this calls for careful planning and in-person visits with the key members of each management team of these websites to ensure there is the ability to integrate systems globally. There is also the need to ensure a cultural fit with S3 as well.
The leading B2B sites include eBay India, FlipKart.com, Snapdeal.com business section and many others are designed to specifically be aligned to vertical market segments (Bandyopadhyay, 2011). This bifurcation of the Indian B2B e-commerce market has predicated on the development of the country's infrastructure over two decades ago (Siriginidi, 2000). The B2B e-commerce market has significant potential for S3 (Ski, Surf, Skate)'s Products supply chain over the long-term.
The C2C market is dominated by…
Bandyopadhyay, S. (2011). Online privacy concerns of indian consumers. The International Business & Economics Research Journal, 10(2), 93-100.
Gupta, P. (2001). Growth scenario of it industries in India. Association for Computing Machinery.Communications of the ACM, 44(7), 40-41.
Siriginidi, S.R. (2000). E-commerce: The medium is the mart. New Library World, 101(1154), 53-59.
Wiles (2003) note ways in which Chinese practices of technical communication are affecting foreign businesses operating in China and some of the Western methods that China has to learn to be effective. Specifically, Wiley notes how Western companies have developed single-souring skills that the Chinese will have to adopt to be successful in technical communication. Chinese culture is a high-context culture in which information is more tacit and less explicit, and Chinese culture therefore places less focus on the user. The explicit nature of Western communication works in the Chinese context because it is based on making the user understand, and the Chinese will have to adopt this same approach in order to trade with the West, where the user wants to be the center of attention and wants to be informed directly.
A report by Anthony (2003) also suggests that China's business culture is being changed by foreign…
Anthony, T. (2003, December 12). U.S. companies changes Chinese lives - and corporate culture, too. AP Worldstream. Retrieved August 11, 2007 at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1-88501330.html .
Bates, C. (2005, July 1). Leveling the international playing field: while some foreign trade practices are simply unfair, recognizing that is one thing; doing something about it is another. American Machinist. Retrieved July 13, 2007 at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-134386431.html .
Bodeen, C. (2006, January 25). Google Launches Search Engine in China. AP Online. Retrieved August 13, 2007 at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1-117759613.html .
China Compulsory Certification (CCC Mark) (2006). http://www.export.gov/china/exporting_to_china/CCCUpdatedInfo.pdf .
Foreign Policy of President eagan
Before the disastrous Vietnam War, the U.S. held an undisputed dominant position worldwide, recognized locally as well as by other nations. The nation's historic actions towards defending freedom, by restraining the fascist faction during the Second World War, followed by organizing a large free-state coalition for combating communism, were supported by profound and sweeping domestic consensus. This consensus was destroyed by America's decision to wage war on Vietnam. Despite the rationale being the protection of free peoples battling communism, the Vietnam War resulted in caustic doubt and destabilizing discord among Americans. This suspicion and discord incited and guided by people opposed to the war, rather than the enemy's weaponry and zeal, explains America's failure, above every other factor. The U.S. had to battle internal resistance more than resistance from the Vietnamese adversary, and resulted in a self-inflicted defeat (Brenes 2015; LAISON 2013). Extremely serious repercussions…
Anderson, Martin. 1990. Revolution: The Reagan Legacy, Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press.
Armstrong, Scott and Peter Grier. 1986. Strategic Defense Initiative: Splendid Defense or Pipe Dream, New York: Foreign Policy Association.
Arquilla, John. 2006. The Reagan Imprint: Ideas in American Foreign Policy from the Collapse of Communism to the War on Terror, Chicago: Ivan R. Dee.
Baucom, Donald R. 1992. The Origins of SDI, 1944-1983, Lawrence, Kans.: University Press of Kansas.
The banking industry in China is essentially run by the state. All of the major banks are state-owned enterprises, and all are heavily regulated by the central government There is a central bank, the People's Bank of China, and a regulator for merchant and retail banks. There are13 national-level banks along with over one hundred city-level banks. Most banks today compete with each other, even if they had niches when they were founded -- for example, the names Construction Bank, Agricultural Bank, etc. reflect the roots of those banks, but they have long since expanded out of those niches. But because they are all state-owned banks that are ultimately overseen by the central government, they do not compete intensely with each other.
The biggest factor that attracts foreign banks to China is the size of the market. Even though there are many restrictions for foreign banks in China,…
For instance, McDonald's has a solid partnership with Starbucks that came as a natural solution to the increased consumption of coffee in its restaurants. Starbucks happens to be the world's leading specialty coffee retailer with a worldwide presence that matches that of the fast food producer.
Other factors affecting decision
Vietnam is an Asian country with strong oriental cooking habits, which might not be very compatible with McDonald's typical menu of cheeseburgers and fries with a Coke on the side. Furthermore, the local food seems to be relatively healthy, which again is not something that cam be said by McDonald's food.
In 1990s, the company tried to enter this market, but didn't due to the lack of suitable business partners. A few years later, KFC and Lotteria entered the market and consolidated their position. Therefore, at this point the restaurant chain would need a couple of strong breakthrough strategies…
IMF -- International Monetary Fund, accessed June 09, World Economic Outlook - Vietnam.
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, accessed June 09, http://www.mofa.gov.vn/en/cs_doingoai/
Ministry of Planning and Investment: http://fia.mpi.gov.vn/
Thuy, L.T. 2005. Technological Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment: the Case of Vietnam. University of Tokyo, www.e.u-tokyo.ac.jp
The value of the pound in relation to the euro could be an argument against doing business with Spain.
Concerns about the economic stability of Spain and the viability of doing business in Spain in the near future are even more pressing concerns: recently, the European Community has had to undertake extraordinary measures to save the troubled economy of Greece from defaulting on its debt obligations. Spain's economy is also fragile. Given the role of the Spanish government in the energy industry, and the long-standing partnership that would exist between SSE and any agreement resulting in an expansion effort into Spain, it is essential to have a clear-headed view of the nation's likely economic future and stability when negotiating an agreement (Sullivan 1999).
Said Nobel-Prize winner of economics Paul Krugman: "for a number of years Spain could pay its way within the eurozone by selling assets, mainly real estate, as…
About Us. (2010). Scottish and Southern Energy. Retrieved March 16, 2010 at http://www.scottish-southern.co.uk/SSEInternet/index.aspx?rightColHeader=4&id=272&TierSlicer1_TSMenuTargetID=56&TierSlicer1_TSMenuTargetType=4&TierSlicer1_TSMenuID=6
British Labour MEP relaunches euro debate. (2009, 13 January). Eurobusiness.
Retrieved March 16, 2010 at http://www.eubusiness.com/news-eu/1231866126.22
Krugman, Paul. (2010). 10 questions. Spain Economy Watch. Retrieved March 16, 2010 at http://spaineconomy.blogspot.com/2010/01/ten-new-year-questions-for-paul-krugman.html
Foreign Language Education in High School
The world has about 6,000 different languages, give or take a few. Linguists predict that at least half of those may have disappeared by the year 2050, which means languages are becoming extinct at twice the rate of endangered animals and four times the rate of endangered birds. Predictions are that a dozen languages may dominate the world of the future at best. (Ostler, 2002) For Americans, that's probably a good thing, since we are seemingly genetically engineered to maintain an appalling ignorance of other languages, and have narrowed down the choices we offer our young people to approximately one, Spanish, viewed by many to be the easiest foreign language to learn. It has been described in various places as having an 'impoverished vocabulary,' which means less work for Dick and Jane. The American education system so far is doing nothing to reverse the…
Clark, Leon E. "Other-Wise: The case for understanding foreign cultures in a unipolar world." Social Education, Vol. 64, Issue 7, 2000.
Garrett, Nina. "Meeting national needs: the challenge to language learning in higher education.
Change, 1 May 2002
Gramberg, Anne-Katrin. "German for business and economics." The Clearing House, 1 July 2001.
Also, certain light electronic products such as fans and lighting fixtures typically set off for export were diverted to the domestic market, which underwent a construction boom because of the economic stimulus package.
One engine for growth during the crisis was Vietnam's construction sector. Vietnam's government enacted a program of stimulus spending which emphasized public works and building projects. (the Economist, 2009, Sep 24). Vietnam's stimulus spending went a long way with regard to construction because of the cheap labor available in Vietnam. The stimulus program was successful because it provided valuable infrastructure while alleviating unemployment.
Vietnam's greatest liability in the eyes of investors, its lack of full integration with the global economy, served as its greatest protection against the effects of the global financial crisis. (the Economist, 2008, Jun. 19). With an aggressive economic stimulus program and a healthy consumer base, Vietnam was able to keep…
Economist Intelligence Unit (2010). Vietnam Country Forecast. The Economist. Retrieved from http://www.viet-studies.info/kinhte/EIU-VN-Country-Forecast-2010-02.pdf
Nguyen, T.C. (2009). -- Opportunities and Challenges for Vietnam in the Global Financial Crisis. Retrieved from http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/resources/seminars/Urbanization_Seminar/HCMC_Workshop/Papers_and_Presentations/FinancialCrisisPaper_NguyenThiCanh.pdf
Konishi, a. (2008).The Global Financial Crisis: Viet Nam's prospects in 2009 and Beyond [PowerPoint Slides] Retrieved from http://www.adb.org/Documents/Events/2008/AmCham-Economic-Prospect/AmCham.pdf
The Economist (2009, Sep 24). V not yet for victory an impressive recovery may create problems of its own. The Economist. Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/node/14506580
automotive materials imported from a foreign manufactures to the local market. It will also emphasize on the effects it caused to the economy of the United States. Finally, the study analyzed the effect of import of materials from foreign manufactures to the people of the United States.
It's more likely to find that, in every household in the United States, almost sixty five percent (65%) of the households for example utensils, clothes and even cars are not produced in the United States. They are manufactured somewhere in China, India, Mexico or Bangladesh, or the materials used to manufacture then were imported and assemble back here in the United States (Bill Canis, 2006). Since the year 2006, the automotive industries in the United Sates have witnessed a steady growth on import of materials from foreign manufactures. Industrial experts further expect that domestic vehicle manufactures will lose their market share to U.S.…
(2009). automobile industry, automobile industry, Encyclopedia Britannica,
(2006). Businesses and Occupations, obtained from:
www.encyclopedia.com > ...
The events leading to the Vietnam conflict were determined by the administration in place at that time (VIETNAM CONFLICT (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War).
Initially it was decided that Vietnam would be occupied by Chinese and British troops and that they would supervise the surrender of Japan.
In 1960 Hanoi instructed the southern communists to establish an organization called the national liberation front. The purpose of this organization was to overthrow the government of the south. The organization was made up of two groups. The intellectuals of the South and who opposed the foundation of the government of South Viet Nam and the communists who had remained in the south after the partition.
The Di-m government was initially able to cope with the insurgency with the aid of U.S. advisers, and by 1962 seemed to be winning. Senior U.S. military leaders were receiving positive reports from the U.S. commander, Gen. Paul D. Harkins of…
CONTAINMENT of SOVIET UNION
An Outline of American History (1994) http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1994/ch11_p5.htm
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
S. Congress - show that as of 7:20 A.M. On November 19, 2006, the dollar cost for Iraq alone stood at $343,505,966,000. That's over $343 billion dollars spent on the war effort since Bush launched the American invasion on March 19 of 2003.
The National Priorities Project breaks down the cost of the war per state; for example, the war has cost California $43,514,789,000; it has cost the state of Nebraska $2,469,887,000 so far. It has cost Mississippi $1,336,643,290, and it has cost the devastated state of Louisiana (which is still trying to rebuild from Hurricane Katrina) $2,615,210,500 so far; imagine how many homes could be repaired, and how many affordable houses could have been built in and around New Orleans, with over 2 and a half billion dollars.
hat is the cost to marriages involving the soldiers? The Institute for Policy Studies and Foreign Policy in Focus (IPSFP) writes…
Bennis, Phyllis, and Leaver, Erik. "The Iraq Quagmire: The Mounting Costs of War and the Case for Brining Home the Troops." The Institute for Policy Studies and Foreign Policy in Focus. (August 31, 2005): Retrieved 21 Nov. 2006 at http://www.ips-dc.org/iraq/quagmire/
National Priorities Project. "The War in Iraq Costs." Retrieved 19 Nov. 2006 at http://nationalpriorities.org/index.php?option=come_wrapper&Itemid=182 .
The New York Times, Oct. 5, 2001, Nov. 30, 2001; Feb. 7, 2002; Oct. 26, 2002; Jan. 29, 2003; Feb. 11, 2003; March 17, 2003; and Sept. 4, 2003. Retrieved 21 Nov. 2006 from ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851-2003).
Young, Steve. "Iraq's signature wound: Body armor, medical transport help save once-fatal brain
Begin now creating a list of companies to complete a joint venture (JV) with. Don't go after an organic growth strategy first; it is very expensive and very much of an unknown to any western-based multinational company. Joint ventures are critical for also minimizing the amount of risk encountered when entering a new market.
Creating a cultural and political series of strategies, along with the go-to-market strategy for each specific Chinese market of interest is also critical.
Work with local universities to create learning programs to bring local students and graduates up to speed with the latest technologies and techniques for production and distribution of products set to be launched in China.
Background and Introduction
Macro-Economic Factors influencing entry into the Chinese Market
Limitations, Conclusions and Recommendations
Developing Business in China
China presents significant growth opportunities for the growth of manufacturing businesses seeking entirely new…
A recent artifact that came as a product of this intercultural relationship is an article concerning an American woman's imprisonment -- which included beatings from the police and forcing her to sign false confessions -- simply for being seen eating in public with her male business partner. Even though the woman (who allowed her name to be printed only as "Yara," fearing retribution for telling her story) was wearing the traditional full-length gown and headscarf required of women when in public or in the company of men in Saudi Arabia,
she was approached by several men "with very long beards and white dresses" and told that what she was doing was "a great sin," a statement that reflects the disparity between the two cultures (Dhimmi Watch 2008). Ironically, the event took place at a Starbuck's, a place that has come to be a symbol of America's capitalism, freedom, and to…
Dhimmi Watch. (2008). "American woman jailed in Saudi Arabia for sitting with men at Satrbuck's." Reprinted from Fox News. Accessed 10 May 2009. http://www.jihadwatch.org/dhimmiwatch/archives/019844.php
The State is just taking back its rightful property under the contractual obligations of the agreement signed between the host State and the foreign investor who' assets are being seized in the expropriation. Another cause for direct expropriation is the concept that the State will in some way gain financially, socially, or economically from the expropriate assets beyond their value of compensation. If a particular investment can generate more positive results in the hands of the State, it is legal to file expropriation proceedings if the full value of compensation is covered as determine by an international tribunal.
In the European Union, direct expropriations are most common. Based on a common peace and favorable diplomatic relations between the countries within the European Union, there is little need for many investors to worry about unlawful and forceful expropriation, as seen in developing or communist nations. Some investors may invest within a…
Dolzer, Rudolf & Schruer, Cristoph. (2008). Principles of International Investment Law. Oxford University Press.
Edsall, Rachel D. (2007). Indirect expropriation under NAFTA and DRCAFTA: potential inconsistencies in the treatment of state public welfare regulations. Boston University Law Review. Vol 86:931-962.
Hober, Kaj. (2007). Investment Arbitration in Eastern Europe: In Search of a Definition of Expropriation. Juris Publishing Inc.
Merriam-Webster. (1998). Collegiate Dictionary. 1 oth ed. Merriam Webster Publishing.
Optimal Foreign Entry Strategy for Jaypee Brothers
Established in 1969, Jaypee Brothers is the largest health sciences publisher in India with offices in the United Kingdom, the United States and Panama. Jaypee Brothers currently publishes more than 350 health science books and journals each year (About Us 2015). The company is currently seeking to develop its presence in other markets including the Middle East and Africa. This paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a brief overview of Jaypee Brothers and to identify a professional entry strategy for the company to enter these new markets. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning an optimal professional entry strategy for Jaypee Brothers are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
With its headquarters in New Delhi, India, Jaypee Brothers (hereinafter alternatively "Jaypee" or "the company") is a global publishing company with collection centers in the United Kingdom,…
'About Us.' (2015). Jaypee Brothers. [online] available: http://www.jpmedpub.com/aboutus.
'Arabic Publishers Directory' (2015). Publishers Global. [online] available: http://www.
The following till take a look at Foreign Corrupt Practice Act or in other words the FCPA.
Discovering the corporate payments difficulty in the middle of the 70s from a blend of work by the Watergate Special Prosecutor office, this includes related additional work and inquiry by SEC-Security and Exchange Commission and the Multinational Corporations Subcommittee by Senator Frank Church. In 1975, within four months, separate hearings were held by the Church Committee on Gulf Oil, Mobil Oil, Northrop, and Lockheed (Koehler). Every one of these corporations became the main subjects of allegations, concerning uncertain payments made either directly or indirectly to officials of foreign government or foreign political parties bearing a business purpose in mind. For example, the Gulf Oil primarily involved the contributions made to political campaigns of the epublic of Korea President. Northrop was mainly involved in making payments to a general in Saudi Arabia. Principally,…
Burns, D., Sullivan, & Gibson. (2009). Navigating the FCPA's Complex Scienter Requirements. Retrieved March 18, 2016, from http://www.gibsondunn.com/publications/Documents/Burns-Sullivan-NavigatingTheFCPAComplexScienterReq.pdf
Harris, A. (2011). Scholarship @ Claremont -- Claremont Colleges Research. The Impact of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act on American Business from 1977-2010. Retrieved March 18, 2016, from http://scholarship.claremont.edu/
International Whistleblower Reward Law Information Center. (n.d.). History of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Retrieved March 17, 2016, from http://www.internationalwhistleblower.com/history.html
KOEHLER, M. The Story of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Ohio State Law Journal, 73(5). Retrieved, from http://moritzlaw.osu.edu/students/groups/oslj/files/2013/02/73.5.Koehler
International Marketing -- South Korea Country Study
The primordial question at the basis of this study revolves around the attractiveness of South Korea to American investors. Otherwise put, is this country able to determine the American investor to launch business operations in this global part? In order to answer the posed question, a series of analyses will be conducted. Some of these will refer to the general context, whilst others will detail specific issues.
The country is located in the eastern part of Asia; enjoys a temperate climate and owns less than 20% arable land. South Korea is characterized by a tormented historic past, which explains well the differences emerged between the two regions of the Korean Peninsula. The total population of the country exceeds 48 million, and their life expectancy at birth is of almost 79 years. The interactions with the South Koreans are generally formal and follow protocols,…
Gonzales, J., Sherer, T.E., 2004, The Compete Idiot's Guide to Geography, 2nd Edition, Alpha Books
1992, A Country Study: South Korea, American Memory for the Library of Congress, http://rs6.loc.gov/frd/cs/krtoc.html last accessed on November 25, 2009
2008, South Korea, Industry Canada, http://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/ibi-iai.nsf/eng/bi18583.html last accessed on November 25, 2009
2009, Definition of Current Account Balance, Economics About, http://economics.about.com/cs/economicsglossary/g/current_account.htm last accessed on November 25, 2009
eapons of mass destruction are just an excuse. But is known that
"President George Bush and Vice-President Dick Cheney were both oil
company executives before entering politics, as was half the present US
administration," which means that not only do you have friends in the oil
business but that they dictate your policy (Vesely 2002). Having such
deceptive and underhanded policies and engaging an entire nation in a war
that not only kills Amerians, but also people of other countries and
encourages anti-American sentiment among even our allies is a horrible
foreign policy when all we receive in return is natural resources and
riches for a few Americans. Alternatives must be sought. No longer can
weapons of mass destruction be an excuse to involve the United States in
such costly polices.
And yet even more so now weapons of mass destruction are being hinted
at as an excuse to go…
Buckley Jr., William. "Looking Ahead-Oil." National Review (2005). 17 Apr.
"Imperialism Definition." Dictionary.Com. 17 Apr. 2007
Lewis, Bernard. "Did You Say 'American Imperialism'? : Power, Weakness, and
MNE Foreign Pricing, Profits
One of the most challenging areas of a multinational firm's business is setting target pricing and revenue for foreign markets, given the complications arising from currency denominations and exchange rates.
That is because exchange rates demonstrate the linkage between one nation and its partners in the global marketplace. They affect the relative price of goods being traded (exports and imports), the valuation of assets, and of course the final economic yield on those very assets.
In the period of fixed or constant exchange rates these prices, values, and yields were predictable over time. However, since 1973 we have been living in a world of flexible rates where foreign exchange markets determine these rates based on trade flows, interest rate differentials, differing rates of inflation, and speculation about future events.
Exchange rates can be expressed as the foreign price of a domestic currency (i.e., the Euro price…
The pogam pimaily suppots the local Chinese communities to maintain younge geneation's heitage backgound, and speading Chinese cultue in the U.S. The classes ae nomally held two to thee hous on weekends with Chinese language lessons and othe taditional cultual and at activities. Most students have high levels of oal poficiency in Chinese, but needed to enhance skills in liteacy. Chinese heitage schools ae mainly suppoted by two goups: the National Council of Associations of Chinese Language Schools (NCACLS) which is founded by Taiwan o Hong Kong immigant and heitage communities, and the Chinese School Association in the United States (CSAUS) that is connected with immigant and heitage communities fom mainland China. Accoding to Scott McGinnis's (2005) compiled statistics, the combined enollment of NCACLS and CSAUS was aound 150,000 in 2003. The numbe of students in the heitage schools is lage than in othe CFL pogams acoss the U.S.
references for the researchers and educators that may lead to some recommendations in developing a better learning environment in future foreign language education. The data collected from the surveys will be treated as confidential by me, and all the collected data will be anonymous. The data will be only applied directly to this study and not in other use, nor is it available for other parties. A letter of consent form will be sent to all participants to be aware to the purpose and the use of this study from the collected data. All collected data will be protected by the researcher during the study.
A survey developed by the researcher of this study includes two sections of questions which relate to the foreign language learning. The first part of the questions is based on the participants' background and their children's background relating to their cultural and language background. The second section includes questions about the reason of sending their child to CFL program; what level do they want their child to complete Chinese language learning, and what area do they want their child to apply the language. The participants choose from the options provided that applies to them the best. There are three open ended questions, allowing for free comments. (See appendix a).
The research is a qualitative research design that investigates the similarities and differences between parental motivations towards CFL learning between diverse ethnicities by using an online survey to explore the two essential questions in this research.
Ronald Reagan Foreign Policy: Annotated Bibliography
ucker, Robert W. 1989. "REAGAN'S FOREIGN POLICY." Foreign Affairs 68, no. 1: 1-27.
he author of this article maintains that Ronald Reagan assumed the Presidential role rebuking the 70s' arms control attempts. As a majority of Reagan's fellow politicians were highly suspicious of any arms control pacts with Russia, the general belief was that the newly sworn-in President shared the same view. he cold-war agreement with respect to foreign policy remains consistently idealized since Vietnam. Rarely did it function with the now-envisaged efficacy and smoothness. his re-formation's key feature was, evidently, the restitution of a prevalent public opinion that perceived the exercising of U.S. power without guilt or distrust, once again. herefore, the chief Reagan foreign-policy legacy might well be that: the 40th President of the United States altered the inclination not to suffer for USA's global position into something of a firm resolve…
This article is an analysis of the cognitive style of Reagan as manifested through his statement on the U.S. and the USSR and the nature of the 1964-1972 international conflict. The analysis shows the black-and-white dichotomy thinking and the rigid perception. However, the authr argues that Reagan was able to modify his notion on winning or losing in war through the reorganization that the U.S. and the USSR had some common interests in the war, for example, constraining the nuclear arms race.
Fischer, B.A., 2000. The Reagan reversal: Foreign policy and the end of the Cold War. University of Missouri Press.
Even though there is the assumption that Reagan was reactive in bringing to conclusion the cold war, this book shows that the president had actually began seeking for rapprochement with the USSR earlier than Gorbachev took office. The author demonstrates how Reagan began calling for dialogue, understanding and cooperation between the superpowers. In general the book shows that Reagan was at time the driving force for the U.S.-USSR policy of his administration.
Discussion Questions on International Terrorism
Explain the origins and evolution of long-term separatists and ethnic and nationalistic terrorism. Also, provide group names and their respective parts of the world.
Ethno- separatist/nationalist terrorism is not specifically a modern phenomenon. Historically, two Jewish movements in Judaea that desired to provoke the local population to rise against the oman occupiers used ethno-racial terrorism. However, it was only in 60s and 70s that terrorism came to be associated with ethnic- separatist/nationalist movements (Conser, Paynich & Gingerich, 2013). During that time, terrorism was seen as paying off on the reasons for effective, aggressive campaigns launched and won. The Palestine Liberation Organization's terrorist movement between 1968 and 1980 confirmed to other nationalist groups that internationalizing their cause could be valuable. The variety of ethnic-national/separatist terrorist movements effective worldwide, therefore, increased from three in 1968 to 30 in 1978 (Cassara, 2006).
Psychologists argue that the…
Conser, J.A., Paynich, R., & Gingerich, T. (2013). Law enforcement in the United States. Burlington, Mass: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Cassara, J.A. (2006). Hide and seek: Intelligence, law enforcement, and the stalled war on terrorist finance. Washington, DC: Potomac Books.
Dintino, J.J., & Martens, F.T. (2003). Police intelligence systems in crime control: Maintaining a delicate balance in a liberal democracy. Springfield, Ill: C.C. Thomas.
Fijnaut, C., & Paoli, L. (2004). Organized crime in Europe: Concepts, patterns, and control policies in the European Union and beyond. The Netherlands: Springer.
culture of a country is likely to affect an individual's business practices including the distribution of its products within the country and outside, the production process and configuration of a product, and other business operations that contribute to the business growth and output. Cultures determine the different ways in which people behave and mostly in business.
'Knowing about the cultural circumstance of your country or foreign country where you wish to transact your business, can either help you prevent making mistakes that will affect your business.' (Hill, 2004) To do this, the paper chooses to focus it's analyzes on China's culture as the country of target and its implications to the business operations.
China has truly emerged as a country with great business opportunities and with a huge potential for economic growth. ith an improved international relations, a robust economy, and increased foreign investment doing business in China is quite…
Charles H, & Trompenaars. (2003) F: Riding The Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Business: New York. Ivey publisher
Cateora, P.R. (2007). Strategic International Marketing: New York. McGraw-Hill Education
Cannon, M. (2003). Understanding Global Cultures: New York. Sage Publications
Hill, C. (2004). International Business Competing in the Global Market Place: New York. McGraw-Hill/Irwin